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Sample records for early chemical freeze

  1. Increased spring freezing vulnerability for alpine shrubs under early snowmelt.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J A; Hoch, G; Cortés, A J; Sedlacek, J; Wipf, S; Rixen, C

    2014-05-01

    Alpine dwarf shrub communities are phenologically linked with snowmelt timing, so early spring exposure may increase risk of freezing damage during early development, and consequently reduce seasonal growth. We examined whether environmental factors (duration of snow cover, elevation) influenced size and the vulnerability of shrubs to spring freezing along elevational gradients and snow microhabitats by modelling the past frequency of spring freezing events. We sampled biomass and measured the size of Salix herbacea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Loiseleuria procumbens in late spring. Leaves were exposed to freezing temperatures to determine the temperature at which 50% of specimens are killed for each species and sampling site. By linking site snowmelt and temperatures to long-term climate measurements, we extrapolated the frequency of spring freezing events at each elevation, snow microhabitat and per species over 37 years. Snowmelt timing was significantly driven by microhabitat effects, but was independent of elevation. Shrub growth was neither enhanced nor reduced by earlier snowmelt, but decreased with elevation. Freezing resistance was strongly species dependent, and did not differ along the elevation or snowmelt gradient. Microclimate extrapolation suggested that potentially lethal freezing events (in May and June) occurred for three of the four species examined. Freezing events never occurred on late snow beds, and increased in frequency with earlier snowmelt and higher elevation. Extrapolated freezing events showed a slight, non-significant increase over the 37-year record. We suggest that earlier snowmelt does not enhance growth in four dominant alpine shrubs, but increases the risk of lethal spring freezing exposure for less freezing-resistant species.

  2. Chemical consequences of compaction within the freezing front of a crystallizing magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hier-Majumder, S.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    develop a simple 1-D model of melt retention in the freezing front of a crystallizing magma ocean, and apply it to the thermal and chemical evolution of the early Earth.

  3. Chemical freeze-out in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciT

    Xu, Jun; Ko, Che Ming

    2017-06-26

    One surprising result in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is that the abundance of various particles measured in experiments is consistent with the picture that they reach chemical equilibrium at a temperature much higher than the temperature they freeze out kinetically. Using a multiphase transport model to study particle production in these collisions, we find, as an example, that the effective pion to nucleon ratio, which includes those from resonance decays, indeed changes very little during the evolution of the hadronic matter from the chemical to the kinetic freeze-out, and it is also accompanied by an almost constant specific entropy. Finally, wemore » further use a hadron resonance gas model to illustrate the results from the transport model study.« less

  4. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    PubMed

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  5. Effect of freezing on the rheological, chemical and colour properties of Serpa cheese.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Nuno; Canada, João; Sousa, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The effect of freezing on the properties of a raw ewes'-milk semi-soft cheese (Serpa cheese) was studied using small amplitude oscillatory (SAOS) and texture measurements, colour and chemical parameters. The freezing was introduced at three different stages of the ripening process (28, 35 and 42 days), and the cheeses were maintained frozen for 12 months. Cheeses were submitted to a slow or fast freezing method, and to different storage temperatures: -10 and -20°C (three replicates for each set conditions). Chemical data showed that only the proteolysis indicators exhibited differences between frozen and non-frozen samples; frozen samples showed higher values of NPN than the non-frozen samples, indicating that the freezing process did not prevent the secondary proteolysis of cheese. Frozen samples showed a significantly (P<0·05) stronger structure than the non-frozen, as indicated by hardness. However, the differences between the frozen and non-frozen samples were not significantly for storage modulus (G' 1Hz) and loss tangent (tan δ 1Hz) (P>0·05). Freezing affected mainly colour parameters: frozen samples were more luminous, and more yellow-green. The results allowed us to conclude that the damages caused by freezing to cheese properties could be minimized if this type of storage is introduced at the end of ripening (42 d) using a freezing temperature of -20°C.

  6. Effects of Chemical Aging on the Heterogeneous Freezing of Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, K.; Brooks, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Organic aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere from a variety of sources and display a wide range of effectiveness in promoting the nucleation of ice in clouds. Soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) arise from incomplete combustion and other pollutant sources. Hydrocarbon compounds in diesel motor oil and other fuel blends include compounds such as octacosane (a straight saturated alkane), squalane (a branched saturated alkane) and squalene (an unsaturated branched alkene). At temperatures above -36°C, the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere is facilitated by heterogeneous freezing processes in which atmospheric aerosols act as ice nuclei (IN). The variability in ability of organic particles to facilitate heterogeneous ice nucleation causes major uncertainties in predictions of aerosol effects on climate. Further, atmospheric aerosol composition and ice nucleation ability can be altered via chemical aging and reactions with atmospheric oxidants such as ozone. In this study, we take a closer look at the role of chemical oxidation on the efficiency of specific IN during contact freezing laboratory experiments. The freezing temperatures of droplets in contact with representative organic aerosols are determined through the use of an optical microscope apparatus equipped with a cooling stage and a digital camera. Chemical changes at the surface of aerosols due to ozone exposure are characterized using Raman Microspectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance. Our results indicate that oxidation of certain atmospheric organics (soot and PAHS) enhances their ice nucleation ability. In this presentation, results of heterogeneous nucleation on various types of organic aerosols will be presented, and the role of structure in promoting freezing will be discussed.

  7. Comparative study on the freeze stability of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-04-15

    The present study comparatively evaluated the evolution of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough (YLD/CLD) quality during freeze/thaw (FT) cycles. The steamed bread quality of CLD was more freeze-stable than that of the YLD after 3 FT cycles. Decreased yeast viability contributed to the loss of gassing power in YLD while no significant differences were observed for CLD during FT cycles. However, faster gas release rate in frozen CLD indicated gas retention loss due to the distortion of gluten network. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization via breakage of inter-chain disulfide (SS) bonds and conversions of α-helix and β-turn to β-sheet structures were the main indicators of gluten deterioration. Gluten network was more vulnerable in frozen YLD, resulting in detectable loss of viscoelasticity. The results suggested that supplement of chemical leavener contributed to a more freeze-tolerant gluten network besides its stable gassing power. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing Identified Genes and Gene Ontologies Associated with Early Freezing Tolerance in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Hu, Guanghui; Liu, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Yao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Deguang; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    Originating in a tropical climate, maize has faced great challenges as cultivation has expanded to the majority of the world's temperate zones. In these zones, frost and cold temperatures are major factors that prevent maize from reaching its full yield potential. Among 30 elite maize inbred lines adapted to northern China, we identified two lines of extreme, but opposite, freezing tolerance levels—highly tolerant and highly sensitive. During the seedling stage of these two lines, we used RNA-seq to measure changes in maize whole genome transcriptome before and after freezing treatment. In total, 19,794 genes were expressed, of which 4550 exhibited differential expression due to either treatment (before or after freezing) or line type (tolerant or sensitive). Of the 4550 differently expressed genes, 948 exhibited differential expression due to treatment within line or lines under freezing condition. Analysis of gene ontology found that these 948 genes were significantly enriched for binding functions (DNA binding, ATP binding, and metal ion binding), protein kinase activity, and peptidase activity. Based on their enrichment, literature support, and significant levels of differential expression, 30 of these 948 genes were selected for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation. The validation confirmed our RNA-Seq-based findings, with squared correlation coefficients of 80% and 50% in the tolerance and sensitive lines, respectively. This study provided valuable resources for further studies to enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying maize early freezing response and enable targeted breeding strategies for developing varieties with superior frost resistance to achieve yield potential. PMID:27774095

  9. Automated Discovery of Elementary Chemical Reaction Steps Using Freezing String and Berny Optimization Methods.

    PubMed

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Green, William H

    2015-09-08

    We present a simple protocol which allows fully automated discovery of elementary chemical reaction steps using in cooperation double- and single-ended transition-state optimization algorithms--the freezing string and Berny optimization methods, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, the reactivity of several single-molecule systems of combustion and atmospheric chemistry importance is investigated. The proposed algorithm allowed us to detect without any human intervention not only "known" reaction pathways, manually detected in the previous studies, but also new, previously "unknown", reaction pathways which involve significant atom rearrangements. We believe that applying such a systematic approach to elementary reaction path finding will greatly accelerate the discovery of new chemistry and will lead to more accurate computer simulations of various chemical processes.

  10. Effect of ultrasound-assisted freezing on the physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh; Cheng, Xin-Feng; Islam, Md Nahidul

    2015-11-01

    Power ultrasound, which can enhance nucleation rate and crystal growth rate, can also affect the physico-chemical properties of immersion frozen products. In this study, the influence of slow freezing (SF), immersion freezing (IF) and ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF) on physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds of red radish was investigated. Results showed that ultrasound application significantly improved the freezing rate; the freezing time of ultrasound application at 0.26 W/cm(2) was shorten by 14% and 90%, compared to IF and SF, respectively. UAF products showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in drip loss and phytonutrients (anthocyanins, vitamin C and phenolics) loss. Compared to SF products, IF and UAF products showed better textural preservation and higher calcium content. The radish tissues exhibited better cellular structures under ultrasonic power intensities of 0.17 and 0.26 W/cm(2) with less cell separation and disruption. Volatile compound data revealed that radish aromatic profile was also affected in the freezing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  12. Cutaneous chemical burns: assessment and early management.

    PubMed

    Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Eshini; Perera, Marlon; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-03-01

    Chemical burns are common and may cause significant physical, psychological, social and economic burden. Despite a wide variety of potentially harmful chemicals, important general principals may be drawn in the assessment and initial management of such injuries. Early treatment of chemical burns is crucial and may reduce the period of resulting morbidity. This article reviews the assessment and management of cutaneous chemical burns. Assessment of the patient should be rapid and occur in conjunction with early emergency management. Rapid history and pri-mary and secondary survey may be required to exclude systemic side effects of the injury. Depth of wound assessment is difficult given that necrosis caused by various chemicals can continue despite cessation of exposure. Early management should be conducted with consideration of clinician's safety, and appropriate precautions should be taken. Excluding specific situations and chemical exposure, copious irrigation with water remains the mainstay of early management. Referral to a centre of higher acuity may be required for expert evaluation.

  13. Early Mars was wet but not warm: Erosion, fluvial features, liquid water habitats, and life below freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, C. P.; Davis, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that Mars had liquid water early in its history and possibly at recurrent interval. It has generally been assumed that this implied that the climate was warmer as a result of a thicker CO2 atmosphere than at the present. However, recent models suggest that Mars may have had a thick atmosphere but may not have experienced mean annual temperatures above freezing. In this paper we report on models of liquid water formation and maintenance under temperatures well below freezing. Our studies are based on work in the north and south polar regions of Earth. Our results suggest that early Mars did have a thick atmosphere but precipitation and hence erosion was rare. Transient liquid water, formed under temperature extremes and maintained under thick ice covers, could account for the observed fluvial features. The main difference between the present climate and the early climate was that the total surface pressure was well above the triple point of water.

  14. The physico-chemical basis for the freeze-drying process.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, A P

    1976-10-01

    To the extent that the final form and quality of a freeze-dried product depends on the way the freeze-drying is conducted, an understanding of the many factors involved is most important. The numerous effects of the design and mode of operation of the freeze-drying equipment on the course of the process need to be known, as do the properties intrinsic to the material to be freeze-dried. Much can be learned and predicted from the study of the "supplemented phase diagram", a series of experimental plots describing the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium phase behavior of the system in question. Such diagrams map and distinguish eutectic and amorphous phase behavior. Further information is available from gravimetric studies allowing the construction of "desorption isotherms", the plots describing the loss of sorbed water accompanying the sublimation of ice, frequently termed "secondary drying". These plots relate the water retained by the product to the "water activity", or relative humidity at different temperatures. Observations in the freeze-drying microscope contribute additional information, in that they reveal the actual course of the process at the microscopic level. These and other laboratory findings facilitate the analysis and comparison of pilot-plant and commercical scale processing experiences. Where scientific and engineering factors appear to interrelate, the nature and extent of the interdependence can often be determined.

  15. Centrality dependence of chemical freeze-out parameters from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations using a hadron resonance gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Das, Supriya; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Ray, Rajarshi; Samanta, Subhasis

    2017-07-01

    We estimate chemical freeze-out parameters in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) and Excluded Volume HRG (EVHRG) models by fitting the experimental information of net-proton and net-charge fluctuations measured in Au + Au collisions by the STAR Collaboration at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We observe that chemical freeze-out parameters obtained from lower and higher order fluctuations are almost the same for √{sNN}>27 GeV, but tend to deviate from each other at lower √{sNN}. Moreover, these separations increase with decrease of √{sNN}, and for a fixed √{sNN} increase towards central collisions. Furthermore, we observe an approximate scaling behavior of (μB/T ) /(μB/T)central with (Npart) /(Npart)central for the parameters estimated from lower order fluctuations for 11.5 ≤√{sNN}≤200 GeV. Scaling is violated for the parameters estimated from higher order fluctuations for √{sNN}=11.5 and 19.6 GeV. It is observed that the chemical freeze-out parameter, which can describe σ2/M of net protons very well in all energies and centralities, cannot describe the s σ equally well, and vice versa.

  16. Early return to work following open carpal tunnel decompression in lamb freezing workers.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, M C; Veale, G A

    2008-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is common at the largest lamb processing plant in the world, especially in new lamb boners. The purpose of this study was to establish the incidence and whether expeditious return to work following open carpal tunnel decompression was possible. Two hundred patients with a neurophysiologically confirmed diagnosis underwent surgery between 2002 and 2006. One hundred and eighty-seven patients were assessed retrospectively and 13 prospectively. The incidence in new lamb boners was 10% in their first season. On average, workers commenced rehabilitation at 11 days post-operatively and full duties at 29 days post-operatively with minimal further time off taken. Ninety percent returned to their previous role. By 8 weeks in the prospective group visual analogue pain scores had improved from 8.75 to 2.0 (P<0.01) and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) scores had improved from 140 points to 68 (P<0.01). Grip/pinch testing, static two-point discrimination scores and complication rates were comparable with previous studies. This study provides good evidence that coordinated, early rehabilitation and return to work is effective in a high-demand population.

  17. Effect of Freezing on the Level of Contaminants in Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites. Part 1. Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    pure water. Dissolved ions in the soil solution lower the freezing point; this is called freezing point depression. Many of the early studies of...them in the remaining soil solution . The temperature and concentration of this solution affect the chemical reactions and the forms of ions in...in the soil solution freezes, more concentrated "% solutes will be present in soil solution . 3. Water will travel even in frozen soils and sediments

  18. AgRISTARS: Early warning and crop condition assessment. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator); Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Emissive (10.5 to 12.5 microns) and reflective (0.55 to 1.1 microns) data for ten day scenes and infrared data for six night scenes of southern Texas were analyzed for plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration. Heat capacity mapping mission radiometric temperatures were: within 2 C of dewpoint temperatures, significantly correlated with variables important in evapotranspiration, and related to freeze severity and planting depth soil temperatures.

  19. Freezing Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.

  20. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  1. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-d postdeboning aging at 2°C, 7-d postdeboning aging (2-h deboned meat only), and 6-d storage at -20°C plus 1-d thawing at 2°C (freezing and thawing treatment, 2-h deboned meat only). The WHC was determined by cooking loss, drip loss, a filter paper press method (results were presented as expressible fluid), and a salt-induced swelling and centrifugation method (results were presented as percentage of salt-induced water gain). There were no differences for WHC estimated by cooking loss and expressible fluid between the treatments. Only the freezing and thawing treatment resulted in a significant increase in drip loss. The average percentage of salt-induced water gains by the 24-h deboned samples, postdeboning aged 2 h samples, and frozen 2 h sample, which did not differ from each other, were significantly higher than that by the 2-h deboned sample. These results indicate that regardless of method (carcass aging vs. postdeboning aging) and time (aging for 1 d vs. for 7 d), postmortem aging more than 1 d does not affect WHC of the early deboned samples measured by dripping, cooking, and pressing. However, postmortem carcass aging, postdeboning aging, and freezing and thawing storage can significantly enhance the ability of chicken breast meat to hold added salt water or WHC measured by the salt-induced swelling and centrifuge method.

  2. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  3. RNA helicase-like protein as an early regulator of transcription factors for plant chilling and freezing tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhizhong; Lee, Hojoung; Xiong, Liming; Jagendorf, André; Stevenson, Becky; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Susceptibility to chilling injury prevents the cultivation of many important crops and limits the extended storage of horticultural commodities. Although freezing tolerance is acquired through cold-induced gene expression changes mediated in part by the CBF family of transcriptional activators, whether plant chilling resistance or sensitivity involves the CBF genes is not known. We report here that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant impaired in the cold-regulated expression of CBF genes and their downstream target genes is sensitive to chilling stress. Expression of CBF3 under a strong constitutive promoter restores chilling resistance to the mutant plants. The mutated gene was cloned and found to encode a nuclear localized RNA helicase. Our results identify a regulator of CBF genes, and demonstrate the importance of gene regulation and the CBF transcriptional activators in plant chilling resistance. PMID:12165572

  4. Isotopic and chemical studies of early crustal metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The aim, within the bounds of the Early Crustal Genesis Project, was the isotopic and chemical study of selected early crustal meta-sedimentary rocks. Western Australia was chosen as the first field area to examine, as the Yilgarn and Pilbara Blocks comprise one of the largest and most varied Precambrian terranes. Furthermore, the Western Gneiss Terrane (on the western flank of the Yilgarn Block) and the Pilbara Block are both non-greenstone in character; these types of terrane were relatively neglected, but are of great significance in the understanding of early crustal meta-sediments. The meta-sediments of aluminous or peraluminous character, commonly also enriched in Mg and/or Fe relative to the more common pelitic meta-sediments, and at many locations, deficient in one or more of the elements Ca, N, and K, were initially chosen.

  5. Effect of drying methods (microwave vacuum, freeze, hot air and sun drying) on physical, chemical and nutritional attributes of five pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Vaibhav Kumar; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan; Ranjan, Vijay; Shakya, Amita; Pareek, Sunil

    2018-07-01

    A randomized block design experiment was performed to investigate the influence of drying on the physical, chemical and nutritional quality attributes of five prominent cultivars of India under sun drying (SD) (mean temperature 35.5 °C, average daily radiation 5.26 kW h m -2 and mean relative humidity 73.66% RH), hot air drying (HD) at 65 °C, microwave vacuum drying (MVD) (800 W, 5 kPa) and freeze drying (FD) (-50 °C, 5 kPa). Water activity, pH, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA), capsaicin, β-carotene, color and Scoville heat unit were studied. TPC, AA, capsaicin content, β-carotene, color and water activity were significantly affected by the drying method. FD was observed to be most efficient in minimizing the loss of color, capsaicin and β-carotene. The hotness of analyzed samples decreased in the order 'Bird's Eye' > 'Sannam S4' > 'CO-4' > 'PLR-1' > 'PKM-1' among the studied cultivars, and FD > MVD > HD > SD among the drying methods. The FD method was observed to be the most efficient drying method for retaining capsaicin content over other drying methods (SD, HD, MVD), whereas MVD was found to be most efficient in minimizing the loss to nutritional attributes for all five pepper cultivars. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    SciT

    Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven; Lindberg, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwatermore » applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)« less

  7. Early time evolution of a chemically produced electron depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1995-01-01

    The early time evolution of an ionospheric electron depletion produced by a radially expanding electron attachment chemical release is studied with a two-dimensional simulation model. The model includes electron attachment chemistry, incorporates fluid electrons, particle ions and neutrals, and considers the evolution in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field for a low beta plasma. Timescales considered are of the order of or less than the cyclotron period of the negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attacment reaction. This corresponds to time periods of tenths of seconds during recent experiemts. Simulation results show that a highly sheared azimuthal electron flow velocity develops in the radially expanding depletion boundary. This sheared electron flow velocity and the steep density gradients in the boundary give rise to small-scale irregulatities in the form of electron density cavities and spikes. The nonlinear evolution of these irregularities results in trapping and ultimately turbulent heating of the negative ions.

  8. Vernal freeze damage and genetic variation alter tree growth, chemistry, and insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Gryzmala, Elizabeth A; Townsend, Philip A; Lindroth, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Anticipated consequences of climate change in temperate regions include early spring warmup punctuated by intermittent hard freezes. Warm weather accelerates leaf flush in perennial woody species, potentially exposing vulnerable young tissues to damaging frosts. We employed a 2 × 6 randomized factorial design to examine how the interplay of vernal (springtime) freeze damage and genetic variation in a hardwood species (Populus tremuloides) influences tree growth, phytochemistry, and interactions with an insect herbivore (Chaitophorus stevensis). Acute effects of freezing included defoliation and mortality. Surviving trees exhibited reduced growth and altered biomass distribution. Reflushed leaves on these trees had lower mass per area, lower lignin concentrations, and higher nitrogen concentrations, altered chemical defence profiles, and supported faster aphid population growth. Many effects varied among plant genotypes and were related with herbivore performance. This study suggests that a single damaging vernal freeze event can alter tree-insect interactions through effects on plant growth and chemistry. Differential responses of various genotypes to freeze damage suggest that more frequent vernal freeze events could also influence natural selection, favouring trees with greater freeze hardiness, and more resistance or tolerance to herbivores following damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Freezing: an underutilized food safety technology?

    PubMed

    Archer, Douglas L

    2004-01-15

    Freezing is an ancient technology for preserving foods. Freezing halts the activities of spoilage microorganisms in and on foods and can preserve some microorganisms for long periods of time. Frozen foods have an excellent overall safety record. The few outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with frozen foods indicate that some, but not all human pathogens are killed by commercial freezing processes. Freezing kills microorganisms by physical and chemical effects and possibly through induced genetic changes. Research is needed to better understand the physical and chemical interactions of various food matrices with the microbial cell during freezing and holding at frozen temperatures. The literature suggests that many pathogenic microorganisms may be sublethally injured by freezing, so research should be done to determine how to prevent injured cells from resuscitating and becoming infectious. Studies on the genetics of microbial stress suggest that the induction of resistance to specific stresses may be counteracted by, for example, simple chemicals. Research is needed to better understand how resistance to the lethal effect of freezing is induced in human pathogens and means by which it can be counteracted in specific foods. Through research, it seems possible that freezing may in the future be used to reliably reduce populations of food-borne pathogens as well as to preserve foods.

  10. Climatic and Chemical Effects of Punctuated Volcanism on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevy, I.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The geological record of Mars shows a pronounced peak in volcanic activity during the transition between the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs. This peak appears coeval with profound climatic and chemical changes in the surface environment, including the formation of the majority of known valley networks, open-basin lakes and the deposition of massive sulfate-bearing deposits of aqueous origin. It has been suggested that volcanism maintained a warmer climate and an active hydrological cycle through the radiative effect of volcanically emitted greenhouse gases, such as CO2, H2O and SO2. However, previous model attempts at explaining overland flow with CO2-H2O greenhouse atmospheres required several bars of CO2, even including the warming effect of infrared scattering by CO2 ice clouds. This amount of CO2 is in apparent disagreement with recent estimates of volcanic outgassing on Mars. The net climatic effect of volcanic SO2 emissions into the atmosphere of early Mars has been the topic of recent debate, because it is unclear whether strong greenhouse warming by SO2 or strong cooling by scattering sulfate aerosols should dominate. To address this problem, we considered two previously neglected phenomena: i) the punctuated, rather than continuous, nature of volcanic eruptions, and ii) the role of preexisting dust grains and volcanic ash as condensation nuclei for sulfuric acid. For this purpose we developed a coupled model of volcanic eruption and atmospheric response, including detailed aerosol microphysics. We find that while SO2 concentrations increase rapidly and dramatically with the initiation of a strong volcanic eruption, the dynamics of sulfate aerosol formation in the martian atmosphere results in a delay of aerosol-related cooling by several months to years. Moreover, the existence of dust in the atmosphere prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as the emission and global distribution of fine volcanic ash particles, results in the formation of H2SO4

  11. Equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and nonequilibrium freezing of mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Mazur, P

    1990-08-01

    The first successful freezing of early embryos to -196 degrees C in 1972 required that they be cooled slowly at approximately 1 degree C/min to about -70 degrees C. Subsequent observations and physical/chemical analyses indicate that embryos cooled at that rate dehydrate sufficiently to maintain the chemical potential of their intracellular water close to that of the water in the partly frozen extracellular solution. Consequently, such slow freezing is referred to as equilibrium freezing. In 1972 and since, a number of investigators have studied the responses of embryos to departures from equilibrium freezing. When disequilibrium is achieved by the use of higher constant cooling rates to -70 degrees C, the results is usually intracellular ice formation and embryo death. That result is quantitatively in accord with the predictions of the physical/chemical analysis of the kinetics of water loss as a function of cooling rate. However, other procedures involving rapid nonequilibrium cooling do not result in high mortality. One common element in these other nonequilibrium procedures is that, before the temperature has dropped to a level that permits intracellular ice formation, the embryo water content is reduced to the point at which the subsequent rapid nonequilibrium cooling results in either the formation of small innocuous intracellular ice crystals or the conversion of the intracellular solution into a glass. In both cases, high survival requires that subsequent warming be rapid, to prevent recrystallization or devitrification. The physical/chemical analysis developed for initially nondehydrated cells appears generally applicable to these other nonequilibrium procedures as well.

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics of meat from broilers raised in 4 different rearing systems, stored under freezing for up to 12 months.

    PubMed

    Giampietro-Ganeco, A; Owens, C M; Mello, J L M; Souza, R A; Ferrari, F B; Souza, P A; Borba, H

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of freezing (-18°C) for 12 mo on attributes related to the texture of breast, drumstick, and thigh from broilers raised in 4 different rearing systems. Five-hundred carcasses of male broilers raised in 4 rearing systems (Antibiotic-free, Cobb 500, n = 125; Free-range, Hubbard ISA, n = 125; Conventional, Cobb 500, n = 125; Organic, Cobb 500, n = 125) were divided into breast, drumstick, and thigh and stored under freezing (-18°C) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Breast, drumstick, and thigh meat from broilers raised in all studied rearing systems showed reduction (P < 0.001) of water-holding capacity (WHC) during freezing for up 12 months. It was observed an increase (P < 0.001) of cooking loss in breast samples from antibiotic-free, conventional, and organic broilers, and in thigh samples from broilers raised in all rearing systems studied. Breast meat from alternative broilers showed an increase in shear force values, while breast meat from conventional broilers became tenderer during the freezing storage. In general, alternative broilers had harder thigh meat than conventional broilers. A reduction (P < 0.001) in myofibrillar fragmentation index and total collagen concentration was verified in breast, drumstick, and thigh samples throughout the experiment. The freezing for up to 12 mo affects characteristics related to the succulence of chicken meat. Freezing chicken meat cuts for long periods, regardless of the rearing system, may interfere with the meat texture during preparation and consumption and, consequently, influence the consumer decision in a next purchase. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  14. Challenges to studying the health effects of early life environmental chemical exposures on children's health.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joseph M; Gray, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies play an important role in quantifying how early life environmental chemical exposures influence the risk of childhood diseases. These studies face at least four major challenges that can produce noise when trying to identify signals of associations between chemical exposure and childhood health. Challenges include accurately estimating chemical exposure, confounding from causes of both exposure and disease, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability to chemical exposures, and determining the effects of chemical mixtures. We provide recommendations that will aid in identifying these signals with more precision.

  15. In vitro early changes in intercellular junctions by treatment with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, T; Kohno, Y; Matsui, Y; Yoshiki, S

    1986-06-01

    To examine early intercellular junction changes caused by treatment with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), rat lingual epithelium was cultivated in isolation and observed by electrophysiological, freeze-fracture and whole-mount electron microscopy. Electrophysiological measurements showed a transient decrease in membrane potential of -10.2 mV 6 h after the treatment. It returned to almost the same level as that of the control group 1 day later. Six hours after treatment, input resistance decreased rapidly to 5.3 M omega but increased to 18.0 M omega 12 h after treatment. Transient reduction of input resistance and membrane potential occurred prior to the decrease in the coupling ratio 6 h after treatment with DMBA. In freeze-fracture replicas, the number of gap junctions decreased by approximately 45% of the control value 6 h after treatment with DMBA. At 12 h and thereafter, the number and area of gap junctions subsequently decreased by 60-80% of the control value. Alterations in the number and area of desmosomes were similar to those of the gap junctions. The formation of epithelial cytoskeletons, partially devoid of the 2-4 and 5-8 nm filaments was also observed. A decrease in the density of filament networks beneath the plasma membranes was especially apparent. Treatment with a carcinogen brought about morphological cellular changes as early as 6 h after treatment, and such early changes might trigger metabolic cellular abnormalities. Affected cells appear to move away from normal cells in a process of repeated destruction and revision of intercellular junctions, and cytoskeletons.

  16. The Freezing Bomb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  17. 3 CFR - Pay Freeze

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay Freeze Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the Assistant to the President and Chief... the White House staff forgo pay increases until further notice. Accordingly, as a signal of our shared...

  18. Could Martian Strawberries Be? -- Prebiotic Chemical Evolution on an Early Wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    The universality of chemical physics dictates the ubiquity of bubbles, aerosols, and droplets on planets with water and simple amphiphiles. Their ability to functionally support prebiotic chemical evolution seems critical: on the early Earth and Mars, and quite likely for Titan and Europa.

  19. Biomonitoring of human fetal exposure to environmental chemicals in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2014-01-01

    The first trimester of human fetal life, a period of extremely rapid development of physiological systems, represents the most rapid growth phase in human life. Interference in the establishment of organ systems may result in abnormal development that may be manifest immediately or programmed for later abnormal function. Exposure to environmental chemicals may be affecting development at these early stages, and yet there is limited knowledge of the quantities and identities of the chemicals to which the fetus is exposed during early pregnancy. Clearly, opportunities for assessing fetal chemical exposure directly are extremely limited. Hence, this review describes indirect means of assessing fetal exposure in early pregnancy to chemicals that are considered disrupters of development. Consideration is given to such matrices as maternal hair, fingernails, urine, saliva, sweat, breast milk, amniotic fluid and blood, and fetal matrices such as cord blood, cord tissue, meconium, placenta, and fetal liver. More than 150 articles that presented data from chemical analysis of human maternal and fetal tissues and fluids were reviewed. Priority was given to articles where chemical analysis was conducted in more than one matrix. Where correlations between maternal and fetal matrices were determined, these articles were included and are highlighted, as these may provide the basis for future investigations of early fetal exposure. The determination of fetal chemical exposure, at the time of rapid human growth and development, will greatly assist regulatory agencies in risk assessments and establishment of advisories for risk management concerning environmental chemicals.

  20. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  1. Freeze drying method

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  2. Surface freezing of water.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, J L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, M A; Rodríguez-Celis, F

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered-exclusively-by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on humidity, presenting at least three different types of surface crystals. Humidity triggers surface freezing as soon as it overpasses a defined value for a given temperature, generating a plurality of nucleation nodes. An evidence of simultaneous nucleation of surface ice crystals is also provided.

  3. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage.

    PubMed

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni

    2016-04-15

    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Freezing WISE Hydrogen

    2009-11-12

    A scaffolding structure built around NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer allows engineers to freeze its hydrogen coolant. The WISE infrared instrument is kept extremely cold by a bottle-like tank filled with frozen hydrogen, called the cryostat.

  5. Tandem High-pressure Freezing and Quick Freeze Substitution of Plant Tissues for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bobik, Krzysztof; Dunlap, John R.; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been providing biologists with ultra-high resolution images of biological materials. Yet, because of laborious and time-consuming protocols that also demand experience in preparation of artifact-free samples, TEM is not considered a user-friendly technique. Traditional sample preparation for TEM used chemical fixatives to preserve cellular structures. High-pressure freezing is the cryofixation of biological samples under high pressures to produce very fast cooling rates, thereby restricting ice formation, which is detrimental to the integrity of cellular ultrastructure. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution are currently the methods of choice for producing the highest quality morphology in resin sections for TEM. These methods minimize the artifacts normally associated with conventional processing for TEM of thin sections. After cryofixation the frozen water in the sample is replaced with liquid organic solvent at low temperatures, a process called freeze substitution. Freeze substitution is typically carried out over several days in dedicated, costly equipment. A recent innovation allows the process to be completed in three hours, instead of the usual two days. This is typically followed by several more days of sample preparation that includes infiltration and embedding in epoxy resins before sectioning. Here we present a protocol combining high-pressure freezing and quick freeze substitution that enables plant sample fixation to be accomplished within hours. The protocol can readily be adapted for working with other tissues or organisms. Plant tissues are of special concern because of the presence of aerated spaces and water-filled vacuoles that impede ice-free freezing of water. In addition, the process of chemical fixation is especially long in plants due to cell walls impeding the penetration of the chemicals to deep within the tissues. Plant tissues are therefore particularly challenging, but

  6. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-...

  8. Freeze-drying process design by manometric temperature measurement: design of a smart freeze-dryer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2005-04-01

    To develop a procedure based on manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and an expert system for good practices in freeze drying that will allow development of an optimized freeze-drying process during a single laboratory freeze-drying experiment. Freeze drying was performed with a FTS Dura-Stop/Dura-Top freeze dryer with the manometric temperature measurement software installed. Five percent solutions of glycine, sucrose, or mannitol with 2 ml to 4 ml fill in 5 ml vials were used, with all vials loaded on one shelf. Details of freezing, optimization of chamber pressure, target product temperature, and some aspects of secondary drying are determined by the expert system algorithms. MTM measurements were used to select the optimum shelf temperature, to determine drying end points, and to evaluate residual moisture content in real-time. MTM measurements were made at 1 hour or half-hour intervals during primary drying and secondary drying, with a data collection frequency of 4 points per second. The improved MTM equations were fit to pressure-time data generated by the MTM procedure using Microcal Origin software to obtain product temperature and dry layer resistance. Using heat and mass transfer theory, the MTM results were used to evaluate mass and heat transfer rates and to estimate the shelf temperature required to maintain the target product temperature. MTM product dry layer resistance is accurate until about two-thirds of total primary drying time is over, and the MTM product temperature is normally accurate almost to the end of primary drying provided that effective thermal shielding is used in the freeze-drying process. The primary drying times can be accurately estimated from mass transfer rates calculated very early in the run, and we find the target product temperature can be achieved and maintained with only a few adjustments of shelf temperature. The freeze-dryer overload conditions can be estimated by calculation of heat/mass flow at the target product

  9. Freeze-In dark matter with displaced signatures at colliders

    SciT

    Co, Raymond T.; D’Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2015-12-11

    Dark matter, X, may be generated by new physics at the TeV scale during an early matter-dominated (MD) era that ends at temperature T{sub R}≪ TeV. Compared to the conventional radiation-dominated (RD) results, yields from both Freeze-Out and Freeze-In processes are greatly suppressed by dilution from entropy production, making Freeze-Out less plausible while allowing successful Freeze-In with a much larger coupling strength. Freeze-In is typically dominated by the decay of a particle B of the thermal bath, B→X. For a large fraction of the relevant cosmological parameter space, the decay rate required to produce the observed dark matter abundance leadsmore » to displaced signals at LHC and future colliders, for any m{sub X} in the range keV« less

  10. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Dynamic Early Embryonic-like Programs during Chemical Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Fu, Yao; Zhu, Jialiang; Liu, Yifang; Zhang, Qian; Yi, Zexuan; Chen, Shi; Jiao, Zhonggang; Xu, Xiaochan; Xu, Junquan; Duo, Shuguang; Bai, Yun; Tang, Chao; Li, Cheng; Deng, Hongkui

    2018-06-12

    Chemical reprogramming provides a powerful platform for exploring the molecular dynamics that lead to pluripotency. Although previous studies have uncovered an intermediate extraembryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state during this process, the molecular underpinnings of pluripotency acquisition remain largely undefined. Here, we profile 36,199 single-cell transcriptomes at multiple time points throughout a highly efficient chemical reprogramming system using RNA-sequencing and reconstruct their progression trajectories. Through identifying sequential molecular events, we reveal that the dynamic early embryonic-like programs are key aspects of successful reprogramming from XEN-like state to pluripotency, including the concomitant transcriptomic signatures of two-cell (2C) embryonic-like and early pluripotency programs and the epigenetic signature of notable genome-wide DNA demethylation. Moreover, via enhancing the 2C-like program by fine-tuning chemical treatment, the reprogramming process is remarkably accelerated. Collectively, our findings offer a high-resolution dissection of cell fate dynamics during chemical reprogramming and shed light on mechanistic insights into the nature of induced pluripotency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Satellite freeze forecast system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Provisions for back-up operations for the satellite freeze forecast system are discussed including software and hardware maintenance and DS/1000-1V linkage; troubleshooting; and digitized radar usage. The documentation developed; dissemination of data products via television and the IFAS computer network; data base management; predictive models; the installation of and progress towards the operational status of key stations; and digital data acquisition are also considered. The d addition of dew point temperature into the P-model is outlined.

  12. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Freezing and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  13. Chemical stability of amorphous materials: specific and general media effects in the role of water in the degradation of freeze-dried zoniporide.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Suman A; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Medek, Ales; Hong, Jinyang; Pikal, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine whether hydrolysis in a model lyophile was influenced by general media effects with water-changing properties of the medium or via a specific mechanism of water as a reactant. Four formulations of zoniporide and sucrose (1:10) were prepared with variable amounts of sorbitol [0%-25% (w/v) of total solids). These formulations were then equilibrated at 6% and 11% relative humidity using saturated salt solutions. The lyophile cakes were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), (isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), solid- state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (DFR) spectroscopy. DSC and IMC were used to assess the global molecular mobility. ssNMR relaxation times were measured to access local mobility. The DFR was used to determine the solid-state acidity expressed as the Hammett acidity function. Stability of samples was evaluated at 40°C by monitoring potency and purity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were interpreted in terms of the various roles of water: media effect, plasticization, polarity, and reactant. The kinetics of hydrolysis was observed to be correlated with either/both specific "chemical" effects, that is, water reactant as well as media effect, specifically global molecular mobility of the matrix. Increase in reaction rate with increase in water content is not linear and is a weaker dependence than in some hydrolytic reactions in organic solvents. A moderate amount of an inert plasticizer, sorbitol, conferred additional stabilization, possibly by restricting the amplitude and frequency of fast motions that are on a small length scale. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immunoelectron Microscopy of Cryofixed and Freeze-Substituted Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Miyuki; Takabe, Keiji; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Cryofixation and freeze-substitution techniques provide excellent preservation of plant ultrastructure. The advantage of cryofixation is not only in structural preservation, as seen in the smooth plasma membrane, but also in the speed in arresting cell activity. Immunoelectron microscopy reveals the subcellular localization of molecules within cells. Immunolabeling in combination with cryofixation and freeze-substitution techniques provides more detailed information on the immunoelectron-microscopic localization of molecules in the plant cell than can be obtained from chemically fixed tissues. Here, we introduce methods for immunoelectron microscopy of cryofixed and freeze-substituted plant tissues.

  15. Inner ear tissue preservation by rapid freezing: Improving fixation by high-pressure freezing and hybrid methods

    PubMed Central

    Bullen, A.; Taylor, R.R.; Kachar, B.; Moores, C.; Fleck, R.A.; Forge, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the preservation of tissues in as ‘close to life’ state as possible, rapid freeze fixation has many benefits over conventional chemical fixation. One technique by which rapid freeze-fixation can be achieved, high pressure freezing (HPF), has been shown to enable ice crystal artefact-free freezing and tissue preservation to greater depths (more than 40 μm) than other quick-freezing methods. Despite increasingly becoming routine in electron microscopy, the use of HPF for the fixation of inner ear tissue has been limited. Assessment of the quality of preservation showed routine HPF techniques were suitable for preparation of inner ear tissues in a variety of species. Good preservation throughout the depth of sensory epithelia was achievable. Comparison to chemically fixed tissue indicated that fresh frozen preparations exhibited overall superior structural preservation of cells. However, HPF fixation caused characteristic artefacts in stereocilia that suggested poor quality freezing of the actin bundles. The hybrid technique of pre-fixation and high pressure freezing was shown to produce cellular preservation throughout the tissue, similar to that seen in HPF alone. Pre-fixation HPF produced consistent high quality preservation of stereociliary actin bundles. Optimising the preparation of samples with minimal artefact formation allows analysis of the links between ultrastructure and function in inner ear tissues. PMID:25016142

  16. Inner ear tissue preservation by rapid freezing: improving fixation by high-pressure freezing and hybrid methods.

    PubMed

    Bullen, A; Taylor, R R; Kachar, B; Moores, C; Fleck, R A; Forge, A

    2014-09-01

    In the preservation of tissues in as 'close to life' state as possible, rapid freeze fixation has many benefits over conventional chemical fixation. One technique by which rapid freeze-fixation can be achieved, high pressure freezing (HPF), has been shown to enable ice crystal artefact-free freezing and tissue preservation to greater depths (more than 40 μm) than other quick-freezing methods. Despite increasingly becoming routine in electron microscopy, the use of HPF for the fixation of inner ear tissue has been limited. Assessment of the quality of preservation showed routine HPF techniques were suitable for preparation of inner ear tissues in a variety of species. Good preservation throughout the depth of sensory epithelia was achievable. Comparison to chemically fixed tissue indicated that fresh frozen preparations exhibited overall superior structural preservation of cells. However, HPF fixation caused characteristic artefacts in stereocilia that suggested poor quality freezing of the actin bundles. The hybrid technique of pre-fixation and high pressure freezing was shown to produce cellular preservation throughout the tissue, similar to that seen in HPF alone. Pre-fixation HPF produced consistent high quality preservation of stereociliary actin bundles. Optimising the preparation of samples with minimal artefact formation allows analysis of the links between ultrastructure and function in inner ear tissues. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  18. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  19. Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-2 August 2007 Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species by J...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...heralding apoptosis . Data analysis. An apoptotic index (API) was established by calculating the percentage of embryos in each life stage with

  20. Mallard hatching from an egg cracked by freezing

    Greenwood, R.J.

    1969-01-01

    The eggs of early-nesting waterfowl in North Dakota are frequently exposed to subfreezing temperatures. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Pintail (Anas acuta), normally the first ducks to arrive in the spring, begin limited early nesting in min-April. Nighttime temperatures during this period frequently drop below freezing, and late spring blizzards are not unusual.

  1. Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans. Studies in rodents have shown that freezing depends on amygdala projections to the brainstem (periaqueductal grey). Recent neuroimaging studies in humans have indicated that similar brain regions may be involved in human freezing. In addition, flexibly shifting between freezing and active defensive modes is critical for adequate stress-coping and relies on fronto-amygdala connections. This review paper presents a model detailing these neural mechanisms involved in freezing and the shift to fight-or-flight action. Freezing is not a passive state but rather a parasympathetic brake on the motor system, relevant to perception and action preparation. Study of these defensive responses in humans may advance insights into human stress-related psychopathologies characterized by rigidity in behavioural stress reactions. The paper therefore concludes with a research agenda to stimulate translational animal–human research in this emerging field of human defensive stress responses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness’. PMID:28242739

  2. Freezing and melting water in lamellar structures.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, J T; Erramilli, S; Gruner, S M

    1994-01-01

    The manner in which ice forms in lamellar suspensions of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine in water depends strongly on the water fraction. For weight fractions between 15 and 9%, the freezing and melting temperatures are significantly depressed below 0 degree C. The ice exhibits a continuous melting transition spanning as much as 20 degrees C. When the water weight fraction is below 9%, ice never forms at temperatures as low as -40 degrees C. We show that when water contained in a lamellar lipid suspension freezes, the ice is not found between the bilayers; it exists as pools of crystalline ice in equilibrium with the bound water associated with the polar lipid headgroups. We have used this effect, together with the known chemical potential of ice, to measure hydration forces between lipid bilayers. We find exponentially decaying hydration repulsion when the bilayers are less than about 7 A apart. For larger separations, we find significant deviations from single exponential decay. PMID:7948683

  3. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

    PubMed

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2018-01-23

    Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

  5. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ryabchikova, T.; Bagnulo, S.; Alecian, E.; Grunhut, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G.

    2009-09-01

    Context: Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, the peculiarity of the composition of the photosphere, chemical stratification, the presence of a magnetic field, and its interplay with the stellar atmosphere and the circumstellar environment. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the “normal” A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. By contrast, this kind of study is paramount for eventually allowing one to correctly quantify the impact of the various physical processes that occur inside the atmospheres of A- and B-type stars. Aims: We wish to establish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. Methods: We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and π Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. Results: We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled a table of atomic data for more than 1100 measured lines that may be used in the future as a reference. The abundances we obtained for He, C, Al, S, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, and Zr are compatible with the solar ones derived with recent 3D radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of the solar photosphere. The abundances of the remaining studied elements show some degree of discrepancy compared to the solar photosphere. Those of N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and Nd may well be ascribed to non-LTE effects; for P, Cl, Sc and

  6. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  7. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; ...

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  8. Weighted similarity-based clustering of chemical structures and bioactivity data in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen Joy; Shkedy, Ziv; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Moerbeke, Marijke Van; Kasim, Adetayo

    2016-08-01

    The modern process of discovering candidate molecules in early drug discovery phase includes a wide range of approaches to extract vital information from the intersection of biology and chemistry. A typical strategy in compound selection involves compound clustering based on chemical similarity to obtain representative chemically diverse compounds (not incorporating potency information). In this paper, we propose an integrative clustering approach that makes use of both biological (compound efficacy) and chemical (structural features) data sources for the purpose of discovering a subset of compounds with aligned structural and biological properties. The datasets are integrated at the similarity level by assigning complementary weights to produce a weighted similarity matrix, serving as a generic input in any clustering algorithm. This new analysis work flow is semi-supervised method since, after the determination of clusters, a secondary analysis is performed wherein it finds differentially expressed genes associated to the derived integrated cluster(s) to further explain the compound-induced biological effects inside the cell. In this paper, datasets from two drug development oncology projects are used to illustrate the usefulness of the weighted similarity-based clustering approach to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. Compounds that are structurally and biologically similar to the reference compounds are discovered using this proposed integrative approach.

  9. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    DOE PAGES

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of frost across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the nucleation sites for supercooled condensate are properly controlled with chemical micropatterns, the speed of frost growth can be slowed and even halted entirely. This stoppage of frost growth is attributed to the large interdroplet separation between condensate upon the onset ofmore » freezing, which was controlled by the pitch of the chemical patterns and by deliberately triggering an early freezing event. Lastly, these findings reveal that frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and/or temporally control the onset of freezing events.« less

  10. Freezing temperature of finger skin.

    PubMed

    Wilson, O; Goldman, R F; Molnar, G W

    1976-10-01

    In 45 subjects, 154 frostnips of the finger were induced by cooling in air at -15 degrees C with various wind speeds. The mean supercooled skin temperature at which frostnip appeared was -9.4 degrees C. The mean skin temperature rise due to heat of fusion at ice crystallization was 5.3 degrees C. The skin temperature rose to what was termed the apparent freezing point. The relation of this point to the supercooled skin temperature was analyzed for the three wind speeds used. An apparent freezing point for a condition of no supercooling was calculated, estimating the highest temperature at which skin freezes at a given wind speed. The validity of the obtained differences in apparent freezing point was tested by an analysis of covariance. Although not statistically significant, the data suggest that the apparent freezing point with no supercooling decreases with increasing wind velocity. The highest calculated apparent freezing point at -15 degrees C and 6.8 m/s was 1.2 degrees C lower than the true freezing point for skin previously determined in brine, which is a statistically significant difference.

  11. Chemical Evolution and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Benoit; JINA-CEE, NuGrid, ChETEC

    2018-06-01

    Stellar abundances in local dwarf galaxies offer a unique window into the nature and nucleosynthesis of the first stars. They also contain clues regarding how galaxies formed and assembled in the early stages of the universe. In this talk, I will present our effort to connect nuclear astrophysics with the field of galaxy formation in order to define what can be learned about galaxy evolution using stellar abundances. In particular, I will describe the current state of our numerical chemical evolution pipeline which accounts for the mass assembly history of galaxies, present how we use high-redshift cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to calibrate our models and to learn about the formation of dwarf galaxies, and address the challenge of identifying the dominant r-process site(s) using stellar abundances.

  12. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  13. The nucleosynthetic origins and chemical evolution of phosphorus in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the chemical evolution of the element phosphorus, despite its relatively large abundance in the Sun and its importance for biological life. The goal of this archive proposal is to establish the chemical evolution trend of phosphorus, extending our knowledge from solar metallicity to stars with less than 1/1000th the solar metallicity.Previous studies have used weak near-infrared P I lines to establish phosphorus abundance trends from -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0. We have identified a strong P I doublet in the UV at 2136 Angstroms, which is present in the spectra of 22 stars available in the HST archives. Our study will {1} improve on the limited observations of the abundance trend at high metallicity and extend it to metallicities lower by 2 dex and {2} determine whether [P/Fe] flattens out towards lower metallicities {like the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti} or whether it continues to increase {like Co and Zn}. Our results will provide the first tight constraints on the nucleosynthesis of phosphorus and its production sites in the early Universe.We request one semester of funding to support a graduate student to lead the spectral analysis work, one month of summer salary, and miscellaneous travel and publication costs.

  14. Aqueous Chemical Modeling of Sedimentation on Early Mars with Application to Surface-Atmosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, David C.

    2004-01-01

    This project was to investigate models for aqueous sedimentation on early Mars from fluid evaporation. Results focused on three specific areas: (1) First, a fluid evaporation model incorporating iron minerals was developed to compute the evaporation of a likely solution on early Mars derived from the weathering of mafic rock. (2) Second, the fluid evaporation model was applied to salts within Martian meteorites, specifically salts in the nakhlites and ALH84001. Evaporation models were found to be consistent with the mineralogy of salt assemblages-anhydrite, gypsum, Fe-Mg-Ca carbonates, halite, clays-- and the concentric chemical fractionation of Ca-to Mg-rich carbonate rosettes in ALH84001. We made progress in further developing our models of fluid concentration by contributing to updating the FREZCHEM model. (3) Third, theoretical investigation was done to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics involved in the formation of gray, crystalline hematite. This mineral, of probable ancient aqueous origin, has been observed in several areas on the surface of Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Mars Global Surveyor. The "Opportunity" Mars Exploration Rover has also detected gray hematite at its landing site in Meridiani Planum. We investigated how gray hematite can be formed via atmospheric oxidation, aqueous precipitation and subsequent diagenesis, or hydrothermal processes. We also studied the geomorphology of the Aram Chaos hematite region using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images.

  15. On the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis and other studies on chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Lazcano, A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the lines of research in molecular evolution which we have developed for the past three years is related to the experimental and theoretical study of the origin and early evolution of biological catalysis. In an attempt to understand the nature of the first peptidic catalysts and coenzymes, we have achieved the non-enzymatic synthesis of the coenzymes ADPG, GDPG, and CDP-ethanolamine, under conditions considered to have been prevalent on the primitive Earth. We have also accomplished the prebiotic synthesis of histidine, as well as histidyl-histidine, and we have measured the enhancing effects of this catalytic dipeptide on the dephosphorylation of deoxyribonucleotide monophosphates, the hydrolysis of oligo A, and the oligomerization 2', 3' cAMP. We reviewed and further developed the hypothesis that RNA preceded double stranded DNA molecules as a reservoir of cellular genetic information. This led us to undertake the study of extant RNA polymerases in an attempt to discover vestigial sequences preserved from early Archean times. In addition, we continued our studies of on the chemical evolution of organic compounds in the solar system and beyond.

  16. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciT

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sourcesmore » together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  17. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages of 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in either vegetation or soil of the early-successional catchment. The mean 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2800 yr. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) in upwelling ground water than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The 14C age and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC was partly mobilized from charred organic matter of the Quaternary substrate. In an experimental 70-days incubation experiment, 20% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable, irrespective of the water type. Origin of microbial communities (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) had only marginal effects on overall DOC utilization. Overall, these data suggest that the old DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession to some extent, although the largest fraction is recalcitrant DOC that is exported from the catchment once it has been mobilized.

  18. [New approaches to early diagnosis of chronic organophosphorus chemicals intoxication in workers at chemical weapons extermination objects].

    PubMed

    Babakov, V N; Goncharov, N V; Radilov, A S; Glashkina, E P; Podol'skaia, E P; Ermolaeva, E E; Shilov, V V; Prokof'eva, D S; Voĭtenko, N G; Egorov, N A

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrum analysis revealed differences in general contents of low-molecular peptides spectrums in chemical weapons extermination object staffers, in comparison with the reference group. Findings are that serum paraoxonase activity in chemical weapons extermination object staffers in significantly increased.

  19. Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments.

    PubMed

    Zanne, Amy E; Tank, David C; Cornwell, William K; Eastman, Jonathan M; Smith, Stephen A; FitzJohn, Richard G; McGlinn, Daniel J; O'Meara, Brian C; Moles, Angela T; Reich, Peter B; Royer, Dana L; Soltis, Douglas E; Stevens, Peter F; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J; Aarssen, Lonnie; Bertin, Robert I; Calaminus, Andre; Govaerts, Rafaël; Hemmings, Frank; Leishman, Michelle R; Oleksyn, Jacek; Soltis, Pamela S; Swenson, Nathan G; Warman, Laura; Beaulieu, Jeremy M

    2014-02-06

    Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf phenology (evergreen or deciduous), diameter of hydraulic conduits (that is, xylem vessels and tracheids) and climate occupancies (exposure to freezing). To model the evolution of species' traits and climate occupancies, we combined these data with an unparalleled dated molecular phylogeny (32,223 species) for land plants. Here we show that woody clades successfully moved into freezing-prone environments by either possessing transport networks of small safe conduits and/or shutting down hydraulic function by dropping leaves during freezing. Herbaceous species largely avoided freezing periods by senescing cheaply constructed aboveground tissue. Growth habit has long been considered labile, but we find that growth habit was less labile than climate occupancy. Additionally, freezing environments were largely filled by lineages that had already become herbs or, when remaining woody, already had small conduits (that is, the trait evolved before the climate occupancy). By contrast, most deciduous woody lineages had an evolutionary shift to seasonally shedding their leaves only after exposure to freezing (that is, the climate occupancy evolved before the trait). For angiosperms to inhabit novel cold environments they had to gain new structural and functional trait solutions; our results suggest that many of these solutions were probably acquired before their foray into the cold.

  20. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  1. Effect of moisture content on the invertase activity of freeze-dried S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pitombo, R N; Spring, C; Passos, R F; Tonato, M; Vitolo, M

    1994-08-01

    The invertase activity of intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae submitted to freezing-thawing was affected by pH, the chemical nature of the buffer, and the freezing cooling rate (CR), leading in some cases to a complete invertase inactivation (acetate buffer, pH 4.0, CR = 0.5 degree C/min). Once established under adequate freezing conditions the invertase activity remained unchanged after freeze-drying. Nevertheless, in some cases the cell-growing capability after freeze-drying diminished around 70%, mainly if the frozen cell suspension was attained through freezing carried out at CR = 0.5 degree C/min. Water sorption isotherms of freeze-dried samples (freeze-dryer Edwards L-4KR; 30 degrees C and 0.1 mB) were determined at 10 and 25 degrees C. The monolayer moisture content (MMC) at each temperature (12.7 and 3.71 for 10 and 25 degrees C, respectively) was calculated from isotherms by applying BET and GAB models. Freeze-dried yeast with water activity (Aw) between 0 and 0.33 (about the MMC value) maintained at 25 degrees C for 235 days and at 89 degrees C for 15 min retained at least 85% of its original invertase activity (IA), whereas samples with Aw > MMC lost at least 60% of its IA. X ray diffraction showed that the freeze-dried cake before and after storage presented an amorphous structure.

  2. Dynamics, chemical properties and bioavailability of DOC in an early successional catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse-Buhl, U.; Hagedorn, F.; Dümig, A.; Gessner, M. O.; Schaaf, W.; Nii-Annang, S.; Gerull, L.; Mutz, M.

    2013-07-01

    The dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been intensively studied in mature ecosystems, but little is known about DOC dynamics and the significance of DOC as a substrate for microbial activity in early-successional catchments. We determined the concentration, chemical composition, source, radiocarbon age, and bioavailability of DOC along the hydrological flow path from soil solution to a downstream pond in a recently constructed catchment (Chicken Creek Catchment, Germany). Soil solution, upwelling ground water, stream water, subsurface water in an alluvial fan, and pond water all had high DOC concentrations (averages: 6.0-11.6 mg DOC L-1), despite small carbon stocks in both vegetation and soil of the catchment. Solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR of DOC in upwelling ground water revealed a higher proportion of aromatic compounds (32%) and a lower proportion of carbohydrates (33%) than in pond water (18% and 45%, respectively). The average 14C age of DOC in upwelling ground water was 2600 to 2900 yr, while organic matter of the Quaternary substrate of the catchment had a 14C age of 3000 to 16 000 yr. Both the 14C age data and 13C NMR spectra suggest that DOC partly derived from organic matter of the Quaternary substrate (about 40 to 90% of the C in the DOC), indicating that both recent and old C of the DOC can support microbial activity during early ecosystem succession. However, in a 70 day incubation experiment, only about 11% of the total DOC was found to be bioavailable. This proportion was irrespective of the water type. Origin of the microbial communities within the catchment (enriched from soil, stream sediment or pond water) also had only a marginal effect on overall DOC utilization.

  3. Combined chemical and optical methods for monitoring the early decay stages of surrogate human models.

    PubMed

    Statheropoulos, M; Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Pallis, G C; Eliopoulos, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2011-07-15

    useful and informative, uncovering hidden aspects of the early stages of decay and also guiding in the development of combined chemical and imaging methods for the detection of dead bodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of NLTE on research of early chemical enrichment of the dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila

    2015-08-01

    The individual stars observed in the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are presumably red giants. Their chemical abundances are commonly determined under the classical LTE assumption, despite its validity is questionable for atmospheres of giant, in particular, metal-poor stars. Exactly metal-poor objects are important for understanding the early chemical enrichment processes of the host galaxy and the onset of star formation. We selected a sample of the -4 < [Fe/H] < -2 stars in the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies Sculptor, Sextans, and Fornax and the ultra-faint galaxies Bootes I and Segue I, with the high-resolution observational data available, and revised abundances of up to 12 chemical species based on the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation. Stellar parameters taken from the literature were checked through the NLTE analysis of lines of iron observed in the two ionisation stages, Fe I and Fe II. For the Scl, Sex, and Fnx stars, with effective temperatures and surface gravities derived from the photometry and known distance (Jablonka et al. 2015; Tafelmeyer et al. 2010), the Fe I/Fe II ionisation equilibrium was found to be fulfilled, when applying a scaling factor of SH = 0.5 to the Drawinian rates of Fe+H collisions. Pronounced NLTE effects were calculated for lines of Na I and Al I resulting in up to 0.5 dex lower [Na/Fe] ratios and up to 0.65 dex higher [Al/Fe] ratios compared with the corresponding LTE values. For the six Scl stars, the scatter of data on Mg/Na is much smaller in NLTE, with the mean [Mg/Na] = 0.61 +- 0.11, than LTE, where [Mg/Na] = 0.42 +- 0.21. We computed a grid of the NLTE abundance corrections for an extensive list of the Ca I, Ti I-Ti II, and Fe I lines in the MARCS models of cool giants, 4000 K <= Teff <= 4750 K, 0.5 <= log g <= 2.5, -4 <= [M/H] <= 0.

  5. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Childhood Obesity and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormonally mediated processes critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy, or childhood. The fetus, infant, and child may have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors like EDCs due to rapid development and greater exposure to some EDCs that results from their developmentally appropriate behavior, anatomy, and physiology. This review summarizes epidemiological studies examining the relations of early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan, and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioral disorders and obesity. The available epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to several of these ubiquitous EDCs is associated with adverse neurobehavior (BPA and phthalates) and excess adiposity or increased risk of obesity/overweight (PFAS). Quantifying the effects of EDC mixtures, improving EDC exposure assessment, reducing bias from confounding, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability, and elucidating the presence and nature of sexually dimorphic EDC effects would result in stronger inferences from epidemiological studies. Ultimately, better estimates of the causal effects of EDC exposures on child health could help identify susceptible sub-populations and lead to public health interventions to reduce these exposures. PMID:27857130

  6. A Theory of Immersion Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2017-01-01

    Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.

  7. Freeze-in through portals

    SciT

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martínez, Enrique; Zaldívar, Bryan, E-mail: emb@kth.se, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: b.zaldivar.m@csic.es

    2014-01-01

    The popular freeze-out paradigm for Dark Matter (DM) production, relies on DM-baryon couplings of the order of the weak interactions. However, different search strategies for DM have failed to provide a conclusive evidence of such (non-gravitational) interactions, while greatly reducing the parameter space of many representative models. This motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for DM genesis. In the freeze-in framework, the DM is slowly populated from the thermal bath while never reaching equilibrium. In this work, we analyse in detail the possibility of producing a frozen-in DM via a mediator particle which acts as a portal. We give analyticalmore » estimates of different freeze-in regimes and support them with full numerical analyses, taking into account the proper distribution functions of bath particles. Finally, we constrain the parameter space of generic models by requiring agreement with DM relic abundance observations.« less

  8. Water freezing and ice melting

    DOE PAGES

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, T S(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubicmore » ice↔liquid, with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.« less

  9. Molecular biology of freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Storey, Janet M

    2013-07-01

    Winter survival for many kinds of animals involves freeze tolerance, the ability to endure the conversion of about 65% of total body water into extracellular ice and the consequences that freezing imposes including interruption of vital processes (e.g., heartbeat and breathing), cell shrinkage, elevated osmolality, anoxia/ischemia, and potential physical damage from ice. Freeze-tolerant animals include various terrestrially hibernating amphibians and reptiles, many species of insects, and numerous other invertebrates inhabiting both terrestrial and intertidal environments. Well-known strategies of freezing survival include accumulation of low molecular mass carbohydrate cryoprotectants (e.g., glycerol), use of ice nucleating agents/proteins for controlled triggering of ice growth and of antifreeze proteins that inhibit ice recrystallization, and good tolerance of anoxia and dehydration. The present article focuses on more recent advances in our knowledge of the genes and proteins that support freeze tolerance and the metabolic regulatory mechanisms involved. Important roles have been identified for aquaporins and transmembrane channels that move cryoprotectants, heat shock proteins and other chaperones, antioxidant defenses, and metabolic rate depression. Genome and proteome screening has revealed many new potential targets that respond to freezing, in particular implicating cytoskeleton remodeling as a necessary facet of low temperature and/or cell volume adaptation. Key regulatory mechanisms include reversible phosphorylation control of metabolic enzymes and microRNA control of gene transcript expression. These help to remodel metabolism to preserve core functions while suppressing energy expensive metabolic activities such as the cell cycle. All of these advances are providing a much more complete picture of life in the frozen state. © 2013 American Physiological Society.

  10. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  11. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns.

    PubMed

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Hansen, Ryan R; Murphy, Kevin R; Nath, Saurabh; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, C Patrick

    2016-01-22

    In-plane frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from neighboring supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of ice bridges across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the separation between adjacent nucleation sites for supercooled condensate is properly controlled with chemical micropatterns prior to freezing, inter-droplet ice bridging can be slowed and even halted entirely. Since the edge-to-edge separation between adjacent supercooled droplets decreases with growth time, deliberately triggering an early freezing event to minimize the size of nascent condensation was also necessary. These findings reveal that inter-droplet frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and by temporally controlling the onset of freezing events.

  12. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; Nath, Saurabh; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In-plane frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from neighboring supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of ice bridges across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the separation between adjacent nucleation sites for supercooled condensate is properly controlled with chemical micropatterns prior to freezing, inter-droplet ice bridging can be slowed and even halted entirely. Since the edge-to-edge separation between adjacent supercooled droplets decreases with growth time, deliberately triggering an early freezing event to minimize the size of nascent condensation was also necessary. These findings reveal that inter-droplet frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and by temporally controlling the onset of freezing events. PMID:26796663

  13. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  14. Influence of the freezing method on the changes that occur in grape samples after frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Santesteban, Luis G; Miranda, Carlos; Royo, José B

    2013-09-01

    Sample freezing is frequently used in oenological laboratories as a compromise solution to increase the number of samples that can be analysed, despite the fact that some grape characteristics are known to change after frozen storage. However, freezing is usually performed using standard freezers, which provide a slow freezing. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether blast freezing would decrease the impact of standard freezing on grape composition. Grape quality parameters were assessed in fresh and in frozen stored samples that had been frozen using three different procedures: standard freezing and blast freezing using either a blast freezer or an ultra-freezer. The implications of frozen storage in grape samples reported in earlier research were observed for the three freezing methods evaluated. Although blast freezing improved repeatability for the most problematic parameters (tartaric acidity, TarA; total phenolics, TP), the improvement was not important from a practical point of view. However, TarA and TP were relatively repeatable among the three freezing procedures, which suggests that freezing had an effect on these parameters independently of the method used . According to our results, the salification potential of the must is probably implied in the changes observed for TarA, whereas for TP the precipitation of protoanthocyanins after association with cell wall material is hypothesized to cause the lack of repeatability between fresh and frozen grapes. Blast freezing would not imply a great improvement if implemented in oenological laboratories, at least for the parameters included in this study. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evidence of cyclical light/dark-regulated expression of freezing tolerance in young winter wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Daniel Z; Bellinger, Brian; Hiscox, William; Helms, Gregory L

    2018-01-01

    The ability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to develop freezing tolerance through cold acclimation is a complex rait that responds to many environmental cues including day length and temperature. A large part of the freezing tolerance is conditioned by the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene regulon. We investigated whether the level of freezing tolerance of 12 winter wheat lines varied throughout the day and night in plants grown under a constant low temperature and a 12-hour photoperiod. Freezing tolerance was significantly greater (P<0.0001) when exposure to subfreezing temperatures began at the midpoint of the light period, or the midpoint of the dark period, compared to the end of either period, with an average of 21.3% improvement in survival. Thus, freezing survival was related to the photoperiod, but cycled from low, to high, to low within each 12-hour light period and within each 12-hour dark period, indicating ultradian cyclic variation of freezing tolerance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of expression levels of CBF genes 14 and 15 indicated that expression of these two genes also varied cyclically, but essentially 180° out of phase with each other. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (1H-NMR) showed that the chemical composition of the wheat plants' cellular fluid varied diurnally, with consistent separation of the light and dark phases of growth. A compound identified as glutamine was consistently found in greater concentration in a strongly freezing-tolerant wheat line, compared to moderately and poorly freezing-tolerant lines. The glutamine also varied in ultradian fashion in the freezing-tolerant wheat line, consistent with the ultradian variation in freezing tolerance, but did not vary in the less-tolerant lines. These results suggest at least two distinct signaling pathways, one conditioning freezing tolerance in the light, and one conditioning freezing tolerance in the dark; both are at least partially under the control

  16. Freeze-out conditions in proton-proton collisions at the highest energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sabita; Mishra, Debadeepti; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2017-01-01

    The freeze-out conditions in proton-proton collisions at √{sNN}=200 , 900, and 7000 GeV have been extracted by fits to the mean hadron yields at midrapidity within the framework of the statistical model of an ideal gas of hadrons and resonances in the grand canonical ensemble. The variation of the extracted freeze-out thermal parameters and the goodness of the fits with √{sN N} are discussed. We find the extracted temperature and baryon chemical potential of the freeze-out surface to be similar in p +p and heavy-ion collisions. On the other hand, the thermal behavior of the strange hadrons is qualitatively different in p +p as compared to A +A collisions. We find an additional parameter accounting for nonequilibrium strangeness production is essential for describing the p +p data. This is in contrast to A +A where the nonequilibrium framework could be successfully replaced by a sequential and complete equilibrium model with an early freeze-out of the strange hadrons.

  17. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and... outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean and free from evidence of liquid egg. (e) Frozen egg...

  18. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and... outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean and free from evidence of liquid egg. (e) Frozen egg...

  19. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and... outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean and free from evidence of liquid egg. (e) Frozen egg...

  20. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and... outside of liquid egg containers shall be clean and free from evidence of liquid egg. (e) Frozen egg...

  1. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  2. Kinetic freeze-out conditions for the production of resonances, hadronic molecules, and light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungtae; Song, Taesoo; Lee, Su Houng

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the freeze-out conditions of a particle in an expanding system of interacting particles in order to understand the productions of resonances, hadronic molecules, and light nuclei in heavy-ion collisions. Applying the kinetic freeze-out condition with explicit hydrodynamic calculations for the expanding hadronic phase to the daughter particles of K* mesons, we find that the larger suppression of the yield ratio of K*/K at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) than at the Relativisitic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) compared to the expectations from the statistical hadronization model based on chemical freeze-out parameters reflects the lower kinetic freeze-out temperature at LHC than at RHIC. Furthermore, we point out that for the light nuclei or hadronic molecules that are bound, the freeze-out condition should be applied to the respective particle in the hadronic matter. It is then shown through the rate equation that when the nucleon and pion numbers are kept constant at the chemical freeze-out value during the hadronic phase, the deuteron number quickly approaches an asymptotic value that is close to the statistical model prediction at the chemical freeze-out point. We argue that the reduction seen in K* numbers is a typical result for a particle that has a large natural decay width decaying into daughter particles, while that for deuteron is typical for a stable hadronic bound state.

  3. 9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing facilities. 590.534 Section 590.534 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the...

  4. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing operations. 590.536 Section 590.536 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and...

  5. Early chemical enrichment of the Galactic dwarf satellites from a homogeneous and NLTE abundance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Jablonka, Pascale; Sitnova, Tatyana; Pakhomov, Yuri; North, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    We review recent abundance results for very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo comparison sample that were obtained based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets, homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters, and the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for 10 chemical species. A remarkable gain of using such an approach is the reduction, compared to a simple compilation of the literature data, of the spread in abundance ratios at given metallicity within each galaxy and from one to the other. We show that all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] \\simeq 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. In our classical dSphs, we observe the dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr at the earliest evolution stages of these galaxies. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≈ -1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≈ -1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] < -2, is the strongest.

  6. Gene Expression Patterns during the Early Stages of Chemically Induced Larval Metamorphosis and Settlement of the Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Motti, Cherie A.; Tebben, Jan; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA) and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI) were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT–qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement. PMID:24632854

  7. The principles of ultrasound and its application in freezing related processes of food materials: A review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinfeng; Zhang, Min; Xu, Baoguo; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing is a novel and promising technology in food industry. The propagation of ultrasound in a medium generates various physical and chemical effects and these effects have been harnessed to improve the efficiency of various food processing operations. Ultrasound has also been used in food quality control as diagnostic technology. This article provides an overview of recent developments related to the application of ultrasound in low temperature and closely related processes such as freezing, thawing, freeze concentration and freeze drying. The applications of high intensity ultrasound to improve the efficiency of freezing process, to control the size and size distribution of ice crystals and to improve the quality of frozen foods have been discussed in considerable detail. The use of low intensity ultrasound in monitoring the ice content and to monitor the progress of freezing process has also been highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  9. Anhydrobiosis and freezing-tolerance: adaptations that facilitate the establishment of Panagrolaimus nematodes in polar habitats.

    PubMed

    McGill, Lorraine M; Shannon, Adam J; Pisani, Davide; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David A; Burnell, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent "ecological fitting

  10. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance: Adaptations That Facilitate the Establishment of Panagrolaimus Nematodes in Polar Habitats

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Lorraine M.; Shannon, Adam J.; Pisani, Davide; Félix, Marie-Anne; Ramløv, Hans; Dix, Ilona; Wharton, David A.; Burnell, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode isolated from Ross Island Antarctica, can survive intracellular ice formation when fully hydrated. A capacity to survive freezing while fully hydrated has also been observed in some other Antarctic nematodes. We experimentally determined the anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerance phenotypes of 24 Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We show that P. davidi belongs to a clade of anhydrobiotic and freezing-tolerant panagrolaimids containing strains from temperate and continental regions and that P. superbus, an early colonizer at Surtsey island, Iceland after its volcanic formation, is closely related to a species from Pennsylvania, USA. Ancestral state reconstructions show that anhydrobiosis evolved deep in the phylogeny of Panagrolaimus. The early-diverging Panagrolaimus lineages are strongly anhydrobiotic but weakly freezing-tolerant, suggesting that freezing tolerance is most likely a derived trait. The common ancestors of the davidi and the superbus clades were anhydrobiotic and also possessed robust freezing tolerance, along with a capacity to inhibit the growth and recrystallization of ice crystals. Unlike other endemic Antarctic nematodes, the life history traits of P. davidi do not show evidence of an evolved response to polar conditions. Thus we suggest that the colonization of Antarctica by P. davidi and of Surtsey by P. superbus may be examples of recent “ecological fitting

  11. Freeze chromatography method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-04-16

    A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

  12. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  13. Freezing induces a loss of freeze tolerance in an overwintering insect.

    PubMed

    Brown, C L; Bale, J S; Walters, K F A

    2004-07-22

    Cold-hardy insects overwinter by one of two main strategies: freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance by supercooling. As a general model, many freeze-tolerant species overwinter in extreme climates, freeze above -10 degrees C via induction by ice-nucleating agents, and once frozen, can survive at temperatures of up to 40 degrees C or more below the initial freezing temperature or supercooling point (SCP). It has been assumed that the SCP of freeze-tolerant insects is unaffected by the freezing process and that the freeze-tolerant state is therefore retained in winter though successive freeze-thaw cycles of the body tissues and fluids. Studies on the freeze-tolerant larva of the hoverfly Syrphus ribesii reveal this assumption to be untrue. When a sample with a mean 'first freeze' SCP of -7.6 degrees C (range of -5 degrees C to -9.5 degrees C) were cooled, either to -10 degrees C or to their individual SCP, on five occasions, the mean SCP was significantly depressed, with some larvae subsequently freezing as low as -28 degrees C. Only larvae that froze at the same consistently high temperature above -10 degrees C were alive after being frozen five times. The wider occurrence of this phenomenon would require a fundamental reassessment of the dynamics and distinctions of the freeze-tolerant and freeze-avoiding strategies of insect overwintering. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  14. The early stages of massive star formation: tracing the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcutt, Hannah

    2015-04-01

    Molecules are essential to the formation of stars, by allowing radiation to escape the cloud and cooling to occur. Over 180 molecules have been detected in interstellar environments, ranging from comets to interstellar clouds. Their spectra are useful probes of the conditions in which these molecules form. Comparison of rest frequencies to observed frequencies can provide information about the velocity of gas and indicate physical structures. The density, temperature, and excitation conditions of gas can be determined directly from the spectra of molecules. Furthermore, by taking a chemical inventory of a particular object, one can gain an understanding of the chemical processes occurring within a cloud. The class of molecules known as complex molecules (>6 atoms), are of particular interest when probing the conditions in massive starforming environments, as they are observed to trace a more compact region than smaller molecules. This thesis details the work of my PhD, to explore how complex molecules can be used to trace the physical and chemical conditions in hot cores (HCs), one of the earliest stages of massive star formation. This work combines both the observations and chemical modelling of several different massive star-forming regions. We identify molecular transitions observed in the spectra of these regions, and calculate column densities and rotation temperatures of these molecules (Chapters 2 and 3). In Chapter 4, we chemically model the HCs, and perform a comparison between observational column densities and chemical modelling column densities. In Chapter 5, we look at the abundance ratio of three isomers, acetic acid, glycolaldehyde, and methyl formate, to ascertain whether this ratio can be used as an indicator of HC evolution. Finally, we explore the chemistry of the HC IRAS 17233-3606, to identify emission features in the spectra, and determine column densities and rotation temperatures of the detected molecules.

  15. Freezing Injury in Onion Bulb Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Jiwan P.; Levitt, Jacob; Stadelmann, Eduard J.

    1977-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were subjected for 12 days to either a moderate freeze (−4 C) or a severe freeze (−11 C). They were then thawed slowly over ice. During 7 to 12 days following the thaw, the injury progressed with time in the severely frozen bulbs, but appeared completely repaired in the moderately frozen bulbs. This was shown by the following post-thawing changes. Infiltration of the intercellular spaces increased from 80 to 90% to 100% after the severe freeze, and decreased from 30 to 50% to zero after the moderate freeze. All of the cells were alive immediately after thawing whether the freeze was moderate or severe. Corresponding to the infiltration results 7 to 12 days later, many to most were dead following the severe freeze, all were alive following the moderate freeze. The conductivity of the effusate from pieces of bulb tissue increased after the severe freezing, and decreased after the moderate freezing. The concentration of K+, total solutes, and sugars in the effusate paralleled the conductivity changes. Neither the pH of the effusate nor the permeability of the cells (as long as cells were living) to water was changed following either the severe or the moderate freezes. Some treatments of the thawed tissue following the severe freeze halted the progress of injury. The above results indicate that the semipermeable properties of the cell are uninjured but that the ion and sugar transport mechanism is damaged by freezing. Most likely the primary injury is to the active transport mechanism involved in their transport. It must be concluded that the final injury following freezing and thawing cannot be evaluated from the degree of infiltration or the conductivity of the effusate immediately after thawing, since injury may progress or recede following the thawing. PMID:16660101

  16. Detrital and early chemical remanent magnetization in redbeds and their rock magnetic signature: Zicapa Formation, southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Rojas, Maria Isabel; Molina-Garza, Roberto Stanley

    2018-06-01

    Poles from continental redbeds are a large fraction of the world's palaeomagnetic database. Nonetheless, the time of acquisition and origin of the remanent magnetization of redbeds has been long debated. We report palaeomagnetic data, rock magnetic data and microscope observations for Lower Cretaceous redbeds in southern Mexico. These data allow us to discriminate between the hysteresis properties of remanent magnetizations of detrital and chemical origin, and to establish the early origin of a chemical remanence. Red sandstones of the Zicapa Formation contain a multicomponent remanence revealed by thermal demagnetization, and consisting of three stable components with partially overlapping laboratory unblocking temperatures of <250 °C, ˜300 to ˜500 °C and >600 °C, (low, intermediate and high temperature, respectively). They are interpreted as a viscous remanence residing in detrital magnetite, a chemical remanence residing in authigenic hematite and a depositional remanence residing in detrital hematite, respectively. The low-temperature component is nearly parallel to the recent dipole field. The tilt-corrected overall site means of the intermediate (chemical) and high temperature (depositional) components are indistinguishable (Dec = 282.0°, Inc = 12.4°, k = 13.33, α95 = 10.1°, N = 17, for the intermediate temperature; and Dec = 272.5°, Inc = 16.5°, k = 14.04, α95 = 11, N = 14, for the high temperature). Elongation/inclination analysis suggests that depositional and chemical components require applying an f = factor of approximately 0.4. Both of these components define a magnetic polarity zonation, but the polarity of the chemical and detrital components may or may not be the same. The chemical remanence coincides, more often than not, with the polarity of the depositional remanence of the overlying (younger) strata, suggesting a delay in remanence acquisition of tens to a few hundred ka for the chemical component. Pigmentary and detrital haematite

  17. Quantum mechanical model for the anticarcinogenic effect of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields on early chemical hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, Juan José; Torres-Vega, Gabino; López-Riquelme, Germán Octavio; López-Sandoval, Eduardo; Samana, Arturo Rodolfo; García Velasco, Fermín; Hernández-Aguilar, Claudia; Domínguez-Pacheco, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    Using the conventional Haberkorn approach, it is evaluated the recombination of the radical pair (RP) singlet spin state to study theoretically the cytoprotective effect of an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early stages of hepatic cancer chemically induced in rats. The proposal is that ELF-EMF modulates the interconversion rate of singlet and triplet spin states of the RP populations modifying the products from the metabolization of carcinogens. Previously, we found that the daily treatment with ELF-EMF 120 Hz inhibited the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in chemical carcinogenesis. The singlet spin population is evaluated diagonalizing the spin density matrix through the Lanczos method in a radical pair mechanism (RPM). Using four values of the interchange energy, we have studied the variations over the singlet population. The low magnetic field effect as a test of the influence over the enzymatic chemical reaction is evaluated calculating the quantum yield. Through a bootstrap technique the range is found for the singlet decay rate for the process. Applying the quantum measurements concept, we addressed the impact toward hepatic cells. The result contributes to improving our understanding of the chemical carcinogenesis process affected by charged particles that damage the DNA.

  18. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratorys studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F), and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex) to early life stages of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in hard and soft water. Regardless of water type, swim-up fry and juveniles (60 and 90 d posthatch) exhibited similar sensitivities to each chemical and these life stages were more sensitive than eyed eggs. Foam suppressants were more toxic to each life stage than the fire retardants in both water types. The descending rank order of toxicity for these chemicals tested with swim-up fry and juveniles (range of 96-h median lethal concentrations [LC50s]) was Phos-Chek WD-881 (7–13 mg/L) > Ansul Silv-Ex (11–22 mg/L) > Phos-Chek D75-F (218–305 mg/L) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (218–412 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (685–1,195 mg/L). Water type had a minor effect on the toxicity of these chemicals. Comparison of acute toxicity values with recommended application concentrations indicates that accidental inputs of these chemicals into stream environments would require substantial dilution (237- to 1,429-fold) to reach concentrations equivalent to their 96-h LC50s.

  19. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose response relationships need to be determined in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this stud...

  20. Early History of the Concept of Chemical Transmission of the Nerve Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Horace W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the research efforts of scientists involved in discovering chemical transmission of the nerve impulse. The work includes that of J.N. Langley, George Oliver, Edward A. Schafer, Reid Hunt, Henry Dale, Henry Wellcome, Otto Loewi, and others. The discovery and the importance of both acetylcholine and adrenaline are also discussed. (84…

  1. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (CBEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  3. PROPOSED WATER QUALITY SURVEILLANCE NETWORK USING PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS (BEWS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Homeland Protection Act of 2002 specifically calls for the investigation and use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) for water security reasons. The EWS is a screening tool for detecting changes in source water and distribution system water quality. A suite of time-relevant biol...

  4. Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 μM, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Contact Freezing of Water by Salts.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Joseph; Cantrell, Will

    2015-09-03

    Water is unlikely to crystallize homogeneously at temperatures greater than -34 °C. Freezing at higher temperatures is heterogeneous-catalyzed by the presence of a second substance. If that substance is at an air-water interface, then the mode is called contact freezing, and it typically will trigger nucleation at a higher temperature than if the substance were wholly immersed within the liquid. We find that the impact of salt particles initiates freezing in experiments using water droplets at supercoolings of 9 to 16 °C. These results show that contact freezing nuclei need not be effective as immersion mode nuclei. We discuss our results in the context of proposed mechanisms of contact freezing. Finally, we use the time scales for diffusion of heat and of ions and the propagation of a sound wave through the droplet to estimate that contact freezing occurs within 10 ns of impact.

  6. Freeze injury to southern pine seedlings

    David B. South

    2006-01-01

    Freeze injury to roots and shoots of pines is affected by genotype and nursery practices. Local sources of shortleaf pine and Virginia pine that are grown in nurseries in USDA hardiness Zones 6 and 7a are relatively freeze tolerant. However, loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine seedlings have been injured by a number of freeze events (0 to 24 °F) in hardiness...

  7. Representative Values of Icing-Related Variables Aloft in Freezing Rain and Freezing Drizzle

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-03-01

    Radiosonde and surface observations in freezing rain (ZR) and freezing drizzle (ZL), and a limited number of aircraft measurements in ZR, have been examined for information on the magnitude and altitude dependence of meteorological variables associat...

  8. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  9. The effects of early diagenesis on the chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of wood

    Spiker, E. C.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of modern and ancient buried wood show that there is a linear correlation between carbohydrate content and the stable carbon isotope composition as carbohydrates are preferentially degraded during early diagenesis. As the carbohydrate content decreases, the ??13C value of the degraded wood decreases 1 to 2 per mil, approaching the value of the residual lignin. These results indicate that carbohydrate degradation products are lost and not incorporated into the aromatic structure as lignin is selectively preserved during early diagenesis of wood. These results also indicate that attempts to quantify terrestrial inputs to modern sedimentary organic matter based on ??13C values should consider the possibility of a 1 to 2 per mil decrease in the ??13C value of degraded wood. ?? 1987.

  10. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  11. The role of the 5f valence orbitals of early actinides in chemical bonding

    PubMed Central

    Vitova, T.; Pidchenko, I.; Fellhauer, D.; Bagus, P. S.; Joly, Y.; Pruessmann, T.; Bahl, S.; Gonzalez-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.

    2017-01-01

    One of the long standing debates in actinide chemistry is the level of localization and participation of the actinide 5f valence orbitals in covalent bonds across the actinide series. Here we illuminate the role of the 5f valence orbitals of uranium, neptunium and plutonium in chemical bonding using advanced spectroscopies: actinide M4,5 HR-XANES and 3d4f RIXS. Results reveal that the 5f orbitals are active in the chemical bonding for uranium and neptunium, shown by significant variations in the level of their localization evidenced in the spectra. In contrast, the 5f orbitals of plutonium appear localized and surprisingly insensitive to different bonding environments. We envisage that this report of using relative energy differences between the 5fδ/ϕ and 5fπ*/5fσ* orbitals as a qualitative measure of overlap-driven actinyl bond covalency will spark activity, and extend to numerous applications of RIXS and HR-XANES to gain new insights into the electronic structures of the actinide elements. PMID:28681848

  12. The role of the 5f valence orbitals of early actinides in chemical bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitova, T.; Pidchenko, I.; Fellhauer, D.; Bagus, P. S.; Joly, Y.; Pruessmann, T.; Bahl, S.; Gonzalez-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.

    2017-07-01

    One of the long standing debates in actinide chemistry is the level of localization and participation of the actinide 5f valence orbitals in covalent bonds across the actinide series. Here we illuminate the role of the 5f valence orbitals of uranium, neptunium and plutonium in chemical bonding using advanced spectroscopies: actinide M4,5 HR-XANES and 3d4f RIXS. Results reveal that the 5f orbitals are active in the chemical bonding for uranium and neptunium, shown by significant variations in the level of their localization evidenced in the spectra. In contrast, the 5f orbitals of plutonium appear localized and surprisingly insensitive to different bonding environments. We envisage that this report of using relative energy differences between the 5fδ/φ and 5fπ*/5fσ* orbitals as a qualitative measure of overlap-driven actinyl bond covalency will spark activity, and extend to numerous applications of RIXS and HR-XANES to gain new insights into the electronic structures of the actinide elements.

  13. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    PubMed

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  14. The impact of home freezing on the sensory characteristics of ready-to-use leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Koushki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Fariba Seyed; Moslemy, Masoumeh

    2011-02-01

    Owing to the increasing trend of consumption of ready-to-use leafy vegetables, the necessity of determining the best conditions for their frozen storage and the considerable impact of freezing on their sensory attributes, research was carried out to determine the best freezing temperature and storage time for a mixture of Allium ampeloprasum, Lepidium sativum and Stureia hortensis. The results for freezing temperature at three different storage times showed that colour and overall acceptability at - 18 °C were always ranked first (P < 0.05), while taste at - 18 °C was ranked first on days 120 and 150. The results for frozen storage time at three different temperatures indicated that colour, taste and acceptability were not significantly different. Overall, the results of this research indicated that the sensory attributes of leafy vegetables during 180 days of frozen storage were affected mainly by freezing temperature rather than frozen storage time. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Probing the chemical environments of early star formation: A multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Emily Elizabeth

    Chemical compositions of prestellar and protostellar environments in the dense interstellar medium are best quantified using a multidisciplinary approach. For my dissertation, I completed two projects to measure molecular abundances during the earliest phases of star formation. The first project investigates gas phase CO depletion in molecular cloud cores, the progenitors of star systems, using infrared photometry and molecular line spectroscopy at radio wavelengths. Hydrogenation of CO depleted onto dust is an important first step toward building complex organic molecules. The second project constrains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances toward young stellar objects (YSO). Band strengths measured from laboratory spectroscopy of pyrene/water ice mixtures were applied to estimate abundances from features attributed to PAHs in observational YSO spectra. PAHs represent a distinct but important component of interstellar organic material that is widely observed but not well quantified in star-forming regions.

  16. Microphysical Modelling of the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter. 3; Impact of Homogeneous Freezing on PSCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Simulations of the 1999-2000 winter have tested the effect on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of the homogeneous freezing of liquid ternary solutions into nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD). Proposed laboratory-derived volume-based and surface-based homogeneous freezing rates have both been examined, including different assumptions about the extrapolation of laboratory measurements to atmospheric conditions. Widespread PSC formation and denitrification are possible in several of the scenarios examined. However, the simulations are all unable to explain the solid-phase PSCs observed early in the 1999-2000 winter, and are unable to reproduce the measured extent of vortex denitrification. These problems can both be attributed to the relatively cold temperatures, more than 5 K below the NAT condensation point, necessary for effective homogeneous freezing. Therefore synoptic-scale homogeneous freezing appears unlikely to be the primary mechanism responsible for solid-phase PSC formation.

  17. Freeze-Thaw Cycles and Soil Biogeochemistry: Implications for Greenhouse Gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Milojevic, T.; Oh, D. H.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2016-12-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles represent a major natural climate forcing acting on soils at middle and high latitudes. Repeated freezing and thawing of soils changes their physical properties, geochemistry, and microbial community structure, which together govern the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. In this presentation, we focus on how freeze-thaw cycles regulate carbon and nitrogen cycling and how these transformations influence greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We present a novel approach, which combines the acquisition of physical and chemical data in a newly developed experimental soil column system. This system simulates realistic soil temperature profiles during freeze-thaw cycles. A high-resolution, Multi-Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensor technique was used to detect oxygen (O2) continuously in the column at multiple depths. Surface and subsurface changes to gas and aqueous phase chemistry were measured to delineate the pathways and quantify soil respiration rates during freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicate that the time-dependent release of GHG from the soil surface is influenced by a combination of two key factors. Firstly, fluctuations in temperature and O2 availability affect soil biogeochemical activity and GHG production. Secondly, the recurrent development of a physical ice barrier prevents exchange of gaseous compounds between the soil and atmosphere during freezing conditions; removal of this barrier during thaw conditions increases GHG fluxes. During freezing, O2 levels in the unsaturated zone decreased due to restricted gas exchange with the atmosphere. As the soil thawed, O2 penetrated deeper into the soil enhancing the aerobic mineralization of organic carbon and nitrogen. Additionally, with the onset of thawing a pulse of gas flux occurred, which is attributed to the build-up of respiratory gases in the pore space during freezing. The latter implies enhanced anaerobic respiration as O2 supply ceases when the upper soil layer freezes.

  18. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2016-01-01

    Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature–pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system. PMID:27530064

  19. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  20. Freezing during tapping tasks in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc; Tard, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait also experience sudden motor blocks (freezing) during other repetitive motor tasks. We assessed the proportion of patients with advanced PD and freezing of gait who also displayed segmental "freezing" in tapping tasks. Fifteen Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait were assessed. Freezing of gait was evaluated using a standardized gait trajectory with the usual triggers. Patients performed repetitive tapping movements (as described in the MDS-UPDRS task) with the hands or the feet in the presence or absence of a metronome set to 4 Hz. Movements were recorded with a video motion system. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of segmental freezing in these tapping tasks. The secondary endpoints were (i) the relationship between segmental episodic phenomena and FoG severity, and (ii) the reliability of the measurements. For the upper limbs, freezing was observed more frequently with a metronome (21% of trials) than without a metronome (5%). For the lower limbs, the incidence of freezing was higher than for the upper limbs, and was again observed more frequently in the presence of an auditory cue (47%) than in its absence (14%). Although freezing of the lower limbs was easily assessed during an MDS-UPDRS task with a metronome, it was not correlated with the severity of freezing of gait (as evaluated during a standardized gait trajectory). Only this latter was a reliable measurement in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

  1. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  2. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - II. Coupled Dust and chemical evolution in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2017-08-01

    We present the next step in a series of papers devoted to connecting the composition of the atmospheres of forming planets with the chemistry of their natal evolving protoplanetary discs. The model presented here computes the coupled chemical and dust evolution of the disc and the formation of three planets per disc model. Our three canonical planet traps produce a Jupiter near 1 AU, a Hot Jupiter and a Super-Earth. We study the dependence of the final orbital radius, mass, and atmospheric chemistry of planets forming in disc models with initial disc masses that vary by 0.02 M⊙ above and below our fiducial model (M_{disc,0} = 0.1 M_{⊙}). We compute C/O and C/N for the atmospheres formed in our three models and find that C/Oplanet ˜ C/O_{disc}, which does not vary strongly between different planets formed in our model. The nitrogen content of atmospheres can vary in planets that grow in different disc models. These differences are related to the formation history of the planet, the time and location that the planet accretes its atmosphere, and are encoded in the bulk abundance of NH3. These results suggest that future observations of atmospheric NH3 and an estimation of the planetary C/O and C/N can inform the formation history of particular planetary systems.

  3. Exploring the Early Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way with LAMOST and Subaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Zhao, Gang; Suda, Takuma; Christlieb, Norbert

    Extremely Metal-Poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] < -3.0) provide fundamental evidence on the nucleosynthesis and enrichment of the first stars and supernovae. LAMOST will observe 6 million Galactic stars through a 5-year spectroscopic survey, and thus provide an unprecedented chance to enlarge the EMP star sample. In 2014, a joint project on EMP stars was initiated with the LAMOST survey and Subaru follow-up observation. So far, more than 70 EMP stars have been found and confirmed, including identifications of a number of chemically interesting objects: three UMP (ultra metal-poor) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection; a super Li-rich (A(Li) = +3) EMP giant, which is the most extreme example of Li enhancement in red giants known to date; a few EMP stars showing extreme enhancements in neutron-capture elements. Statistics of a large sample of EMP stars will constrain formation of the Milky Way halo.

  4. Early time evolution of negative ion clouds and electron density depletions produced during electron attachment chemical release experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the early time evolution of electron depletions and negative ion clouds produced during electron attachment chemical releases in the ionosphere. The simulation model considers the evolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and a three-species plasma that contains electrons, positive ions, and also heavy negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attachment reaction. The early time evolution (less than the negative ion cyclotron period) of the system shows that a negative charge surplus initially develops outside of the depletion boundary as the heavy negative ions move across the boundary. The electrons are initially restricted from moving into the depletion due to the magnetic field. An inhomogenous electric field develops across the boundary layer due to this charge separation. A highly sheared electron flow velocity develops in the depletion boundary due to E x B and Delta-N x B drifts that result from electron density gradients and this inhomogenous electric field. Structure eventually develops in the depletion boundary layer due to low-frequency electrostatic waves that have growth times shorter than the negative ion cyclotron period. It is proposed that these waves are most likely produced by the electron-ion hybrid instability that results from sufficiently large shears in the electron flow velocity.

  5. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing.

    PubMed

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing. Although these differences might have a critical impact on results obtained, almost no studies test validity of current methods. Here, we focused on the effect of freezing samples between collection and use in experiments involving body odor perception. In 2 experiments, we tested whether axillary odors were perceived differently by raters when presented fresh or having been frozen and whether several freeze-thaw cycles affected sample quality. In the first experiment, samples were frozen for 2 weeks, 1 month, or 4 months. We found no differences in ratings of pleasantness, attractiveness, or masculinity between fresh and frozen samples. Similarly, almost no differences between repeatedly thawed and fresh samples were found. We found some variations in intensity; however, this was unrelated to length of storage. The second experiment tested differences between fresh samples and those frozen for 6 months. Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods.

  6. Cancer prevention with freeze-dried berries and berry components.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Gary D; Wang, Li-Shu; Zikri, Nancy; Chen, Tong; Hecht, Stephen S; Huang, Chuanshu; Sardo, Christine; Lechner, John F

    2007-10-01

    Our laboratory is developing a food-based approach to the prevention of esophageal and colon cancer utilizing freeze-dried berries and berry extracts. Dietary freeze-dried berries were shown to inhibit chemically induced cancer of the rodent esophagus by 30-60% and of the colon by up to 80%. The berries are effective at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of tumor development. Berries inhibit tumor initiation events by influencing carcinogen metabolism, resulting in reduced levels of carcinogen-induced DNA damage. They inhibit promotion/progression events by reducing the growth rate of pre-malignant cells, promoting apoptosis, reducing parameters of tissue inflammation and inhibiting angiogenesis. On a molecular level, berries modulate the expression of genes involved with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. We have recently initiated clinical trials; results from a toxicity study indicated that freeze-dried black raspberries are well tolerated in humans when administered orally for 7 days at a dose of 45 g per day. Several Phase IIa clinical trials are underway in patients at high risk for esophagus and colon cancer; i.e., Barrett's esophagus, esophageal dysplasia and colonic polyps, to determine if berries will modulate various histological and molecular biomarkers of development of these diseases.

  7. Cancer Prevention with Freeze-dried Berries and Berry Components

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Gary D.; Wang, Li-Shu; Zikri, Nancy; Chen, Tong; S. Hecht, Stephen; Huang, Chuanshu; Sardo, Christine; Lechner, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Our laboratory is developing a food-based approach to the prevention of esophageal and colon cancer utilizing freeze-dried berries and berry extracts. Dietary freeze-dried berries were shown to inhibit chemically-induced cancer of the rodent esophagus by 30-60% and of the colon by up- to 80%. The berries are effective at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of tumor development. Berries inhibit tumor initiation events by influencing carcinogen metabolism, resulting in reduced levels of carcinogen-induced DNA damage. They inhibit promotion/progression events by reducing the growth rate of premalignant cells, promoting apoptosis, reducing parameters of tissue inflammation and inhibiting angiogenesis. On a molecular level, berries modulate the expression of genes involved with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. We have recently initiated clinical trials; results from a toxicity study indicated that freeze-dried black raspberries are well tolerated in humans when administered orally for 7 days at a dose of 45 grams per day. Several Phase IIa clinical trials are underway in patients at high risk for esophagus and colon cancer; i.e., Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal dysplasia and colonic polyps, to determine if berries will modulate various histological and molecular biomarkers of development of these diseases. PMID:17574861

  8. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness.

    PubMed

    Grayson, A L; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n = 35 each) were obtained from U.S. Select carcasses classified at the grading stand by the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center visible and near-infrared spectroscopy tenderness system to have predicted slice shear force greater than 16.5 kg at 14 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem, 2.54 cm thick steaks were cut from each muscle and assigned to 1 of the following treatments: 2 d fresh (2FRESH), 2 d freeze + thaw (2FREEZE), 2 d freeze + thaw + 12 d age (2FREEZE+12AGE), 14 d fresh (14FRESH), 14 d freeze + thaw (14FREEZE), 14 d freeze + thaw + 14 d age (14FREEZE+14AGE), and 28 d fresh (28FRESH). Steaks assigned to a freezing treatment were frozen at -26°C for 30 d before thawing/cooking or thawing with an additional aging period at 2°C. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P < 0.01) for 2FREEZE (27.4 and 24.5 kg) and 14FREEZE (22.4 and 22.4 kg) compared to 2FRESH (33.0 and 29.2 kg) and 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg), respectively. Slice shear force for LL and ST was lower (P < 0.01) for 2FREEZE+12AGE (17.8 and 20.8 kg) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (14.6 and 19.0 kg) compared to 14FRESH (25.3 and 25.5 kg) and 28FRESH (18.7 and 21.7 kg), respectively. Desmin degradation for LL was not different (P > 0.05) between 2FREEZE (21.0%) and 2FRESH (14.6%) or between 14FREEZE (40.4%) and 14FRESH (38.4%); however, desmin degradation was higher (P < 0.06) in 2FREEZE+12AGE (46.7%) and 14FREEZE+14AGE (71.1%) when compared to 14FRESH (38.4%) and 28FRESH (60.5%), respectively. Cooking loss for LL was higher (P < 0.01) in 2FREEZE+12AGE (15.2%) compared to 14FRESH (14.0%) but was not different (P > 0.05) between 14FREEZE+14AGE (15.0%) and 28FRESH (14.3%). Freezing and thawing or a combination of freezing, thawing

  9. On the Origin of the Canonical Nucleobases: An Assessment of Selection Pressures across Chemical and Early Biological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Andro C.

    2014-01-01

    The native bases of RNA and DNA are prominent examples of the narrow selection of organic molecules upon which life is based. How did nature “decide” upon these specific heterocycles? Evidence suggests that many types of heterocycles could have been present on the early Earth. It is therefore likely that the contemporary composition of nucleobases is a result of multiple selection pressures that operated during early chemical and biological evolution. The persistence of the fittest heterocycles in the prebiotic environment towards, for example, hydrolytic and photochemical assaults, may have given some nucleobases a selective advantage for incorporation into the first informational polymers. The prebiotic formation of polymeric nucleic acids employing the native bases remains, however, a challenging problem to reconcile. Hypotheses have proposed that the emerging RNA world may have included many types of nucleobases. This is supported by the extensive utilization of non-canonical nucleobases in extant RNA and the resemblance of many of the modified bases to heterocycles generated in simulated prebiotic chemistry experiments. Selection pressures in the RNA world could have therefore narrowed the composition of the nucleic acid bases. Two such selection pressures may have been related to genetic fidelity and duplex stability. Considering these possible selection criteria, the native bases along with other related heterocycles seem to exhibit a certain level of fitness. We end by discussing the strength of the N-glycosidic bond as a potential fitness parameter in the early DNA world, which may have played a part in the refinement of the alphabetic bases. PMID:25284884

  10. Freezing of gait in PD: prospective assessment in the DATATOP cohort.

    PubMed

    Giladi, N; McDermott, M P; Fahn, S; Przedborski, S; Jankovic, J; Stern, M; Tanner, C

    2001-06-26

    To study the development of freezing of gait in PD. Freezing of gait is a common, disabling, and poorly understood symptom in PD. The authors analyzed data from 800 patients with early PD from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) clinical trial who were assigned either placebo, deprenyl, tocopherol, or the combination of deprenyl and tocopherol. The primary outcome measure was the time from randomization until the freezing of gait score on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) became positive. Fifty-seven patients (7.1%) had freezing of gait at study entry and 193 (26%) of the remaining patients experienced the symptom by the end of the follow-up period. Those with freezing of gait at baseline had significantly more advanced disease than those without the symptom, as measured by total UPDRS and Hoehn and Yahr stage. High baseline risk factors for developing freezing of gait during the follow-up period were the onset of PD with a gait disorder; higher scores of rigidity, postural instability, bradykinesia and speech; and longer disease duration. In contrast, tremor was strongly associated with a decreased risk for freezing of gait. At the end of follow-up, the signs most strongly associated with the freezing phenomenon were gait, balance, and speech disorders, not rigidity or bradykinesia. Deprenyl treatment was strongly associated with a decreased risk for developing freezing of gait; tocopherol had no effect. Freezing of gait is directly related to duration of PD. Risk factors at onset of disease are the absence of tremor and PD beginning as a gait disorder. The development of freezing of gait in the course of the illness is strongly associated with the development of balance and speech problems, less so with the worsening of bradykinesia, and is not associated with the progression of rigidity. These results support the concept that the freezing phenomenon is distinct from bradykinesia. Deprenyl, in the absence

  11. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  12. Hatchling turtles survive freezing during winter hibernation.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, K B; Storey, J M; Brooks, S P; Churchill, T A; Brooks, R J

    1988-01-01

    Hatchlings of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata) are unique as the only reptile and highest vertebrate life form known to tolerate the natural freezing of extracellular body fluids during winter hibernation. Turtles survived frequent exposures to temperatures as low as -6 degrees C to -8 degrees C in their shallow terrestrial nests over the 1987-1988 winter. Hatchlings collected in April 1988 had a mean supercooling point of -3.28 +/- 0.24 degrees C and survived 24 hr of freezing at -4 degrees C with 53.4% +/- 1.98% of total body water as ice. Recovery appeared complete after 20 hr of thawing at 3 degrees C. However, freezing at -10.9 degrees C, resulting in 67% ice, was lethal. A survey of possible cryoprotectants revealed a 2- to 3-fold increase in glucose content of liver and blood and a 3-fold increase in blood glycerol in response to freezing. Although quantitatively low, these responses by spring turtles strongly indicate that these may be the winter-active cryoprotectants. The total amino acid pool of blood also increased 2.25-fold in freezing-exposed turtles, and taurine accounted for 52% of the increase. Most organs accumulated high concentrations of lactate during freezing, a response to the ischemic state imposed by extracellular freezing. Changes in glycogen phosphorylase activity and levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were also consistent with a dependence on anaerobic glycolysis during freezing. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of natural freeze tolerance in these turtles may identify protective strategies that can be used in mammalian organ cryopreservation technology. PMID:3186730

  13. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm < Lc < 6 mm) using carefully designed freezing experiments in a temperature-controlled, zero-humidity environment on thin water slabs. To probe the effect of surface wettability, we investigated the total time for room temperature water to completely freeze into ice on superhydrophilic ( θaapp→ 0°), hydrophilic (0° < θa < 90°), hydrophobic (90° < θa < 125°), and superhydrophobic ( θaapp→ 180°) surfaces. Our results show that at macroscopic length scales, heat conduction through the bulk water/ice layer dominates the freezing process when compared to heat conduction through the functional coatings or nanoscale gaps at the superhydrophobic substrate-water/ice interface. In order to verify our findings, and to determine when the surface structure thermal resistance approaches the water/ice resistance, we fabricated and tested the additional substrates coated with commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  14. Freeze-dried spermatozoa: A future tool?

    PubMed

    Olaciregui, M; Gil, L

    2017-04-01

    Cryopreservation has been routinely used to preserve sperm of human and different animal species. However, frozen sperm storage for a long time brings many inconveniences because of liquid nitrogen. Many attempts have been made to overcome the disadvantages of the current cryopreservation method. Freeze-drying has been proposed as alternative method for sperm preservation to achieve the ability to store sperm doses indefinitely at ambient temperature or in ordinary refrigerators. At present, it has been reported successfully sperm freeze-drying on many animal species including canine and feline. It is well known that during freeze-drying process, sperm DNA could be damaged, but if suitable protection is provided, the sperm nucleus could preserve the ability to activate the oocyte and embryos could be generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Many factors influence the freeze-drying efficacy, so current researches have been conducted to find strategies to control these factors to maintain the sperm DNA integrity. This review describes the latest method of sperm freeze-drying for practical application in preserving and transporting genetic resources. In addition, the approaches to improve the efficiency of the technique were studied. We demonstrated that the DNA integrity of freeze-dried dog sperm is affected by the composition of the freeze-drying solution as well as the temperature and period of storage. Further studies are necessary to refine freeze-drying protocol in order to protect the DNA and maintain the sperm functionality and obtain offspring from freeze-dried sperm. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 2: an extended fish early-life stage test with an androgenic chemical in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rinus; De Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Van Gils, Mariëlle; Baltussen, Erik; Hargreaves, Adam; van de Waart, Beppy; De Roode, Daphne; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka

    2006-11-16

    The Endocrine Modulators Study Group (EMSG) of the European Chemical Industry has proposed an extended fish early-life stage (ELS) test based on OECD test guideline 210 in combination with a fish pair-breeding reproduction study as a possible alternative for fish full life cycle testing. In this paper the androgen methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) was tested in an extended ELS test with fathead minnow supplementary to such a test with the weak estrogen 4-tert-pentylphenol (4TPP). Main endpoints were secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) induction and gonadal development. Early blastula embryos were exposed to 0, 0.10, 0.32 and 1.0 microgMDHTl(-1) for up to 114 days post-hatch (dph). A batch of fish exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) was transferred to clean water after 30 or 63 dph for the remainder of the study. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) was included as estrogenic reference substance at 0.01 microg l(-1). Exposure to MDHT had no significant effect on hatching success or survival, but significantly increased the condition factor of fish exposed for 63 and 114 dph (up to 150% of the control). At 63 dph MDHT exposure induced appearance of tubercles on the snout (a male SSC) of more than 80% of fish. Compared to the controls, plasma VTG was not detectable or significantly lower in fish exposed to MDHT at 0.10 microg/l, but not significantly affected at higher MDHT concentrations. Both lower levels of MDHT significantly inhibited the development of female gonads as of 30 dph. Fish exposed to MDHT at 0.32 and 1.0 microg l(-1) showed higher incidences of mixed sex gonads (10-25%) and smaller testes or dysplasia of gonadal tissue. Dysplasia was present in 80% of the fish continuously exposed to 1.0 microg l(-1) up to 114 dph, but reversible when fish were transferred to dilution water. Results indicate that suppression of ovarian development was the most sensitive endpoint for MDHT exposure after 30 dph. Other endpoints (e.g., growth and SSC) required

  16. The Use of High Pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions in Fungal Diseases of Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mims, C. W.; Celio, Gail J.; Richardson, Elizabeth A.

    2003-12-01

    This article reports on the use of high pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution (HPF/FS) to study ultrastructural details of host pathogen interactions in fungal diseases of plants. The specific host pathogen systems discussed here include a powdery mildew infection of poinsettia and rust infections of daylily and Indian strawberry. The three pathogens considered here all attack the leaves of their hosts and produce specialized hyphal branches known as haustoria that invade individual host cells without killing them. We found that HPF/FS provided excellent preservation of both haustoria and host cells for all three host pathogen systems. Preservation of fungal and host cell membranes was particularly good and greatly facilitated the detailed study of host pathogen interfaces. In some instances, HPF/FS provided information that was not available in samples prepared for study using conventional chemical fixation. On the other hand, we did encounter various problems associated with the use of HPF/FS. Examples included freeze damage of samples, inconsistency of fixation in different samples, separation of plant cell cytoplasm from cell walls, breakage of cell walls and membranes, and splitting of thin sections. However, we believe that the outstanding preservation of ultrastructural details afforded by HPF/FS significantly outweighs these problems and we highly recommend the use of this fixation protocol for future studies of fungal host-plant interactions.

  17. Freeze-In dark matter with displaced signatures at colliders

    SciT

    Co, Raymond T.; D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.

    2015-12-01

    Dark matter, X, may be generated by new physics at the TeV scale during an early matter-dominated (MD) era that ends at temperature T{sub R} || TeV. Compared to the conventional radiation-dominated (RD) results, yields from both Freeze-Out and Freeze-In processes are greatly suppressed by dilution from entropy production, making Freeze-Out less plausible while allowing successful Freeze-In with a much larger coupling strength. Freeze-In is typically dominated by the decay of a particle B of the thermal bath, B → X. For a large fraction of the relevant cosmological parameter space, the decay rate required to produce the observed dark matter abundance leadsmore » to displaced signals at LHC and future colliders, for any m{sub X} in the range keV  < m{sub X} < m{sub B} and for values of m{sub B} accessible to these colliders. This result applies whether the early MD era arises after conventional inflation, when T{sub R} is the usual reheat temperature, or is a generic MD era with an alternative origin. In the former case, if m{sub X} is sufficiently large to be measured from kinematics, the reheat temperature T{sub R} can be extracted. Our result is independent of the particular particle physics implementation of B → X, and can occur via any operator of dimension less than 8 (4) for a post-inflation (general MD) cosmology. An interesting example is provided by DFS axion theories with TeV-scale supersymmetry and axino dark matter of mass GeV to TeV, which is typically overproduced in a conventional RD cosmology. If B is the higgsino, h-tilde , Higgs, W and Z particles appear at the displaced decays, h-tilde  →  h-tilde  a, Z ã and h-tilde {sup ±} → W{sup ±} ã. The scale of axion physics, f, is predicted to be in the range (3×10{sup 8}—10{sup 12}) GeV and, over much of this range, can be extracted from the decay length.« less

  18. Evaluation of spin freezing versus conventional freezing as part of a continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, L; Van Bockstal, P-J; Corver, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T

    2015-12-30

    Spin-freezing as alternative freezing approach was evaluated as part of an innovative continuous pharmaceutical freeze-drying concept for unit doses. The aim of this paper was to compare the sublimation rate of spin-frozen vials versus traditionally frozen vials in a batch freeze-dryer, and its impact on total drying time. Five different formulations, each having a different dry cake resistance, were tested. After freezing, the traditionally frozen vials were placed on the shelves while the spin-frozen vials were placed in aluminum vial holders providing radial energy supply during drying. Different primary drying conditions and chamber pressures were evaluated. After 2h of primary drying, the amount of sublimed ice was determined in each vial. Each formulation was monitored in-line using NIR spectroscopy during drying to determine the sublimation endpoint and the influence of drying conditions upon total drying time. For all tested formulations and applied freeze-drying conditions, there was a significant higher sublimation rate in the spin-frozen vials. This can be explained by the larger product surface and the lower importance of product resistance because of the much thinner product layers in the spin frozen vials. The in-line NIR measurements allowed evaluating the influence of applied drying conditions on the drying trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The interaction between freezing tolerance and phenology in temperate deciduous trees

    PubMed Central

    Vitasse, Yann; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Temperate climates are defined by distinct temperature seasonality with large and often unpredictable weather during any of the four seasons. To thrive in such climates, trees have to withstand a cold winter and the stochastic occurrence of freeze events during any time of the year. The physiological mechanisms trees adopt to escape, avoid, and tolerate freezing temperatures include a cold acclimation in autumn, a dormancy period during winter (leafless in deciduous trees), and the maintenance of a certain freezing tolerance during dehardening in early spring. The change from one phase to the next is mediated by complex interactions between temperature and photoperiod. This review aims at providing an overview of the interplay between phenology of leaves and species-specific freezing resistance. First, we address the long-term evolutionary responses that enabled temperate trees to tolerate certain low temperature extremes. We provide evidence that short term acclimation of freezing resistance plays a crucial role both in dormant and active buds, including re-acclimation to cold conditions following warm spells. This ability declines to almost zero during leaf emergence. Second, we show that the risk that native temperate trees encounter freeze injuries is low and is confined to spring and underline that this risk might be altered by climate warming depending on species-specific phenological responses to environmental cues. PMID:25346748

  20. Lipophilic components of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, enhance freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rayirath, Prasanth; Benkel, Bernhard; Mark Hodges, D; Allan-Wojtas, Paula; Mackinnon, Shawna; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2009-06-01

    Extracts of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum enhance plant tolerance against environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and frost. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this improved stress tolerance and the nature of the bioactive compounds present in the seaweed extracts that elicits stress tolerance remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of A. nodosum extracts and its organic sub-fractions on freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ascophyllum nodosum extracts and its lipophilic fraction significantly increased tolerance to freezing temperatures in in vitro and in vivo assays. Untreated plants exhibited severe chlorosis, tissue damage, and failed to recover from freezing treatments while the extract-treated plants recovered from freezing temperature of -7.5 degrees C in in vitro and -5.5 degrees C in in vivo assays. Electrolyte leakage measurements revealed that the LT(50) value was lowered by 3 degrees C while cell viability staining demonstrated a 30-40% reduction in area of damaged tissue in extract treated plants as compared to water controls. Moreover, histological observations of leaf sections revealed that extracts have a significant effect on maintaining membrane integrity during freezing stress. Treated plants exhibited 70% less chlorophyll damage during freezing recovery as compared to the controls, and this correlated with reduced expression of the chlorphyllase genes AtCHL1 and AtCHL2. Further, the A. nodosum extract treatment modulated the expression of the cold response genes, COR15A, RD29A, and CBF3, resulting in enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. More than 2.6-fold increase in expression of RD29A, 1.8-fold increase of CBF3 and two-fold increase in the transcript level of COR15A was observed in plants treated with lipophilic fraction of A. nodosum at -2 degrees C. Taken together, the results suggest that chemical components in A. nodosum extracts protect membrane integrity and affect the expression of

  1. Transcriptional and metabolomic analysis of Ascophyllum nodosum mediated freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that lipophilic components (LPC) of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE) improved freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the mechanism(s) of this induced freezing stress tolerance is largely unknown. Here, we investigated LPC induced changes in the transcriptome and metabolome of A. thaliana undergoing freezing stress. Results Gene expression studies revealed that the accumulation of proline was mediated by an increase in the expression of the proline synthesis genes P5CS1 and P5CS2 and a marginal reduction in the expression of the proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) gene. Moreover, LPC application significantly increased the concentration of total soluble sugars in the cytosol in response to freezing stress. Arabidopsis sfr4 mutant plants, defective in the accumulation of free sugars, treated with LPC, exhibited freezing sensitivity similar to that of untreated controls. The 1H NMR metabolite profile of LPC-treated Arabidopsis plants exposed to freezing stress revealed a spectrum dominated by chemical shifts (δ) representing soluble sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids and lipophilic components like fatty acids, as compared to control plants. Additionally, 2D NMR spectra suggested an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids in LPC treated plants under freezing stress. These results were supported by global transcriptome analysis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that LPC treatment altered the expression of 1113 genes (5%) in comparison with untreated plants. A total of 463 genes (2%) were up regulated while 650 genes (3%) were down regulated. Conclusion Taken together, the results of the experiments presented in this paper provide evidence to support LPC mediated freezing tolerance enhancement through a combination of the priming of plants for the increased accumulation of osmoprotectants and alteration of cellular fatty acid composition. PMID:23171218

  2. The importance of heat flow direction for reproducible and homogeneous freezing of bulk protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Balzan, Gustavo; Rosa, Mónica; Gomes, Diana; de Azevedo, Edmundo G; Singh, Satish K; Matos, Henrique A; Geraldes, Vítor

    2013-01-01

    Freezing is an important operation in biotherapeutics industry. However, water crystallization in solution, containing electrolytes, sugars and proteins, is difficult to control and usually leads to substantial spatial solute heterogeneity. Herein, we address the influence of the geometry of freezing direction (axial or radial) on the heterogeneity of the frozen matrix, in terms of local concentration of solutes and thermal history. Solutions of hemoglobin were frozen radially and axially using small-scale and pilot-scale freezing systems. Concentration of hemoglobin, sucrose and pH values were measured by ice-core sampling and temperature profiles were measured at several locations. The results showed that natural convection is the major source for the cryoconcentration heterogeneity of solutes over the geometry of the container. A significant improvement in this spatial heterogeneity was observed when the freezing geometry was nonconvective, i.e., the freezing front progression was unidirectional from bottom to top. Using this geometry, less than 10% variation in solutes concentration was obtained throughout the frozen solutions. This result was reproducible, even when the volume was increased by two orders of magnitude (from 30 mL to 3 L). The temperature profiles obtained for the nonconvective freezing geometry were predicted using a relatively simple computational fluid dynamics model. The reproducible solutes distribution, predictable temperature profiles, and scalability demonstrate that the bottom to top freezing geometry enables an extended control over the freezing process. This geometry has therefore shown the potential to contribute to a better understanding and control of the risks inherent to frozen storage. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  4. Enzymatic Regulation of Glycogenolysis in a Subarctic Population of the Wood Frog: Implications for Extreme Freeze Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, M. Clara F.; Lee, Richard E.; Costanzo, Jon P.

    2013-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at –16°C, a temperature 10–13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA). In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold) increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype’s exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate. PMID:24236105

  5. A comparison of freezing-damage during isochoric and isobaric freezing of the potato.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Chenang; Nastase, Gabriel; Ukpai, Gideon; Serban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Freezing is commonly used for food preservation. It is usually done under constant atmospheric pressure (isobaric). While extending the life of the produce, isobaric freezing has detrimental effects. It causes loss of food weight and changes in food quality. Using thermodynamic analysis, we have developed a theoretical model of the process of freezing in a constant volume system (isochoric). The mathematical model suggests that the detrimental effects associated with isobaric freezing may be reduced in an isochoric freezing system. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a preliminary study on the isochoric freezing of a produce with which our group has experience, the potato. Experiments were performed in an isochoric freezing device we designed. The device is robust and has no moving parts. For comparison, we used a geometrically identical isobaric freezing device. Following freezing and thawing, the samples were weighed, examined with colorimetry, and examined with microscopy. It was found that potatoes frozen to -5 °C in an isochoric system experienced no weight loss and limited enzymatic browning. In contrast the -5 °C isobaric frozen potato experienced substantial weight loss and substantial enzymatic browning. Microscopic analysis shows that the structural integrity of the potato is maintained after freezing in the isochoric system and impaired after freezing in the isobaric system. Tissue damage during isobaric freezing is caused by the increase in extracellular osmolality and the mechanical damage by ice crystals. Our thermodynamic analysis predicts that during isochoric freezing the intracellular osmolality remains comparable to the extracellular osmolality and that isochoric systems can be designed to eliminate the mechanical damage by ice. The results of this preliminary study seem to confirm the theoretical predictions. This is a preliminary exploratory study on isochoric freezing of food. We have shown that the quality of a food product preserved

  6. A comparison of freezing-damage during isochoric and isobaric freezing of the potato

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Background Freezing is commonly used for food preservation. It is usually done under constant atmospheric pressure (isobaric). While extending the life of the produce, isobaric freezing has detrimental effects. It causes loss of food weight and changes in food quality. Using thermodynamic analysis, we have developed a theoretical model of the process of freezing in a constant volume system (isochoric). The mathematical model suggests that the detrimental effects associated with isobaric freezing may be reduced in an isochoric freezing system. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a preliminary study on the isochoric freezing of a produce with which our group has experience, the potato. Method Experiments were performed in an isochoric freezing device we designed. The device is robust and has no moving parts. For comparison, we used a geometrically identical isobaric freezing device. Following freezing and thawing, the samples were weighed, examined with colorimetry, and examined with microscopy. Results It was found that potatoes frozen to −5 °C in an isochoric system experienced no weight loss and limited enzymatic browning. In contrast the −5 °C isobaric frozen potato experienced substantial weight loss and substantial enzymatic browning. Microscopic analysis shows that the structural integrity of the potato is maintained after freezing in the isochoric system and impaired after freezing in the isobaric system. Discussion Tissue damage during isobaric freezing is caused by the increase in extracellular osmolality and the mechanical damage by ice crystals. Our thermodynamic analysis predicts that during isochoric freezing the intracellular osmolality remains comparable to the extracellular osmolality and that isochoric systems can be designed to eliminate the mechanical damage by ice. The results of this preliminary study seem to confirm the theoretical predictions. Conclusion This is a preliminary exploratory study on isochoric freezing of food. We have

  7. Size-resolved aerosol chemical analysis of extreme haze pollution events during early 2013 in urban Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shili; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Yuesi

    2014-08-30

    Using size-resolved filter sampling and chemical characterization, high concentrations of water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species and heavy metals were found in both fine (PM2.1) and coarse (PM2.1-9) particles in Beijing during haze events in early 2013. Even on clear days, average mass concentration of submicron particles (PM1.1) was several times higher than that previously measured in most of abroad urban areas. A high concentration of particulate matter on haze days weakens the incident solar radiation, which reduces the generation rate of secondary organic carbon in PM1.1. We show that the peak mass concentration of particles shifted from 0.43-0.65μm on clear days to 0.65-1.1μm on lightly polluted days and to 1.1-2.1μm on heavily polluted days. The peak shifts were also found for the following species: organic carbon, elemental carbon, NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), K, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Our findings demonstrate that secondary inorganic aerosols (36%) and organic matter (26%) dominated the fine particle mass on heavily polluted days, while their contribution reduced to 29% and 18%, respectively, on clear days. Besides fine particles, anthropogenic chemical species also substantially accumulated in the coarse mode, which suggests that particles with aerodynamic diameter larger than 2.1μm cannot be neglected during severe haze events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of freezing in simple systems

    SciT

    Cerjan, C.; Bagchi, B.

    The transition parameters for the freezing of two one-component liquids into crystalline solids are evaluated by two theoretical approaches. The first system considered is liquid sodium which crystallizes into a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice; the second system is the freezing of adhesive hard spheres into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Two related theoretical techniques are used in this evaluation: One is based upon a recently developed bifurcation analysis; the other is based upon the theory of freezing developed by Ramakrishnan and Yussouff. For liquid sodium, where experimental information is available, the predictions of the two theories agree well with experiment and eachmore » other. The adhesive-hard-sphere system, which displays a triple point and can be used to fit some liquids accurately, shows a temperature dependence of the freezing parameters which is similar to Lennard-Jones systems. At very low temperature, the fractional density change on freezing shows a dramatic increase as a function of temperature indicating the importance of all the contributions due to the triplet direction correlation function. Also, we consider the freezing of a one-component liquid into a simple-cubic (sc) lattice by bifurcation analysis and show that this transition is highly unfavorable, independent of interatomic potential choice. The bifurcation diagrams for the three lattices considered are compared and found to be strikingly different. Finally, a new stability analysis of the bifurcation diagrams is presented.« less

  9. Pharmaceutical patent applications in freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Ekenlebie, Edmond; Einfalt, Tomaž; Karytinos, Arianna Irò; Ingham, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Injectable products are often the formulation of choice for new therapeutics; however, formulation in liquids often enhances degradation through hydrolysis. Thus, freeze-drying (lyophilization) is regularly used in pharmaceutical manufacture to reduce water activity. Here we examine its contribution to 'state of the art' and look at its future potential uses. A comprehensive search of patent databases was conducted to characterize the international patent landscape and trends in the use of freeze-drying. A total of 914 disclosures related to freeze-drying, lyophilization or drying of solid systems in pressures and temperatures equivalent to those of freeze-drying were considered over the period of 1992-2014. Current applications of sublimation technology were contrasted across two periods those with patents due to expire (1992-1993) and those currently filed. The number of freeze-drying technology patents has stabilized after initial activity across the biotechnology sector in 2011 and 2012. Alongside an increasing trend for patent submissions, freeze-drying submissions have slowed since 2002 and is indicative of a level of maturity.

  10. Isochoric and isobaric freezing of fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Năstase, Gabriel; Lyu, Chenang; Ukpai, Gideon; Şerban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-04-01

    We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to -4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to -4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality. Therefore, cells in the isochoric frozen organism do not dehydrate, and the tissue maintains its morphological integrity. Comparing the histology of: a) fresh fish white muscle, b) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C in an isobaric system and c) fresh muscle frozen to -5 °C I in an isochoric system, we find convincing evidence of the mechanism of cell dehydration during isobaric freezing. In contrast, the muscle tissue frozen to -5 °C in an isochoric system appears morphologically identical to fresh tissue, with no evidence of dehydration. This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that in isochoric freezing there is no cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular and cellular effects of chemicals disrupting steroidogenesis during early ovarian development of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).

    PubMed

    a Marca Pereira, M L; Eppler, E; Thorpe, K L; Wheeler, J R; Burkhardt-Holm, P

    2014-02-01

    A range of chemicals found in the aquatic environment have the potential to influence endocrine function and affect sexual development by mimicking or antagonizing the effects of hormones, or by altering the synthesis and metabolism of hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effects of chemicals interfering with sex hormone synthesis may affect the regulation of early ovarian development via the modulation of sex steroid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems. To this end, ex vivo ovary cultures of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were exposed for 2 days to either 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD, a specific aromatase inhibitor), prochloraz (an imidazole fungicide), or tributyltin (TBT, a persistent organic pollutant). Further, juvenile female brown trout were exposed in vivo for 2 days to prochloraz or TBT. The ex vivo and in vivo ovarian gene expression of the aromatase (CYP19), responsible for estrogen production, and of IGF1 and 2 were compared. Moreover, 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) production from ex vivo ovary cultures was assessed. Ex vivo exposure to ATD inhibited ovarian E2 synthesis, while T levels accumulated. However, ATD did not affect ex vivo expression of cyp19, igf1, or igf2. Ex vivo exposure to prochloraz inhibited ovarian E2 production, but did not affect T levels. Further prochloraz up-regulated igf1 expression in both ex vivo and in vivo exposures. TBT exposure did not modify ex vivo synthesis of either E2 or T. However, in vivo exposure to TBT down-regulated igf2 expression. The results indicate that ovarian inhibition of E2 production in juvenile brown trout might not directly affect cyp19 and igf gene expression. Thus, we suggest that the test chemicals may interfere with both sex steroid and IGF systems in an independent manner, and based on published literature, potentially lead to endocrine dysfunction and altered sexual development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley

  12. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  13. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sean; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Péroux, Celine

    2016-10-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyα (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than DLA absorbers at redshifts 0 < z < 3. It has also been suggested that DLA metallicity drops suddenly at z > 4.7. However, only three DLAs at z > 4.5 and no sub-DLAs at z > 3.5 have “dust-free” metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first quasar sub-DLA metallicity measurement at z > 3.5, from detections of undepleted elements in high-resolution data for a sub-DLA at z = 5.0. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyα forest. This absorber is metal-poor, with [O/H] = -2.00 ± 0.12, which is ≳4σ below the level expected from extrapolation of the trend for z < 3.5 sub-DLAs. The C/O ratio is {1.8}-0.3+0.4 times lower than in the Sun. More strikingly, Si/O is {3.2}-0.5+0.6 times lower than in the Sun, whereas Si/Fe is nearly (1.2{}-0.3+0.4 times) solar. This absorber does not display a clear alpha/Fe enhancement. Dust depletion may have removed more Si from the gas phase than is common in the Milky Way interstellar medium, which may be expected if high-redshift supernovae form more silicate-rich dust. C/O and Si/O vary substantially between different velocity components, indicating spatial variations in dust depletion and/or early stellar nucleosynthesis (e.g., population III star initial mass function). The higher velocity gas may trace an outflow enriched by early stars. Based on observations obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions from QCD thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bazavov, A; Ding, H-T; Hegde, P; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, F; Laermann, E; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Smith, D; Soeldner, W; Wagner, M

    2012-11-09

    We present a determination of freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions based on ratios of cumulants of net electric charge fluctuations. These ratios can reliably be calculated in lattice QCD for a wide range of chemical potential values by using a next-to-leading order Taylor series expansion around the limit of vanishing baryon, electric charge and strangeness chemical potentials. From a computation of up to fourth order cumulants and charge correlations we first determine the strangeness and electric charge chemical potentials that characterize freeze-out conditions in a heavy ion collision and confirm that in the temperature range 150 MeV ≤ T ≤ 170 MeV the hadron resonance gas model provides good approximations for these parameters that agree with QCD calculations on the 5%-15% level. We then show that a comparison of lattice QCD results for ratios of up to third order cumulants of electric charge fluctuations with experimental results allows us to extract the freeze-out baryon chemical potential and the freeze-out temperature.

  15. USE OF WHOLE BODY CHEMICAL RESIDUE ANALYSIS AND LASER SCREENING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during fish ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relat...

  16. Divergence in the transcriptional landscape between low temperature and freeze shock in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Low temperature stresses limit the sustainability and productivity of grapevines when early spring frosts damage young grapevine leaves. Spring conditions often expose grapevines to low, but not damaging, chilling temperatures and these temperatures have been shown to increase freeze resistance in o...

  17. Deposition Nucleation or Pore Condensation and Freezing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Robert O.; Mahrt, Fabian; Marcolli, Claudia; Fahrni, Jonas; Brühwiler, Dominik; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-04-01

    Ice nucleation plays an important role in moderating Earth's climate and precipitation formation. Over the last century of research, several mechanisms for the nucleation of ice have been identified. Of the known mechanisms for ice nucleation, only deposition nucleation occurs below water saturation. Deposition nucleation is defined as the formation of ice from supersaturated water vapor on an insoluble particle without the prior formation of liquid. However, recent work has found that the efficiency of so-called deposition nucleation shows a dependence on the homogeneous freezing temperature of water even though no liquid phase is presumed to be present. Additionally, the ability of certain particles to nucleate ice more efficiently after being pre-cooled (pre-activation) raises questions on the true mechanism when ice nucleation occurs below water saturation. In an attempt to explain the dependence of the efficiency of so-called deposition nucleation on the onset of homogeneous freezing of liquid water, pore condensation and freezing has been proposed. Pore condensation and freezing suggests that the liquid phase can exist under sub-saturated conditions with respect to liquid in narrow confinements or pores due to the inverse Kelvin effect. Once the liquid-phase condenses, it is capable of nucleating ice either homogeneously or heterogeneously. The role of pore condensation and freezing is assessed in the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber, a continuous flow diffusion chamber, using spherical nonporous and mesoporous silica particles. The mesoporous silica particles have a well-defined particle size range of 400 to 600nm with discreet pore sizes of 2.5, 2.8, 3.5 and 3.8nm. Experiments conducted between 218K and 238K show that so-called deposition nucleation only occurs below the homogenous freezing temperature of water and is highly dependent on the presence of pores and their size. The results strongly support pore condensation and freezing, questioning the role of

  18. Freeze Tolerance of Nine Zoysiagrass Cultivars Using Natural Cold Acclimation and Freeze Chambers

    Winter hardiness of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars is an important attribute throughout the biogeographical transition zone, thus the inability to withstand freezing temperatures may limit the use of these cultivars. The objective of this research was to determine the freeze tolerance (LT50) of...

  19. The equilibrated state of freezing as a basis for distinguishing lethal stresses of freezing in plants

    A model for coordination of stresses that limit winterhardiness in plants based on the thermodynamic equilibrated state of freezing and melting provides a rational basis for distinction of freeze-induced energies which can stress and injure living organisms in various ways. The departure from equili...

  20. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) steaks relative to aged, fresh steaks. Left-side LL and ST (n=35 each) ...

  1. The role of calcium and calmodulin in freezing-induced freezing resistance of Populus tomentosa cuttings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Lin, Yuan-Zhen; Zhang, Qian; Guo, Huan

    2004-02-01

    To explore the role of calcium-calmodulin messenger system in the transduction of low temperature signal in woody plants, Populus tomentosa cuttings after being treated with CaCl(2) (10 mmol/L), Ca(2+) chelator EGTA (3 mmol/L), Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl(3) (100 mmol/L) or CaM antagonist CPZ (50 mmol/L) were used for freezing acclimation at -3 degrees C. The changes in the calmodulin (CaM) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and Ca(2+)-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) of mitochondrial membrane as well as freezing resistance (expressed as LT(50)) of cuttings were investigated to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which trees adapt to freezing. The results showed that freezing acclimation increased the CaM content, the activities of SOD, POD and Ca(2+)-ATPase of mitochondrial membrane as well as freezing resistance of cuttings, and decreased the MDA content as compared with control cuttings. Treatment with CaCl(2) at the time of freezing acclimation enhanced the effect of freezing acclimation on the above-mentioned indexes, but this enhancement was abolished by Ca(2+)chelator EGTA, Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl(3) or CaM antagonist CPZ, indicating that the calcium-calmodulin messenger system was involved in the course of freezing resistance development. The presence of CaCl(2) at the same time of freezing acclimation also reduced the degree of decline in CaM content, and in SOD, POD and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities caused by freezing stress at -14 degrees C, and enhanced the level of increase in CaM content, and in SOD, POD and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in the recovery periods at 25 degrees C . The change in CaM content was found to be closely correlated to the levels of SOD, POD and Ca(2+)-ATPase, and to the degree of freezing resistance of cuttings during freezing acclimation either with or without CaCl(2) treatment. It was suggested that the increase of CaM content induced by CaCl(2

  2. New aspects of boar semen freezing strategies.

    PubMed

    Grossfeld, R; Sieg, B; Struckmann, C; Frenzel, A; Maxwell, W M C; Rath, D

    2008-11-01

    Although cryopreserved boar semen has been available since 1975, a major breakthrough in commercial application has not yet occurred. There is ongoing research to improve sperm survival after thawing, to limit the damage occurring to spermatozoa during freezing, and to further minimize the number of spermatozoa needed to establish a pregnancy. Boar spermatozoa are exposed to lipid peroxidation during freezing and thawing, which causes damage to the sperm membranes and impairs energy metabolism. The addition of antioxidants or chelating agents (e.g. catalase, vitamin E, glutathione, butylated hydroxytoluene or superoxide dismutase) to the still standard egg-yolk based cooling and freezing media for boar semen, effectively prevented this damage. In general, final glycerol concentrations of 2-3% in the freezing media, cooling rates of -30 to -50 degrees C/min, and thawing rates of 1200-1800 degrees C/min resulted in the best sperm survival. However, cooling and thawing rates individually optimized for sub-standard freezing boars have substantially improved their sperm quality after cryopreservation. With deep intrauterine insemination, the sperm dose has been decreased from 6 to 1x10(9) spermatozoa without compromising farrowing rate or litter size. Minimizing insemination-to-ovulation intervals, based either on estimated or determined ovulation, have also improved the fertility after AI with cryopreserved boar semen. With this combination of different approaches, acceptable fertility with cryopreserved boar semen can be achieved, facilitating the use of cryopreserved boar semen in routine AI programs.

  3. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  4. SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Aids in Resilience to Salt and Drought in Freezing-Sensitive Tomato

    SciT

    Wang, Kun; Hersh, Hope Lynn; Benning, Christoph

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [M82 cv]). Hypersensitivity to salt and drought of SlSFR2-RNAi lines was observed. Higher tolerance ofmore » wild-type tomatoes was correlated with the production of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol, a product of SFR2 activity. Tomato SFR2 in vitro activity is Mg 2+-dependent and its optimal pH is 7.5, similar to that of Arabidopsis SFR2, but the specific activity of tomato SFR2 in vitro is almost double that of Arabidopsis SFR2. When salt and drought stress were applied to Arabidopsis, no conditions could be identified at which SFR2 was induced prior to irreversibly impacting plant growth, suggesting that SFR2 protects Arabidopsis primarily against freezing. Discovery of tomato SFR2 function in drought and salt resilience provides further insights into general membrane lipid remodeling-based stress tolerance mechanisms and together with protection against freezing in freezing-resistant plants such as Arabidopsis, it adds lipid remodeling as a possible target for the engineering of abiotic stress-resilient crops.« less

  5. SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Aids in Resilience to Salt and Drought in Freezing-Sensitive Tomato

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Kun; Hersh, Hope Lynn; Benning, Christoph

    2016-09-06

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [M82 cv]). Hypersensitivity to salt and drought of SlSFR2-RNAi lines was observed. Higher tolerance ofmore » wild-type tomatoes was correlated with the production of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol, a product of SFR2 activity. Tomato SFR2 in vitro activity is Mg 2+-dependent and its optimal pH is 7.5, similar to that of Arabidopsis SFR2, but the specific activity of tomato SFR2 in vitro is almost double that of Arabidopsis SFR2. When salt and drought stress were applied to Arabidopsis, no conditions could be identified at which SFR2 was induced prior to irreversibly impacting plant growth, suggesting that SFR2 protects Arabidopsis primarily against freezing. Discovery of tomato SFR2 function in drought and salt resilience provides further insights into general membrane lipid remodeling-based stress tolerance mechanisms and together with protection against freezing in freezing-resistant plants such as Arabidopsis, it adds lipid remodeling as a possible target for the engineering of abiotic stress-resilient crops.« less

  6. Role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in freezing-induced freezing resistance of Populus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Wen-Feng; Lin, Yuan-Zhen; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Bao-Qing

    2005-02-01

    To explore the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) in the enhancement of freezing resistance induced by freezing acclimation, G6PDH was purified from the leaves of 8-week-old Populus suaveolens cuttings. The G6PDH activity in the absence or the presence of reduced dithiothreitol (DTT(red)) were determined, and the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxides (POD) and cytosolic G6PDH activities, malondial-dehyde (MDA) content as well as freezing resistance (expressed as LT(50)) of P. suaveolens cuttings during freezing acclimation at -20 degrees C were investigated. The results showed that the purified G6PDH was probably located in the cytosol of P. suaveolens. Freezing acclimation increased the activities of SOD, POD and cytosolic G6PDH, and decreased the MDA content and LT(50) of cuttings, while 2 d of de-acclimation at 25 degrees C resulted in a decrease in SOD, POD and cytosolic G6PDH activities, and caused an increase in MDA content and LT(50). The change in cytosolic G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of SOD, POD and MDA, and to the degree of freezing resistance of cuttings during freezing acclimation. It is suggested that the enhancement of freezing resistance of cuttings induced by freezing acclimation is related to the distinct increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, which may be involved in the activation of SOD and POD, and the induction of freezing resistance of cuttings.

  7. Spectrophotometric versus NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for discriminating the impact of freezing.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nelson; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Ramos, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo As; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods, and thus the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (i.e. at 6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, with the samples being concomitantly assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), both mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR), aiming to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices. A decrease in phytochemical contents during freezing was observed, allowing the classification of samples according to the freezing period based on such variations. Also, MIR and NIR allowed discrimination of samples: the use of the first derivative demonstrated a better performance for this purpose, whereas the use of the normalized spectra gave the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance. Freezing of cowpea pods leads to a decrease of phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, whereas the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Polymerization of amino acids under high-pressure conditions: Implication to chemical evolution on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.; Ohara, S.; Ishiguro, T.; Abiko, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    2008-12-01

    Prebiotic polymerization of amino acids is the most fundamental reaction to promote the chemical evolution for origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids is the dehydration reaction. This questions as to if submarine hydrothermal conditions, thus hydrated enironments, were appropreate for peptide formations. Our previous experiments implied that non-aqueous and high-pressure environments (more than 20 MPa) would be suitable for polymerization of amino acids (Ohara et al., 2006). This leads to the hypothesis that the first peptides may have formed in the Hadean oceanic crustal environments, where dehydration proceeded with availability of appropriate temperatures and pressures. In the present study, experiments simulating the crustal conditions were performed with various pressures (1-175 MPa) and temperatures (100- 200 C degree) using autoclaves. Purified powders (100 mg) of alanine, glycine, valine and aspartic acid were used in the experiments without mixing water in order to examine the solid-solid reactions. The products were analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. Results indicate that: (1) longer time is required to form peptide compared to those of previous aqueous experiments; (2) pressure has a role to limit the production of melanoidine and cyclic amino acids, which are inhibitors for elongation of peptides; (3) glycine was polymerized up to 11-mer, which was not formed in any previous experiments without catalyses; (4) valine was polymerized up to 3-mer; and (5) aspartic acid was polymerized to 4-mer, accompanied with production of other amino acids. It is noteworthy that high-pressure environments favor all examined polymerization reactions. Such situations would have happened inside of deep oceanic crusts of the early Earth.

  9. The Role of Epigenetics in the Latent Effects of Early Life Exposure to Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Stel, Jente

    2015-01-01

    Recent research supports a role for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the global obesity epidemic. Obesogenic EDCs have the potential to inappropriately stimulate adipogenesis and fat storage, influence metabolism and energy balance and increase susceptibility to obesity. Developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs is proposed to interfere with epigenetic programming of gene regulation, partly by activation of nuclear receptors, thereby influencing the risk of obesity later in life. The goal of this minireview is to briefly describe the epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity and to evaluate the evidence of a mechanistic link between altered epigenetic gene regulation by early life EDC exposure and latent onset of obesity. We summarize the results of recent in vitro, in vivo, and transgenerational studies, which clearly show that the obesogenic effects of EDCs such as tributyltin, brominated diphenyl ether 47, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by the activation and associated altered methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, or its target genes. Importantly, studies are emerging that assess the effects of EDCs on the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in altered chromatin structure. These types of studies coupled with genome-wide rather than gene-specific analyses are needed to improve mechanistic understanding of epigenetic changes by EDC exposure. Current advances in the field of epigenomics have led to the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that can be detected at birth, providing an important basis to determine the effects of developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs in humans. PMID:26241072

  10. The Role of Epigenetics in the Latent Effects of Early Life Exposure to Obesogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Stel, Jente; Legler, Juliette

    2015-10-01

    Recent research supports a role for exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the global obesity epidemic. Obesogenic EDCs have the potential to inappropriately stimulate adipogenesis and fat storage, influence metabolism and energy balance and increase susceptibility to obesity. Developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs is proposed to interfere with epigenetic programming of gene regulation, partly by activation of nuclear receptors, thereby influencing the risk of obesity later in life. The goal of this minireview is to briefly describe the epigenetic mechanisms underlying developmental plasticity and to evaluate the evidence of a mechanistic link between altered epigenetic gene regulation by early life EDC exposure and latent onset of obesity. We summarize the results of recent in vitro, in vivo, and transgenerational studies, which clearly show that the obesogenic effects of EDCs such as tributyltin, brominated diphenyl ether 47, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by the activation and associated altered methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, or its target genes. Importantly, studies are emerging that assess the effects of EDCs on the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in altered chromatin structure. These types of studies coupled with genome-wide rather than gene-specific analyses are needed to improve mechanistic understanding of epigenetic changes by EDC exposure. Current advances in the field of epigenomics have led to the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that can be detected at birth, providing an important basis to determine the effects of developmental exposure to obesogenic EDCs in humans.

  11. Early Life Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Causes Lifelong Molecular Reprogramming of the Hypothalamus and Premature Reproductive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Zama, Aparna M.; Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Gestational exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor methoxychlor (MXC) disrupts the female reproductive system at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels in adulthood. The current study addressed whether perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors reprograms expression of a suite of genes expressed in the hypothalamus that control reproductive function and related these molecular changes to premature reproductive aging. Fischer rats were exposed daily for 12 consecutive days to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), estradiol benzoate (EB) (1 mg/kg), and MXC (low dose, 20 μg/kg or high dose, 100 mg/kg), beginning on embryonic d 19 through postnatal d 7. The perinatally exposed females were aged to 16–17 months and monitored for reproductive senescence. After euthanasia, hypothalamic regions [preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus] were dissected for real-time PCR of gene expression or pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation of the Esr1 gene. Using a 48-gene PCR platform, two genes (Kiss1 and Esr1) were significantly different in the POA of endocrine-disrupting chemical-exposed rats compared with vehicle-exposed rats after Bonferroni correction. Fifteen POA genes were up-regulated by at least 50% in EB or high-dose MXC compared with vehicle. To understand the epigenetic basis of the increased Esr1 gene expression, we performed bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of the Esr1 promoter. EB-treated rats had significantly higher percentage of methylation at three CpG sites in the Esr1 promoter compared with control rats. Together with these molecular effects, perinatal MXC and EB altered estrous cyclicity and advanced reproductive senescence. Thus, early life exposure to endocrine disruptors has lifelong effects on neuroendocrine gene expression and DNA methylation, together with causing the advancement of reproductive senescence. PMID:22016562

  12. Proton NMR study of extra Virgin Olive Oil with temperature: Freezing and melting kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Longo, Sveva; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2018-06-01

    The thermal properties of an extra Virgin Olive Oil (eVOO) depend on its composition and indeed characterize its quality. Many studies have shown that the freezing and melting behaviors of eVOOs can serve for geographical or chemical discrimination. We use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to study the evolution of the fatty acids bands as a function of temperature during freezing and melting processes. In such a way we can follow separately the variations in the thermal properties of the different molecular groups during these thermodynamic phase transitions. The data indicate that the methyl group which is at the end of every fatty chain displays the major changes during both freezing and melting processes.

  13. Effect of freezing on microstructure and degree of syneresis in differently formulated fruit fillings.

    PubMed

    Cropotova, Janna; Tylewicz, Urszula; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Laghi, Luca; Romani, Santina; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2016-03-15

    This study describes the syneresis and its effect on microstructure in fruit fillings within a wide range of the total soluble solids content and with or without hydrocolloids upon freezing. Linear models showed the relevance of the addition of pectin and gellan gum to fillings to prevent syneresis, increasing the water-holding capacity especially after freezing. Microstructural experiments by means of NMR spin-spin relaxometry combined with fluorescence microscopy allowed to observe that the continuous hydrocolloid gel, containing the dispersed solution of native fruit parts with the addition of inulin and sugars, changed its structure/distribution according to the amount of each ingredient and due to the freezing process. Relaxometry results confirmed that hydrocolloids strength was correlated (R(2)>0.92) with water-holding capacity, due to a relationship between the signal given by the water chemically exchanging with biopolymers, and the changes in the degree of syneresis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  15. Isochoric and isobaric freezing of fish muscle

    SciT

    Năstase, Gabriel; Department of Building Services, University of Transilvania, Braşov, Braşov, 500152; Lyu, Chenang

    We have recently shown that, a living organism, which succumbs to freezing to −4 °C in an isobaric thermodynamic system (constant atmospheric pressure), can survive freezing to −4 °C in an isochoric thermodynamic system (constant volume). It is known that the mechanism of cell damage in an isobaric system is the freezing caused increase in extracellular osmolality, and, the consequent cell dehydration. An explanation for the observed survival during isochoric freezing is the thermodynamic modeling supported hypothesis that, in the isochoric frozen solution the extracellular osmolality is comparable to the cell intracellular osmolality. Therefore, cells in the isochoric frozen organism do not dehydrate, andmore » the tissue maintains its morphological integrity. Comparing the histology of: a) fresh fish white muscle, b) fresh muscle frozen to −5 °C in an isobaric system and c) fresh muscle frozen to −5 °C I in an isochoric system, we find convincing evidence of the mechanism of cell dehydration during isobaric freezing. In contrast, the muscle tissue frozen to −5 °C in an isochoric system appears morphologically identical to fresh tissue, with no evidence of dehydration. This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that in isochoric freezing there is no cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact. - Highlights: • Preservation of fish muscle at, subfreezing temperatures, in an isochoric system, is demonstrated. • Experiments were performed to an average pressure of 41.3 MPa and temperatures of −5 °C. • Isochoric subfreezing temperature is a new preservation method that does not require the.use of cryoprotectants. • No cellular dehydration and therefore the morphology of the frozen tissue remains intact.« less

  16. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  17. Effects of freezing and thawing on texture, microstructure and cell wall composition changes in papaya tissues.

    PubMed

    Phothiset, Suphatta; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-01-30

    During storage, frozen fruit may be thawed and refrozen many times before consumption, which may be extremely damaging to the texture of the frozen fruit and reverse the advantage of fast freezing. The effects of freezing and thawing on texture, microstructure and cell wall composition changes in papaya tissues were investigated. The frozen-thawed papayas had an increase in drip loss and a decrease in firmness with increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles. Light microscopy showed irregular shapes and cell damage in parenchyma cells of frozen-thawed papayas, whereas transmission electron microscopy showed loss of cell wall materials in middle lamella. Moreover, destruction of cell wall was observed after being subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. These changes related with a significant decrease in alcohol-insoluble solids, Na₂CO₃- and 24% KOH-soluble fractions and an increase in the water-, EDTA- and 4% KOH-soluble fractions. This was due to a decrease in the molecular mass of pectic and hemicellulosic polymers in frozen-thawed papayas using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. The freezing and thawing processes caused fine structural damage and cell wall composition changes which contributed to a loss of drip volume and firmness of papaya tissues. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Biochemical, sensory and microbiological attributes of bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) during partial freezing and chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongling; Luo, Yongkang; You, Juan; Shen, Huixing; Hu, Sumei

    2012-01-15

    Bream is one of the main farmed freshwater fish species in China. This study aimed to examine the nucleotide degradation of bream during partial freezing and chilled storage and to assess the possible usefulness of nucleotide ratios (K, Ki, H, P, Fr and G values) as freshness indices in comparison with sensory assessment and total viable counts. Total viable counts were 5.74 and 4.66 log(colony-forming units g(-1)) on the day of sensory rejection under chilled storage and partial freezing storage respectively. The inosine 5-monophosphate decrease and inosine increase were faster in chilled storage than in partial freezing storage. Hypoxanthine levels increased continuously with time under both storage regimes. Among the nucleotide ratios, the K, Ki, P, G and Fr values were superior to the H value and provided useful freshness indicators for both storage conditions. Bream in chilled storage were sensorially acceptable only up to 10 days, compared with 33 days for bream in partial freezing storage. Partial freezing delayed the nucleotide degradation of bream. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. To freeze or not to freeze embryos: clarity, confusion and conflict.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mohar; Murdoch, Alison P; Haimes, Erica

    2015-06-01

    Although embryo freezing is a routine clinical practice, there is little contemporary evidence on how couples make the decision to freeze their surplus embryos, or of their perceptions during that time. This article describes a qualitative study of 16 couples who have had in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. The study question was 'What are the personal and social factors that patients consider when deciding whether to freeze embryos?' We show that while the desire for a baby is the dominant drive, couples' views revealed more nuanced and complex considerations in the decision-making process. It was clear that the desire to have a baby influenced couples' decision-making and that they saw freezing as 'part of the process'. However, there were confusions associated with the term 'freezing' related to concerns about the safety of the procedure. Despite being given written information, couples were confused about the practical aspects of embryo freezing, which suggests they were preoccupied with the immediate demands of IVF. Couples expressed ethical conflicts about freezing 'babies'. We hope the findings from this study will inform clinicians and assist them in providing support to couples confronted with this difficult decision-making.

  20. Unfrozen water migration in fully saturated sandstone during short-term freezing and thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hailiang; Yang, Gengshe; Tang, Liyun; Shen, Yanjun; Ye, Wanjun

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have gradually reached a consensus that ice segregation mechanism plays a dominant role in damaging rock in the case of long-term freezing, while volumetric expansion mechanism could lead to fatigue failure of rock after repeated frost action (usually short-term). In the latter regime, the outmost pore water is assumed to freeze in situ at early stage of freezing, consequently an inward water migration is driven by volumetric expansion, raising pore water pressure. In this study we test the above tenet through a real time monitoring of water migration in fully saturated sandstone via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method under a short term freeze-thaw regime. Water migration is delineated by measuring water content change in different layers of the sample. The whole test lasts for 12 hours, in the first 6 hours temperature changes from 10°C down to -30°C; then rises back to 10°C in the following 6 hours. NMR scanning is undertaken half-hourly. Our results indicate that: (1) in early stage of freezing, water content at the outmost zone does not reduce significantly, however water content at the core does, this unexpected change demonstrates an outward water migration; (2) water migration proceeds primarily within temperature range of -1°C— -4°C; (3) around 20% water keeps unfrozen at even -30°C, where no measurable water migration is observed; (4) in the thawing period, slightly reversed migration appears. Accordingly we come to the initial conclusion that the extensive assumption that volumetric expansion upon in situ freezing could drive inward water migration may be not authentic.

  1. The effect of freezing on reactions with environmental impact.

    PubMed

    O'Concubhair, Ruairí; Sodeau, John R

    2013-11-19

    The knowledge that the freezing process can accelerate certain chemical reactions has been available since the 1960s, particularly in relation to the food industry. However, investigations into such effects on environmentally relevant reactions have only been carried out since the late 1980s. Some 20 years later, the field has matured and scientists have conducted research into various important processes such as the oxidation of nitrite ions to nitrates, sulfites to sulfates, and elemental mercury to inorganic mercury. Field observations mainly carried out in the polar regions have driven this work. For example, researchers have found that both ozone and mercury are removed from the troposphere completely (and almost instantaneously) at the time of Arctic polar sunrise. The monitoring activities suggested that both the phenomena were caused by involvement of bromine (and possibly iodine) chemistry. Scientists investigating the production of interhalide products (bromine and iodine producing interhalides) in frozen aqueous solutions have found that these reactions result in both rate accelerations and unexpected products. Furthermore, these scientists did this research with environmentally relevant concentrations of reagents, thereby suggesting that these reactions could occur in the polar regions. The conversion of elemental mercury to more oxidized forms has also shown that the acceleration of reactions can occur when environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg(0) and oxidants are frozen together in aqueous solutions. These observations, coupled with previous investigations into the effect of freezing on environmental reactions, lead us to conclude that this type of chemistry could potentially play a significant role in the chemical processing of a wide variety of inorganic components in polar regions. More recently, researchers have recognized the implications of these complementary field and laboratory findings toward human health and climate change. In this

  2. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  3. Early cements versus pore-water chemical composition in the subsurface of the sabkha of Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andreas; Yuan, Peng; Court, Wesley M.; Lokier, Stephen W.; Dutton, Kirsten E.; Van der Land, Cees; Lessa Andrade, Luiza; Sherry, Angela; Head, Ian M.

    2017-04-01

    The coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi is a complex depositional system in an extremely arid climate. This depositional system is marked by the formation of primary carbonate and microbial deposits, and by the development of secondary evaporite and cement phases. A number of earlier studies have assessed the formation of these secondary phases, yet no research has established a relationship between lateral and vertical variations in the chemical composition of pore water and the nature of, in particular, the precipitating pore-filling cements, re-crystallisation features and dissolution. This study aims to establish an understanding of the environmental and sedimentary factors that control early post-depositional changes to sediment composition as a result of sediment - pore water interactions. A particular focus is to characterise changes in the chemistry of the pore water throughout a tidal cycle, aiming at understanding how the influx of 'fresh' lagoonal sea water influences the chemistry of the pore water, and which elements are replenished on a daily basis. The initial data presented here is based upon the relationship between the petrographic analysis of sediment samples and lateral and vertical variations in the chemistry of in-situ sampled pore water. The pore water is characterised with respect to pH, salinity, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and the concentrations of a variety of common metallic and non-metallic elements, including (but not limited to) Ca, Fe, Mg, P, S and Sr. Initial results show that concentrations of Mg, P, and V, and the ratios Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are highest at the seaward sampling locations. Contrastingly, individual concentrations for Ca, Sr, Fe, Si, and Cu are highest at the most landward locality. In particular the higher concentrations for Ca and Sr might indicate diagenetic processes and are thus enriched as a result of e.g. aragonite dissolution. A striking pattern in Mg concentrations show the highest values for this element

  4. Freeze-drying of yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A method is described that allows yeast species to be stored using a variation on the standard freeze-drying method, which employs evaporative cooling in a two-stage process. Yeast cultures are placed in glass ampoules after having been mixed with a lyoprotectant. Primary drying is carried out using a centrifuge head connected to a standard freeze-dryer. Once the centrifuge head is running, air is removed and evaporated liquid is captured in the freeze-dryer. Centrifugation continues for 15 min and primary drying for a further 3 h. The ampoules are constricted using a glass blowing torch. They are then placed on the freeze-dryer manifold for secondary drying under vacuum overnight, using phosphorus pentoxide as a desiccant. The ampoules are sealed and removed from the manifold by melting the constricted section. Although the process causes an initial large drop in viability, further losses after storage are minimal. Yeast strains have remained viable for more than 30 yr when stored using this method and sufficient cells are recovered to produce new working stocks. Although survival rates are strain specific, nearly all National Collection of Yeast Cultures strains covering most yeast genera, have been successfully stored with little or no detectable change in strain characteristics.

  5. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  6. Comparison of two freeze-thaw apparatus.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of rapid freezing and thawing tests conducted on machine A with results from machine B, which is intended to replace the aging machine A. Concrete samples were prepared to attain levels of resistan...

  7. Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

    In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100μm),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

  8. Device and method for determining freezing points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

  9. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  10. Freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C; Worland, M R; Bale, J S

    2010-08-01

    The process of organismal freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, is complicated by molluscan biology. Internal ice formation is, in particular, mediated by two factors: (a) the provision of an inoculative target for ice formation in the exposed mucus-secreting foot; and (b) osmoconformity to the marine environment. With regard to the first, direct observations of the independent freezing of pedal mucus support the hypothesis that internal ice formation is delayed by the mucal film. As to the second, ice nucleation parametrics of organismal tissue (head, midgut, gonad, foot) and mucus in both inter- and subtidal populations were characterized by high melting points (range=-4.61 to -6.29 degrees C), with only c.50% of a given sample osmotically active. At this stage it would be premature to ascribe a cryo-adaptive function to the mucus as the protective effects are more readily attributed to the physical properties of the secretion (i.e. viscosity) and their corresponding effects on the rate of heat transfer. As it is difficult to thermally distinguish between the freezing of mucus and the rest of the animal, the question as to whether it is tolerant of internal as well as external ice formation remains problematic, although it may be well suited to the osmotic stresses of organismal freezing. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of health risks resulting from early-life exposures: Are current chemical toxicity testing protocols and risk assessment methods adequate?

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Daston, George P; Euling, Susan Y; Piersma, Aldert H; Tassinari, Melissa S

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Over the last couple of decades, the awareness of the potential health impacts associated with early-life exposures has increased. Global regulatory approaches to chemical risk assessment are intended to be protective for the diverse human population including all life stages. However, questions persist as to whether the current testing approaches and risk assessment methodologies are adequately protective for infants and children. Here, we review physiological and developmental differences that may result in differential sensitivity associated with early-life exposures. It is clear that sensitivity to chemical exposures during early-life can be similar, higher, or lower than that of adults, and can change quickly within a short developmental timeframe. Moreover, age-related exposure differences provide an important consideration for overall susceptibility. Differential sensitivity associated with a life stage can reflect the toxicokinetic handling of a xenobiotic exposure, the toxicodynamic response, or both. Each of these is illustrated with chemical-specific examples. The adequacy of current testing protocols, proposed new tools, and risk assessment methods for systemic noncancer endpoints are reviewed in light of the potential for differential risk to infants and young children.

  12. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  13. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  14. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-10-01

    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  15. Freezing temperature protection admixture for Portland cement concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-10-01

    A number of experimental admixtures were compared to Pozzutec 20 admixture for their ability to protect fresh concrete from freezing and for increasing the rate of cement hydration at below-freezing temperatures. The commercial accelerator and low-te...

  16. Examining the freezing process of an intermediate bulk containing an industrially relevant protein

    PubMed Central

    Reinsch, Holger; Spadiut, Oliver; Heidingsfelder, Johannes; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Numerous biopharmaceuticals are produced in recombinant microorganisms in the controlled environment of a bioreactor, a process known as Upstream Process. To minimize product loss due to physico-chemical and enzymatic degradation, the Upstream Process should be directly followed by product purification, known as Downstream Process. However, the Downstream Process can be technologically complex and time-consuming which is why Upstream and Downstream Process usually have to be decoupled temporally and spatially. Consequently, the product obtained after the Upstream Process, known as intermediate bulk, has to be stored. In those circumstances, a freezing procedure is often performed to prevent product loss. However, the freezing process itself is inseparably linked to physico-chemical changes of the intermediate bulk which may in turn damage the product. The present study analysed the behaviour of a Tris-buffered intermediate bulk containing a biopharmaceutically relevant protein during a bottle freezing process. Major damaging mechanisms, like the spatiotemporal redistribution of ion concentrations and pH, and their influence on product stability were investigated. Summarizing, we show the complex events which happen in an intermediate bulk during freezing and explain the different causes for product loss. PMID:25765305

  17. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) < 0.001) but not for the number of days in the Khamisiyah plume (p(trend) = 0.17). Exposure to low-level sarin nerve agent in fallout from bombing early in the air campaign contributed more to chronic illness than post-war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Dynamic freeze-in: impact of thermal masses and cosmological phase transitions on dark matter production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael J.; Breitbach, Moritz; Kopp, Joachim; Mittnacht, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    The cosmological abundance of dark matter can be significantly influenced by the temperature dependence of particle masses and vacuum expectation values. We illustrate this point in three simple freeze-in models. The first one, which we call kinematically induced freeze-in, is based on the observation that the effective mass of a scalar temporarily becomes very small as the scalar potential undergoes a second order phase transition. This opens dark matter production channels that are otherwise forbidden. The second model we consider, dubbed vev-induced freeze-in, is a fermionic Higgs portal scenario. Its scalar sector is augmented compared to the Standard Model by an additional scalar singlet, S, which couples to dark matter and temporarily acquires a vacuum expectation value (a two-step phase transition or "vev flip-flop"). While < S> ≠ 0, the modified coupling structure in the scalar sector implies that dark matter production is significantly enhanced compared to the < S> = 0 phases realised at very early times and again today. The third model, which we call mixing-induced freeze-in, is similar in spirit, but here it is the mixing of dark sector fermions, induced by non-zero < S>, that temporarily boosts the dark matter production rate. For all three scenarios, we carefully dissect the evolution of the dark sector in the early Universe. We compute the DM relic abundance as a function of the model parameters, emphasising the importance of thermal corrections and the proper treatment of phase transitions in the calculation.

  19. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  20. Applications of Simulator Freeze to Carrier Glideslope Tracking Instruction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Showing Datum Bars and Meatball . .. .. .. ... .. ... .... 19 4 Freezes Per Trial Averaged Across Freeze Conditions and Across 4-Trial Blocks of Training...algorithm linearly increased the criterion in meatball units from 1.0 at 6000 feet from the ramp to 1.5 at the ramp. "Freezes" did not occur beyond 6000

  1. Modification of physical properties of freeze-dried rice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.

    1971-01-01

    Freeze cycling process consists of alternately freezing and thawing precooked rice for two cycles, rice is then frozen and freeze-dehydrated in vacuum sufficient to remove water from rice by sublimitation. Process modifies rice grain structure and porosity, enabling complete rehydration in one minute in hot water.

  2. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To can, freeze, or dehydrate. 929.11 Section 929.11... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.11 To can, freeze, or dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated...

  3. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section 58.620... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section 58.620... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

  5. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section 58.620... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 305.18 - Quick freeze treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment schedule. 305.18 Section 305.18... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Quick Freeze Treatments § 305.18 Quick freeze treatment schedule. (a) T110. (1) Initially, lower the commodity's temperature to 0 °F or below. (2) Hold...

  7. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles

    As the seasons progress, autumn-planted winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) first gain, then progressively lose freezing tolerance. Exposing the plants to freeze-thaw cycles of -3/3°C results in increased ability to tolerate subsequent freezing to potentially damaging temperatures. This stu...

  8. Fish antifreeze protein and the freezing and recrystallization of ice.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; DeVries, A L; Oolman, L D

    Antifreeze glycopeptide and peptides from the blood of polar fishes prevent the growth of ice crystals in water at temperatures down to approximately 1 degree C below freezing point, but do not appreciably influence the equilibrium freezing point. This freezing point hysteresis must be a disequilibrium effect, or it would violate Gibbs' phase rule, but the separate freezing and melting points are experimentally very definite: ice neither melts nor freezes perceptibly within the 'hysteresis gap', for periods of hours or days. We report here unusual crystal faces on ice crystals grown from solutions of very low concentrations of the anti-freeze glycopeptides and peptides. This is a clue to the mechanism of freezing inhibition, and it may be the basis of a simple, very sensitive test for antifreeze material. Very low concentrations of the antifreeze protein are also remarkably effective in preventing the recrystallization of ice.

  9. The effect of undissolved air on isochoric freezing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pedro A; Preciado, Jessica; Carlson, Gary; DeLonzor, Russ; Rubinsky, Boris

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of undissolved air on isochoric freezing of aqueous solutions. Isochoric freezing is concerned with freezing in a constant volume thermodynamic system. A possible advantage of the process is that it substantially reduces the percentage of ice in the system at every subzero temperature, relative to atmospheric freezing. At the pressures generated by isochoric freezing, or high pressure isobaric freezing, air cannot be considered an incompressible substance and the presence of undissolved air substantially increases the amount of ice that forms at any subfreezing temperature. This effect is measurable at air volumes as low as 1%. Therefore eliminating the undissolved air, or any separate gaseous phase, from the system is essential for retaining the properties of isochoric freezing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Medium Effects on Freeze-Out of Light Clusters at NICA Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.; Blaschke, D.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Karpenko, Iu.; Rogachevsky, O. V.; Wolter, H. H.

    2018-05-01

    We estimate the chemical freeze-out of light nuclear clusters for NICA energies of above 2 A GeV. On the one hand we use results from the low energy domain of about 35 A MeV, where medium effects have been shown to be important to explain experimental results. On the high energy side of LHC energies the statistical model without medium effects has provided results for the chemical freeze-out. The two approaches extrapolated to NICA energies show a discrepancy that can be attributed to medium effects and that for the deuteron/proton ratio amounts to a factor of about three. These findings underline the importance of a detailed investigation of light cluster production at NICA energies.

  11. Curvature of the freeze-out line in heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Bazavov, A.; Ding, H. -T.; Hegde, P.; ...

    2016-01-28

    Here, we calculate the mean and variance of net-baryon number and net-electric charge distributions from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) using a next-to-leading order Taylor expansion in terms of temperature and chemical potentials. Moreover, these expansions with experimental data from STAR and PHENIX are compared, we determine the freeze-out temperature in the limit of vanishing baryon chemical potential, and, for the first time, constrain the curvature of the freeze-out line through a direct comparison between experimental data on net-charge fluctuations and a QCD calculation. We obtain a bound on the curvature coefficient, κmore » $^f$$_2$$<0.011, that is compatible with lattice QCD results on the curvature of the QCD transition line.« less

  12. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. An Improved Cryogen for Plunge Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Tivol, William F.; Briegel, Ariane; Jensen, Grant J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of an alkane mixture that remains liquid at 77 K to freeze specimens has advantages over the use of a pure alkane that is solid at 77 K. It was found that a mixture of methane and ethane did not give a cooling rate adequate to produce vitreous ice, but a mixture of propane and ethane did result in vitreous ice. Furthermore, the latter mixture produced less damage to specimens mounted on a very thin, fragile holey carbon substrate. PMID:18793481

  14. Freeze-Dehydration by Microwave Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    8217 SECURI TY CL-ASSIFI CATION OF THIS PAGE (Wilen Data Bntarad) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER r...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATAL.OG NUMBER TR 75-84 FEL 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERI OD COVERED FREEZE-DEHYDRATION BY...u.s. Army .Natick Laboratories 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Natick , Massachusetts 01760 159 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME a ADDRESS(If dlllerenl’from Controlling

  15. Non-Caking Freeze Dried Applesauce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study was initiated to develop an applesauce which resists caking when subjected to elevated temperatures such as 37.7C. for two weeks and/or 57C...following results were obtained: (1) The degree of caking of the freeze dried applesauce powder was correlated with the amount of juice extracted. (2... applesauce powders. (3) Reducing sugars appear to be the factor contributing most significantly to the caking with the higher reducing sugar levels producing the higher degrees of caking.

  16. Pyrazine Analogues Are Active Components of Wolf Urine That Induce Avoidance and Freezing Behaviours in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Kurihara, Kenzo; Izumi, Hiroshi; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The common grey wolf (Canis lupus) is found throughout the entire Northern hemisphere and preys on many kinds of mammals. The urine of the wolf contains a number of volatile constituents that can potentially be used for predator–prey chemosignalling. Although wolf urine is put to practical use to keep rabbits, rodents, deer and so on at bay, we are unaware of any prior behavioural studies or chemical analyses regarding the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on laboratory mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Three wolf urine samples harvested at different times were used in this study. All of them induced stereotypical fear-associated behaviors (i.e., avoidance and freezing) in female mice. The levels of certain urinary volatiles varied widely among the samples. To identify the volatiles that provoked avoidance and freezing, behavioural, chemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. One of the urine samples (sample C) had higher levels of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP), trimethylpyrazine (TMP), and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP) compared with the other two urine samples (samples A and B). In addition, sample C induced avoidance and freezing behaviours more effectively than samples A and B. Moreover, only sample C led to pronounced expression of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of female mice. Freezing behaviour and Fos immunoreactivity were markedly enhanced when the mice were confronted with a mixture of purified DMP, TMP, and EDMP vs. any one pyrazine alone. Conclusions/Significance The current results suggest that wolf urinary volatiles can engender aversive and fear-related responses in mice. Pyrazine analogues were identified as the predominant active components among these volatiles to induce avoidance and freezing behaviours via stimulation of the murine AOB. PMID:23637901

  17. Combining endocytic and freezing-induced trehalose uptake for cryopreservation of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Sieme, Harald; Wolkers, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblasts take up trehalose during freezing and thawing, which facilitates cryosurvival of the cells. The aim of this study was to investigate if trehalose uptake via fluid-phase endocytosis prefreeze increases cryosurvival. To determine endocytic trehalose uptake in attached as well as suspended fibroblasts, intracellular trehalose concentrations were determined during incubation at 37°C using an enzymatically based trehalose assay. In addition, freezing-induced trehalose uptake of extracellularly added trehalose was determined. Cryosurvival rates were determined via trypan blue staining. Intracellular trehalose contents of attached as well as suspended cells were found to increase linearly with time, consistent with fluid-phase endocytosis. Furthermore, the intracellular trehalose concentration increased with increasing extracellular trehalose concentration (0-100 mM) in a linear fashion. Prefreeze loading of cells with trehalose via fluid-phase endocytosis only showed increased cryosurvival rates at extracellular trehalose concentrations lower than 50 mM in the cryopreservation medium. To obtain satisfactory cryosurvival rates after endocytic preloading, extracellular trehalose is needed to prevent efflux of trehalose during freezing and thawing and for freezing-induced trehalose uptake. At trehalose concentrations greater than 100 mM, cryosurvival rates were similar or slightly higher if cells were not loaded with trehalose prefreeze. Cells that were grown in the presence of trehalose showed a tendency to aggregate after harvesting. It is concluded that it is particularly freezing-induced trehalose uptake that facilitates cryosurvival when trehalose is used as the sole cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of fibroblasts. Preloading with trehalose does not increase cryosurvival rates if trehalose is also added as extracellular protectant. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:229-230, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of

  18. When do particle ratios freeze out in relativistic heavy ion collisions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humanic, Thomas; Bellwied, Rene

    1999-10-01

    The systematics of CERN SPS data for transverse mass distributions have been shown to imply that thermal equilibrium is achieved at freeze out in these collisions. This conclusion is based on the observation that for p+p, S+S, and Pb+Pb collisions freeze out occurs at a single temperature for all particle species measured if one assumes a certain uniform expansion velocity after hadronization for each colliding system [1]. A recent final- state rescattering calculation for SPS Pb+Pb collisions has shown that these systematics can be described as a consequence of particle rescattering where the system is assumed initially (i.e. at hadronization) to have a common temperature for all particles and no initial expansion velocity [2]. In addition to kinetic observables, it is equally interesting to investigate the time dependence of particle abundances through particle ratios in such a calculation. Two questions immediately arise: 1) is chemical equilibrium established in these collisions, and 2) when does chemical freeze out occur with respect to thermal freeze out for different particle ratios? How rescattering influences particle ratios is clearly of interest if one would like to deduce information about the hadronization stage of the collision from particle ratios measured at freeze out. For the present work we will show results for strange and non-strange particle ratios within the context of a version of the dynamic transport code used in Ref. [2]. [1] NA44 colaboration, I.G. Bearden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,2080(1997), [2] T. J. Humanic, Phys. Rev. C 57,866(1998)

  19. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less.

    PubMed

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I

    2011-09-01

    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Disaggregating meteorites by automated freeze thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Christopher R. J.

    2011-06-01

    An automated freeze-thaw (AFT) instrument for disaggregating meteorites is described. Meteorite samples are immersed in 18.2 MΩ water and hermetically sealed in a clean 30 ml Teflon vial. This vial and its contents are dipped between baths of liquid nitrogen and hot water over a number of cycles by a dual-stepper motor system controlled by LabView. Uniform and periodic intervals of freezing and thawing induce multiple expansions and contractions, such that cracks propagate along natural flaws in the meteorite for a sufficient number of AFT cycles. For the CR2 chondrite NWA801, the boundaries between different phases (i.e., silicates, metal, matrix) became progressively weaker and allowed for an efficient recovery of 500 individual chondrules and chondrule fragments spanning 0.2-4.7 mm diameters after 243 AFT cycles over 103.3 h. Further FT experiments on a basalt analog showed that the time required for freezing and thawing the same number of cycles can be reduced by a factor of ˜4.

  1. New High-Performance Droplet Freezing Assay (HP-DFA) for the Analysis of Ice Nuclei with Complex Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, Anna Theresa; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Helleis, Frank; Klimach, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water above homogeneous freezing is catalyzed by ice nucleation active (INA) particles called ice nuclei (IN), which can be of various inorganic or biological origin. The freezing temperatures reach up to -1 °C for some biological samples and are dependent on the chemical composition of the IN. The standard method to analyze IN in solution is the droplet freezing assay (DFA) established by Gabor Vali in 1970. Several modifications and improvements were already made within the last decades, but they are still limited by either small droplet numbers, large droplet volumes or inadequate separation of the single droplets resulting in mutual interferences and therefore improper measurements. The probability that miscellaneous IN are concentrated together in one droplet increases with the volume of the droplet, which can be described by the Poisson distribution. At a given concentration, the partition of a droplet into several smaller droplets leads to finely dispersed IN resulting in better statistics and therefore in a better resolution of the nucleation spectrum. We designed a new customized high-performance droplet freezing assay (HP-DFA), which represents an upgrade of the previously existing DFAs in terms of temperature range and statistics. The necessity of observing freezing events at temperatures lower than homogeneous freezing due to freezing point depression, requires high-performance thermostats combined with an optimal insulation. Furthermore, we developed a cooling setup, which allows both huge and tiny temperature changes within a very short period of time. Besides that, the new DFA provides the analysis of more than 750 droplets per run with a small droplet volume of 5 μL. This enables a fast and more precise analysis of biological samples with complex IN composition as well as better statistics for every sample at the same time.

  2. Freeze-cast alumina pore networks: Effects of freezing conditions and dispersion medium

    SciT

    Miller, S. M.; Xiao, X.; Faber, K. T.

    Alumina ceramics were freeze-cast from water- and camphene-based slurries under varying freezing conditions and examined using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Pore network characteristics, i.e., porosity, pore size, geometric surface area, and tortuosity, were measured from XCT reconstructions and the data were used to develop a model to predict feature size from processing conditions. Classical solidification theory was used to examine relationships between pore size, temperature gradients, and freezing front velocity. Freezing front velocity was subsequently predicted from casting conditions via the two-phase Stefan problem. Resulting models for water-based samples agreed with solidification-based theories predicting lamellar spacing of binary eutectic alloys,more » and models for camphene-based samples concurred with those for dendritic growth. Relationships between freezing conditions and geometric surface area were also modeled by considering the inverse relationship between pore size and surface area. Tortuosity was determined to be dependent primarily on the type of dispersion medium. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  3. Fundamental technical elements of freeze-fracture/freeze-etch in biological electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carson, Johnny L

    2014-09-11

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to ultrarapid freezing rates, often in the presence of cryoprotective agents to limit ice crystal formation, with subsequent fracturing of the specimen at liquid nitrogen cooled temperatures under high vacuum. The resultant fractured surface is replicated and stabilized by evaporation of carbon and platinum from an angle that confers surface three-dimensional detail to the cast. This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. In this report, we survey the instrument requirements and technical protocol for performing freeze-fracture, the associated nomenclature and characteristics of fracture planes, variations on the conventional procedure, and criteria for interpretation of freeze-fracture images. This technique has been widely used for ultrastructural investigation in many areas of cell biology and holds promise as an emerging imaging technique for molecular, nanotechnology, and materials science studies.

  4. Freezing and fractionation: effects of preservation on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of some limnetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J Marshall; Johnson, Brett; Silver, Douglas; Pate, William; Christianson, Kyle

    2016-03-15

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have become important natural tracers for studying food-web structure and function. Considerable research has demonstrated that chemical preservatives and fixatives shift the isotopic ratios of aquatic organisms. Much less is known about the effects of freezing as a preservation method although this technique is commonly used. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of freezing (-10 °C) and flash freezing (–79 °C) on the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of zooplankton (Cladocera), Mysis diluviana and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Subsamples (~0.5 mg) of dried material were analyzed for percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen, and the relative abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N values) using a Carlo Erba NC2500 elemental analyzer interfaced to a ThermoFinnigan MAT Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The effects of freezing were taxon-dependent. Freezing had no effect on the isotopic or elemental values of Rainbow Trout muscle. Effects on the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton and Mysis were statistically significant but small relative to typical values of trophic fractionation. The treatment-control offsets had larger absolute values for Mysis (δ13C: ≤0.76 ± 0.41‰, δ15N: ≤0.37 ± 0.16‰) than for zooplankton (δ13C: ≤0.12 ± 0.06‰, δ15N: ≤0.30 ± 0.27‰). The effects of freezing were more variable for the δ13C values of Mysis, and more variable for the δ15N values of zooplankton. Generally, both freezing methods reduced the carbon content of zooplankton and Mysis, but freezing had a negative effect on the %N of zooplankton and a positive effect on the %N of Mysis. The species-dependencies and variability of freezing effects on aquatic organisms suggest that more research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for freezing-related fractionation before standardized protocols for freezing as a preservation method can be adopted.

  5. Comparative effects of biological and chemical dispersants on the bioavailability and toxicity of crude oil to early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingli; Jin, Fei; Ma, Xindong; Lin, Zhongsheng; Wang, Juying

    2014-11-01

    The authors assessed the bioavailability and chronic toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil (WAFs) and 2 dispersants plus dispersed crude oil (chemical dispersant + crude oil [CE-WAF] and biological dispersant + crude oil [BE-WAF]) on the early life stages of marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. The results showed that the addition of the 2 dispersants caused a 3- and 4-fold increase in concentrations of summed priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs with 3 or more benzene rings. The chemical and biological dispersants increased the bioavailability (as measured by ethoxyresorufin-O-dethylase activity) of crude oil 6-fold and 3-fold, respectively. Based on nominal concentrations, chronic toxicity (as measured by deformity) in WAFs exhibited a 10-fold increase in CE-WAF and a 3-fold increase in BE-WAF, respectively. When total petroleum hydrocarbon was measured, the differences between WAF and CE-WAF treatments disappeared, and CE-WAF was approximately 10 times more toxic than BE-WAF. Compared with the chemical dispersant, the biological dispersant possibly modified the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons because of the increase in the proportion of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs in water. The chemical and biological dispersants enhanced short-term bioaccumulation and toxicity, through different mechanisms. These properties should be considered in addition to their efficacy in degrading oil when oil spill management strategies are selected. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Early Assessment of Management Potential in a Mid-Size Chemical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Robert L.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on development and concurrent validation of a competency instrument to identify potential leaders in a mid-size chemical company. Four competencies were identified: courageous problem solving, perceived energy, networking, and perceived motivation. Four different comparison groups were examined in logistic regression analyses.…

  7. Ultrastructure of sea urchin calcified tissues after high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution.

    PubMed

    Ameye, L; Hermann, R; Dubois, P

    2000-08-01

    The improvements brought by high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution fixation methods to the ultrastructural preservation of echinoderm mineralized tissues are investigated in developing pedicellariae and teeth of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus. Three freeze substitution (FS) protocols were tested: one in the presence of osmium tetroxide, one in the presence of uranyl acetate, and the last in the presence of gallic acid. FS in the presence of osmium tetroxide significantly improved cell ultrastructure preservation and should especially be used for ultrastructural studies involving vesicles and the Golgi apparatus. With all protocols, multivesicular bodies, suggested to contain Ca(2+), were evident for the first time in skeleton-forming cells. FS in the presence of gallic acid allowed us to confirm the structured and insoluble character of a part of the organic matrix of mineralization in the calcification sites of the tooth, an observation which modifies the current understanding of biomineralization control in echinoderms. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  9. Urea loading enhances freezing survival and postfreeze recovery in a terrestrially hibernating frog.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E

    2008-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that urea, an osmolyte accumulated early in hibernation, functions as a cryoprotectant in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Relative to saline-treated, normouremic (10 micromol ml(-1)) frogs, individuals rendered hyperuremic (70 micromol ml(-1)) by administration of an aqueous urea solution exhibited significantly higher survival (100% versus 64%) following freezing at -4 degrees C, a potentially lethal temperature. Hyperuremic frogs also had lower plasma levels of intracellular proteins (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hemoglobin), which presumably escaped from damaged cells, and more quickly recovered neurobehavioral functions following thawing. Experimental freezing-thawing did not alter tissue urea concentrations, but did elevate glucose levels in the blood and organs of all frogs. When measured 24 h after thawing commenced, glucose concentrations were markedly higher in urea-loaded frogs as compared to saline-treated ones, possibly because elevated urea retarded glucose clearance. Like other low-molecular-mass cryoprotectants, urea colligatively reduces both the amount of ice forming within the body and the osmotic dehydration of cells. In addition, by virtue of certain non-colligative properties, it may bestow additional protection from freeze-thaw damage not afforded by glucose.

  10. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  11. Dark Matter Freeze-in Production in Fast-Expanding Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Fernandez, Nicolas; Profumo, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    If the dark matter is produced in the early universe prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, a modified cosmological history can drastically affect the abundance of relic dark matter particles. Here, we assume that an additional species to radiation dominates at early times, causing the expansion rate at a given temperature to be larger than in the standard radiation-dominated case. We demonstrate that, if this is the case, dark matter production via freeze-in (a scenario when dark matter interacts very weakly, and is dumped in the early universe out of equilibrium by decay or scattering processes involving particles in the thermal bath) is dramatically suppressed. We illustrate and quantitatively and analytically study this phenomenon for three different paradigmatic classes of freeze-in scenarios. For the frozen-in dark matter abundance to be as large as observations, couplings between the dark matter and visible-sector particles must be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This sheds some optimistic prospects for the otherwise dire experimental and observational outlook of detecting dark matter produced by freeze-in.

  12. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  13. Continuously Regenerable Freeze-Out CO2 Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, John; Dyer, Chris; Myers, Jeff; Patten, Rich; Paul, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal technology development for portable life support systems (PLSS) has traditionally concentrated in the areas of solid and liquid chemical sorbents and semi-permeable membranes. Most of these systems are too heavy in gravity environments, require prohibitive amounts of consumables for operation on long term planetary missions, or are inoperable on the surface of Mars due to the presence of a CO2 atmosphere. This paper describes the effort performed to mature an innovative CO2 removal technology that meets NASA s planetary mission needs while adhering to the important guiding principles of simplicity, reliability, and operability. A breadboard cryogenic carbon dioxide scrubber (Cryo Scrubber) for a closed loop cryogenic PLSS was developed, designed, and tested, and a conceptual design suitable for a PLSS was developed based on the results of the breadboard testing. The Cryo Scrubber freezes CO2 and other trace contaminants out of expired vent loop gas using cooling available from a liquid oxygen (LOX) based PLSS. The device is continuously regenerable, with solid CO2 being removed from the cold freeze-out surfaces, sublimated, and vented overboard. Duration is limited only by the supply of LOX stored in the PLSS. Simplicity, reliability, and operability are universally important criteria for critical hardware on long duration Lunar or Mars missions. The Cryo Scrubber has no moving parts, requires no additional consumables, and uses no electrical power, contributing to its simplicity and reliability. It is easy to use; no operator action is required to prepare, use, or shut down the Cryo Scrubber, and it does not require charging or regeneration. The versatility of the concept allows for operation on earth, the moon, and Mars, and in microgravity.

  14. Development of chronic tests for endocrine active chemicals. Part 1. An extended fish early-life stage test for oestrogenic active chemicals in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Panter, G H; Hutchinson, T H; Hurd, K S; Bamforth, J; Stanley, R D; Duffell, S; Hargreaves, A; Gimeno, S; Tyler, C R

    2006-05-10

    An extended early-life stage test (based on OECD test guideline 210) was developed to allow the evaluation of a weak environmental oestrogen, 4-tert-pentyphenol (4TPP), on sexual differentiation and gonadal development. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) embryos were exposed to three concentrations of 4TPP (56, 180 and 560 microg l(-1)) in a flow-through system, at 25+/-1 degrees C, for <107 days post-hatch (dph). In addition, some embryos were exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) until 30 or 60 dph, after which they were exposed to dilution water only until 107 dph. At 30, 60 and 107 dph fish were evaluated for growth and gonadal development (via histology), and at 107 dph fish were also evaluated for secondary sexual characteristics (SSC), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). There were no effects of 4TPP on hatching success or survival, however, there was a delay in the time taken for embryos to hatch (560 microg 4TPPl(-1)). No treatment-related effects were observed on fish growth, with the exception of at 107 dph when the condition factor in female fish was reduced in all 4TPP continuous exposure treatments. Plasma VTG was only elevated in female fish exposed to 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) and inhibition of gonadal growth (GSI) occurred only in females exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Histological examination of the gonads revealed delays and disruption in male sexual differentiation and development (180 microg 4TPPl(-1)) and no testicular tissue was observed in any fish exposed to 560 microg 4TPPl(-1). Mixed gonads (predominately testes with a scattering of primary oocytes) were present in fish exposed to all doses of 180 microg 4TPPl(-1) at 107 dph. Feminisation of the reproductive ducts (formation of an ovarian like cavity) occurred in the testis of all males exposed to 180 microg l(-1), regardless of length of 4TPP exposure. Results indicate that the period of 30-60 dph appears to be the sensitive window for disruption of formation of the

  15. Does deposition freezing really exist? At least different as we thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The structural and chemical properties of the surface of an IN-particle (INP) play a major role in its IN ability. This role is not well explored in terms of water/INP-surface molecular-level interactions. Recent MD simulations on deposition freezing showed that water first deposits as liquid clusters and then crystallize isothermally from there [1]. We probe freezing of water on INPs of different structural and chemical properties under varying supersaturation conditions using non-linear optical spectroscopy, mainly second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG) [2, 3]. This presentation will show very recent preliminary experimental results comparing deposition, condensation and immersion freezing (DF, CF and IF respectively) on an atmospheric relevant metal oxide surface (mica) using supercooled SHG measurements. It is found that the signal drops upon the formation of a thin film regardless of 1) the freezing path (DF or CF), 2) the formed phase (ice or liquid), indicating a similar molecular structuring. The observed structuring similarity between DF, CF and LC films is a kick-off experimental confirmation of those computational results. References 1. Lupi, L., N. Kastelowitz, and V. Molinero, Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 2014. 141(18): p. 18C508. 2. Abdelmonem, A., J. Lützenkirchen, and T. Leisner, Probing ice-nucleation processes on the molecular level using second harmonic generation spectroscopy. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2015. 8(8): p. 3519-3526. 3. Abdelmonem, A., et al., Surface charge-induced orientation of interfacial water suppresses heterogeneous ice nucleation on α-alumina (0001). Angewandte Chemie (Submitted), 2017.

  16. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Model simulations with COSMO-SPECS: impact of heterogeneous freezing modes and ice nucleating particle types on ice formation and precipitation in a deep convective cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Karoline; Grützun, Verena

    2018-03-01

    In deep convective clouds, heavy rain is often formed involving the ice phase. Simulations were performed using the 3-D cloud resolving model COSMO-SPECS with detailed spectral microphysics including parameterizations of homogeneous and three heterogeneous freezing modes. The initial conditions were selected to result in a deep convective cloud reaching 14 km of altitude with strong updrafts up to 40 m s-1. At such altitudes with corresponding temperatures below -40 °C the major fraction of liquid drops freezes homogeneously. The goal of the present model simulations was to investigate how additional heterogeneous freezing will affect ice formation and precipitation although its contribution to total ice formation may be rather low. In such a situation small perturbations that do not show significant effects at first sight may trigger cloud microphysical responses. Effects of the following small perturbations were studied: (1) additional ice formation via immersion, contact, and deposition modes in comparison to solely homogeneous freezing, (2) contact and deposition freezing in comparison to immersion freezing, and (3) small fractions of biological ice nucleating particles (INPs) in comparison to higher fractions of mineral dust INP. The results indicate that the modification of precipitation proceeds via the formation of larger ice particles, which may be supported by direct freezing of larger drops, the growth of pristine ice particles by riming, and by nucleation of larger drops by collisions with pristine ice particles. In comparison to the reference case with homogeneous freezing only, such small perturbations due to additional heterogeneous freezing rather affect the total precipitation amount. It is more likely that the temporal development and the local distribution of precipitation are affected by such perturbations. This results in a gradual increase in precipitation at early cloud stages instead of a strong increase at later cloud stages coupled with

  18. Freeze Casting for Assembling Bioinspired Structural Materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qunfeng; Huang, Chuanjin; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2017-12-01

    Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all these materials is that their properties are far superior to those of their constituent phases. Many of these natural materials are lamellar or layered in nature. With its "brick and mortar" structure, nacre is an example of a layered material that exhibits extraordinary physical properties. Finding inspiration in living organisms to create bioinspired materials is the subject of intensive research. Several processing techniques have been proposed to design materials mimicking natural materials, such as layer-by-layer deposition, self-assembly, electrophoretic deposition, hydrogel casting, doctor blading, and many others. Freeze casting, also known as ice-templating, is a technique that has received considerable attention in recent years to produce bioinspired bulk materials. Here, recent advances in the freeze-casting technique are reviewed for fabricating lamellar scaffolds by assembling different dimensional building blocks, including nanoparticles, polymer chains, nanofibers, and nanosheets. These lamellar scaffolds are often infiltrated by a second phase, typically a soft polymer matrix, a hard ceramic matrix, or a metal matrix. The unique architecture of the resultant bioinspired structural materials displays excellent mechanical properties. The challenges of the current research in using the freeze-casting technique to create materials large enough to be useful are also discussed, and the technique's promise for fabricating high-performance nacre-inspired structural materials in the future is reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Two-dimensional freezing criteria for crystallizing colloidal monolayers

    SciT

    Wang Ziren; Han Yilong; Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    Video microscopy was employed to explore crystallization of colloidal monolayers composed of diameter-tunable microgel spheres. Two-dimensional (2D) colloidal liquids were frozen homogenously into polycrystalline solids, and four 2D criteria for freezing were experimentally tested in thermal systems for the first time: the Hansen-Verlet freezing rule, the Loewen-Palberg-Simon dynamical freezing criterion, and two other rules based, respectively, on the split shoulder of the radial distribution function and on the distribution of the shape factor of Voronoi polygons. Importantly, these freezing criteria, usually applied in the context of single crystals, were demonstrated to apply to the formation of polycrystalline solids. At themore » freezing point, we also observed a peak in the fluctuations of the orientational order parameter and a percolation transition associated with caged particles. Speculation about these percolated clusters of caged particles casts light on solidification mechanisms and dynamic heterogeneity in freezing.« less

  20. Hierarchical Freezing in a Lattice Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byington, Travis W.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.

    2012-01-01

    A certain two-dimensional lattice model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions is known to have a limit-periodic ground state. We show that during a slow quench from the high temperature, disordered phase, the ground state emerges through an infinite sequence of phase transitions. We define appropriate order parameters and show that the transitions are related by renormalizations of the temperature scale. As the temperature is decreased, sublattices with increasingly large lattice constants become ordered. A rapid quench results in a glasslike state due to kinetic barriers created by simultaneous freezing on sublattices with different lattice constants.

  1. Freeze Tolerant Radiator for an Advanced EMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Elliott, Jeannine; Weislogel, Mark

    2004-01-01

    During an Extravehicular Activity (EVA), the astronaut s metabolic heat and the heat produced by the Portable Life Support Unit (PLSS) must be rejected. This heat load is currently rejected by a sublimator, which vents up to eight pounds of water each EVA. However, for advanced space missions of the future, water venting to space needs to be minimized because resupply impacts from earth will be prohibitive. If this heat load could be radiated to space from the PLSS, which has enough surface area to radiate most of the heat, the amount of water now vented could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a radiator rejects heat at a relatively constant rate, but the astronauts generate a variable heat load depending on how hard they are working. Without a way to vary the heat removal rate, the astronaut would experience cold discomfort or even frostbite. A proven method allowing a radiator to be turned-down is to sequentially allow tubes that carry the heat transfer fluid to the radiator to freeze. A drawback of current freezable radiators using this method is that they are far to heavy for use on a PLSS, because they use heavy construction to prevent the tubes from bursting as they freeze and thaw. This creates the need for a large radiator to reject most of the heat but with a lightweight tube that doesn t burst as it freezes and thaws. The new freezable radiator for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has features to accommodate the expansion of the radiator fluid when it freezes, and still have the high tube to fin conductance needed to minimize the number and weight of the tubes. Radiator fluid candidates are water and a propylene glycol-water mixture. This design maintains all materials within their elastic limits so that large volume changes can be achieved without breaking the tube. This concept couples this elastic expansion with an extremely lightweight, extremely high conductivity carbon fiber fin that can carry the heat needed to thaw a frozen tube. By using

  2. References on Compression of Freeze-Dried Foods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    ready-to-eat, freeze-dried scrambled egg . Swift and Co., Contract No. DA 19- 129-AMC-121. 67-49-FD (FD-54). January 1967 (AD 650637). In the design...significantly poorer in organoleptic properties than from grades A and B eggs. Freeze- dried scrambled egg packed in cans kept better in storage than when...scrambled, cooked, freeze-dried whole egg product was developed which possessed the appearance, aroma, flavor and texture similar to pan- fried scrambled

  3. 23 CFR 658.23 - LCV freeze; cargo-carrying unit freeze.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... safety purposes and road construction, a State may make minor adjustments of a temporary and emergency... decision is reached that minor adjustments made by a State are not legitimately attributable to road or bridge construction or safety, the FHWA will inform the State, and the original conditions of the freeze...

  4. High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution of Arabidopsis for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jotham R

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of electron microscopy ultrastructural studies are to examine cellular architecture and relate the cell's structural machinery to dynamic functional roles. This aspiration is difficult to achieve if specimens have not been adequately preserved in a "living state"; hence specimen preparation is of the utmost importance for the success of any electron micrographic study. High-pressure freezing (HPF)/freeze substitution (FS) has long been recognized as the primer technique for the preservation of ultrastructure in biological samples. In most cases a basic HPF/freeze substitution protocol is sufficient to obtain superior ultrastructural preservation and structural contrast, which allows one to use more advanced microscopy techniques such as 3D electron tomography. However, for plant tissues, which have a thick cell wall, large water-filled vacuoles, and air spaces (all of which are detrimental to cryopreservation), these basic HPF/FS protocols often yield undesirable results. In particular, ice crystal artifacts and the staining of membrane systems are often poorly or negatively stained, which make 3D segmentation of a tomogram difficult. To overcome these problems, various aspects of the HPF/FS protocol can be altered, including the cryo-filler(s) used, freeze substitution cocktail, and the resin infiltration process. This chapter will describe these modifications for the preparation of plant tissues for routine electron microscopic studies, immunocytochemistry, and 3D tomographic electron imaging.

  5. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) - protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health.

    PubMed

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-02-13

    The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine). Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit exposure of the child to flame retardants (with endocrine

  6. Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-03-01

    The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Effects of Freezing, Melting and Partial Ice Cover on Gas Transport in Laboratory Seawater Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; McGillis, W.; Schlosser, P.; Perovich, D.; Takahashi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Sea ice physico-chemical processes affect gas dynamics, which may be relevant to polar ocean budgets of climatically-active gases. We used SF6 and O2 as inert gas tracers in a tank experiment to observe the transport of gases between water, ice and air during freezing/melting and partial ice cover. The results show that during ice growth, the rejection of O2 and SF6 was greater than the rejection of salt per unit of ambient concentration in seawater. Unconsolidated ice crystal growth produced an increase in dissolved O2 concentration, indicating that the water-air gradient may favor gas evasion during the early stages of sea-ice formation. Measurements of the gas transfer velocity (k), using SF6 and O2 during conditions of partial ice cover exceed the proportionality between the fraction of open water and k determined between 0% and 100% open water conditions. At 15% open water, k equals 35% of k during ice-free conditions, indicating the importance of under-ice turbulence for gas exchange. In our experiments most of this turbulence was produced by pumps installed for circulation of the water in the tank to avoid density stratification. Varying the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) delivered to the water by these pumps produced a correspondent variation in k. Measurements of TKE using particle velocimetry suggest that turbulence in the ice-water boundary layer dominated the convection driven by heat loss through the open water, and the magnitude of net TKE production was similar to that measured beneath drifting ice in the field.

  8. Structurally Caused Freezing Point Depression of Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Rene; Walters, D. H.; Kuhn, Werner

    1963-01-01

    When investigating the freezing behaviour (by thermal analysis) of the glycerol-extracted adductor muscle of Mytilus edulis it was observed that the temperature of ice formation in the muscular tissue was up to 1.5°C lower than the freezing point of the embedding liquid, a 0.25 N KCl solution with pH = 4.9 with which the tissue had been equilibrated prior to the freezing experiment. A smaller freezing point depression was observed if the pH values of the embedding 0.25 N KCl solution were above or below pH = 4.9. Reasoning from results obtained previously in analogous experiments with artificial gels, the anomalous freezing depression is explained by the impossibility of growing at the normal freezing temperature regular macroscopic crystals inside the gel, due to the presence of the gel network. The freezing temperature is here determined by the size of the microprisms penetrating the meshes of the network at the lowered freezing temperature. This process leads finally to an ice block of more or less regular structure in which the filaments are embedded. Prerequisite for this hindrance of ideal ice growth is a sufficient tensile strength of the filamental network. The existence of structurally caused freezing point depression in biological tissue is likely to invalidate many conclusions reported in the literature, in which hypertonicity was deduced from cryoscopic data. PMID:13971682

  9. Design of a blood-freezing system for leukemia research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. E.; Cygnarowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Leukemia research involves the use of cryogenic freezing and storage equipment. In a program being carried out at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), bone marrow (white blood cells) was frozen using a standard cryogenic biological freezer. With this system, it is difficult to maintain the desired rate of freezing and repeatability from sample to sample. A freezing system was developed that satisfies the requirements for a repeatable, constant freezing rate. The system was delivered to NIC and is now operational. This report describes the design of the major subsystems, the analyses, the operating procedure, and final system test results.

  10. A molecular dynamics study of freezing in a confined geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wen-Jong; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Koplik, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls is studied by computer simulation. The time development of ordering is quantified and a novel freezing mechanism is observed. The liquid forms layers and subsequent in-plane ordering within a layer is accompanied by a sharpening of the layer in the transverse direction. The effects of channel size, the methods of quench, the liquid-wall interaction and the roughness of walls on the freezing mechanism are elucidated. Comparison with recent experiments on freezing in confined geometries is presented.

  11. Effects of various freezing containers for vitrification freezing on mouse oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Chul; Kim, Jae Myeoung; Seo, Byoung Boo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, various freezing containers were tested for mouse embryos of respective developmental stages; embryos were vitrified and then their survival rate and developmental rate were monitored. Mouse two cell, 8 cell, and blastula stage embryos underwent vitrification freezing-thawing and then their recovery rate, survival rate, development rate, and hatching rate were investigated. EM-grid, OPS, and cryo-loop were utilized for vitrification freezing-thawing of mouse embryos. It was found that recovery rate and survival rate were higher in the group of cryo-loop compared to those of EM-grid (p < 0.05). Embryonic development rate, two cell embryos to blastocyst, as well as hatching rate were higher in the control group compared to the EM-grid group and OPS group (p < 0.05), yet no difference was noted between the control group and cryo-loop group. Development rate and hatching rate of eight cell morulae and blastocysts were all lower in the treatment groups than the control group whilst hatching rate of blastocysts was higher in the control group compared to the groups of EM-grid and OPS (p < 0.05); although the cryo-loop group was shown to be slightly higher than other groups, it was not statistically significant. In the study, we investigate effects of freezing containers on vitrified embryos of respective developmental stages; it was demonstrated that higher developmental rate was shown in more progressed (or developed) embryos with more blastomeres. There was however, no difference in embryonic development rate was shown amongst containers. Taken together, further additional studies are warranted with regards to 1) manipulation techniques of embryos for various vitrification freezing containers and 2) preventive measures against contamination via liquid nitrogen.

  12. Fundamental Boiling and RP-1 Freezing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Brian; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes results from experiments performed to help understand certain aspects of the MC-1 engine prestart thermal conditioning procedure. The procedure was constrained by the fact that the engine must chill long enough to get quality LOX at the LOX pump inlet but must be short enough to prevent freezing of RP-1 in the fuel pump. A chill test of an MC-1 LOX impeller was performed in LN2 to obtain data on film boiling, transition boiling and impeller temperature histories. The transition boiling data was important to the chill time so a subsequent experiment was performed chilling simple steel plates in LOX to obtain similar data for LOX. To address the fuel freezing concern, two experiments were performed. First, fuel was frozen in a tray and its physical characteristics were observed and temperatures of the fuel were measured. The result was physical characteristics as a function of temperature. Second was an attempt to measure the frozen thickness of RP-1 on a cold wall submerged in warm RP-1 and to develop a method for calculating that thickness for other conditions.

  13. Rapid freezing of water under dynamic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, Philip C.; Belof, Jonathan L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII. We first present a detailed analysis of dynamic compression experiments in which water has been observed to freeze on sub-microsecond time scales to ice VII. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of currently available molecular and continuum simulation methods in modeling these experiments. We then describe how our phase transition kinetics models, which are based on classical nucleation theory, provide a more physics-based framework that overcomes some of these limitations. Finally, we give suggestions on future experimental and modeling work on the liquid–ice VII transition, including an outline of the development of a predictive multiscale model in which molecular and continuum simulations are intimately coupled.

  14. Rapid freezing of water under dynamic compression.

    PubMed

    Myint, Philip C; Belof, Jonathan L

    2018-06-13

    Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII. We first present a detailed analysis of dynamic compression experiments in which water has been observed to freeze on sub-microsecond time scales to ice VII. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of currently available molecular and continuum simulation methods in modeling these experiments. We then describe how our phase transition kinetics models, which are based on classical nucleation theory, provide a more physics-based framework that overcomes some of these limitations. Finally, we give suggestions on future experimental and modeling work on the liquid-ice VII transition, including an outline of the development of a predictive multiscale model in which molecular and continuum simulations are intimately coupled.

  15. Constraints for the thawing and freezing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Anna; Saka, Shogo; Tanigawa, Takuma

    2018-01-01

    We study the accelerating present universe in terms of the time evolution of the equation of state w(z) (redshift z) due to thawing and freezing scalar potentials in the quintessence model. The values of dw/da and d^2w/da^2 at a scale factor of a = 1 are associated with two parameters of each potential. For five types of scalar potentials, the scalar fields Q and w as functions of time t and/or z are numerically calculated under the fixed boundary condition of w(z=0)=-1+Δ. The observational constraint w_obs (Planck Collaboration, arXiv:1502.01590) is imposed to test whether the numerical w(z) is in w_obs. Some solutions show thawing features in the freezing potentials. Mutually exclusive allowed regions in the dw/da vs. d^2w/da^2 diagram are obtained in order to identify the likely scalar potential and even the potential parameters for future observational tests.

  16. Effects of whole body (56)Fe radiation on contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Allen, Antiño R; Rosi, Susanna; Sharma, Sourabh; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J; Fike, John R

    2013-06-01

    The space radiation environment contains high-energy charged particles such as (56)Fe, which could pose a significant hazard to hippocampal function in astronauts during and after the mission(s). The mechanisms underlying impairments in cognition are not clear but might involve alterations in the percentage of neurons in the dentate gyrus expressing the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. Previously, we showed effects of cranial (56)Fe irradiation on hippocampus-dependent contextual freezing and on the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed, but not free, blade. Because it is unclear whether whole body (56)Fe irradiation causes similar effects on these markers of hippocampal function, in the present study we quantified the effects of whole body (56)Fe irradiation (600MeV, 0.5 or 1Gy) on hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent cognitive performance and determined whether these effects were associated with changes in Arc expression in the enclosed and free blades of the dentate gyrus. Whole body (56)Fe irradiation impacted contextual but not cued fear freezing and the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In mice tested for contextual freezing, there was a correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In addition, in mice irradiated with 0.5Gy, contextual freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive cells in the enclosed blade. In mice tested for cued freezing, there was no correlation between Arc-positive cells in the enclosed and free blades. In contrast, cued freezing in the presence or absence of aversive stimuli correlated with Arc-positive cells in the free blade. In addition, in mice irradiated with 1Gy cued freezing in the absence of aversive stimuli correlated with the percentage of Arc-positive neurons in the free blade. These data indicate that while whole body (56)Fe radiation affects contextual freezing and Arc-positive cells

  17. Response of Soil Biogeochemistry to Freeze-thaw Cycles: Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrient Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2014-12-01

    Freeze-thaw is an abiotic stress applied to soils and is a natural process at medium to high latitudes. Freezing and thawing processes influence not only the physical properties of soil, but also the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Fungi and bacteria play a crucial role in soil organic matter degradation and the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Production and consumption of these atmospheric trace gases are the result of biological processes such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration (CO2), methanogenesis, methanotrophy (CH4), nitrification and denitrification (N2O). To enhance our understanding of the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil biogeochemical transformations and fluxes, a highly instrumented soil column experiment was designed to realistically simulate freeze-thaw dynamics under controlled conditions. Pore waters collected periodically from different depths of the column and solid-phase analyses on core material obtained at the initial and end of the experiment highlighted striking geochemical cycling. CO2, CH4 and N2O production at different depths within the column were quantified from dissolved gas concentrations in pore water. Subsequent emissions from the soil surface were determined by direct measurement in the head space. Pulsed CO2 emission to the headspace was observed at the onset of thawing, however, the magnitude of the pulse decreased with each subsequent freeze-thaw cycle indicating depletion of a "freeze-thaw accessible" carbon pool. Pulsed CO2 emission was due to a combination of physical release of gases dissolved in porewater and entrapped below the frozen zone and changing microbial respiration in response to electron acceptor variability (O2, NO3-, SO42-). In this presentation, we focus on soil-specific physical, chemical, microbial factors (e.g. redox conditions, respiration, fermentation) and the mechanisms that drive GHG emission and nutrient cycling in soils under freeze-thaw cycles.

  18. Effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during processing of muffins.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Soto, Maria U; Powers, Joseph R; Alldredge, J Richard

    2012-05-01

    Consumption of baked products constitutes an important part of a daily breakfast considering that people are continually grabbing meals on the go. Among baked products, muffins rank third in breakfast products and attract a broad range of consumers. Incorporation of red raspberry juice into muffins can add value to the product while preserving health benefits to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on the phenolic and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during the preparation of muffins. Freeze-drying of raspberry batters reduced their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity regardless of mixing time. Non-freeze-dried raspberry batter mixed for 5 min had the highest phenolic content (0.88 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry matter (DM)). Non-freeze-dried raspberry muffins had the highest antioxidant capacity (0.041 µmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) DM). Freeze-dried raspberry batters mixed for 5 and 10 min had the highest anthocyanin content (0.065 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside g(-1) DM). Baking reduced the anthocyanin content of both non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried raspberry muffins. Despite the reduction in valuable compounds, muffin is a vehicle for the delivery of these compounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The Production of a Stable Infliximab Powder: The Evaluation of Spray and Freeze-Drying for Production

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Bakker, Arjen; Wagner, Koen; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In prospect of developing an oral dosage form of Infliximab, for treatment of Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, freeze-drying (vial vs Lyoguard trays) and spray-drying were investigated as production method for stable powders. Dextran and inulin were used in combination with sucrose as stabilizing excipients. The drying processes did not affect Infliximab in these formulations, i.e. both the physical integrity and biological activity (TNF binding) were retained. Accelerated stability studies (1 month at 60°C) showed that the TNF binding ability of Infliximab was conserved in the freeze-dried formulations, whereas the liquid counterpart lost all TNF binding. After thermal treatment, the dried formulations showed some chemical modification of the IgG in the dextran-sucrose formulation, probably due to Maillard reaction products. This study indicates that, with the appropriate formulation, both spray-drying and freeze-drying may be useful for (bulk) powder production of Infliximab. PMID:27706175

  20. The Production of a Stable Infliximab Powder: The Evaluation of Spray and Freeze-Drying for Production.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Bakker, Arjen; Wagner, Koen; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In prospect of developing an oral dosage form of Infliximab, for treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, freeze-drying (vial vs Lyoguard trays) and spray-drying were investigated as production method for stable powders. Dextran and inulin were used in combination with sucrose as stabilizing excipients. The drying processes did not affect Infliximab in these formulations, i.e. both the physical integrity and biological activity (TNF binding) were retained. Accelerated stability studies (1 month at 60°C) showed that the TNF binding ability of Infliximab was conserved in the freeze-dried formulations, whereas the liquid counterpart lost all TNF binding. After thermal treatment, the dried formulations showed some chemical modification of the IgG in the dextran-sucrose formulation, probably due to Maillard reaction products. This study indicates that, with the appropriate formulation, both spray-drying and freeze-drying may be useful for (bulk) powder production of Infliximab.

  1. Freezing curve-based monitoring to quickly evaluate the viability of biological materials subject to freezing or thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Xin

    2003-09-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating the roles of freezing dynamics of a liquid droplet to characterize the properties of the material. In particular, freezing curve-based monitoring was proposed to quickly evaluate the viability of biological materials subject to freezing, re-warming, or other kinds of injury, which is an extremely important issue in practices such as cryobiology, hyperthermia, or freshness evaluation of bio-samples. An integrated micro analysis device was fabricated which is simple in structure and cheap to make. Preliminary freezing results demonstrated that minor changes in a biological material due to freezing or warming injury might result in a significant deviation of its freezing curve from that of the intact biomaterials. Several potential thermal indexes to quantify the material features were pointed out. Further, experiments were performed on some freezing and thawing processes of small amount of water on a cooling surface to test the effects of droplet sizes, measurement sites, cooling strength, and cooling geometry, etc., on the freezing responses of a water droplet. Their implementation in developing a new micro analysis system were suggested. This freezing curve-based monitoring method may open a new strategy for the evaluation of biomaterials subject to destruction in diverse fields.

  2. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space.

    PubMed

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and nonsystematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modeling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with the results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step-by-step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described, and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data, and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depositing nanoparticles on a silicon substrate using a freeze drying technique.

    PubMed

    Sigehuzi, Tomoo

    2017-08-28

    For the microscopic observation of nanoparticles, an adequate sample preparation is an essential part of this task. Much research has been performed for usable preparation methods that will yield aggregate-free samples. A freeze drying technique, which only requires a -80  ° C freezer and a freeze dryer, is shown to provide an on-substrate dispersion of mostly isolated nanoparticles. The particle density could be made sufficiently high for efficient observations using atomic force microscopy. Since this sandwich method is purely physical, it could be applied to deposit various nanoparticles independent of their surface chemical properties. Suspension film thickness, or the dimensionality of the suspension film, was shown to be crucial for the isolation of the particles. Silica nanoparticles were dispersed on a silicon substrate using this method and the sample properties were examined using atomic force microscopy.

  4. Rapid freezing without cooling equilibration in canine sperm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Yongcheol; Yang, Honghyun; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method of canine semen freezing without cooling equilibration using treatment with different cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) and freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor in a 0.5-mL straw via modifying vitrification. Ejaculates from eight beagle dogs were frozen with different CPAs (CPA-free, 5% glycerol, 5% ethylene glycol, and 10% ethylene glycol) and freezing times (direct plunging into LN(2) or freezing for 1, 2, 3, or 10 min in LN(2) vapor before plunging into LN(2)). Frozen-thawed sperm were evaluated for motility, viability, normal morphology, and plasma- and acrosome-membrane integrities. The 5% glycerol treatment resulted in improved sperm motility, plasma-membrane integrity and acrosome-membrane integrity (P<0.05). Freezing in LN(2) vapor showed improved sperm motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity (P<0.05), and freezing for more than 2 min in LN(2) vapor increased acrosome-membrane integrity compared with direct plunging into LN(2) (P<0.05). The direct plunging into LN(2) showed no motile sperm. However, freezing for more than 2 min in LN(2) vapor increased the total abnormalities compared to direct plunging into LN(2) (P<0.05). In conclusion, use of 5% glycerol and freezing in LN(2) vapor were essential for the rapid freezing of canine sperm without cooling equilibration. In particular, holding for 2 min in LN(2) vapor was sufficient to yield successful rapid freezing. This rapid freezing method is simple and effective in canine sperm and would be helpful to offer information for trial of vitrification in large volumes of canine sperm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutagenic effect of freezing on mitochondrial DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stoycheva, T; Venkov, P; Tsvetkov, Ts

    2007-06-01

    Although suggested in some studies, the mutagenic effect of freezing has not been proved by induction and isolation of mutants. Using a well-defined genetic model, we supply in this communication evidence for the mutagenic effect of freezing on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cooling for 2 h at +4 degrees C, followed by freezing for 1 h at -10 degrees C and 16 h at -20 degrees C resulted in induction of respiratory mutations. The immediate freezing in liquid nitrogen was without mutagenic effect. The study of the stepwise procedure showed that the induction of respiratory mutants takes place during the freezing at -10 and -20 degrees C of cells pre-cooled at +4 degrees C. The genetic crosses of freeze-induced mutants evidenced their mitochondrial rho- origin. The freeze-induced rho- mutants are most likely free of simultaneous nuclear mutations. The extracellular presence of cryoprotectants did not prevent the mutagenic effect of freezing while accumulation of cryoprotectors inside cells completely escaped mtDNA from cryodamage. Although the results obtained favor the notion that the mutagenic effect of freezing on yeast mtDNA is due to formation and growth of intracellular ice crystals, other reasons, such as impairment of mtDNA replication or elevated levels of ROS production are discussed as possible explanations of the mutagenic effect of freezing. It is concluded that: (i) freezing can be used as a method for isolation of mitochondrial mutants in S. cerevisiae and (ii) given the substantial development in cryopreservation of cells and tissues, special precautions should be made to avoid mtDNA damage during the cryopreservation procedures.

  6. Effects of freeze-thaw on characteristics of new KMP binder stabilized Zn- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Li; Du, Yan-Jun; Reddy, Krishna R; Wu, Hao-Liang

    2015-12-01

    For viable and sustainable reuse of solidified/stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils as roadway subgrade materials, long-term durability of these soils should be ensured. A new binder, KMP, has been developed for solidifying/stabilizing soils contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals. However, the effects of long-term extreme weather conditions including freeze and thaw on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized contaminated soils have not been investigated. This study presents a systematic investigation on the impacts of freeze-thaw cycle on leachability, strength, and microstructural characteristics of the KMP stabilized soils spiked with Zn and Pb individually and together. For comparison purpose, Portland cement is also tested as a conventional binder. Several series of tests are conducted including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure, unconfined compression test (UCT), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results demonstrate that the freeze-thaw cycles have much less impact on the leachability and strength of the KMP stabilized soils as compared to the PC stabilized soils. After the freeze-thaw cycle tests, the KMP stabilized soils display much lower leachability, mass loss, and strength loss. These results are assessed based on the chemical speciation of Zn and Pb, and pore size distribution of the soils. Overall, this study demonstrates that the KMP stabilized heavy metal-contaminated soils perform well under the freeze-thaw conditions.

  7. Effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints for environmental research.

    PubMed

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity.

  8. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H.; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-01-01

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  9. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  10. Encapsulation of Nucleic Acids into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles by Freeze-Thaw: a Way Protocells May Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hai; Hu, Na; Bai, Jin; Ren, Lili; Liu, Qing; Fang, Liaoqiong; Wang, Zhibiao

    2017-12-01

    Protocells are believed to consist of a lipid membrane and encapsulated nucleic acid. As the lipid membrane is impermeable to macromolecules like nucleic acids, the processes by which nucleic acids become encapsulated inside lipid membrane compartments are still unknown. In this paper, a freeze-thaw method was modified and applied to giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in mixed solution resulting in the efficient encapsulation of 6.4 kb plasmid DNA and similar length linear DNA into GUVs. The mechanism of encapsulation was followed by observing the effect of freeze-thaw temperatures on GUV morphological change, DNA encapsulation and ice crystal formation, and analyzing their correlation. Following ice crystal formation, the shape of spherical GUVs was altered and membrane integrity was damaged and this was found to be a necessary condition for encapsulation. Heating alone had no effects on DNA encapsulation, but was helpful for restoring the spherical shape and membrane integrity of GUVs damaged during freezing. These results suggested that freeze-thaw could promote the encapsulation of DNA into GUVs by a mechanism: the vesicle membrane was breached by ice crystal formation during freezing, DNA entered into damaged GUVs through these membrane gaps and was encapsulated after the membrane was resealed during the thawing process. The process described herein therefore describes a simple way for the encapsulation of nucleic acids and potentially other macromolecules into lipid vesicles, a process by which early protocells might have formed.

  11. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.638 Freezing the mix. After the mix enters the freezer, it shall be frozen as rapidly as...

  12. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.638 Freezing the mix. After the mix enters the freezer, it shall be frozen as rapidly as...

  13. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.638 Freezing the mix. After the mix enters the freezer, it shall be frozen as rapidly as...

  14. 7 CFR 305.7 - Quick freeze treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quick freeze treatment requirements. 305.7 Section 305.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.7 Quick freeze treatment...

  15. St. Lawrence River Freeze-Up Forecast Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assel, R. A.

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) is presented for calculating the date of freeze-up on the St. Lawrence River at Massena, N.Y. The SOP is based on two empirical temperature decline equations developed for Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, N.Y., respectively. Input data needed to forecast freeze-up consist of the forecast December flow rate and…

  16. Design of freeze-drying processes for pharmaceuticals: practical advice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Design of freeze-drying processes is often approached with a "trial and error" experimental plan or, worse yet, the protocol used in the first laboratory run is adopted without further attempts at optimization. Consequently, commercial freeze-drying processes are often neither robust nor efficient. It is our thesis that design of an "optimized" freeze-drying process is not particularly difficult for most products, as long as some simple rules based on well-accepted scientific principles are followed. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the scientific foundations of the freeze-drying process design and then to consolidate these principles into a set of guidelines for rational process design and optimization. General advice is given concerning common stability issues with proteins, but unusual and difficult stability issues are beyond the scope of this review. Control of ice nucleation and crystallization during the freezing step is discussed, and the impact of freezing on the rest of the process and final product quality is reviewed. Representative freezing protocols are presented. The significance of the collapse temperature and the thermal transition, denoted Tg', are discussed, and procedures for the selection of the "target product temperature" for primary drying are presented. Furthermore, guidelines are given for selection of the optimal shelf temperature and chamber pressure settings required to achieve the target product temperature without thermal and/or mass transfer overload of the freeze dryer. Finally, guidelines and "rules" for optimization of secondary drying and representative secondary drying protocols are presented.

  17. Optimum Parameters for Freeze-Drying Decellularized Arterial Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, William S.; Duffy, Garry P.

    2013-01-01

    Decellularized arterial scaffolds have achieved success in advancing toward clinical use as vascular grafts. However, concerns remain regarding long-term preservation and sterilization of these scaffolds. Freeze drying offers a means of overcoming these concerns. In this study, we investigated the effects of various freeze-drying protocols on decellularized porcine carotid arteries and consequently, determined the optimum parameters to fabricate a stable, preserved scaffold with unaltered mechanical properties. Freeze drying by constant slow cooling to two final temperatures ((Tf), −10°C and −40°C) versus instant freezing was investigated by histological examination and mechanical testing. Slow cooling to Tf= −10°C produced a stiffer and less distensible response than the non freeze-dried scaffolds and resulted in disruption to the collagen fibers. The mechanical response of Tf= −40°C scaffolds demonstrated disruption to the elastin network, which was confirmed with histology. Snap freezing scaffolds in liquid nitrogen and freeze drying to Tf= −40°C with a precooled shelf at −60°C produced scaffolds with unaltered mechanical properties and a histology resembling non-freeze-dried scaffolds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of optimizing the nucleation and ice crystal growth/size to ensure homogenous drying, preventing extracellular matrix disruption and subsequent inferior mechanical properties. This new manufacturing protocol creates the means for the preservation and sterilization of decellularized arterial scaffolds while simultaneously maintaining the mechanical properties of the tissue. PMID:23614758

  18. Comparison of Cryopreserved Human Sperm between Ultra Rapid Freezing and Slow Programmable Freezing: Effect on Motility, Morphology and DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Tongdee, Pattama; Sukprasert, Matchuporn; Satirapod, Chonticha; Wongkularb, Anna; Choktanasiri, Wicham

    2015-05-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm is common methods to preserve male fertility. Sperm freezing, suggest slow programmable freezing caused lower change of sperm morphology than sperm freezing in vapor of liquid nitrogen. Ultra rapid freezing is easy to be worked on, less time, low cost and does not need high experience. To compare the effect on sperm motility, morphology and DNA integrity of post-thawed sperm after ultra rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing methods. Experimental study at laboratory of infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital. Thirty-seven semen samples with normal semen analysis according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 [normal sperm volume ( 2 ml) and normal sperm concentration (≥ 20 x10(6)/ml) and sperm motility (≥ 50%)]. Semen samples were washed. Then each semen sample was divided into six cryovials. Two cryovials, 0.5 ml each, were cryopreserved by slow programmable freezing. Four 0.25 ml containing cryovials, were cryopreserved by ultra rapidfreezing method. After cryopreservationfor 1 month, thawedprocess was carried out at room temperature. Main outcomes are sperm motility was determined by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA), sperm morphology was determined by eosin-methylene blue staining and sperm DNA integrity was assessed by TUNEL assay. Sperm motility was reduced significantly by both methods, from 70.4 (9.0)% to 29.1 (12.3)% in slowprogrammable freezing and to 19.7 (9.8)% in ultra rapid freezing (p < 0.05). Sperm motility decreased significantly more by ultra rapid freezing (p < 0.001). The percentage of normal sperm morphology and DNA integrity were also reduced significantly by both methods. However, no significant difference between the two methods was found (p > 0.05). Cryopreservation of human sperm for 1 month significantly decreased sperm motility, morphology and DNA integrity in both methods. However sperm motility was decreased more by ultra rapid

  19. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between male and female results for alkaline phosphatase, selenium, and zinc. Although there was a significant difference between male and female gamma-globulin values and the total albumin:globulin ratio, the overall values are much lower than those reported for other Rangifer species. Sexual differences should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of males compared to females. References ranges are presented combining male and female results for hematology and serum chemistry and separately for males and females for serum electrophoresis. No correlation was found between induction time and aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, glucose, cortisol, or total protein. Blood values were generally similar to those published for semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), but the effect of capture drugs, stress, season, and sample size should be considered with interpretation. This paper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  20. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    PubMed

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  2. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  3. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  5. Morphology of supercooled droplets freezing on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Shiren; Huang, Zhiting; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Xingyi

    2018-05-01

    Supercooled droplets freezing on solid surfaces are ubiquitous in nature. This letter investigates the influences of droplet viscosity on freezing velocity and frosting formation. Several experiments were conducted for three kinds of sessile droplets (water, silicone oil and oil) on two types of substrates (copper and iron) with different surface roughness at various temperatures. The results show that the water droplets exhibit obvious phase transition lines and their freezing speeds increase when the temperature of substrates decreases. It is found that the freezing speed is independent of the thermal conductivities of the substrates. Notably, the water droplets develop prominent bulges after freezing and subsequently nucleate to frost. In contrast, the high viscosity oil and silicone oil do not manifest an obvious phase transition line. Besides, no bulges are observed in these two kinds of droplets, suggesting that these frosting forms are of different mechanisms compared with water droplets.

  6. Natural genetic variation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Matthew A; Wiese, Dana; Freund, Susanne; Fiehn, Oliver; Heyer, Arnd G; Hincha, Dirk K

    2006-09-01

    Low temperature is a primary determinant of plant growth and survival. Using accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) originating from Scandinavia to the Cape Verde Islands, we show that freezing tolerance of natural accessions correlates with habitat winter temperatures, identifying low temperature as an important selective pressure for Arabidopsis. Combined metabolite and transcript profiling show that during cold exposure, global changes of transcripts, but not of metabolites, correlate with the ability of Arabidopsis to cold acclimate. There are, however, metabolites and transcripts, including several transcription factors, that correlate with freezing tolerance, indicating regulatory pathways that may be of primary importance for this trait. These data identify that enhanced freezing tolerance is associated with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and hormonal responses and the induction of flavonoid metabolism, provide evidence for naturally increased nonacclimated freezing tolerance due to the constitutive activation of the C-repeat binding factors pathway, and identify candidate transcriptional regulators that correlate with freezing tolerance.

  7. Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Hacker, P. T.

    1950-01-01

    A photomicrographic technique for investigating eupercooled. water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of eupercooled. water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets. The effect of size on the spontaneous freezing temperature was particularly marked below 60 microns. Frequency-distribution curves of the spontaneous freezing temperatures observed for droplets of a given size were obtained. Although no droplet froze at a temperature above 20 0 F, all droplets melted at 32 F. Results obtained with a copper support did not differ essentially from those obtained with a platinum surface.

  8. Stability Studies of a Freeze-Dried Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Formulation for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Santana, Héctor; García, Gerardo; Vega, Maribel; Beldarraín, Alejandro; Páez, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We report on the stability assessment of a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) freeze-dried formulation for wound healing by intra-lesional injections. The suitability of packaging material for the light protection of finished dried powder was evaluated after stressed exposure conditions. Degradation kinetics of powder for injection was investigated at concentrations of 25-250 μg/vial and temperatures of 45, 60, and 70 °C. The long-term stability was evaluated after storage at 25 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5% relative humidity (6 months) and 2-8 °C (24 months) in the dark and analyzed at several time points. The stability after reconstitution with various diluents was also assessed after 24 h storage at 2-8 °C. The rhEGF samples were analyzed for structural integrity by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size-exclusion HPLC, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biological activity was investigated by measuring the cell proliferation in a murine fibroblast cell line. Results show that freeze-dried rhEGF in primary packaging only was photosensitive, as degradation by RP-HPLC that was completely suppressed by the secondary carton package was revealed. An increase in freeze-dried rhEGF stability was observed with the increase in protein concentration from 25 to 250 μg/vial. The long-term stability study showed no significant rhEGF degradation or physical change within the freeze-dried formulations containing 25 or 250 μg/vial of rhEGF. No physical, chemical or biological changes were observed for rhEGF after reconstitution in water for injection or 0.9% sodium chloride during the storage conditions studied. The stability of a recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) freeze-dried formulation for wound healing by intra-lesional injections was assessed. The suitability of packaging material for the light protection of finished dried powder was evaluated after stressed exposure conditions

  9. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  10. Freezing Injury in Onion Bulb Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Jiwan P.; Levitt, Jacob; Stadelmann, Eduard J.

    1977-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were frozen to −4 and −11 C and kept frozen for up to 12 days. After slow thawing, a 2.5-cm square from a bulb scale was transferred to 25 ml deionized H2O. After shaking for standard times, measurements were made on the effusate and on the effused cells. The results obtained were as follows. Even when the scale tissue was completely infiltrated, and when up to 85% of the ions had diffused out, all of the cells were still alive, as revealed by cytoplasmic streaming and ability to plasmolyze. The osmotic concentration of the cell sap, as measured plasmolytically, decreased in parallel to the rise in conductivity of the effusate. The K+ content of the effusate, plus its assumed counterion, accounted for only 20% of the total solutes, but for 100% of the conductivity. A large part of the nonelectrolytes in the remaining 80% of the solutes was sugars. The increased cell injury and infiltration in the −11 C treatment, relative to the −4 C and control (unfrozen) treatments, were paralleled by increases in conductivity, K+ content, sugar content, and pH of the effusate. In spite of the 100% infiltration of the tissue and the large increase in conductivity of the effusate following freezing, no increase in permeability of the cells to water could be detected. The above observations may indicate that freezing or thawing involves a disruption of the active transport system before the cells reveal any injury microscopically. PMID:16660100

  11. Predictive modeling of freezing and thawing of frost-susceptible soils.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    Frost depth is an essential factor in design of various transportation infrastructures. In frost : susceptible soils, as soils freezes, water migrates through the soil voids below the freezing line : towards the freezing front and causes excessive he...

  12. Early Salt Stress Effects on the Changes in Chemical Composition in Leaves of Ice Plant and Arabidopsis. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jyisy; Yen, Hungchen E.

    2002-01-01

    A technique based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was developed to detect the corresponding changes in chemical composition associated with the rapid changes in sodium and water content in 200 mm NaCl-stressed halophyte ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). The changes in glycophyte Arabidopsis stressed with 50 mm NaCl were also examined for comparison. The obtained IR spectra were further processed by deconvolution and curve fitting to examine the chemical nature of the responding sources in the leaves. Using three stages of ice plant leaves, absorption bands corresponding to carbohydrates, cell wall pectin, and proteins were identified, with distinct IR spectra representing each developmental stage. Within 48 h of mild salt stress, the absorption band intensities in the fingerprint region increased continuously in both plants, suggesting that the carbon assimilation was not affected at the early stage of stress. The intensities of ester and amide I absorption bands decreased slightly in Arabidopsis but increased in ice plant, suggesting that the cell expansion and protein synthesis ceased in Arabidopsis but continued in ice plant. In both plants, the shift in amide I absorption band was observed hourly after salt stress, indicating a rapid conformational change of cellular proteins. Analyses of the ratio between major and minor amide I absorption band revealed that ice plant was able to maintain a higher-ordered form of proteins under stress. Furthermore, the changes in protein conformation showed a positive correlation to the leaf sodium contents in ice plant, but not in Arabidopsis. PMID:12376666

  13. Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

  14. Chemical modeling constraints on Martian surface mineralogies formed in an early, warm, wet climate, and speculations on the occurrence of phosphate minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian; Debraal, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.

  15. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Liao, Meijie; Li, Bin; Xue, Liangyi

    2017-10-01

    Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria. However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited. In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose (8.0%), skim milk (12.0%), sodium citrate (2.0%), serum (12.0%) and PVP (2.0%). Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate. The highest survival rate of E. tarda was observed when the concentration of NaCl was 10.0, 30.0 and between 5.0 and 10.0 g L-1 for preparing TSB medium, E. tarda suspension and protectant mixture, respectively. When E. tarda was frozen at -80°C or -40°C for 6 h, its survival rate was higher than that under other tested conditions. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate (79.63%-82.30%) of E. tarda was significantly higher than that obtained using single protectant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image indicated that E. tarda was embedded in thick matrix with detectable aggregation. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. tarda.

  16. Evaluation and Validation of the Messinger Freezing Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important non-dimensional parameters used in ice-accretion modeling and scaling studies is the freezing fraction defined by the heat-balance analysis of Messinger. For fifty years this parameter has been used to indicate how rapidly freezing takes place when super-cooled water strikes a solid body. The value ranges from 0 (no freezing) to 1 (water freezes immediately on impact), and the magnitude has been shown to play a major role in determining the physical appearance of the accreted ice. Because of its importance to ice shape, this parameter and the physics underlying the expressions used to calculate it have been questioned from time to time. Until now, there has been no strong evidence either validating or casting doubt on the current expressions. This paper presents experimental measurements of the leading-edge thickness of a number of ice shapes for a variety of test conditions with nominal freezing fractions from 0.3 to 1.0. From these thickness measurements, experimental freezing fractions were calculated and compared with values found from the Messinger analysis as applied by Ruff. Within the experimental uncertainty of measuring the leading-edge thickness, agreement of the experimental and analytical freezing fraction was very good. It is also shown that values of analytical freezing fraction were entirely consistent with observed ice shapes at and near rime conditions: At an analytical freezing fraction of unity, experimental ice shapes displayed the classic rime shape, while for conditions producing analytical freezing fractions slightly lower than unity, glaze features started to appear.

  17. Multiple Glass Transitions and Freezing Events of Aqueous Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calorimetric and optical cryo-microscope measurements of 10–64 wt % citric acid (CA) solutions subjected to moderate (3 K/min) and slow (0.5 and 0.1 K/min) cooling/warming rates and also to quenching/moderate warming between 320 and 133 K are presented. Depending on solution concentration and cooling rate, the obtained thermograms show one freezing event and from one to three liquid–glass transitions upon cooling and from one to six liquid–glass and reverse glass–liquid transitions, one or two freezing events, and one melting event upon warming of frozen/glassy CA/H2O. The multiple freezing events and glass transitions pertain to the mother CA/H2O solution itself and two freeze-concentrated solution regions, FCS1 and FCS2, of different concentrations. The FCS1 and FCS2 (or FCS22) are formed during the freezing of CA/H2O upon cooling and/or during the freezing upon warming of partly glassy or entirely glassy mother CA/H2O. The formation of two FCS1 and FCS22 regions during the freezing upon warming to our best knowledge has never been reported before. Using an optical cryo-microscope, we are able to observe the formation of a continuous ice framework (IF) and its morphology and reciprocal distribution of IF/(FCS1 + FCS2). Our results provide a new look at the freezing and glass transition behavior of aqueous solutions and can be used for the optimization of lyophilization and freezing of foods and biopharmaceutical formulations, among many other applications where freezing plays a crucial role. PMID:25482069

  18. Immersion Freezing of Total Ambient Aerosols and Ice Residuals

    SciT

    Kulkarni, Gourihar

    This laboratory study reports pre-activation measurements of the size-selected un-activated ambient or total aerosols at the temperature range from -26 to -34°C using two continuous-flow diffusion chamber style ice nucleation chambers. Two different experiments (A and B) were performed in immersion freezing mode. In experiment A, frozen fraction of total aerosol was measured, whereas in experiment B frozen fraction of ice residuals (IR) obtained through sublimation of nucleated ice crystals was measured. Frozen fractions at respective temperatures from experiment B were observed to be higher than A, and therefore it was concluded that ambient particles show pre-activation phenomenon. Furthermore, single-particlemore » elemental composition analyses of the total aerosols showed that majority of the particles are dust particles coated by organic matter. In general, this study suggests that such internally mixed complex total aerosols are efficient ice nucleating particles (INPs) and motivates further research to examine the physio-chemical properties of IR particles to explain the phenomenon of pre-activation.« less

  19. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Failure of cement hydrates: freeze-thaw and fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Del Gado, Emanuela; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland

    Mechanical and viscoelastic behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the ``glue'' of cement. Even more than the atomistic structure, the mesoscale amorphous texture of cement hydrates over hundreds of nanometers plays a crucial role for material properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nano-scale building units of cement hydrates and on their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles.Our mesoscale model was able to reconcile different experimental results ranging from small-angle neutron scattering, SEM, adsorption/desorption of N2, and water to nanoindentation and gain the new fundamental insights into the microscopic origin of the properties measured. Our results suggest that heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H, impacting the rheological and mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. In this talk I discuss recent investigation on failure mechanism at the mesoscale of hardened cement paste such as freeze-thaw and fracture. Using correlations between local volume fractions and local stress we provide a link between structural and mechanical heterogeneities during the failure mechanisms.

  1. Effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on glucosinolates and antioxidant attributes in broccoli florets.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congxi; Miao, Huiying; Qian, Hongmei; Yao, Leishuan; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-11-01

    The effects of industrial pre-freezing processing and freezing handling on the contents of glucosinolates and antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoid and chlorophyll), as well as the antioxidant capacity in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets were investigated in the present study. Our results showed that the glucosinolate accumulations were significantly decreased after pre-freezing processing, whereas elevated levels of phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and also antioxidant capacity were observed in frozen broccoli florets. The contents of vitamin C remained constant during above mentioned processing. In conclusion, the current industrial freezing processing method is a good practice for the preservation of main antioxidant nutrients in broccoli florets, although some improvements in pre-freezing processing, such as steam blanching and ice-water cooling, are needed to attenuate the decrease in glucosinolate content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 Aids in Resilience to Salt and Drought in Freezing-Sensitive Tomato1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Hope Lynn

    2016-01-01

    SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [M82 cv]). Hypersensitivity to salt and drought of SlSFR2-RNAi lines was observed. Higher tolerance of wild-type tomatoes was correlated with the production of trigalactosyldiacylglycerol, a product of SFR2 activity. Tomato SFR2 in vitro activity is Mg2+-dependent and its optimal pH is 7.5, similar to that of Arabidopsis SFR2, but the specific activity of tomato SFR2 in vitro is almost double that of Arabidopsis SFR2. When salt and drought stress were applied to Arabidopsis, no conditions could be identified at which SFR2 was induced prior to irreversibly impacting plant growth, suggesting that SFR2 protects Arabidopsis primarily against freezing. Discovery of tomato SFR2 function in drought and salt resilience provides further insights into general membrane lipid remodeling-based stress tolerance mechanisms and together with protection against freezing in freezing-resistant plants such as Arabidopsis, it adds lipid remodeling as a possible target for the engineering of abiotic stress-resilient crops. PMID:27600812

  3. The immersion freezing behavior of size-segregated soot and kaolinite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Augustin, S.; Clauss, T.; Niedermeier, D.; Raddatz, M.; Wex, H.; Shaw, R. A.; Stratmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a crucial role for ice formation in mixed-phase and cirrus clouds and has an important impact on precipitation formation, global radiation balances, and therefore Earth's climate (Cantrell and Heymsfield, 2005). Mineral dust and soot particles are found to be a major component of ice crystal residues (e.g., Pratt et al., 2009) so these substances are potential sources of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). Experimental studies investigating the immersion freezing behavior of size-segregated soot and kaolinite particles conducted at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) are presented. In our measurements only one aerosol particle is immersed in an air suspended water droplet which can trigger ice nucleation. The method facilitates very precise examinations with respect to temperature, ice nucleation time and ice nucleus size. Considering laboratory studies, the picture of the IN ability of soot particles is quite heterogeneous. Our studies show that submicron flame, spark soot particles and optionally coated with sulfuric acid to simulate chemically aging do not act as IN at temperatures higher than homogeneous freezing taking place. Therefore soot particles might not be an important source of IN for immersion freezing in the atmosphere. In contrast, kaolinite being representative for natural mineral dust with a well known composition and structure is found to be very active in forming ice for all freezing modes (e.g., Mason and Maybank, 1958). Analyzing the immersion freezing behavior of different sized kaolinite particles (300, 500 and 700 nm in diameter) the size effect was clearly observed, i.e. the ice fraction (number of frozen droplets per total number) scales with particle surface, i.e. the larger the ice nucleus surface the higher the ice fraction. The slope of the logarithm of the ice fraction as function of temperature is similar for all particle sizes investigated and fits very well with the results of L

  4. Heterogeneous freezing of super cooled water droplets in micrometre range- freezing on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    A new setup to analyse the freezing behaviour of ice nucleation particles (INPs) dispersed in aqueous droplets has been developed with the aim to analyse ensembles of droplets with sizes in the micrometre range, in which INPs are immersed. Major disadvantages of conventional drop-freezing experiments like varying drop sizes or interactions between the water- oil mixture and the INP, were solved by introducing a unique freezing- chip consisting of an etched and sputtered 15x15x1 mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold film (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015). Using this chip, isolated micrometre-sized droplets can be generated with sizes similar to droplets in real world clouds. The experimental set-up for drop-freezing experiments was revised and improved by establishing automated process control and image evaluation. We were able to show the efficiency and accuracy of our setup by comparing measured freezing temperatures of different INPs (Snomax®, K- feldspar, birch pollen (Betula pendula) washing water, juniper pollen suspension (Juniperus communis) and ultrapure water) with already published results (Atkinson et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013; Pruppacher and Klett, 1997; Pummer et al., 2012; Wex et al., 2015; Zolles et al., 2015). Comparison of our measurements with literature data show the important impact of droplet size, INP concentration and number of active sites on the T50 values. Here, the new set-up exhibits its strength in reproducibility and accuracy which is due to the defined and isolated droplets. Finally, it opens a temperature window down to -37˚ C for freezing experiments which was not accessible with former traditional approaches .Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds (vol 498, pg 355, 2013), Nature, 500, 491-491, 2013. Augustin, S., Wex, H

  5. Freeze-Casting Produces a Graphene Oxide Aerogel with a Radial and Centrosymmetric Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Xiong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ming; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Yi; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2018-05-14

    We report the assembly of graphene oxide (G-O) building blocks into a vertical and radially aligned structure by a bidirectional freeze-casting approach. The crystallization of water to ice assembles the G-O sheets into a structure, a G-O aerogel whose local structure mimics turbine blades. The centimeter-scale radiating structure in this aerogel has many channels whose width increases with distance from the center. This was achieved by controlling the formation of the ice crystals in the aqueous G-O dispersion that grew radially in the shape of lamellae during freezing. Because the shape and size of ice crystals is influenced by the G-O sheets, different additives (ethanol, cellulose nanofibers, and chitosan) that can form hydrogen bonds with H 2 O were tested and found to affect the interaction between the G-O and formation of ice crystals, producing ice crystals with different shapes. A G-O/chitosan aerogel with a spiral pattern was also obtained. After chemical reduction of G-O, our aerogel exhibited elasticity and absorption capacity superior to that of graphene aerogels with "traditional" pore structures made by conventional freeze-casting. This methodology can be expanded to many other configurations and should widen the use of G-O (and reduced G-O and "graphenic") aerogels.

  6. Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Jamshid; Singh, Ashutosh; Adewale, Peter Olusola; Adedeji, Akinbode A.; Ngadi, Michael O.; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic) (30%, 45% and 60% w/v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of hypertonic solution and coating layer were prepared to analyze their influence on the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices. It was observed that increase in the sugar solution concentration, decreased the moisture content of the apple slices significantly impacting its water activity, texture and sugar gain. Application of different concentrations of CMC coating had no significant effect on the properties of dried apple slices. A significant change was observed for color of CMC coated freeze dried apple slices pretreated with 60% sugar solution. Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square and lower root mean square error (RSME) compared to Newton’s model. PMID:28239107

  7. Filament organization revealed in platinum replicas of freeze-dried cytoskeletons

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the appearance of rapidly frozen, freeze-dried cytoskeletons that have been rotary replicated with platinum and viewed in the transmission electron microscope. The resolution of this method is sufficient to visualize individual filaments in the cytoskeleton and to discriminate among actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments solely by their surface substructure. This identification has been confirmed by specific decoration with antibodies and selective extraction of individual filament types, and correlated with light microscope immunocytochemistry and gel electrophoresis patterns. The freeze-drying preserves a remarkable degree of three-dimensionality in the organization of these cytoskeletons. They look strikingly similar to the meshwork of strands or "microtrabeculae" seen in the cytoplasm of whole cells by high voltage electron microscopy, in that the filaments form a lattice of the same configutation and with the same proportions of open area as the microtrabeculae seen in whole cells. The major differences between these two views of the structural elements of the cytoplasmic matrix can be attributed to the effects of aldehyde fixation and dehydration. Freeze-dried cytoskeletons thus provide an opportunity to study--at high resolution and in the absence of problems caused by chemical fixation--the detailed organization of filaments in different regions of the cytoplasm and at different stages of cell development. In this report the pattern of actin and intermediate filament organization in various regions of fully spread mouse fibroblasts is described. PMID:6893451

  8. New thermal model with distinct freeze-out temperatures for baryons and mesons

    SciT

    De Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Chiapparini, Marcelo

    2013-05-06

    A significant amount of experimental data for particle production in high-energy heavy ion collisions (10 - 200 GeV/A at center of mass) has been accumulated during last years. Many different theoretical attempts have tried to describe these data using thermal models in the approximation of global thermal equilibrium considering only one freeze-out temperature. However the thermal models often are not able to describe adequately the whole multiplicities of hadrons. For instance, the abundance of strange particles is overestimate and the pion yields are underestimated. In this work is presented a thermal hadronic model with two different temperatures in order tomore » describe the baryonic and mesonic chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is used to fit the particle population ratios of the hadrons produced in the reaction. The proposal is not merely to incorporate one additional degree of freedom in the adjustment procedure of data, but to present and alternative scenario for the freeze out stage in the collisional proces s. This new reformulated version of thermal model was applied to a set of data, offering a rather good improvement in the fitting of the calculated particle ratios to the data. The results suggest that the introduced model makes the thermal approach more robust to handle with a larger number of colliding systems and a more comprehensive set of reaction observables.« less

  9. Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

    2013-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to “the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete” GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results. PMID:23576906

  10. Freeze-thaw durability of air-entrained concrete.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

    2013-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to "the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete" GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results.

  11. Metabolic Changes in Avena sativa Crowns Recovering from Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Cynthia A.; Duke, Stanley H.; Livingston, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants. PMID:24675792

  12. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    PubMed Central

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  13. Mutagenic effect of freezing on nuclear DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todorova, T; Pesheva, M; Stamenova, R; Dimitrov, M; Venkov, P

    2012-05-01

    Although fragmentation of DNA has been observed in cells undergoing freezing procedures, a mutagenic effect of sub-zero temperature treatment has not been proved by induction and isolation of mutants in nuclear DNA (nDNA). In this communication we supply evidence for mutagenicity of freezing on nDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In the absence of cryoprotectors, cooling for 2 h at +4°C and freezing for 1 h at -10°C and 16 h at -20°C, with a cooling rate of 3°C/min, resulted in induction of frame-shift and reverse mutations in microsatellite and coding regions of nDNA. The sub-zero temperature exposure also has a strong recombinogenic effect, evidenced by induction of gene-conversion and crossing-over events. Freezing induces mutations and enhances recombination with a frequency equal to or higher than that of methylmethanesulphonate at comparable survival rates. The signals for the appearance of nDNA lesions induced by freezing are detected and transduced by the DNA damage pathway. Extracellular cryoprotectors did not prevent the mutagenic effect of freezing, while accumulation of trehalose inside cells reduced nDNA cryodamage. Freezing of cells is accompanied by generation of high ROS levels, and the oxidative stress raised during the freeze-thaw process is the most likely reason for the DNA damaging effect. Experiments with mitochondrial rho⁻ mutants or scavengers of ROS indicated that mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of sub-zero temperatures can be decreased but not eliminated by reduction of ROS level. The complete protection against cryodamage in nDNA required simultaneous usage of intracellular cryoprotector and ROS scavenger during the freeze-thaw process. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effect of freezing temperature on the color of frozen salmon.

    PubMed

    Ottestad, Silje; Enersen, Grethe; Wold, Jens Petter

    2011-09-01

    New freezing methods developed with the purpose of improved product quality after thawing can sometimes be difficult to get accepted in the market. The reason for this is the formation of ice crystals that can give the product a temporary color loss and make it less appealing. We have here used microscopy to study ice crystal size as a function of freezing temperature by investigating the voids in the cell tissue left by the ice crystals. We have also investigated how freezing temperature affects the color and the visible absorption spectra of frozen salmon. Freezing temperatures previously determined to be the best for quality after thawing (-40 to -60 °C) were found to cause a substantial loss in perceived color intensity during frozen state. This illustrated the conflict between optimal freezing temperatures with respect to quality after thawing against visual appearance during frozen state. Low freezing temperatures gave many small ice crystals, increased light scattering and an increased absorption level for all wavelengths in the visible region. Increased astaxanthin concentration on the other hand would give higher absorption at 490 nm. The results showed a clear potential of using visible interactance spectroscopy to differentiate between poor product coloration due to lack of pigmentation and temporary color loss due to light scattering by ice crystal. This type of measurements could be a useful tool in the development of new freezing methods and to monitor ice crystal growth during frozen storage. It could also potentially be used by the industry to prove good product quality. In this article we have shown that freezing food products at intermediate to low temperatures (-40 to -80 °C) can result in paler color during frozen state, which could affect consumer acceptance. We have also presented a spectroscopic method that can separate between poor product color and temporary color loss due to freezing. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciT

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology formore » air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.« less

  16. Locating the QCD critical end point through peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhibin; Chen, Yidian; Li, Danning; Huang, Mei

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the baryon number susceptibilities up to fourth order along different freeze-out lines in a holographic QCD model with a critical end point (CEP), and we propose that the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line can be used as a clean signature to locate the CEP in the QCD phase diagram. On the temperature and baryon chemical potential plane, the cumulant ratio of the baryon number susceptibilities (up to fourth order) forms a ridge along the phase boundary, and develops a sword-shaped “mountain” standing upright around the CEP in a narrow and oblate region. The measurement of baryon number susceptibilities from heavy-ion collision experiments is along the freeze-out line. If the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain, then one can observe the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line, and the kurtosis of the baryon number distributions has the highest magnitude. The data from the first phase of the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider indicates that there should be a peak of the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution at a collision energy of around 5 GeV, which suggests that the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain and the summit of the CEP should be located nearby, around a collision energy of 3-7 GeV. Supported by NSFC (11275213, and 11261130311) (CRC 110 by DFG and NSFC), CAS key project KJCX2-EW-N01, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  17. Freezing-induced deformation of biomaterials in cryomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelikkale, Altug

    Cryomedicine utilizes low temperature treatments of biological proteins, cells and tissues for cryopreservation, materials processing and cryotherapy. Lack of proper understanding of cryodamage that occurs during these applications remains to be the primary bottleneck for development of successful tissue cryopreservation and cryosurgery procedures. An engineering approach based on a view of biological systems as functional biomaterials can help identify, predict and control the primary cryodamage mechanisms by developing an understanding of underlying freezing-induced biophysical processes. In particular, freezing constitutes the main structural/mechanical origin of cryodamage and results in significant deformation of biomaterials at multiple length scales. Understanding of these freezing-induced deformation processes and their effects on post-thaw biomaterial functionality is currently lacking but will be critical to engineer improved cryomedicine procedures. This dissertation addresses this problem by presenting three separate but related studies of freezing-induced deformation at multiple length scales including nanometer-scale protein fibrils, single cells and whole tissues. A combination of rigorous experimentation and computational modeling is used to characterize post-thaw biomaterial structure and properties, predict biomaterial behavior and assess its post-thaw biological functionality. Firstly, freezing-induced damage on hierarchical extracellular matrix structure of collagen is investigated at molecular, fibril and matrix levels. Results indicate to a specific kind of fibril damage due to freezing-induced expansion of intrafibrillar fluid. This is followed by a study of freezing-induced cell and tissue deformation coupled to osmotically driven cellular water transport. Computational and semi empirical modeling of these processes indicate that intracellular deformation of the cell during freezing is heterogeneous and can interfere with cellular water

  18. Freeze Tape Casting of Functionally Graded Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofie, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Freeze tape casting is a means of making preforms of ceramic sheets that, upon subsequent completion of fabrication processing, can have anisotropic and/or functionally graded properties that notably include aligned and graded porosity. Freeze tape casting was developed to enable optimization of the microstructures of porous ceramic components for use as solid oxide electrodes in fuel cells: Through alignment and grading of pores, one can tailor surface areas and diffusion channels for flows of gas and liquid species involved in fuel-cell reactions. Freeze tape casting offers similar benefits for fabrication of optimally porous ceramics for use as catalysts, gas sensors, and filters.

  19. Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-06-01

    We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.

  20. Universal pion freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Castillo, A; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schukraft, J; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-01-17

    Based on an evaluation of data on pion interferometry and on particle yields at midrapidity, we propose a universal condition for thermal freeze-out of pions in heavy-ion collisions. We show that freeze-out occurs when the mean free path of pions lambda(f) reaches a value of about 1 fm, which is much smaller than the spatial extent of the system at freeze-out. This critical mean free path is independent of the centrality of the collision and beam energy from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  1. Generalized Dynamic Equations Related to Condensation and Freezing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingrong; Huang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The generalized thermodynamic equation related to condensation and freezing processes was derived by introducing the condensation and freezing probability function into the dynamic framework based on the statistical thermodynamic fluctuation theory. As a result, the physical mechanism of some weather phenomena covered by using δ(0,1) can in turn be studied and uncovered. From the generalized dynamic equations, the tendency equation of the generalized potential vorticity (GPV) is derived. From the discussion of tendency equation of GPV, in some very thin transitional areas, GPV is found nonconserved because of the introduction of the condensation and freezing probability function, even in frictionless and moist adiabatic air motion.

  2. Immersion Freezing of Coal Combustion Ash Particles from the Texas Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, C. L.; Tobo, Y.; Mulamba, O.; Brooks, S. D.; Mirrielees, J.; Hiranuma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Coal combustion aerosol particles contribute to the concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere. Especially, immersion freezing can be considered as one of the most important mechanisms for INP formation in supercooled tropospheric clouds that exist at temperatures between 0°C and -38°C. The U.S. contains more than 550 operating coal-burning plants consuming 7.2 x 108 metric tons of coal (in 2016) to generate a total annual electricity of >2 billion MW-h, resulting in the emission of at least 4.9 x 105 metric tons of PM10 (particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter). In Texas alone, 19 combustion plants generate 0.15 billion MW-h electricity and >2.4 x 104 metric tons of PM10. Here we present the immersion freezing behavior of combustion fly ash and bottom ash particles collected in the Texas Panhandle region. Two types of particulate samples, namely <45 µm sieved bottom ash (B_Ash_TX_PH) and <45 µm sieved fly ash (F_Ash_TX_PH), were prepared. Afterwards, their immersion freezing abilities were measured using the Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test (CRAFT) system covering the heterogeneous freezing temperature down to -30 °C. The results were generated and are reported through two metrics, frozen fraction, ffrozen(T), and ice nucleation active site density per unit mass, nm(T) as a function of temperature. Our preliminary results show that an onset increase in ffrozen(T) for B_Ash_TX_PH (ffrozen) occurred as high as at -15°C, whereas the onset for F_Ash_TX_PH is at -18°C. Secondly, B_Ash_TX_PH exhibited a higher nm(-20 °C) of 105 g-1 than that of F_Ash_TX_PH ( 5 x 103 g-1). On the other hand, previous studies on different combustion ash samples have reported that the opposite trend (i.e., ice nucleation efficiency of fly ash is greater than that of bottom ash; Grawe et al., 2016, ACP; Umo et al., 2015, ACP). We will discuss possible reasons for the observed differences. In addition, the results of complementary

  3. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  4. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  5. Rubber closures for freeze-dried products.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, G H

    1976-10-01

    Once a biological product has been developed to perform its required medical or pharmaceutical function, it is essential that a container-closure system by chosen which will preserve the efficacy of the product up to the point of administration. The general requirements applicable to proper closure function will be reviewed and the suitability of natural and synthetic elastomers to perform these functions will be discussed. The specialized application of elastomeric materials as closures for freeze-dried products presents additional requirements which are superimposed upon those previously discussed. The first of these unique considerations relates to the proper physical design which will permit the outgassing of water vapor during the sublimation step in the lyophilizing chamber. During this outgassing the design must also permit the closure to remain affixed in the neck while only partially inserted. Since these preparations are lyophilized because they are unstable in aqueous solutions, the elastomer used must constitute an effective barrier to the transmission of moisture vapor through the closure. The MVT and gas transmission properties of elastomers will be discussed. Special consideration will be given to the extremely low temperatures used in the sublimation, stoppering, and storage before use of lyophilized products. The phenomenon of glass transition points with different elastomers will be explained as its relation to satisfactory performance of the closure function at low temperatures.

  6. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve. PMID:23761798

  7. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  8. Satellite freeze forecast system: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martsolf, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite-based temperature monitoring and prediction system consisting of a computer controlled acquisition, processing, and display system and the ten automated weather stations called by that computer was developed and transferred to the national weather service. This satellite freeze forecasting system (SFFS) acquires satellite data from either one of two sources, surface data from 10 sites, displays the observed data in the form of color-coded thermal maps and in tables of automated weather station temperatures, computes predicted thermal maps when requested and displays such maps either automatically or manually, archives the data acquired, and makes comparisons with historical data. Except for the last function, SFFS handles these tasks in a highly automated fashion if the user so directs. The predicted thermal maps are the result of two models, one a physical energy budget of the soil and atmosphere interface and the other a statistical relationship between the sites at which the physical model predicts temperatures and each of the pixels of the satellite thermal map.

  9. Stochastic flux freezing and magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic flux conservation in turbulent plasmas at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is argued neither to hold in the conventional sense nor to be entirely broken, but instead to be valid in a statistical sense associated to the "spontaneous stochasticity" of Lagrangian particle trajectories. The latter phenomenon is due to the explosive separation of particles undergoing turbulent Richardson diffusion, which leads to a breakdown of Laplacian determinism for classical dynamics. Empirical evidence is presented for spontaneous stochasticity, including numerical results. A Lagrangian path-integral approach is then exploited to establish stochastic flux freezing for resistive hydromagnetic equations and to argue, based on the properties of Richardson diffusion, that flux conservation must remain stochastic at infinite magnetic Reynolds number. An important application of these results is the kinematic, fluctuation dynamo in nonhelical, incompressible turbulence at magnetic Prandtl number (Pr(m)) equal to unity. Numerical results on the Lagrangian dynamo mechanisms by a stochastic particle method demonstrate a strong similarity between the Pr(m)=1 and 0 dynamos. Stochasticity of field-line motion is an essential ingredient of both. Finally, some consequences for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, dynamo, and reconnection are briefly considered. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    SciT

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.

    2015-12-23

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Ultimately, though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  11. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  12. Improvement of parameters of freezing medium and freezing protocol for bull sperm using two osmotic supports.

    PubMed

    Chaveiro, A; Machado, L; Frijters, A; Engel, B; Woelders, H

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the freezing protocol of bull sperm, by investigating the influence on sperm viability after freeze/thawing of different freezing medium components, as well as the effect of cooling rates in the different stages of the cooling protocol, in single factor experiments. The experimental variables were: (1) salt-based versus a sugar-based medium (Tris versus sucrose); (2) glycerol concentration; (3) detergent (Equex) concentration; (4) presence of bicarbonate; (5) rate of cooling from 22 degrees C to holding temperature (CR1); (6) holding temperature (HT); (7) rate of cooling from holding temperature to -6 degrees C (CR2); (8) rate of cooling from -10 to -100 degrees C (CR3). All experiments were performed using five bulls per experiment (three ejaculates per bull). Sperm motility after freezing and thawing was assessed by CASA system, and sperm membrane integrity was assessed by flow cytometry. Sucrose-based medium did not offer a clear significant benefit compared to Tris medium. The concentration of Equex that gave the best results in Tris-based media group and sucrose-based media group was in a range between 2-7 and 4-7 g/l, respectively. In both media groups, a glycerol concentration of 800 mM was the best in any post-thaw viability parameters. In the Tris media group, the presence of bicarbonate had a negative effect on sperm viability. CR1 and CR2 had no significant effect on any of the post-thaw sperm viability parameters, but a CR1=0.2 degrees C/min and CR2=4 degrees C/min appeared to give better results in both media. The holding temperature (HT) that gave the best results was found to be in the range of 5-9 degrees C. There was a significant disadvantage of using a low CR3 of 10 degrees C/min, while 150 degrees C/min appeared to be the best cooling rate for either medium.

  13. In-line and real-time process monitoring of a freeze drying process using Raman and NIR spectroscopy as complementary process analytical technology (PAT) tools.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Vercruysse, P; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Ouyang, J; Zhang, X; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the complementary properties of Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as PAT tools for the fast, noninvasive, nondestructive and in-line process monitoring of a freeze drying process. Therefore, Raman and NIR probes were built in the freeze dryer chamber, allowing simultaneous process monitoring. A 5% (w/v) mannitol solution was used as model for freeze drying. Raman and NIR spectra were continuously collected during freeze drying (one Raman and NIR spectrum/min) and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Raman spectroscopy was able to supply information about (i) the mannitol solid state throughout the entire process, (ii) the endpoint of freezing (endpoint of mannitol crystallization), and (iii) several physical and chemical phenomena occurring during the process (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization). NIR spectroscopy proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor the critical aspects during drying: (i) endpoint of ice sublimation and (ii) monitoring the release of hydrate water during storage. Furthermore, via NIR spectroscopy some Raman observations were confirmed: start of ice nucleation, end of mannitol crystallization and solid state characteristics of the end product. When Raman and NIR monitoring were performed on the same vial, the Raman signal was saturated during the freezing step caused by reflected NIR light reaching the Raman detector. Therefore, NIR and Raman measurements were done on a different vial. Also the importance of the position of the probes (Raman probe above the vial and NIR probe at the bottom of the sidewall of the vial) in order to obtain all required critical information is outlined. Combining Raman and NIR spectroscopy for the simultaneous monitoring of freeze drying allows monitoring almost all critical freeze drying process aspects. Both techniques do not only complement each other, they also

  14. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  15. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  16. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  17. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated cranberries or other cranberry products by any commercial process. ...

  18. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tech...

  19. ARCTIC FOUNDATIONS, INC. FREEZE BARRIER SYSTEM - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska has developed a freeze barrier technology designed to prevent the migration of contaminants in groundwater by completely isolating contaminant source areas until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. With this tec...

  20. Freeze-drying of silica nanoparticles: redispersibility toward nanomedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Picco, Agustin S; Ferreira, Larissa F; Liberato, Michelle S; Mondo, Gabriela B; Cardoso, Mateus B

    2018-01-01

    To study freeze-drying of silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) in order to find suitable conditions to produce lyophilized powders with no aggregation after resuspension and storage. SiO 2 NPs were synthesized using a Stöber-based procedure, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. SiO 2 NPs hydrodynamic diameters were compared prior and after freeze-drying in the presence/absence of carbohydrate protectants. Glucose was found to be the most suitable protectant against the detrimental effects of lyophilization. The minimum concentration of carbohydrate required to effectively protect SiO 2 NPs from aggregation during freeze-drying is influenced by the nanoparticle's size and texture. Negligible aggregation was observed during storage. Carbohydrates can be used during SiO 2 NPs freeze-drying process to obtain redispersable solids that maintain original sizes without residual aggregation.

  1. Computed parameters : freeze/thaw monograph for LTPP

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-01-01

    To study the effect of freezing/thawing conditions on pavement performance, data from three electrical resistivity (ER) measurements (resistivity, resistance, and voltage) are collected approximately every month, every other year at selected Seasonal...

  2. 19. FIRST FLOOR LEVEL BELOW ICE FREEZING TANKS AND LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FIRST FLOOR LEVEL BELOW ICE FREEZING TANKS AND LOWER LEVEL OF ICE DUMP AND LIFT WHERE FROZEN ICE IS BROUGHT INTO STORAGE. - Atlantic Ice & Coal Company, 135 Prince Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  3. Crystalline gold in soil and the problem of supergene nugget formation: Freezing and exclusion as genetic mechanisms

    Watterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Many of the world's richest gold placer deposits now occur in cold regions despite differences in their climatic history. It therefore seems possible that there may be some fundamental connection between freezing climates and the local chemical behavior of gold in the weathering cycle. This hypothesis, along with the problematical occurrence of gold as euhedral crystals in arctic gravel and soil placers, has led me to review low temperature phenomena that may bear on the geochemistry of gold. Several effects which may influence the weathering of natural gold-bearing rocks, the chemical complexation of gold, and its subsequent mobility and deposition appear to be strongly connected with freeze action. The exclusion of dissolved solutes, solute gases, and particles from ice, subjects rock and soil minerals to increased corrosion from thin, unfrozen, adsorbed water films which remain at particle surfaces throughout the freezing of rocks and soils. The preferential exclusion of cations (over anions) from growing ice crystals creates charge separations and measurable current flow across waterice phase boundaries in freezing soil - a phenomenon which leads to troublesome seasonal electrolytic corrosion of pipelines buried in soil; this phenomenon may also favor the dissolution of normally insoluble metals such as gold during geologic time periods. The ice-induced accumulation of clays, organic acids, bacteria, and other organic matter at mineral surfaces may also speed chemical attack by providing a nearby sink of alternate cation-binding sites and hence rapid removal of liberated cations from solution. The latter mechanism may be operative in both the dissolution and redeposition of gold. These physical, chemical, and electrical effects are favorable to the dissolution of rocks (in addition to frost shattering) and to the dissolution, mobilization, and redeposition of gold and other noble metals and must therefore contribute significantly to the behavior of gold at low

  4. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciT

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  5. Assessing Aromatic-Hydrocarbon Toxicity to Fish Early Life Stages Using Passive-Dosing Methods and Target-Lipid and Chemical-Activity Models.

    PubMed

    Butler, Josh D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinski, Daniel J; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-08-02

    Aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) are known to impair fish early life stages (ELS). However, poorly defined exposures often confound ELS-test interpretation. Passive dosing (PD) overcomes these challenges by delivering consistent, controlled exposures. The objectives of this study were to apply PD to obtain 5 d acute embryo lethality and developmental data and 30 d chronic embryo-larval survival and growth-effects data using zebrafish with different AHs; to analyze study and literature toxicity data using target-lipid (TLM) and chemical-activity (CA) models; and to extend PD to a mixture and test the assumption of AH additivity. PD maintained targeted exposures over a concentration range of 6 orders of magnitude. AH toxicity increased with log Kow up to pyrene (5.2). Pericardial edema was the most sensitive sublethal effect that often preceded embryo mortality, although some AHs did not produce developmental effects at concentrations causing mortality. Cumulative embryo-larval mortality was more sensitive than larval growth, with acute-to-chronic ratios of <10. More-hydrophobic AHs did not exhibit toxicity at aqueous saturation. The relationship and utility of the TLM-CA models for characterizing fish ELS toxicity is discussed. Application of these models indicated that concentration addition provided a conservative basis for predicting ELS effects for the mixture investigated.

  6. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life: chemical exposure and the development of atopic disease and allergy.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A; Puangpet, P; Kimber, I

    2015-03-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [improved quality of freeze-dried foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for improving the quality of freeze-dried foods were investigated. Areas discussed include: (1) microstructure of freeze-dried systems, (2) structural changes in freeze-dried systems, (3) artificial food matrices, and (4) osmotic preconcentration to yield improved freeze-dried products.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Nah, Gyoungju; Lee, Moonsub; Kim, Do-Soon; Rayburn, A. Lane; Voigt, Thomas; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata), a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG) groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY). The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation. PMID:27032112

  10. Experimental realization of self-guided quantum coherence freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Geng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-12-01

    Quantum coherence is the most essential characteristic of quantum physics, specifcially, when it is subject to the resource-theoretical framework, it is considered as the most fundamental resource for quantum techniques. Other quantum resources, e.g., entanglement, are all based on coherence. Therefore, it becomes urgently important to learn how to preserve coherence in quantum channels. The best preservation is coherence freezing, which has been studied recently. However, in these studies, the freezing condition is theoretically calculated, and there still lacks a practical way to achieve this freezing; in addition the channels are usually fixed, but actually, there are also degrees of freedom that can be used to adapt the channels to quantum states. Here we develop a self-guided quantum coherence freezing method, which can guide either the quantum channels (tunable-channel scheme with upgraded channels) or the initial state (fixed-channel scheme) to the coherence-freezing zone from any starting estimate. Specifically, in the fixed-channel scheme, the final-iterative quantum states all satisfy the previously calculated freezing condition. This coincidence demonstrates the validity of our method. Our work will be helpful for the better protection of quantum coherence.

  11. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at −45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at −55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples. PMID:26761493

  12. Identification of Arabidopsis mutants with altered freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Perea-Resa, Carlos; Salinas, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature is an important determinant in the configuration of natural plant communities and defines the range of distribution and growth of important crops. Some plants, including Arabidopsis, have evolved sophisticated adaptive mechanisms to tolerate low and freezing temperatures. Central to this adaptation is the process of cold acclimation. By means of this process, many plants from temperate regions are able to develop or increase their freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures. The identification and characterization of factors involved in freezing tolerance are crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the cold acclimation response and have a potential interest to improve crop tolerance to freezing temperatures. Many genes implicated in cold acclimation have been identified in numerous plant species by using molecular approaches followed by reverse genetic analysis. Remarkably, however, direct genetic analyses have not been conveniently exploited in their capacity for identifying genes with pivotal roles in that adaptive response. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for evaluating the freezing tolerance of both non-acclimated and cold-acclimated Arabidopsis plants. This protocol allows the accurate and simple screening of mutant collections for the identification of novel factors involved in freezing tolerance and cold acclimation.

  13. An RNA-Cleaving Catalytic DNA Accelerated by Freezing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianmeng; Zhou, Wenhu; Liu, Juewen

    2018-05-18

    The EtNa DNAzyme was isolated during the isopropanol precipitation step of an in vitro selection effort. Although inactive with the intended cofactor, its RNA cleavage activity was observed under a few conditions. With Na + , EtNa was highly active in ∼50 % ethanol, whereas in water, it was highly active with Ca 2+ . In this work, we showed that the EtNa DNAzyme was accelerated by freezing in water in the presence of Na + . The apparent K d value reached 6.2 mm Na + under the frozen condition, over 20 times tighter than that in water at room temperature. With 10 mm Na + , EtNa had a cleavage rate of 0.12 h -1 after freezing at -20 °C. This effect was unique to EtNa, as all other tested DNAzymes were inhibited by freezing except for the Na + -specific NaA43. Freezing also inhibited EtNa if Ca 2+ was used. We attributed this to the concentrations of EtNa and Na + in the micropockets between ice crystals, but divalent metals might misfold DNA. Overall, we have systematically studied the effect of freezing on the RNA-cleavage activity of DNAzymes. The DNAzyme sequence and the metal ion species are both crucial to determine the effect of freezing. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effects of freezing, freeze drying and convective drying on in vitro gastric digestion of apples.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Maria Esperanza; Bornhorst, Gail M; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Simal, Susana

    2017-01-15

    The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion. Processing resulted in disruption of the cellular structure during digestion, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and changes in carbohydrate composition. Moisture content increased (6-11% dmo), while soluble solids (55-78% dmo), acidity (44-72% dmo), total polyphenol content (30-61% dmo), and antioxidant activity (41-87%) decreased in all samples after digestion. Mathematical models (Weibull and exponential models) were used to better evaluate the influence of processing on apple behavior during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition, Executive Function, and Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Rajal G.; Klein, Krystal A.; Nomura, Mariko; Fleming, Michael; Mancini, Martina; Giladi, Nir; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that freezing of gait (FoG) in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with declines in executive function (EF). However, EF is multi-faceted, including three dissociable components: inhibiting prepotent responses, switching between task sets, and updating working memory. Objective This study investigated which aspect of EF is most strongly associated with FoG in PD. Method Three groups were studied: adults with PD (with and without FoG) and age-matched, healthy adults. All participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks previously shown to discriminate among the three EF components. Participants also completed a turning-in-place task that was scored for FoG by neurologists blind to subjects’ self-reported FoG. Results Compared to both other groups, participants with FoG showed significant performance deficits in tasks associated with inhibitory control, even after accounting for differences in disease severity, but no significant deficits in task-switching or updating working memory. Surprisingly, the strongest effect was an intermittent tendency of participants with FoG to hesitate, and thus miss the response window, on go trials in the Go-Nogo task. The FoG group also made slower responses in the conflict condition of the Stroop task. Physician-rated FoG scores were correlated both with failures to respond on go trials and with failures to inhibit responses on nogo trials in the Go-Nogo task. Conclusion These results suggest that FoG is associated with a specific inability to appropriately engage and release inhibition, rather than with a general executive deficit. PMID:24496099

  16. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Freezing African Elephant Semen as a New Population Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W. Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. Conclusions/Significance With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat. PMID:23483917

  18. Protective effect of sugars on storage stability of microwave freeze-dried and freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei F19.

    PubMed

    Ambros, S; Hofer, F; Kulozik, U

    2018-05-31

    Microwave freeze drying in comparison to conventional freeze drying allows for intensification of the preservation process of lactic acid bacteria without imposing additional processing stress. Viability as a function of storage time of microwave freeze-dried Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 was investigated in comparison to conventionally lyophilized bacteria of the same strain. Further, the impact of the protectants, sorbitol, trehalose and maltodextrin, on shelf life was analyzed. The highest inactivation rates of 0.035 and 0.045 d -1 , respectively, were found for cultures without protectants. Thus, all additives were found to exhibit a protective effect during storage with inactivation rates between 0.015 and 0.040 d -1 . Although trehalose and maltodextrin samples were in the glassy state during storage, in contrast to samples containing sorbitol as protectant, the best protective effect could be found for sorbitol with the lowest inactivation rate of 0.015 d -1 . Due to its low molecular weight, it might protect cells owing to better adsorption to the cytoplasma membrane. Sorbitol additionally shows antioxidative properties. Storage behavior of microwave freeze-dried cultures follows the typical behavior of a product dried by conventional lyophilization. No significant influence of the drying technique on storage behavior was detected. General findings concerning storage behavior in freeze drying are likely to be applicable in microwave freeze drying with only slight adjustments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    PubMed Central

    Vutyavanich, Teraporn; Lattiwongsakorn, Worashorn; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn; Samchimchom, Sudarat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing. Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots: non-frozen, rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing. Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<0.01) after the first, second and third cycles of freezing/thawing, but there was no difference in morphology. In the second experiment, rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects. The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay. DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing, but to a level that was not clinically important. In the third experiment, rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects, until no motile sperm were observed after thawing. The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range: 5–8, mean: 6.8). In conclusion, we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing. This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:23064685

  20. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    PubMed

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  1. Freeze-dried dog sperm: Dynamics of DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Olaciregui, M; Luño, V; Gonzalez, N; De Blas, I; Gil, L

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-drying (FD) has been proposed as an alternative method to preserve spermatozoa. During the FD procedure, sperm DNA might become damaged by both freezing and drying stresses caused by the endonucleases, the oxidative stress and the storage conditions. We examined the DNA integrity of dog sperm freeze-dried with two kinds of chelating agents in FD buffers and storage at two different temperatures. Ejaculated sperm from four dogs were suspended in basic medium (10 mM Tris-HCl buffer+50 mM NaCl) supplemented with 50 mM EGTA or with 50 mM EDTA and then freeze-dried. Sperm samples were stored at 4°C as room temperature, and the analysis of DNA damage was performed after a month and 5 months of storage using a Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test. We found four different sperm populations according to the size of the halos around the sperm head: (1) absent halo, (2) <6 μm, (3) 6-10 μm, (4) >10 μm. All of them coexisted in each freeze-dried dog semen samples and differed significantly among different treatments. The highest percentage of spermatozoa with halo >10 μm was obtained when the semen samples were freeze-dried in EDTA medium and stored at room temperature for five months. Results suggested that both, the kind of chelating agent as well as storage temperature and period, influenced DNA integrity of freeze-dried dog sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Anxiety Cause Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A.; Ellard, Colin G.; Almeida, Quincy J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p<0.001) and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p<0.001). Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013) and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005) when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD. PMID:25250691

  3. Freezing of gait: Promising avenues for future treatment.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Moran; Lígia Silva de Lima, Ana; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Shine, James M; Nonnekes, Jorik; Lewis, Simon J G

    2018-03-12

    Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. It poses a major burden on both patients and their families, as freezing often leads to falls, fall-related injuries and a loss of independence. Treating freezing of gait is difficult for a variety of reasons: it has a paroxysmal and unpredictable nature; a multifaceted pathophysiology, with an interplay between motor elements (disturbed stepping mechanisms) and non-motor elements (cognitive decline, anxiety); and a complex (and likely heterogeneous) underlying neural substrate, involving multiple failing neural networks. In recent years, advances in translational neuroscience have offered new insights into the pathophysiology underlying freezing. Furthermore, the mechanisms behind the effectiveness of available treatments (or lack thereof) are better understood. Driven by these concepts, researchers and clinicians have begun to improve currently available treatment options, and develop new and better treatment methods. Here, we evaluate the range of pharmacological (i.e. closed-looped approaches), surgical (i.e. multi-target and adaptive deep brain and spinal cord stimulation) and behavioural (i.e. biofeedback and cueing on demand) treatment options that are under development, and propose novel avenues that are likely to play a crucial role in the clinical management of freezing of gait in the near future. The outcomes of this review suggest that the successful future management of freezing of gait will require individualized treatments that can be implemented in an on-demand manner in response to imminent freezing. With this review we hope to guide much-needed advances in treating this devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experience Modulates Vicarious Freezing in Rats: A Model for Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Atsak, Piray; Orre, Marie; Bakker, Petra; Cerliani, Leonardo; Roozendaal, Benno

    2011-01-01

    The study of the neural basis of emotional empathy has received a surge of interest in recent years but mostly employing human neuroimaging. A simpler animal model would pave the way for systematic single cell recordings and invasive manipulations of the brain regions implicated in empathy. Recent evidence has been put forward for the existence of empathy in rodents. In this study, we describe a potential model of empathy in female rats, in which we studied interactions between two rats: a witness observes a demonstrator experiencing a series of footshocks. By comparing the reaction of witnesses with or without previous footshock experience, we examine the role of prior experience as a modulator of empathy. We show that witnesses having previously experienced footshocks, but not naïve ones, display vicarious freezing behavior upon witnessing a cage-mate experiencing footshocks. Strikingly, the demonstrator's behavior was in turn modulated by the behavior of the witness: demonstrators froze more following footshocks if their witness froze more. Previous experiments have shown that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when receiving footshocks. Thus, the role of USV in triggering vicarious freezing in our paradigm is examined. We found that experienced witness-demonstrator pairs emitted more USVs than naïve witness-demonstrator pairs, but the number of USVs was correlated with freezing in demonstrators, not in witnesses. Furthermore, playing back the USVs, recorded from witness-demonstrator pairs during the empathy test, did not induce vicarious freezing behavior in experienced witnesses. Thus, our findings confirm that vicarious freezing can be triggered in rats, and moreover it can be modulated by prior experience. Additionally, our result suggests that vicarious freezing is not triggered by USVs per se and it influences back onto the behavior of the demonstrator that had elicited the vicarious freezing in witnesses, introducing a paradigm to study empathy

  5. Effects of freezing on the bactericidal activity of human milk.

    PubMed

    Takci, Sahin; Gulmez, Dolunay; Yigit, Sule; Dogan, Ozlem; Dik, Kezban; Hascelik, Gulsen

    2012-08-01

    Storage of human milk by freezing has been recommended for long-term storage. The present study analyzed the bactericidal activity of human milk on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determined the changes in bactericidal activity following freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month and 3 months. Forty-eight milk samples were collected from 48 lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into 10 aliquots. Two of the samples were processed immediately and the others were stored at both -20°C and -80°C until analysis after 1 month and 3 months of freezing. All of the fresh milk samples showed bactericidal activity against E coli and P aeruginosa. Freezing at -20°C for 1 month did not cause statistically significant alteration in bactericidal activity (P > 0.017), whereas storage for 3 months lowered the degree of bactericidal activity significantly (P < 0.017) against E coli. Bactericidal activity was protected when the samples were stored at -80°C. There was no statistically significant difference in the bactericidal activity of human milk against E coli between freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month (P > 0.017); however, when milk was stored for 3 months, -80°C was significantly more protective (P < 0.017). Freezing at -20°C and -80°C for 1 month and 3 months did not cause any significant change in bactericidal activity against P aeruginosa (P > 0.05). Storage by freezing at -80°C is more appropriate to keep bactericidal capacity of stored human milk >1 month if affordable and available, especially in intensive care settings.

  6. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001) and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001). Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013) and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005) when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  7. The anatomy of a freezing lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, Anthony J.; Meese, Debra A.; Perovich, Donald K.; Tucker, Walter B.

    1990-10-01

    Winter leads are regions of intense ice growth with resultant large fluxes of heat to the atmosphere and salt to the ocean. They constitute a major source of new ice in the Arctic basin. During the 1988 drift phase of the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment we were afforded a unique opportunity to conduct a detailed, long-term study of a freezing lead. Measurements were made from September 17 to November 18, during which time the ice grew from open water to a thickness of 0.56 m. Cores were removed from the lead ice on a routine basis and analyzed for ice temperature, salinity, density, and structure. From these measurements the derived quantities of brine volume, porosity, heat flux to the atmosphere, and salt flux to the ocean were computed. In addition to this 2-month time series study of ice cores, the spatial variation in lead ice properties was investigated on September 30. Thin-section studies of ice structure indicated that the upper 0.05-0.15 m of the ice sheet was granular and that the lower portion was columnar. Typically, a portion of the granular layer was snow ice. Once the transition from granular to columnar ice had occurred, granular ice did not reappear. As the ice grew thicker the c axes of the ice crystals became aligned within the horizontal plane. This alignment direction corresponded closely with the inferred direction of the current at the ice/water interface. Vertical temperature profiles in the ice were approximately linear. Salinity profiles were usually C-shaped with bulk salinities ranging from 9 to 6‰, before stabilizing at 6‰ for ice thicker than 0.35 m. Core data were used to compute the flux of heat to the atmosphere and the flux of salt to the ocean for seven time intervals during the experiment. Heat fluxes ranged from 89 to 29 W/m2 with an average of 50 W m-2, roughly 3 times the corresponding value from multiyear ice. The flux of salt from the lead ice to the ocean varied from 0.51 to 0.06 kg m-2 d-1, averaging 0.21 kg m-2

  8. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  9. The relevance of the amorphous state to pharmaceutical dosage forms: glassy drugs and freeze dried systems.

    PubMed

    Craig, D Q; Royall, P G; Kett, V L; Hopton, M L

    1999-03-15

    Many pharmaceuticals, either by accident or design, may exist in a total or partially amorphous state. Consequently, it is essential to have an understanding of the physico-chemical principles underpinning the behaviour of such systems. In this discussion, the nature of the glassy state will be described, with particular emphasis on the molecular processes associated with glass transitional behaviour and the use of thermal methods for characterising the glass transition temperature, Tg. The practicalities of such measurements, the significance of the accompanying relaxation endotherm and plasticization effects are considered. The advantages and difficulties associated with the use of amorphous drugs will be outlined, with discussion given regarding the problems associated with physical and chemical stability. Finally, the principles of freeze drying will be described, including discussion of the relevance of glass transitional behaviour to product stability. Copyright

  10. Immersion freezing of ambient dust using WISDOM setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Y.; Reicher, N.

    2017-12-01

    A small subset of the atmospheric particles has the ability to induce ice formation. Among them are mineral dust particles that originate from arid regions. Mineral dust particles are internally mixed with various types of minerals such as kaolinite and illite from the clay minerals, quartz and feldspar. The mineral composition of the dust particles determine their freezing efficiency. Much attention was given to the clay group, as they are the most common minerals transported in the atmosphere. Recently, much focus has been directed to the feldspars, since its ice efficiency is higher at warmer temperatures, and as such is may dominate freezing in mixed phase clouds. Moreover, it was found that samples that contained higher content of feldspar had higher nucleation activity. In this study, we examine the immersion freezing of ambient dust particles that were collected in Rehovot, Israel (31.9N, 34.8E about 80m AMSL), during dust storms from the Sahara and the Syrian deserts. The size-segregated dust particles were collected on cyclopore polycarbonate filters using a Micro-orifice Uniform deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Freezing experiments were done using the WeIzmann Supercooled Droplets Observation on Microarray set (WISDOM). The particles were extracted from the filters by sonication and subsequently immersed in 100μm droplets that were cooled in a rate of 1°CPM to -37°C (homogenous freezing threshold). Investigation of the particles mineralogy was also performed. We observed freezing onset at 253K for particles of different diameters (0.3, 1.0, 1.8 and 3.2 μm). Most of the droplets were completely frozen by 243K. The number of active sites ranged from 108 to 1012 per m-2. Droplets that contained larger particles (higher surface area) froze at slightly warmer temperatures and contained slightly higher number of active sites. The freezing behavior fits well with measurements of K-feldspar particles and this may suggest that the feldspar dominated the dust freezing

  11. A theoretical extension of the soil freezing curve paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Erfan A.; Craig, James R.; Kurylyk, Barret L.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical models of permafrost evolution in porous media typically rely upon a smooth continuous relation between pore ice saturation and sub-freezing temperature, rather than the abrupt phase change that occurs in pure media. Soil scientists have known for decades that this function, known as the soil freezing curve (SFC), is related to the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) for unfrozen soils due to the analogous capillary and sorptive effects experienced during both soil freezing and drying. Herein we demonstrate that other factors beyond the SFC-SWCC relationship can influence the potential range over which pore water phase change occurs. In particular, we provide a theoretical extension for the functional form of the SFC based upon the presence of spatial heterogeneity in both soil thermal conductivity and the freezing point depression of water. We infer the functional form of the SFC from many abrupt-interface 1-D numerical simulations of heterogeneous systems with prescribed statistical distributions of water and soil properties. The proposed SFC paradigm extension has the appealing features that it (1) is determinable from measurable soil and water properties, (2) collapses into an abrupt phase transition for homogeneous media, (3) describes a wide range of heterogeneity within a single functional expression, and (4) replicates the observed hysteretic behavior of freeze-thaw cycles in soils.

  12. 'Banking time': egg freezing and the negotiation of future fertility.

    PubMed

    Waldby, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relatively recent practice of non-medical egg freezing, in which women bank their eggs for later use in conceiving a child. Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last five years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. I draw on interviews with both clinicians and women who have banked their eggs to consider how this novel practice articulates with broader issues about the relationship between sexuality, reproduction and the political economy of household formation. Non-medical egg-freezing provides a technical solution to a number of different problems women face with regard to the elongation of the life course, the extension of education, the cost of household establishment and the iterative nature of relationship formation, thematised by the ubiquity of internet dating among the interviewees. I focus on the ways women used egg freezing to manage and reconcile different forms of time.

  13. A tissue snap-freezing apparatus without sacrificial cryogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Jagga, Sahil; Holland, Harry; ter Brake, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Molecular technologies in cancer diagnosis require a fresh and frozen tissue, which is obtained by means of snap-freezing. Currently, coolants such as solid carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen are used to preserve good morphology of the tissue. Using these coolants, snap freezing of tissues for diagnostic and research purposes is often time consuming, laborious, even hazardous and not user friendly. For that reason snap-freezing is not routinely applied at the location of biopsy acquisition. Furthermore, the influence of optimal cooling rate and cold sink temperature on the viability of the cells is not well known. In this paper, a snap-freezing apparatus powered by a small cryocooler is presented that will allow bio-medical research of tissue freezing methods and is safe to use in a hospital. To benchmark this apparatus, cooldown of a standard aluminum cryo-vial in liquid nitrogen is measured and the cooling rate is about -25 K/s between 295 K and 120 K. Sufficient cooling rate is obtained by a forced convective helium gas flow through a gap formed between the cryo-vial and a cold surface and is therefore chosen as the preferred cooling method. A conceptual design of the snap-apparatus with forced flow is discussed in this paper.

  14. Arabidopsis ESK1 encodes a novel regulator of freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhanguo; Mandaokar, Ajin; Chen, Junping; Last, Robert L; Browse, John

    2007-03-01

    The eskimo1 (esk1) mutation of Arabidopsis resulted in a 5.5 degrees C improvement in freezing tolerance in the absence of cold acclimation. Here we show that the increase in freezing tolerance is not associated with any increase in the ability to survive drought or salt stresses, which are similar to freezing in their induction of cellular dehydration. Genome-wide comparisons of gene expression between esk1-1 and wild type indicate that mutations at esk1 result in altered expression of transcription factors and signaling components and of a set of stress-responsive genes. Interestingly, the list of 312 genes regulated by ESK1 shows greater overlap with sets of genes regulated by salt, osmotic and abscisic acid treatments than with genes regulated by cold acclimation or by the transcription factors CBF3 and ICE1, which have been shown to control genetic pathways for freezing tolerance. Map-based cloning identified the esk1 locus as At3g55990. The wild-type ESK1 gene encodes a 57-kDa protein and is a member of a large gene family of DUF231 domain proteins whose members encode a total of 45 proteins of unknown function. Our results indicate that ESK1 is a novel negative regulator of cold acclimation. Mutations in the ESK1 gene provide strong freezing tolerance through genetic regulation that is apparently very different from previously described genetic mechanisms of cold acclimation.

  15. Ice nucleating agents allow embryo freezing without manual seeding.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Magda; Buff, Samuel; Desnos, Hugo; Loiseau, Céline; Bruyère, Pierre; Joly, Thierry; Commin, Loris

    2017-12-01

    Embryo slow freezing protocols include a nucleation induction step called manual seeding. This step is time consuming, manipulator dependent and hard to standardize. It requires access to samples, which is not always possible within the configuration of systems, such as differential scanning calorimeters or cryomicroscopes. Ice nucleation can be induced by other methods, e.g., by the use of ice nucleating agents. Snomax is a commercial preparation of inactivated proteins extracted from Pseudomonas syringae. The aim of our study was to investigate if Snomax can be an alternative to manual seeding in the slow freezing of mouse embryos. The influence of Snomax on the pH and osmolality of the freezing medium was evaluated. In vitro development (blastocyst formation and hatching rates) of fresh embryos exposed to Snomax and embryo cryopreserved with and without Snomax was assessed. The mitochondrial activity of frozen-thawed blastocysts was assessed by JC-1 fluorescent staining. Snomax didn't alter the physicochemical properties of the freezing medium, and did not affect embryo development of fresh embryos. After cryopreservation, the substitution of manual seeding by the ice nucleating agent (INA) Snomax did not affect embryo development or embryo mitochondrial activity. In conclusion, Snomax seems to be an effective ice nucleating agent for the slow freezing of mouse embryos. Snomax can also be a valuable alternative to manual seeding in research protocols in which manual seeding cannot be performed (i.e., differential scanning calorimetry and cryomicroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    PubMed

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  17. Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nelson; Oppolzer, David; Ramos, Ana; Ferreira, Luis; Rosa, Eduardo As; Rodrigues, Miguel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at -18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices. For the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky-Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g -1 dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used. The spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Vernalization Requirement and the Chromosomal VRN1-Region can Affect Freezing Tolerance and Expression of Cold-Regulated Genes in Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    Ergon, Åshild; Melby, Tone I.; Höglind, Mats; Rognli, Odd A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants adapted to cold winters go through annual cycles of gain followed by loss of freezing tolerance (cold acclimation and deacclimation). Warm spells during winter and early spring can cause deacclimation, and if temperatures drop, freezing damage may occur. Many plants are vernalized during winter, a process making them competent to flower in the following summer. In winter cereals, a coincidence in the timing of vernalization saturation, deacclimation, downregulation of cold-induced genes, and reduced ability to reacclimate, occurs under long photoperiods and is under control of the main regulator of vernalization requirement in cereals, VRN1, and/or closely linked gene(s). Thus, the probability of freezing damage after a warm spell may depend on both vernalization saturation and photoperiod. We investigated the role of vernalization and the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial grass species. Two F2 populations, divergently selected for high and low vernalization requirement, were studied. Each genotype was characterized for the copy number of one of the four parental haplotypes of the VRN1-region. Clonal plants were cold acclimated for 2 weeks or vernalized/cold acclimated for a total of 9 weeks, after which the F2 populations reached different levels of vernalization saturation. Vernalized and cold acclimated plants were deacclimated for 1 week and then reacclimated for 2 weeks. All treatments were given at 8 h photoperiod. Flowering response, freezing tolerance and expression of the cold-induced genes VRN1, MADS3, CBF6, COR14B, CR7 (BLT14), LOS2, and IRI1 was measured. We found that some genotypes can lose some freezing tolerance after vernalization and a deacclimation–reacclimation cycle. The relationship between vernalization and freezing tolerance was complex. We found effects of the VRN1-region on freezing tolerance in plants cold acclimated for 2 weeks, timing of heading after 9 weeks of

  19. Cool episodes in Early Tertiary Arctic climate: Evidence from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielhagen, R. F.; Tripati, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic is a climatically sensitive and important region. However, very little is known about the climatic and oceanographic evolution of the area, particularly prior to the Neogene. Until recently, the Arctic was assumed to be characterized by relatively warm conditions during the early Cenozoic. The Early Tertiary sedimentary sequence on Svalbard contains several layers with coal seams and broad-leaved plants which were commonly accepted as indicators of a generally temperate-warm climate. Here we report on the intermittent occurrence of certain temperature indicators in the succession, which may represent the first northern high-latitude record of near-freezing temperatures for the early Cenozoic. Besides the findings of probably ice-rafted erratic clasts in the Paleocene and Eocene sandstones and shales, we note especially the occurrence of glendonites which are pseudomorphs of calcite after ikaite (calcium carbonate hexahydrate). We measured the chemical composition of Svalbard glendonites which is almost identical to that of similar pseudomorphs from the Lower Cretaceaous of Northern Canada. Mass spectrometric analyses of the glendonite calcite gave very low carbon isotope values. These values suggest a provenance of the calcium carbonate from marine organic carbon and connect our glendonites to the precursor mineral ikaite which has similar low values. Since a variety of studies has demonstrated that ikaite is stable only at temperatures close to freezing point, we have to infer low temperatures also for the deepositional environment of which the sediments were deposited that now hold glendonites. These results imply the occurrence of cooling phases episodically during the warm background climate of the Paleocene and Eocene, suggesting that temperature variability was much greater than previously recognized.

  20. Cryochemistry: freezing effect on peptide coupling in different organic solutions.

    PubMed

    Vajda, T; Szókán, G; Hollósi, M

    1998-06-01

    The freezing effect on peptide coupling in organic solutions of different polarity has been investigated and compared with the results obtained in liquid phase. The model reaction of DCC-activated coupling of Boc-Ala-Phe-OH with H-Ala-OBu(t) has been carried out in dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide, as well as in mixtures (90%/10%, v/v) of dioxane with acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide. The reactions have been traced and evaluated by RP-HPLC analysis. Freezing the reaction mixture resulted in all cases in a significant suppression of the N-dipeptidylurea side-product formation together with a slight decrease of tripeptide epimerization. The coupling yields and the side effects depended on the solvent, with the dioxane and dioxane/acetonitrile mixture produced the best results. The role of freezing and solvent in the improved results is discussed.

  1. Freezing point depression in model Lennard-Jones solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschke, Konstantin; Jörg Limbach, Hans; Kremer, Kurt; Donadio, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Crystallisation of liquid solutions is of uttermost importance in a wide variety of processes in materials, atmospheric and food science. Depending on the type and concentration of solutes the freezing point shifts, thus allowing control on the thermodynamics of complex fluids. Here we investigate the basic principles of solute-induced freezing point depression by computing the melting temperature of a Lennard-Jones fluid with low concentrations of solutes, by means of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of solvophilic and weakly solvophobic solutes at low concentrations is analysed, scanning systematically the size and the concentration. We identify the range of parameters that produce deviations from the linear dependence of the freezing point on the molal concentration of solutes, expected for ideal solutions. Our simulations allow us also to link the shifts in coexistence temperature to the microscopic structure of the solutions.

  2. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  3. Influence of pre-cure freezing on the profile of volatile compounds during the processing of Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge; Martín, Diana; Grau, Raúl; Antequera, Teresa

    2010-04-15

    This work was designed to study the effect of pre-cure freezing of raw thighs from Iberian pigs on the profile of volatile compounds during the processing of hams. Generation of volatile compounds during Iberian ham processing was similar in both pre-cure frozen and refrigerated hams, the main differences being at the final stage. The levels of 2-methylbutanal, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2,3-butanediol and 2-heptanol were significantly higher in dry-cured hams that were pre-cure frozen than in refrigerated ones, whereas the content of most detected esters was statistically lower in pre-cure frozen than in refrigerated hams. The effect of pre-cure freezing of Iberian ham on the profile of volatile compounds during ripening was not remarkable. Few differences were found in the final product, which would not greatly modify the aroma and flavour features of the dry-cured hams. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The origins and evolution of freeze-etch electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Balzers freeze-fracture machine by Moor in 1961 had a much greater impact on the advancement of electron microscopy than he could have imagined. Devised originally to circumvent the dangers of classical thin-section techniques, as well as to provide unique en face views of cell membranes, freeze-fracturing proved to be crucial for developing modern concepts of how biological membranes are organized and proved that membranes are bilayers of lipids within which proteins float and self-assemble. Later, when freeze-fracturing was combined with methods for freezing cells that avoided the fixation and cryoprotection steps that Moor still had to use to prepare the samples for his original invention, it became a means for capturing membrane dynamics on the millisecond time-scale, thus allowing a deeper understanding of the functions of biological membranes in living cells as well as their static ultrastructure. Finally, the realization that unfixed, non-cryoprotected samples could be deeply vacuum-etched or even freeze-dried after freeze-fracturing opened up a whole new way to image all the other molecular components of cells besides their membranes and also provided a powerful means to image the interactions of all the cytoplasmic components with the various membranes of the cell. The purpose of this review is to outline the history of these technical developments, to describe how they are being used in electron microscopy today and to suggest how they can be improved in order to further their utility for biological electron microscopy in the future. PMID:21844598

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of the Freeze-All Policy.

    PubMed

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of freeze-all cycles when compared to fresh embryo transfer. This was an observational study with a cost-effectiveness analysis. The analysis consisted of 530 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in a private center in Brazil between January 2012 and December 2013. A total of 530 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles - 351 fresh embryo transfers and 179 freeze-all cycles - with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and day 3 embryo transfers. The pregnancy rate was 31.1% in the fresh group and 39.7% in the freeze-all group. We performed two scenario analyses for costs. In scenario 1, we included those costs associated with the ICSI cycle (monitoring during controlled ovarian stimulation [COS], oocyte retrieval, embryo transfer, IVF laboratory, and medical costs), embryo cryopreservation of supernumerary embryos, hormone measurements during COS and endometrial priming, medication use (during COS, endometrial priming, and luteal phase support), ultrasound scan for frozen- thawed embryo transfer (FET), obstetric ultrasounds, and miscarriage. The total cost (in USD) per pregnancy was statistically lower in the freeze-all cycles (19,156.73 ± 1,732.99) when compared to the fresh cycles (23,059.72 ± 2,347.02). Even in Scenario 2, when charging all of the patients in the freeze-all group for cryopreservation (regardless of supernumerary embryos) and for FET, the fresh cycles had a statistically significant increase in treatment costs per ongoing pregnancy. The results presented in this study suggest that the freeze-all policy is a cost-effective strategy when compared to fresh embryo transfer.

  6. Physicochemical characterization of commercial freeze-dried snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Solano, Daniela; Gómez, Aarón; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Sánchez, Andrés; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Freeze-drying is a process used to improve the stability of pharmaceutical proteins, including snake antivenoms. This additional step confers these with a higher stability in comparison to liquid formulations, especially in tropical regions where high temperatures could affect the activity of immunoglobulins. Currently, the knowledge about freeze-drying process conditions for snake antivenoms is very limited. Some of the scarce scientific works on this subject reported reconstitution times up to 90 min for these preparations, which could imply a delay in the beginning of the antivenom therapy at the clinical setting. Therefore there is a reasonable concern about whether freeze-dried antivenoms exhibit the desired attributes for solid pharmaceutical proteins. In this work, a physicochemical characterization of seven commercial freeze-dried snake antivenoms was performed based on tests recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). No significant differences were observed between the products regarding macroscopic appearance of the solid cakes, reconstitution times, residual humidity and monomers content. On the other hand, total protein concentration, turbidity and electrophoretic profile were different among samples. Microscopic analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed no collapsed structure and, instead, most of the samples showed a characteristic protein morphology composed of smooth plates and channels. All the parameters tested in this study were according to literature recommendations and evidenced that, in spite of slight variations found for some products, formulation and freeze-drying conditions chosen by manufacturers are adequate to prevent aggregation and generate, in physicochemical terms, freeze-dried antivenoms of acceptable quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FY 2017 Status of Sodium Freezing and Remelting Tests

    SciT

    Lv, Q.; Boron, E.; Momozaki, Y.

    The Sodium Freezing and Remelting experiment facility at Argonne National Laboratory has been significantly modified and improved. The main improvement was replacement of the two original stainless steel test sections that had strain gages limited by their bonds to the stainless steel to maximum temperatures of 350°C with a single new test section with strain gages that can be utilized up to 980°C and a thin wall to enhance measured strains. Wetting of stainless steel by sodium within a practical time of one to a few days is expected to require temperatures of 450°C or greater. Thus, the higher temperaturemore » strain gages enable wetting in a short time of a few days. Wetting below 350°C would have required an impractically long time of at least weeks. Other improvements included upgrading of the loop configuration, incorporation of a cold finger to purify sodium, a new data acquisition system, and reinstallation of the many heaters, heater controllers, and thermocouples. After the loop had been heated to 400°C for about two hours, an initial sodium freezing test was conducted. It is thought that the sodium might have at least partially wetted the stainless steel wall under these conditions. The strain gage measurements indicate that an incremental step inward deformation of the test section thin wall occurred as the temperature decreased through the sodium freezing temperature. This behavior is consistent with sodium initially adhering to the stainless steel inner wall but breaking away from the wall as the freezing sodium contracted. Conduct of additional sodium freezing tests under well wetted conditions was prevented as a result of stoppage of all electrical work at Argonne by the Laboratory Director on July 25, 2017. A pathway to resuming electrical work is now in place at Argonne and additional sodium freezing testing will resume next fiscal year.« less

  8. Cellulose and Their Characteristic Ice Nucleation Activity- Freezing on a Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Thomas; Felgitsch, Laura; Grothe, Hinrich

    2016-04-01

    The influence of clouds on the Earth's climate system is well known (IPCC, 2013). Cloud microphysics determines for example cloud lifetime and precipitation properties. Clouds are cooling the climate system by reflecting incoming solar radiation and warm its surface by trapping outgoing infrared radiation (Baker and Peter, 2008). In all these processes, aerosol particles play a crucial role by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for liquid droplets and as an ice nucleation particle (INP) for the formation of ice particles. Freezing processes at higher temperatures than -38°C occur heterogeneously (Pruppacher and Klett 1997). Therefore aerosol particles act like a catalyst, which reduces the energy barrier for nucleation. The nucleation mechanisms, especially the theory of functional sites are not entirely understood. It remains unclear which class of compound nucleates ice. Here we present a unique technique to perform drop- freezing experiments in a more efficient way. A self-made freezing- chip will be presented. Measurements done to proof the efficiency of our setup as well as advantages compared with other setups will be discussed. Furthermore we present a proxy for biological INPs, microcrystalline cellulose. Cellulose is the main component of herbal cell walls (about 50 wt%). It is a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units. Cellulose can contribute to the diverse spectrum of ice nucleation particles. We present results of the nucleation activity measurements of MCCs as well as the influence of concentration, preparation or chemical modification.

  9. String-like collective atomic motion in the melting and freezing of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Kalvapalle, Pranav; Douglas, Jack F

    2011-12-08

    The melting of a solid represents a transition between a solid state in which atoms are localized about fixed average crystal lattice positions to a fluid state that is characterized by relative atomic disorder and particle mobility so that the atoms wander around the material as a whole, impelled by the random thermal impulses of surrounding atoms. Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of this particle delocalization transition, there is still no fundamental theory of melting and instead one often relies on the semi-phenomenological Lindemann-Gilvarry criterion to estimate roughly the melting point as an instability of the crystal lattice. Even the earliest simulations of melting in hexagonally packed hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of nonlocal collective atomic motions in the melting process, and here we utilize molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine whether the collective particle motion observed in melting has a similar geometrical form as those in recent studies of nanoparticle (NP) interfacial dynamics and the molecular dynamics of metastable glass-forming liquids. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in NP melting that is remarkably similar in form to the collective interfacial motions in NPs at equilibrium and to the collective motions found in the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. We also find that the spatial localization and extent of string-like motion in the course of NP melting and freezing evolves with time in distinct ways. Specifically, the collective atomic motion propagates from the NP surface and from within the NP in melting and freezing, respectively, and the average string length varies smoothly with time during melting. In contrast, the string-like cooperative motion peaks in an intermediate stage of the freezing process, reflecting a general asymmetry in the dynamics of NP superheating and supercooling. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Oxygen demand of aircraft and airfield pavement deicers and alternative freezing point depressants

    Corsi, Steven R.; Mericas, Dean; Bowman, George

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft and pavement deicing formulations and other potential freezing point depressants were tested for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Propylene glycol-based aircraft deicers exhibited greater BOD5 than ethylene glycol-based aircraft deicers, and ethylene glycol-based products had lower degradation rates than propylene glycol-based products. Sodium formate pavement deicers had lower COD than acetate-based pavement deicers. The BOD and COD results for acetate-based pavement deicers (PDMs) were consistently lower than those for aircraft deicers, but degradation rates were greater in the acetate-based PDM than in aircraft deicers. In a 40-day testing of aircraft and pavement deicers, BOD results at 20°C (standard) were consistently greater than the results from 5°C (low) tests. The degree of difference between standard and low temperature BOD results varied among tested products. Freshwater BOD test results were not substantially different from marine water tests at 20°C, but glycols degraded slower in marine water than in fresh water for low temperature tests. Acetate-based products had greater percentage degradation than glycols at both temperatures. An additive component of the sodium formate pavement deicer exhibited toxicity to the microorganisms, so BOD testing did not work properly for this formulation. BOD testing of alternative freezing point depressants worked well for some, there was little response for some, and for others there was a lag in response while microorganisms acclimated to the freezing point depressant as a food source. Where the traditional BOD5 test performed adequately, values ranged from 251 to 1,580 g/kg. Where the modified test performed adequately, values of BOD28 ranged from 242 to 1,540 g/kg.

  11. Naproxen Microparticulate Systems Prepared Using In Situ Crystallisation and Freeze-Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, Amanda; Tatari, Adam Keenan; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2017-07-01

    Poor drug solubility and dissolution rate remain to be one of the major problems facing pharmaceutical scientists, with approximately 40% of drugs in the industry categorised as practically insoluble or poorly water soluble. This in turn can lead to serious delivery challenges and poor bioavailability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of the surfactants, poloxamer 407 (P407) and caprol® PGE 860 (CAP), at various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3% w/v) on the enhancement of the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drug, naproxen, using in situ micronisation by solvent change method and freeze-drying. The extent at which freeze-drying influences the dissolution rate of naproxen microcrystals is investigated in this study by comparison with desiccant-drying. All formulations were evaluated and characterised using particle size analysis and morphology, in vitro dissolution studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. An increase in poloxamer 407 concentration in freeze-dried formulations led to enhancement of drug dissolution compared to desiccator-dried formulations, naproxen/caprol® PGE 860 formulations and untreated drug. DSC and FT-IR results show no significant chemical interactions between drug and poloxamer 407, with only very small changes to drug crystallinity. On the other hand, caprol® PGE 860 showed some interactions with drug components, alterations to the crystal lattice of naproxen, and poor dissolution profiles using both drying methods, making it a poor choice of excipient.

  12. Exploring Human Freeze Responses to a Threat Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Richey, J. Anthony; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Maner, Jon K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fundamental nature of tonic immobility in anxiety responses, surprisingly little empirical research has focused on the “freeze” response in humans. The present report evaluated frequency and predictors of a freeze response in the context of a biological challenge. A nonclinical sample (N = 404) underwent a 20-sec inhalation of 20% CO2/balance O2. Perceptions of immobility in the context of the challenge were reported in 13% of the sample, compared to 20% reporting a significant desire to flee. Subjective anxiety and panic during the challenge were associated with the freeze response, as were a number of anxiety symptom dimensions. PMID:17880916

  13. Wetlands: Crop freezes and land-use change in Florida

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    South Florida experienced a significant change in land usage during the twentieth century, including the conversion of natural wetlands into agricultural land for the cultivation of winter vegetable, sugar cane and citrus crops. This movement of agriculture from more northerly areas was intended partly to escape the risk of damaging winter freezes. Here we present evidence from a case study using a coupled atmosphere and land-surface computer-modelling system that suggests that the draining of wetlands may have inadvertently increased the frequency and severity of agriculturally damaging freezes in the south of Florida.

  14. Egg freezing, stratified reproduction and the logic of not

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary examines social and political implications of social egg freezing in a market that is stratified, globalized, and part of a larger bioeconomy. John Robertson's article and public discourse prompted by Facebook and Apple's ‘corporate egg freezing’ benefits provide touchstones for interrogating social and industry practices that embrace making reproductive capacity marketable. Supply of the cells and bodies necessary for assisted reproductive technology use depends on market thinking and structural inequality. What the industry produces are carefully calibrated social-political distances between participants in egg freezing and banking, as well as ‘third party reproduction.’ PMID:27774187

  15. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  16. Brine rejection from freezing salt solutions: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Vrbka, Lubos; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2005-09-30

    The atmospherically and technologically very important process of brine rejection from freezing salt solutions is investigated with atomic resolution using molecular dynamics simulations. The present calculations allow us to follow the motion of each water molecule and salt ion and to propose a microscopic mechanism of brine rejection, in which a fluctuation (reduction) of the ion density in the vicinity of the ice front is followed by the growth of a new ice layer. The presence of salt slows down the freezing process, which leads to the formation of an almost neat ice next to a disordered brine layer.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Meat During Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbayeva, A.; Arkharov, I.; Aldiyarov, A.; Drobyshev, A.; Zhubaniyazova, M.; Kurnosov, V.

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic technologies of processing and storage of agricultural products are becoming increasingly indispensable in the food industry as an important factor of ensuring food safety. One of such technologies is the shock freezing of meat, which provides a higher degree of preservation of the quality of frozen products in comparison with traditional technologies. The thermal conductivity of meat is an important parameter influencing the energy consumption in the freezing process. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of beef. The measurements were taken by using a specially designed measurement cell, which allows covering the temperature range from 80 to 300 K.

  18. The Impact of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Heather; Ng, Pearlly; Wheeler, Albert; Smith, William R; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Epinephrine is the first-line medical treatment for anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic syndrome. To treat anaphylaxis, backcountry recreationalists and guides commonly carry epinephrine autoinjectors. Epinephrine may be exposed to cold temperatures and freezing during expeditions. An epinephrine solution must contain 90% to 115% of the labeled epinephrine amount to meet United States Pharmacopeia standards. The purpose of this study was to determine whether freeze-thaw cycles alter epinephrine concentrations in autoinjectors labeled to contain 1.0 mg/mL epinephrine. A further objective was to determine whether samples continued to meet United States Pharmacopeia concentration standards after freeze-thaw cycles. Epinephrine from 6 autoinjectors was extracted and divided into experimental and control samples. The experimental samples underwent 7 consecutive 12-hour freeze cycles followed by 7 12-hour thaw cycles. The control samples remained at an average temperature of 23.1°C for the duration of the study. After the seventh thaw cycle, epinephrine concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay with mass spectrometry detection. The mean epinephrine concentration of the freeze-thaw samples demonstrated a statistically significant increase compared with the control samples: 1.07 mg/mL (SD ± 8.78; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.11) versus 0.96 mg/mL (SD ± 6.81; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99), respectively. The maximal mean epinephrine concentration in the experimental freeze-thaw group was 1.12 mg/mL, which still fell within the range of United States Pharmacopeia standards for injectables (0.90 to 1.15 mg/mL). Although every attempt should be made to prevent freezing of autoinjectors, this preliminary study demonstrates that epinephrine concentrations remain within 90% to 115% of 1.0 mg/mL after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeast adapt to near-freezing temperatures by STRE/Msn2,4-dependent induction of trehalose synthesis and certain molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Kandror, Olga; Bretschneider, Nancy; Kreydin, Evgeniy; Cavalieri, Duccio; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2004-03-26

    Virtually nothing is known about the biochemical adaptations in eukaryotic cells that may enhance survival at low temperatures or upon freezing. Here we demonstrate an adaptive response in yeast that is activated below 10 degrees C and increases tolerance to low temperatures and freezing. This response involves a dramatic accumulation of the chemical chaperone trehalose and induction of trehalose-synthesizing enzymes (Tps1, Tps2) and certain heat shock proteins (Hsp104, Hsp42, Hsp12, Ssa4). mRNAs for these proteins increase dramatically below 10 degrees C and even at 0 degrees C. Their expression requires Msn2,4 transcription factors but also involves marked mRNA stabilization. Upon return to 30 degrees C, TPS1, TPS2, and HSP104 mRNAs, trehalose levels and tolerance to freezing fall dramatically within minutes. Mutants lacking trehalose or Msn2,4 die more rapidly at 0 degrees C and upon freezing. Thus, below 10 degrees C, yeast show an adaptive response that sustains viability at low or freezing temperatures, which are commonly encountered in natural environments and laboratory refrigerators.

  20. Seasonal acclimatization of thallus proline contents of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus: intertidal rhodophytes that differ in freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jonathan P; Logan, Barry A

    2018-02-17

    Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus often co-occur in the lower intertidal of Northern Atlantic rocky shorelines. At our field site along the Maine coast (USA), Mastocarpus stellatus thalli possessed greater contents of proline when compared with thalli of Chondrus crispus. In addition, M. stellatus thalli acclimated to colder growth conditions in winter/early spring by increasing proline content several fold; no seasonal acclimation in proline content was observed in C. crispus. Proline accumulates in the tissues of a broad diversity of freezing-tolerant organisms and is among the most common cryoprotectant molecules. Thus, our observations provide a basis for the previously well-documented greater freezing tolerance of Mastocarpus stellatus when compared with Chondrus crispus. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Concrete Durability in Harsh Environmental Conditions Exposed to Freeze Thaw Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamze, Youssef

    Under line Pathology of Materials; one of the environmental causes of damage effects on concrete is freeze thaw cycles, which deteriorate the concrete exposed to water in cold weather. An example of old concrete is a dam project that was built in Canada, in the early 1909-1913. This project was reconstructed in 1932, 1934 and 1972, and required renovation due to the ice abrasion with the freeze/thaw cycles. Before completing any renovation, it is required to analyze the structural stability and the concrete failures of this dam. An investigation was conducted to determine the quality of the concrete in the Piers and in the Bridge Deck Slab. It was also required to determine the basic materials' properties that constitute this project. This will improve the analysis of its stability [10]. Core samples were examined and used as test samples, for the Alkali-Silica reactivity test samples, as well as the compressive strength test, the Chloride Ion test, and the freeze thaw testing which was performed on two sets of 12 concrete core samples that were taken from different locations in the project. These locations are the representations of the age of the concrete. Thus, the age difference between the samples' two sets is four decades. Testing was performed on prisms cut from cores. ASTM C-666 procedure (A) was applied using an automatic test system [6]. It was suggested that a plan for renovation of this project should be performed after the analysis is undertaken to assess the conditions estimating the remaining life of the concrete in this project [15].

  2. Determination of end point of primary drying in freeze-drying process control.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Doen, Takayuki; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Freeze-drying is a relatively expensive process requiring long processing time, and hence one of the key objectives during freeze-drying process development is to minimize the primary drying time, which is the longest of the three steps in freeze-drying. However, increasing the shelf temperature into secondary drying before all of the ice is removed from the product will likely cause collapse or eutectic melt. Thus, from product quality as well as process economics standpoint, it is very critical to detect the end of primary drying. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose as model systems. The apparent end point of primary drying was determined by comparative pressure measurement (i.e., Pirani vs. MKS Baratron), dew point, Lyotrack (gas plasma spectroscopy), water concentration from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, condenser pressure, pressure rise test (manometric temperature measurement or variations of this method), and product thermocouples. Vials were pulled out from the drying chamber using a sample thief during late primary and early secondary drying to determine percent residual moisture either gravimetrically or by Karl Fischer, and the cake structure was determined visually for melt-back, collapse, and retention of cake structure at the apparent end point of primary drying (i.e., onset, midpoint, and offset). By far, the Pirani is the best choice of the methods tested for evaluation of the end point of primary drying. Also, it is a batch technique, which is cheap, steam sterilizable, and easy to install without requiring any modification to the existing dryer.

  3. Freeze-thaw cycles induce content exchange between cell-sized lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litschel, Thomas; Ganzinger, Kristina A.; Movinkel, Torgeir; Heymann, Michael; Robinson, Tom; Mutschler, Hannes; Schwille, Petra

    2018-05-01

    Early protocells are commonly assumed to consist of an amphiphilic membrane enclosing an RNA-based self-replicating genetic system and a primitive metabolism without protein enzymes. Thus, protocell evolution must have relied on simple physicochemical self-organization processes within and across such vesicular structures. We investigate freeze-thaw (FT) cycling as a potential environmental driver for the necessary content exchange between vesicles. To this end, we developed a conceptually simple yet statistically powerful high-throughput procedure based on nucleic acid-containing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as model protocells. GUVs are formed by emulsion transfer in glass bottom microtiter plates and hence can be manipulated and monitored by fluorescence microscopy without additional pipetting and sample handling steps. This new protocol greatly minimizes artefacts, such as unintended GUV rupture or fusion by shear forces. Using DNA-encapsulating phospholipid GUVs fabricated by this method, we quantified the extent of content mixing between GUVs under different FT conditions. We found evidence of nucleic acid exchange in all detected vesicles if fast freezing of GUVs at ‑80 °C is followed by slow thawing at room temperature. In contrast, slow freezing and fast thawing both adversely affected content mixing. Surprisingly, and in contrast to previous reports for FT-induced content mixing, we found that the content is not exchanged through vesicle fusion and fission, but that vesicles largely maintain their membrane identity and even large molecules are exchanged via diffusion across the membranes. Our approach supports efficient screening of prebiotically plausible molecules and environmental conditions, to yield universal mechanistic insights into how cellular life may have emerged.

  4. Ambient in-situ immersion freezing measurements - findings from the ZAMBIS 2014 field campaign for three ice nucleation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Monika; Atkinson, James D.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2015-04-01

    well as a droplet freezing method on aerosol particles either collected in a suspension or on PM10-filters to obtain atmospheric IN concentrations based on the measured ambient aerosol. Investigation of physical properties (number and size distribution) and chemical composition as well as the meteorological conditions provide supplementary information that help to understand the nature of particles and air masses that contribute to immersion freezing. Acknowledgements We thank Hannes Wydler and Hansjörg Frei from ETH Zurich for their technical support. Furthermore, the authors want thank Franz Conen from the University of Basel for sharing equipment and training in the drop freezing experiment. References [1] Chou et al. (2011), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4725-4738. [2] Nicolet et al. (2010), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 313-325. [3] Conen et al. (2012), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 321-327. [4] Stopelli et al. (2014), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 129-134.

  5. Late Early-Cretaceous quartz diorite-granodiorite-monzogranite association from the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau: Chemical variations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical variations in granitic rocks may be controlled by their source rocks, melting reactions and subsequent magmatic processes, which resulted from various geodynamic processes related to subduction, collision, or slab break-off. Here we report new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes for the late Early Cretaceous quartz diorite, granodiorite and monzogranite in the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau. The zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 113.9 ± 1.6, 111.7 ± 0.8, and 112.8 ± 1.7 Ma for the quartz diorite, granodiorite, and monzogranite, respectively, which are coeval with bimodal magmatism in the central and northern Lhasa sub-terrane. There are the distinct sources regions for the quartz diorite and granodiorite-monzogranite association. The quartz diorites are sodic, calc-alkaline and have high Mg# (52-54) values. They also have elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.707019 to 0.709176) and low εNd(t) (- 5.16 to - 7.63), with variable zircon εHf(t) values (+ 5.65 to - 9.02). Zircon chemical data indicate a typical crustal-derived character with high Th (142-1260 ppm) and U (106-1082 ppm) and moderate U/Yb ratios (0.30 to 2.32) and Y content (705-1888 ppm). Those data suggest that the quartz diorites were derived from partial melting of ancient basaltic lower crust by a mantle-derived magma in source region. The granodiorite-monzogranite association has high-K calc-alkaline, weakly peraluminous characters. They show lower Nb/Ta (5.57 to 13.8), CaO/Na2O (0.62 to 1.21), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (24.4 to 44.4) ratios, more evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures, all of which suggest derivation from mixed basaltic and metasedimentary source rocks in a deep crustal zone. We propose that the granitic magmatisms at ca. 113-110 Ma in the Gaologong belt was triggered by the slab break-off of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Supplementary Dataset Table 2. Single-grain zircon Hf isotopic data

  6. The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysis. II. Early chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, L.; Jablonka, P.; Sitnova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu.; North, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundances of up to 10 chemical species in a sample of 59 very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≾-2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo. Our results are based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets and homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters determined in Paper I. We show that once the NLTE effects are properly taken into account, all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] ≃ 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. The dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram is observed in the classical dSphs, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr. We show that Sr in the massive galaxies is well correlated with Mg suggesting a strong link to massive stars and that its origin is essentially independent of Ba, for most of the [Ba/H] range. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≃-1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≃-1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] <-2, is the strongest. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to

  7. Starch-related alpha-glucan/water dikinase is involved in the cold-induced development of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Nishida, Ikuo

    2005-06-01

    Cold-induced soluble sugar accumulation enhances the degree of freezing tolerance in various cold-hardy plants including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where soluble sugars accumulate in only a few hours at 2 degrees C. Hence, along with photosynthesis, starch degradation might play a significant role in cold-induced sugar accumulation and enhanced freezing tolerance. Starch-related alpha-glucan/water dikinase (EC 2.7.9.4), encoded by Arabidopsis STARCH EXCESS 1 (SEX1), is hypothesized to regulate starch degradation in plastids by phosphorylating starch, thereby ensuring better accessibility by starch-degrading enzymes. Here, we show that Arabidopsis sex1 mutants, when incubated at 2 degrees C for 1 d, were unable to accumulate maltooligosaccharides or normal glucose and fructose levels. In addition, they displayed impaired freezing tolerance. After 7 d at 2 degrees C, sex1 mutants did not show any of the above abnormal phenotypes but displayed slightly higher leaf starch contents. The impaired freezing tolerance of sex1 mutants was restored by overexpression of wild-type SEX1 cDNA using the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The results demonstrate a genetic link between the SEX1 locus and plant freezing tolerance, and show that starch degradation is important for enhanced freezing tolerance during an early phase of cold acclimation. However, induction of starch degradation was not accompanied by significant changes in alpha-glucan/water dikinase activity in leaf extracts and preceded cold-induced augmentation of SEX1 transcripts. Therefore, we conclude that augmentation of SEX1 transcripts might be a homeostatic response to low temperature, and that starch degradation during an early phase of cold acclimation could be regulated by a component(s) of a starch degradation pathway(s) downstream of SEX1.

  8. Exact theory of freeze-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannoni, Mirco

    2015-03-01

    We show that the standard theory of thermal production and chemical decoupling of WIMPs is incomplete. The hypothesis that WIMPs are produced and decouple from a thermal bath implies that the rate equation the bath particles interacting with the WIMPs is an algebraic equation that constraints the actual WIMPs abundance to have a precise analytical form down to the temperature . The point , which coincides with the stationary point of the equation for the quantity , is where the maximum departure of the WIMPs abundance from the thermal value is reached. For each mass and total annihilation cross section , the temperature and the actual WIMPs abundance are exactly known. This value provides the true initial condition for the usual differential equation that have to be integrated in the interval . The matching of the two abundances at is continuous and differentiable. The dependence of the present relic abundance on the abundance at an intermediate temperature is an exact result. The exact theory suggests a new analytical approximation that furnishes the relic abundance accurate at the level of 1-2 % in the case of -wave and -wave scattering cross sections. We conclude the paper studying the evolution of the WIMPs chemical potential and the entropy production using methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

  9. Emerging techniques for assisting and accelerating food freezing processes: A review of recent research progresses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lina; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zi

    2017-03-04

    Freezing plays an important role in food preservation and the emergence of rapid freezing technologies can be highly beneficial to the food industry. This paper reviews some novel food freezing technologies, including high-pressure freezing (HPF), ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF), electrically disturbed freezing (EF) and magnetically disturbed freezing (MF), microwave-assisted freezing (MWF), and osmo-dehydro-freezing (ODF). HPF and UAF can initiate ice nucleation rapidly, leading to uniform distribution of ice crystals and the control of their size and shape. Specifically, the former is focused on increasing the degree of supercooling, whereas the latter aims to decrease it. Direct current electric freezing (DC-EF) and alternating current electric freezing (AC-EF) exhibit different effects on ice nucleation. DC-EF can promote ice nucleation and AC-EF has the opposite effect. Furthermore, ODF has been successfully used for freezing various vegetables and fruit. MWF cannot control the nucleation temperature, but can decrease supercooling degree, thus decreasing the size of ice crystals. The heat and mass transfer processes during ODF have been investigated experimentally and modeled mathematically. More studies should be carried out to understand the effects of these technologies on food freezing process.

  10. General Theories of Chemical Disinfection and Sterlization of Sludge. Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lawrence K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The early history of disinfection and sterilization, physical methods, electron irradiation, sonic and supersonic waves, alpha, beta, gamma, cathode, x-rays, and ultraviolet radiation, and heating and freezing are covered. (BB)

  11. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  12. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  13. Freezing of Gait in Parkinsonism and its Potential Drug Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Li; Canning, S. Duff; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a heterogeneous symptom. Studies of treatment for FOG are scarce. Levodopa and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (rasagiline and selegiline) have shown effective improvement for FOG. Other drugs, such as L-threo-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylserine, amantadine, and botulinum toxin have exhibited some beneficial effects. The present review summarizes the potential drug treatment for FOG in Parkinsonism. PMID:26635194

  14. Freezing of Gait in Parkinsonism and its Potential Drug Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Canning, S Duff; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a heterogeneous symptom. Studies of treatment for FOG are scarce. Levodopa and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (rasagiline and selegiline) have shown effective improvement for FOG. Other drugs, such as L-threo-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylserine, amantadine, and botulinum toxin have exhibited some beneficial effects. The present review summarizes the potential drug treatment for FOG in Parkinsonism.

  15. Belief Structures of Students For and Against the Nuclear Freeze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.

    An investigation of college students' belief structures underlying their support or non-support of a nuclear freeze revealed a three-dimensional structure for beliefs in the areas of nuclear weapons and national defense. A questionnaire containing 25 belief statements concerning national defense and nuclear weapons and 4 media use questions was…

  16. A Nuclear Freeze and a Noninterventionary Conventional Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Randall

    1982-01-01

    The history of the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union is related, and the role assigned to conventional and nuclear forces in both countries is explained. A plea is made for a nuclear freeze and for reducing conventional forces as well. (PP)

  17. Physiological and environmental causes of freezing injury in red spruce

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes

    2000-01-01

    For many, concerns about the implications of "environmental change" conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (

  18. 40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (3) The phrase commercial parking space means a space used for parking a vehicle in a commercial..., and (ii) parking on public streets. (6) Freeze means to maintain at all times after October 15, 1973, the total quantity of commercial parking spaces available for use at the same amounts as were...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility. (3) The phrase commercial parking space means a space used for parking a vehicle in a commercial..., and (ii) parking on public streets. (6) Freeze means to maintain at all times after October 15, 1973, the total quantity of commercial parking spaces available for use at the same amounts as were...

  20. Freeze-all cycle in reproductive medicine: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The main objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding the freeze-all strategy in IVF cycles, in regards to effectiveness and safety. Although there are many potential advantages in performing a freeze-all cycle over a fresh ET, it seems that the freeze-all strategy is not designed for all IVF patients. There is a need to develop a non-invasive clinical tool to evaluate the endometrial receptivity during a fresh cycle, which enables the selection of patients that would benefit from this strategy. Today, it is reasonable to perform elective cryopreservation of all oocytes/embryos in cases with a risk of OHSS development, and in patients with supra-physiologic hormonal levels during the follicular phase of COS. It is not clear if all normal responders and poor responders may benefit from this strategy.

  1. Freeze-all cycle in reproductive medicine: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-01-01

    The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The main objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding the freeze-all strategy in IVF cycles, in regards to effectiveness and safety. Although there are many potential advantages in performing a freeze-all cycle over a fresh ET, it seems that the freeze-all strategy is not designed for all IVF patients. There is a need to develop a non-invasive clinical tool to evaluate the endometrial receptivity during a fresh cycle, which enables the selection of patients that would benefit from this strategy. Today, it is reasonable to perform elective cryopreservation of all oocytes/embryos in cases with a risk of OHSS development, and in patients with supra-physiologic hormonal levels during the follicular phase of COS. It is not clear if all normal responders and poor responders may benefit from this strategy. PMID:28333033

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF SHARP FREEZE ROOM ON LEVEL 2; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SHARP FREEZE ROOM ON LEVEL 2; LOOKING WEST; PIPES ON CEILING CARRIED COMPRESSED AMMONIA; NOTE NONBEARING GLAZED TILE WALLS BETWEEN COLUMNS; FLOORS ARE BRICK - Rath Packing Company, Cooler Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Visualizing multiattribute Web transactions using a freeze technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Cotting, Daniel; Dayal, Umeshwar; Machiraju, Vijay; Garg, Pankaj

    2003-05-01

    Web transactions are multidimensional and have a number of attributes: client, URL, response times, and numbers of messages. One of the key questions is how to simultaneously lay out in a graph the multiple relationships, such as the relationships between the web client response times and URLs in a web access application. In this paper, we describe a freeze technique to enhance a physics-based visualization system for web transactions. The idea is to freeze one set of objects before laying out the next set of objects during the construction of the graph. As a result, we substantially reduce the force computation time. This technique consists of three steps: automated classification, a freeze operation, and a graph layout. These three steps are iterated until the final graph is generated. This iterated-freeze technique has been prototyped in several e-service applications at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. It has been used to visually analyze large volumes of service and sales transactions at online web sites.

  4. Cash Freeze for E-Rate Hits Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    A freeze on $3.28 billion in requests for aid under the federal E-rate program has left hundreds of school districts scrambling to pay for their technology needs--and, in some cases, crippled classroom instruction. The E-rate program, which has disbursed more than $8 billion since its inception in 1997, helps link public and private schools as…

  5. Further observations on soil freezing in the Pacific Northwest.

    Charles E. Hale

    1951-01-01

    Frost observations during the winter and spring of 1949-1950 indicated that pronounced soil freezing conditions existed in the ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, grass and brush types in eastern Oregon and Washington. Accordingly, a study was designed to determine the occurrence and character of frost under these widespread forest and range types. This paper presents a...

  6. Truths and myths of oocyte sensitivity to controlled rate freezing.

    PubMed

    Coticchio, G; Bonu, M A; Sciajno, R; Sereni, E; Bianchi, V; Borini, A

    2007-07-01

    The mammalian oocyte is especially sensitive to cryopreservation. Because of its size and physiology, it can easily undergo cell death or sub-lethal damage as a consequence of intracellular ice formation, increase in the concentration of solutes and other undesired effects during the conversion of extracellular water into ice. This has generated the belief that oocyte storage cannot be achieved with the necessary efficiency and safety. However, many concerns raised by oocyte freezing are the result of unproven hypotheses or observations conducted under sometimes inappropriate conditions. For instance, spindle organization can undergo damage under certain freezing conditions but not with other protocols. The controversial suggestion that cryopreservation induces cortical granule discharge and zona pellucida hardening somehow questions the routine use of sperm microinjection. Damage to mouse oocytes caused by solute concentration is well documented but, in the human, there is no solid evidence that modifications of freezing mixtures, to prevent this problem, provide an actual advantage. The hope of developing oocyte cryopreservation as a major IVF option is becoming increasingly realistic, but major efforts are still required to clarify the authentic implications of oocyte cryopreservation at the cellular level and identify freezing conditions compatible with the preservation of viability and developmental ability.

  7. Time and temperature interactions in freezing tolerance of winter wheat

    In order to survive the temperature fluctuations that occur during the winter months, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants must tolerate episodes of freezing to various temperatures for various lengths of time. In this study, the ability of six wheat cultivars to survive exposure to -13.5 to ...

  8. Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete with marginal air content

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    Freeze-thaw resistance is a key durability factor for concrete pavements. Recommendations for the air void system parameters are normally 6 1 percent total air and a spacing factor of : < 0.20 millimeter (mm) (0.008 inch). However, it was observed...

  9. Computational analysis of fluid dynamics in pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Alexeenko, Alina A; Ganguly, Arnab; Nail, Steven L

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of water vapor flows encountered in pharmaceutical freeze-drying systems, laboratory-scale and industrial, is presented based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The flows under continuum gas conditions are analyzed using the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations whereas the rarefied flow solutions are obtained by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for the Boltzmann equation. Examples of application of CFD techniques to laboratory-scale and industrial scale freeze-drying processes are discussed with an emphasis on the utility of CFD for improvement of design and experimental characterization of pharmaceutical freeze-drying hardware and processes. The current article presents a two-dimensional simulation of a laboratory scale dryer with an emphasis on the importance of drying conditions and hardware design on process control and a three-dimensional simulation of an industrial dryer containing a comparison of the obtained results with analytical viscous flow solutions. It was found that the presence of clean in place (CIP)/sterilize in place (SIP) piping in the duct lead to significant changes in the flow field characteristics. The simulation results for vapor flow rates in an industrial freeze-dryer have been compared to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and gravimetric measurements.

  10. Biomass, thermal inertia, and radiative freeze occurrence in leafless forests

    Brian E. Potter; John C. Zasada

    1999-01-01

    Using field measurements of air temperature, wind, and relative humidity from a clear-cut site and two wooded sites in northern Wisconsin, we used a radiative transfer model to simulate temperatures on seven calm, clear nights similar to those on which freezes typically occur. Each night was simulated twice for the wooded sites. One simulation ignored the presence of...

  11. Protein spheres prepared by drop jet freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Eggerstedt, Sören N; Dietzel, Mathias; Sommerfeld, Martin; Süverkrüp, Richard; Lamprecht, Alf

    2012-11-15

    In spray freeze drying (SFD) solutions are frozen by spraying into a very cold environment and subsequently dried by sublimation. In contrast to conventional freeze drying, spray freeze drying has the possibility to produce flowable lyophilizates which offers a variety of new pharmaceutical applications. Here, a drop jet nozzle is proposed as liquid dispenser that is able to produce droplets with a very narrow size distribution compared to standard methods. The drop jet nozzle is mounted in a spray tower designed to prevent direct contact of the product with the freezing medium. Various formulations have been tested containing lysozyme as model protein and stabilizers such as bovine serum albumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone or dextran in various concentrations and mannitol. Excellent free flowing and nearly monodispersed, porous particles are produced where particle properties can be controlled by formulation and process conditions. The particle diameter varied between 231 ± 3 μm and 310 ± 10 μm depending on the formulation composition. The lysozyme activity was >94 ± 5% for all formulations exhibiting a full preservation of enzyme activity. This new method is very promising for the production of nearly monodisperse particulate lyophilizates in various therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Melting of Freezing Droplets on Ultraslippery Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Lingli

    2017-03-08

    Condensed droplet freezing and freezing droplet melting phenomena on the prepared ultraslippery superhydrophobic surface were observed and discussed in this study. Although the freezing delay performance of the surface is common, the melting of the freezing droplets on the surface is quite interesting. Three self-propelled movements of the melting droplets (ice- water mixture) were found including the droplet rotating, the droplet jumping, and the droplet sliding. The melting droplet rotating, which means that the melting droplet rotates spontaneously on the superhydrophobic surface like a spinning top, is first reported in this study and may have some potential applications in various engineering fields. The melting droplet jumping and sliding are similar to those occurring during condensation but have larger size scale and motion scale, as the melting droplets have extra-large specific surface area with much more surface energy available. These self-propelled movements make all the melting droplets on the superhydrophobic surface dynamic, easily removed, which may be promising for the anti-icing/frosting applications.

  13. Conventional slow freezing cryopreserves mouflon spermatozoa better than vitrification.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2017-04-01

    This work examines the effectiveness of a TCG (Tris, citric acid, glucose, 6% egg yolk and 5% glycerol) and a TEST (TES, Tris, glucose, 6% egg yolk and 5% glycerol) sperm extender in the freezing of mouflon spermatozoa at slow cooling rates, using different pre-freezing equilibration times (2-3 hr). It also examines the tolerance of mouflon spermatozoa to different concentrations of cryoprotectants (5, 10, 20% glycerol; 5%, 10%, 20% dimethyl sulfoxide; 6% polyvinylpyrrolidone) and/or sucrose (100, 300, 500 mm). The highest quality (p < .01) thawed spermatozoa were obtained when using the TEST extender and an equilibration time of 3 hr. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were strongly reduced when using rapid freezing rates (60-85°C min -1 ), independent of the concentration of cryoprotectants. The lowest sucrose concentration (100 mm) provided the highest (p < .05) percentage of motile spermatozoa and live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome. Vitrified-warmed sperm variables were at their best when the spermatozoa was diluted in TCG-6% egg yolk + 100 mm sucrose and warmed at 60°C. Slow warming at 37°C strongly reduced (p < .05) sperm motility and viability. However, sperm vitrification returned lower fertility, sperm motility and sperm viability values than conventional sperm freezing. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Freeze concentration of dairy products: Phase 2. Final report

    SciT

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.; Woolf, H.

    1995-10-01

    Conventional dairy industry evaporators convert an estimated 60 billion pounds of milk and whey products annually into dairy powders. However, many evaporators currently used by dairy processors are old and inefficient and damage the dairy powders through heat abuse. This results in lost organoleptic and functional qualities in the finished dairy products. EPRI report EM-5232 indicated that substitution of freeze concentration for evaporation and distillation in all feasible industry applications could save customers $5.5 billion annually, while increasing electric power consumption by 20 billion kWt/yr. EPRI CU-6292 reported on Phase I work, concluding that freeze concentration of dairy products wasmore » technically feasible based on pilot plant studies. The semicommercial-scale Process development units was successfully installed and brought up to 3-A processing standards. This unit achieved continuous runs of up to 510 hours. An expert safety panel affirmed the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of freeze-concentrated milk ingredients, which were used in formulating ice cream, cream cheese, milk chocolate, and other products for consumer evaluation. Consumer evaluations documented that the functional and organoleptic properties of reconstituted freeze-concentrated skim milk are equal or superior to those of fresh skim milk, skim milk concentrates, or nonfat dry milk powders.« less

  15. Freezing, fragmentation, and charge separation in sonic sprayed water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilch, Lloyd W.; Maze, Joshua T.; Smith, John W.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    2009-06-01

    Water droplets are generated by sonic spray, transferred into vacuum through a capillary interface, and then passed through two image charge detectors separated by a drift region. The image charge detectors measure the charge and velocity of each droplet. For around 1% of the droplets, the charge changes significantly between the detectors. In some cases it increases, in others it decreases, and for some droplets the charge changes polarity. We attribute the charge changing behavior to fragmentation caused by freezing. Simulations indicate that the time required for a droplet to cool and freeze in vacuum depends on its size, and that droplets with radii of 1-2 [mu]m have the right size to freeze between the two detectors. These sizes correspond to the smaller end of the distribution present in the experiment. When the charge on a droplet increases or changes polarity, fragmentation must be accompanied by charge separation where fragments carry away opposite charges. In some cases, two fission fragments were observed in the second charge detector. We show examples where the droplet breaks apart to give fragments of the same charge and opposite charges. The fragmentation and charge changing behavior found here is consistent with what has been found in the freezing of larger suspended and supported droplets.

  16. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  17. Destabilization of mayonnaise induced by lipid crystallization upon freezing.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and rheological history of mayonnaise during freezing and its dispersion stability after the freeze-thaw process were investigated. Mayonnaise was cooled to freeze and stored at -20 to -40 °C while monitoring the temperature; penetration tests were conducted on the mayonnaise, which was sampled at selected times during isothermal storage at -20 °C. Significant increases in the temperature and stress values due to water-phase crystallization and subsequent oil-phase crystallization were observed. The water phase crystallized during the cooling step in all the tested mayonnaise samples. The oil phases of the prepared mayonnaise (with rapeseed oil) and commercial mayonnaise crystallized during isothermal storage after 6 and 4 h, respectively, at -20 °C. The dispersion stability was evaluated from the separation ratio, which was defined as the weight ratio of separated oil after centrifuging to the total amount of oil in the commercial mayonnaise. The separation ratio rapidly increased after 4 h of freezing. This result suggests that crystallization of the oil phase is strongly related to the dispersion stability of mayonnaise.

  18. Tolerance of unacclimated Beagle dogs to freezing and subfreezing temperatures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-03-01

    Beagle dogs (3 and 6 months of age) unacclimated to cold air temperatures were exposed to temperatures near freezing (32 F) or subfreezing (near 20 F), while housed in simulated transport crates. All exposed dogs safely tolerated 4 hours of continuou...

  19. How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

  20. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albouy, P. A.; Deville, S.; Fulkar, A.; Hakouk, K.; Impéror-Clerc, M.; Klotz, M.; Liu, Q.; Marcellini, M.; Perez, J.

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0{\\deg}C.

  1. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules.

    PubMed

    Albouy, P A; Deville, S; Fulkar, A; Hakouk, K; Impéror-Clerc, M; Klotz, M; Liu, Q; Marcellini, M; Perez, J

    2017-03-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0 °C.

  2. Anatomy of a Tuition Freeze: The Case of Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexe, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Using two conceptual frameworks from political science--Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams model and the advocacy coalition framework (Sabatier & Jenkins-Smith, 1993)--this case study examines the detailed history of a major tuition policy change in Ontario in 2004: a tuition freeze. The paper explores the social, political, and economic…

  3. Freeze-drying of nanosuspensions, 1: freezing rate versus formulation design as critical factors to preserve the original particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Beirowski, Jakob; Inghelbrecht, Sabine; Arien, Albertina; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-05-01

    It has been recently reported in the literature that using a fast freezing rate during freeze-drying of drug nanosuspensions is beneficial to preserve the original particle size distribution. All freezing rates studied were obtained by utilizing a custom-made apparatus and were then indirectly related to conventional vial freeze-drying. However, a standard freeze-dryer is only capable of achieving moderate freezing rates in the shelf fluid circulation system. Therefore, it was the purpose of the present study to evaluate the possibility to establish a typical freezing protocol applicable to a standard freeze-drying unit in combination with an adequate choice of cryoprotective excipients and steric stabilizers to preserve the original particle size distribution. Six different drug nanosuspensions containing itraconazole as a drug model were studied using freeze-thaw experiments and a full factorial design to reveal major factors for the stabilization of drug nanosuspensions and the corresponding interactions. In contrast to previous reports, the freezing regime showed no significant influence on preserving the original particle size distribution, suggesting that the concentrations of both the steric stabilizer and the cryoprotective agent are optimized. Moreover, it could be pinpointed that the combined effect of steric stabilizer and cryoprotectant clearly contribute to nanoparticle stability. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Development and demonstration of a freezing drizzle algorithm for roadway environmental sensing Systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate the accuracy and utility of a freezing drizzle algorithm that can be implemented on roadway environmental sensing systems (ESSs). : The types of problems related to the occurrence of freezing precipi...

  5. Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat by liquid freezing.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods:liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at -30℃ for 5 h, and -80℃ for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4℃, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality.

  6. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  7. Antifreeze Proteins Modify the Freezing Process In Planta12

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Marilyn; Lumb, Chelsey; Wiseman, Steven B.; Wisniewski, Michael; Johnson, Robert W.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2005-01-01

    During cold acclimation, winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) plants accumulate antifreeze proteins (AFPs) in the apoplast of leaves and crowns. The goal of this study was to determine whether these AFPs influence survival at subzero temperatures by modifying the freezing process or by acting as cryoprotectants. In order to inhibit the growth of ice, AFPs must be mobile so that they can bind to specific sites on the ice crystal lattice. Guttate obtained from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves exhibited antifreeze activity, indicating that the AFPs are free in solution. Infrared video thermography was used to observe freezing in winter rye leaves. In the absence of an ice nucleator, AFPs had no effect on the supercooling temperature of the leaves. However, in the presence of an ice nucleator, AFPs lowered the temperature at which the leaves froze by 0.3°C to 1.2°C. In vitro studies showed that apoplastic proteins extracted from cold-acclimated winter rye leaves inhibited the recrystallization of ice and also slowed the rate of migration of ice through solution-saturated filter paper. When we examined the possible role of winter rye AFPs in cryoprotection, we found that lactate dehydrogenase activity was higher after freezing in the presence of AFPs compared with buffer, but the same effect was obtained by adding bovine serum albumin. AFPs had no effect on unstacked thylakoid volume after freezing, but did inhibit stacking of the thylakoids, thus indicating a loss of thylakoid function. We conclude that rye AFPs have no specific cryoprotective activity; rather, they interact directly with ice in planta and reduce freezing injury by slowing the growth and recrystallization of ice. PMID:15805474

  8. Response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Tingjun; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.; Wang, Kang; Cao, Bin; Zhong, Xinyue; Su, Hang; Mu, Cuicui

    2017-05-01

    The response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change has repercussions for the surface energy and water balance, ecosystems, the carbon cycle, and soil nutrient exchange. Despite its importance, the response of soil freeze depth to climate change is largely unknown. This study employs the Stefan solution and observations from 845 meteorological stations to investigate the response of variations in soil freeze depth to climate change across China. Observations include daily air temperatures, daily soil temperatures at various depths, mean monthly gridded air temperatures, and the normalized difference vegetation index. Results show that soil freeze depth decreased significantly at a rate of -0.18 ± 0.03 cm yr-1, resulting in a net decrease of 8.05 ± 1.5 cm over 1967-2012 across China. On the regional scale, soil freeze depth decreases varied between 0.0 and 0.4 cm yr-1 in most parts of China during 1950-2009. By investigating potential climatic and environmental driving factors of soil freeze depth variability, we find that mean annual air temperature and ground surface temperature, air thawing index, ground surface thawing index, and vegetation growth are all negatively associated with soil freeze depth. Changes in snow depth are not correlated with soil freeze depth. Air and ground surface freezing indices are positively correlated with soil freeze depth. Comparing these potential driving factors of soil freeze depth, we find that freezing index and vegetation growth are more strongly correlated with soil freeze depth, while snow depth is not significant. We conclude that air temperature increases are responsible for the decrease in seasonal freeze depth. These results are important for understanding the soil freeze-thaw dynamics and the impacts of soil freeze depth on ecosystem and hydrological process.

  9. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  10. Involvement of two specific causes of cell mortality in freeze-thaw cycles with freezing to -196 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Frédéric; Marechal, Pierre-André; Gervais, Patrick

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cell viability after freezing. Two distinct ranges of temperature were identified as corresponding to stages at which yeast cell mortality occurred during freezing to -196 degrees C. The upper temperature range was related to the temperature of crystallization of the medium, which was dependent on the solute concentration; in this range mortality was prevented by high solute concentrations, and the proportion of the medium in the vitreous state was greater than the proportion in the crystallized state. The lower temperature range was related to recrystallization that occurred during thawing. Mortality in this temperature range was increased by a high cooling rate and/or high solute concentration in the freezing medium and a low temperature (less than -70 degrees C). However, a high rate of thawing prevented yeast mortality in this lower temperature range. Overall, it was found that cell viability could be conserved better under freezing conditions by increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium and by using an increased warming rate.

  11. Proteomic analyses reveal differences in cold acclimation mechanisms in freezing-tolerant and freezing-sensitive cultivars of alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Han, Guiqing; Shang, Chen; Li, Jikai; Zhang, Hailing; Liu, Fengqi; Wang, Jianli; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Yuexue

    2015-01-01

    Cold acclimation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plays a crucial role in cold tolerance to harsh winters. To examine the cold acclimation mechanisms in freezing-tolerant alfalfa (ZD) and freezing-sensitive alfalfa (W5), holoproteins, and low-abundance proteins (after the removal of RuBisCO) from leaves were extracted to analyze differences at the protein level. A total of 84 spots were selected, and 67 spots were identified. Of these, the abundance of 49 spots and 24 spots in ZD and W5, respectively, were altered during adaptation to chilling stress. Proteomic results revealed that proteins involved in photosynthesis, protein metabolism, energy metabolism, stress and redox and other proteins were mobilized in adaptation to chilling stress. In ZD, a greater number of changes were observed in proteins, and autologous metabolism and biosynthesis were slowed in response to chilling stress, thereby reducing consumption, allowing for homeostasis. The capability for protein folding and protein biosynthesis in W5 was enhanced, which allows protection against chilling stress. The ability to perceive low temperatures was more sensitive in freezing-tolerant alfalfa compared to freezing-sensitive alfalfa. This proteomics study provides new insights into the cold acclimation mechanism in alfalfa. PMID:25774161

  12. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: the paradoxical interplay between gait and cognition.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Snijders, Anke H; Daniele, Antonio; Quaranta, Davide; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Fasano, Alfonso

    2014-08-01

    Freezing of gait is a disabling episodic gait disturbance common in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent evidences suggest a complex interplay between gait impairment and executive functions. Aim of our study was to evaluate whether specific motor conditions (sitting or walking) influence cognitive performance in patients with or without different types of freezing. Eight healthy controls, eight patients without freezing, nine patients with levodopa-responsive and nine patients with levodopa-resistant freezing received a clinical and neuropsychological assessment during two randomly performed conditions: at rest and during walking. At rest, patients with levodopa-resistant freezing performed worse than patients without freezing on tests of phonological fluency (p = 0.01). No differences among the four groups were detected during walking. When cognitive performances during walking were compared to the performance at rest, there was a significant decline of verbal episodic memory task (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) in patients without freezing and with levodopa-responsive freezing. Interestingly, walking improved performance on the phonological fluency task in patients with levodopa-resistant freezing (p = 0.04). Compared to patients without freezing, patients with levodopa-resistant freezing perform worse when tested while seated in tasks of phonological verbal fluency. Surprisingly, gait was associated with a paradoxical improvement of phonological verbal fluency in the patients with levodopa-resistant freezing whilst walking determined a worsening of episodic memory in the other patient groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gelatin-Filtered Consomme: A Practical Demonstration of the Freezing and Thawing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahne, Jacob B.; Schmidt, Shelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Freezing is a key food processing and preservation technique widely used in the food industry. Application of best freezing and storage practices extends the shelf-life of foods for several months, while retaining much of the original quality of the fresh food. During freezing, as well as its counterpart process, thawing, a number of critical…

  14. The 2007 California Citrus Freeze: Vulnerability, Poverty, and Unemployment Issues of Farmworkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Graciela Leon

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2007, freezing temperatures destroyed citrus and vegetable crops in California. By May 2007, more than 9,000 freeze-related unemployment applications had been fled. Through face-to-face interviews, this study documents the experience of 63 farmworkers to find out how they survived the freeze and accessed services. Findings revealed…

  15. Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival

    DOEpatents

    Senkan, Selim M.; Hirsch, Gerald P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

  16. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic...

  18. The role of natural mineral particles collected at one site in Patagonia as immersion freezing ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, María Laura; Borgnino, Laura; Ávila, Eldo E.

    2018-05-01

    This work studies the role of mineral particles collected in the region of Patagonia (Neuquén, Argentina) as ice nuclei particles (INPs) by immersion freezing mode. The particle immersion-freezing ability was analyzed under laboratory conditions by using an established drop-freezing technique. Mineralogical composition was characterized by using X-ray diffraction and electron micro probe analysis. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine the grain size distribution of particles, while the N2 adsorption and methylene blue adsorption methods were applied to determine their specific surface area. Water droplets of different volumes containing different concentrations of particles were cooled until droplets were frozen. For all the analyzed drop volumes, an increase in the freezing temperature of the drops was observed with increasing dust concentration. In the same way, the freezing temperature increased when the drop volume was increased at constant dust concentration. Both behaviors were linked to the availability of active sites in the particles. A plateau in the freezing temperature was observed at high suspension concentration for all the drop volumes. This plateau was related to the aggregation of the particles when the suspension concentration was increased and to the consequent decrease in the number of active sites. The active sites per unit of surface area were calculated and reported. For the studied range of temperature, results are in agreement with those reported for different sites and particles. From the chemical and morphological analysis of the particle components and the results obtained from the literature, it was concluded that even though montmorillonite was the main mineral in the collected sample, the accessory minerals deserve to be analyzed in detail in order to know if they could be responsible for the ability of the collected soil particles to act as INPs. Considering that the region of Patagonia has been identified as an important

  19. Effect of freezing conditions on β-Tricalcium Phosphate /Camphene scaffold with micro sized particles fabricated by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdev; Soundarapandian, S

    2018-03-01

    The long standing need of the implant manufacturing industries is to fabricate multi-matrix, customized porous scaffold as cost-effectively. In recent years, freeze casting has shown greater opportunity in the fabrication of porous scaffolds (tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, bioglass, alumina, etc.) such as at ease and good control over pore size, porosity, a range of materials and economic feasibility. In particular, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has proved as it possesses good biocompatible (osteoinduction, osteoconduction, etc.) and biodegradability hence beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, particle size of 10µm) was used as base material and camphene was used as a freezing vehicle in this study. Both freezing conditions such as constant freezing temperature (CFT) and constant freezing rate (CFR) were used for six different conditional samples (CFT: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading; similarly CFR: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading) to study and understand the effect of various properties (pore size, porosity and compressive strength) of the freeze-cast porous scaffold. It was observed that the average size of the pore was varying linearly as from lower to higher when the solid loading was varying higher to lower. With the help of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), it was observed that the average size of pore during CFR (9.7/ 6.5/ 4.9µm) was comparatively higher than the process of CFT (6.0/ 4.8/ 2.6µm) with respect to the same solid loading (30/ 35/ 40vol%) conditions. From the Gas pycnometer analysis, it was found that the porosity in both freezing conditions (CFT, CFR) were almost near values such as 32.8% and 28.5%. Further to be observed that with the increase in solid loading, the total porosity value has decreased due to the reduction in the concentration of the freezing vehicle. Hence, the freezing vehicle was found as responsible for the formation of appropriate size and orientation of pores during freeze casting. The compressive strength (CS

  20. The influence of phosphorylation and freezing temperature on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite as bone scaffold biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albab, Muh Fadhil; Giovani, Nicholas; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Whulanza, Yudan

    2018-02-01

    Biomaterials composite of hydroxyapatite/chitosan is a preeminent material for medical applications including bone scaffold. To improve its mechanical properties, the chitosan as the matrix needs to be modified with particular chemical agents. One of the methods is phosphorylation of chitosan by using orthophosphoric acid prior to the biomaterials fabrication. In the current study, biomaterials with the weight composition of 70% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 30% phosphorylated chitosan have been fabricated using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method with freezing temperature variation of -20, -30, -40 and -80°C prior to three day-freeze drying. The results obtained by this work showed that the highest compression modulus of 376.9 kPa, highest compressive strength of 38.4 kPa and biggest pore size of 48.24 µm were achieved in the freezing temperature of -20°C. In comparison to non-phosphorylated chitosan/hydroxyapatite, the modification of chitosan using orthophosphoric acid in this work has been found to increase the compressive strength of composite up to 5.5 times.

  1. Technical Advances in Intracellular Detection Using Immuno-Gold Particles: Simple Cryofixation with Metal Contact Quick Freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Chihong; Lee, Ju Huck; Jun, Sangmi; Chung, Jeong Min; Hyun, Jaekyung; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    The preparation of biological specimens using cryofixation techniques ensures excellent visibility of intracellular structures and preserves the antigenic sites of subcellular molecules. Hence, cryofixation is an effective method of preparing samples for analyses using antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles that are designed to detect the localization of specific target molecules within cells. However, cryofixation cannot be utilized easily because it requires expensive equipment and skilled technologists, resulting in a high level of expense for researchers. Here, we describe a simple technical approach to cryofixation that uses metal contact quick freezing followed by a modified freeze substitution technique and immuno-gold labeling electron microscopy. Micrograph images of cells prepared using this modified cryofixation method demonstrated its superiority over chemical fixation for high contrast visualization of the morphologies of cellular components and preservation of antigenicity for immuno-gold labeling. This report provides valuable technical information related to the advancement of metal contact quick freezing techniques, which can be used to visualize biomedical events of interest in an easy, simple, and rapid manner.

  2. Comparison of the ultrastructure of conventionally fixed and high pressure frozen/freeze substituted root tips of Nicotiana and Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Giddings, T. H. Jr; Staehelin, L. A.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    To circumvent the limitations of chemical fixation (CF) and to gain more reliable structural information about higher plant tissues, we have cryofixed root tips of Nicotiana and Arabidopsis by high pressure freezing (HPF). Whereas other freezing techniques preserve tissue to a relatively shallow depth, HPF in conjunction with freeze substitution (FS) resulted in excellent preservation of entire root tips. Compared to CF, in tissue prepared by HPF/FS: (1) the plasmalemma and all internal membranes were much smoother and often coated on the cytoplasmic side by a thin layer of stained material, (2) the plasmalemma was appressed to the cell wall, (3) organelle profiles were rounder, (4) the cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and amyloplast matrices were denser, (5) vacuoles contained electron dense material, (6) microtubules appeared to be more numerous and straighter, with crossbridges observed between them, (7) cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were wider and filled with material, (8) Golgi intercisternal elements were more clearly resolved and were observed between both Golgi vesicles and cisternae, and (9) larger vesicles were associated with Golgi stacks. This study demonstrates that HPF/FS can be used to successfully preserve the ultrastructure of relatively large plant tissues without the use of intracellular cryoprotectants.

  3. Crystal Growth of CdTe by Gradient Freeze in Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Li, C.; Knuteson, D.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Barczy, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of unsealed melt growth of an array of II-VI compounds, namely, CdTe, CdZnTe and ZnSe, there is a tremendous amount of experimental data describing the correlations between melt conditions and crystal quality. The results imply that the crystallinity quality can be improved if the melt was markedly superheated or long-time held before growth. It is speculated that after high superheating the associated complex dissociate and the spontaneous nucleation is retarded. In this study, crystals of CdTe were grown from melts which have undergone different thermal history by the unseeded gradient freeze method using the Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC). The effects of melt conditions on the quality of grown crystal were studied by various characterization techniques, including Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWSXT), infrared microscopy, chemical analysis by glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS), electrical conductivity and Hall measurements.

  4. New particle dependant parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir K.

    2014-05-01

    For detailed investigations of cloud microphysical processes an adiabatic air parcel model with entrainment is used. It represents a spectral bin model which explicitly solves the microphysical equations. The initiation of the ice phase is parameterized and describes the effects of different types of ice nuclei (mineral dust, soot, biological particles) in immersion, contact, and deposition modes. As part of the research group INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT), existing parameterizations have been modified for the present studies and new parameterizations have been developed mainly on the basis of the outcome of INUIT experiments. Deposition freezing in the model is dependant on the presence of dry particles and on ice supersaturation. The description of contact freezing combines the collision kernel of dry particles with the fraction of frozen drops as function of temperature and particle size. A new parameterization of immersion freezing has been coupled to the mass of insoluble particles contained in the drops using measured numbers of ice active sites per unit mass. Sensitivity studies have been performed with a convective temperature and dew point profile and with two dry aerosol particle number size distributions. Single and coupled freezing processes are studied with different types of ice nuclei (e.g., bacteria, illite, kaolinite, feldspar). The strength of convection is varied so that the simulated cloud reaches different levels of temperature. As a parameter to evaluate the results the ice water fraction is selected which is defined as the relation of the ice water content to the total water content. Ice water fractions between 0.1 and 0.9 represent mixed-phase clouds, larger than 0.9 ice clouds. The results indicate the sensitive parameters for the formation of mixed-phase and ice clouds are: 1. broad particle number size distribution with high number of small particles, 2. temperatures below -25°C, 3. specific mineral dust particles as ice nuclei such

  5. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: from pathophysiology to emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Cucca, Alberto; Biagioni, Milton C; Fleisher, Jori E; Agarwal, Shashank; Son, Andre; Kumar, Pawan; Brys, Miroslaw; Di Rocco, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is 'an episodic inability to generate effective stepping in the absence of any known cause other than parkinsonism or high level gait disorders'. FOG is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease, especially in its more advanced stages. Early recognition is important as FOG is related to higher fall risk and poorer prognosis. Although specific treatments are still elusive, there have been recent advances in the development of new therapeutic approaches. The aim of this review is to present the latest knowledge regarding the phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnostic assessment and conventional treatment of FOG in Parkinson's disease. A review of the evidence supporting noninvasive brain stimulation will follow to highlight the potential of these strategies.

  6. Investigation of PEG crystallization in frozen and freeze-dried PEGylated recombinant human growth hormone-sucrose systems: implications on storage stability.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Bakul S; Martin, Susan W H; Hodge, Tamara S; Das, Tapan K; Joseph, Liji; Teagarden, Dirk L; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate (i) the phase behavior of a PEGylated recombinant human growth hormone (PEG-rhGH, ∼60 kDa) during freeze-drying and (ii) its storage stability. The phase transitions during freeze-thawing of an aqueous solution containing PEG-rhGH and sucrose were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, PEG-rhGH and sucrose formulations containing low, medium, and high polyethylene glycol (PEG) to sucrose ratios were freeze-dried in dual-chamber syringes and stored at 4°C and 25°C. Chemical decomposition (methionine oxidation and deamidation) and irreversible aggregation were characterized by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography, and tryptic mapping. PEG crystallization was facilitated when it was covalently linked with rhGH. When the solutions were frozen, phase separation into PEG-rich and sucrose-rich phases facilitated PEG crystallization and the freeze-dried cake contained crystalline PEG. Annealing caused PEG crystallization and when coupled with higher drying temperatures, the primary drying time decreased by up to 51%. When the freeze-dried cakes were stored at 4°C, while there was no change in the purity of the PEG-rhGH monomer, deamidation was highest in the formulations with the lowest PEG to sucrose ratio. When stored at 25°C, this composition also showed the most pronounced decrease in monomer purity, the highest level of aggregation, and deamidation. Furthermore, an increase in PEG crystallinity during storage was accompanied by a decrease in PEG-rhGH stability. Interestingly, during storage, there was no change in PEG crystallinity in formulations with medium and high PEG to sucrose ratios. Although PEG crystallization during freeze-drying did not cause protein degradation, crystallization during storage might have influenced protein stability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Freeze-thaw decellularization of the trabecular meshwork in an ex vivo eye perfusion model

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yalong; Waxman, Susannah; Wang, Chao; Jensen, Adrianna; Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Bilonick, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The trabecular meshwork (TM) is the primary substrate of outflow resistance in glaucomatous eyes. Repopulating diseased TM with fresh, functional TM cells might be a viable therapeutic approach. Decellularized TM scaffolds have previously been produced by ablating cells with suicide gene therapy or saponin, which risks incomplete cell removal or dissolution of the extracellular matrix, respectively. We hypothesized that improved trabecular meshwork cell ablation would result from freeze-thaw cycles compared to chemical treatment. Materials and Methods We obtained 24 porcine eyes from a local abattoir, dissected and mounted them in an anterior segment perfusion within two hours of sacrifice. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded continuously by a pressure transducer system. After 72 h of IOP stabilization, eight eyes were assigned to freeze-thaw (F) ablation (−80 °C × 2), to 0.02% saponin (S) treatment, or the control group (C), respectively. The TM was transduced with an eGFP expressing feline immunodeficiency viral (FIV) vector and tracked via fluorescent microscopy to confirm ablation. Following treatment, the eyes were perfused with standard tissue culture media for 180 h. TM histology was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. TM viability was evaluated by a calcein AM/propidium iodide (PI) assay. The TM extracellular matrix was stained with Picro Sirius Red. We measured IOP and modeled it with a linear mixed effects model using a B-spline function of time with five degrees of freedom. Results F and S experienced a similar IOP reduction of 30% from baseline (P = 0.64). IOP reduction of about 30% occurred in F within 24 h and in S within 48 h. Live visualization of eGFP demonstrated that F conferred a complete ablation of all TM cells and only a partial ablation in S. Histological analysis and Picro Sirius staining confirmed that no TM cells survived in F while the extracellular matrix remained. The viability assay showed very low

  8. Summer Freezing Resistance: A Critical Filter for Plant Community Assemblies in Mediterranean High Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Pescador, David S.; Sierra-Almeida, Ángela; Torres, Pablo J.; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Assessing freezing community response and whether freezing resistance is related to other functional traits is essential for understanding alpine community assemblages, particularly in Mediterranean environments where plants are exposed to freezing temperatures and summer droughts. Thus, we characterized the leaf freezing resistance of 42 plant species in 38 plots at Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain) by measuring their ice nucleation temperature, freezing point (FP), and low-temperature damage (LT50), as well as determining their freezing resistance mechanisms (i.e., tolerance or avoidance). The community response to freezing was estimated for each plot as community weighted means (CWMs) and functional diversity (FD), and we assessed their relative importance with altitude. We established the relationships between freezing resistance, growth forms, and four key plant functional traits (i.e., plant height, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), and seed mass). There was a wide range of freezing resistance responses and more than in other alpine habitats. At the community level, the CWMs of FP and LT50 responded negatively to altitude, whereas the FD of both traits increased with altitude. The proportion of freezing-tolerant species also increased with altitude. The ranges of FP and LT50 varied among growth forms, and only leaf dry matter content was negatively correlated with freezing-resistance traits. Summer freezing events represent important abiotic filters for assemblies of Mediterranean high mountain communities, as suggested by the CWMs. However, a concomitant summer drought constraint may also explain the high freezing resistance of species that thrive in these areas and the lower FD of freezing resistance traits at lower altitudes. Leaves with high dry matter contents may maintain turgor at lower water potential and enhance drought tolerance in parallel to freezing resistance. This adaptation to drought seems to be a general prerequisite for plants

  9. The observation of the physicochemical change of rock under freeze-thawing experiment: CLSM, XRD and ICP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Chae, B.; Chon, C.; Jeong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract : In order to understand the progress of the physical weathering of rock sample, we managed freeze-thawing experiment at temperature of up to 40C from -20C taking into account of South Korea. In this study, the time was held by two hours the temperature of the maximum (40C) and minimum (-20C) and the experiments were carried out at intervals of one hour rising and falling. We have run the experiment about 120 cycle with the cycle of -20C from 40C experiment. We measured the physical properties of rock samples after each 20 cycle has elapsed by using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and observed changes in roughness of rock samples surface. We also analyzed the mineral of rock sample using the XRD analysis and observing the change in chemical composition of solution used in the experiment by using ICP analysis. Through the above process, we observed physico-chemical changes in the rock sample due to freeze-thaw cycles. To analysis of the line roughness parameter we used set by the 10 vertical and horizontal cross section line on the surface and surface roughness parameter was analyzed by using the area on the surface. Through such a process, while the freeze-thawing experiment is advanced, it was studied how the physical roughness and chemical composition were changed. As a result, it was possible to observe a change in the mineral component of the particular dissolved in the solution and it was able to observe the characteristic changes of the parameters of the roughness of the lines and surfaces.

  10. Freeze Tolerance of Seed-Producing Turf Bermudagrasses.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., suffers periodic severe winter-kill throughout much of its area of use in the contiguous USA. A research goal is to increase freeze tolerance in cultivars to lessen the risk of such damage. An identified research need is for Cynodon germplasm resources to be characterized for freeze tolerance and hybridization potential. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to characterize the relative freeze tolerance of selected fertile bermudagrass plants. Nine tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) C. dactylon and two triploid (2n = 3x = 27) hybrid (C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) clonal plants (standards) were evaluated in two experiments. Plants were propagated clonally and established in Cone-tainers (Ray Leach Cone-tainer Nursery, Canby, OR) for about 10 wk. Acclimation took place for 4 wk in controlled environment chambers at 8/2 degrees C (day/night) temperatures with a 10-h photoperiod. Following acclimation, Cone-tainers were placed into a freeze chamber and cooled rapidly to -2 degrees C, induced to freeze with ice chips, then held overnight at -2 degrees C. The freeze chamber was then programmed to cool linearly at 1 degrees C per hour. For each cultivar, three Cone-tainers were removed at each test temperature. Following thawing, Cone-tainers were transferred to a greenhouse and regrowth was evaluated visually. Nonlinear regression was used to estimate T(mid), which corresponded to the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve of survival vs temperature. Within experiment one, Tifgreen (T(mid) = -7.2 degrees C) was significantly less cold hardy than Quickstand (-9.0 degrees C), A-12204 (-9.2 degrees C), Midiron (-9.9 degrees C), and A-12195 (-10.5 degrees C). A-12195 was significantly hardier than all genotypes except Midiron. In the second experiment, Arizona Common (-6.6 degrees C), Tifgreen (-7.1 degrees C), and A-12205 (-7.1 degrees C) were less hardy than A-9959 (-8.7 degrees C), A-12156 (-8.9 degrees C), A

  11. Chemical potential dependence of particle ratios within a unified thermal approach

    SciT

    Bashir, I., E-mail: inamhep@gmail.com; Nanda, H.; Uddin, S.

    2016-06-15

    A unified statistical thermal freeze-out model (USTFM) is used to study the chemical potential dependence of identified particle ratios at mid-rapidity in heavy-ion collisions. We successfully reproduce the experimental data ranging from SPS energies to LHC energies, suggesting the statistical nature of the particle production in these collisions and hence the validity of our approach. The behavior of the freeze-out temperature is studied with respect to chemical potential. The freeze-out temperature is found to be universal at the RHIC and LHC and is close to the QCD predicted phase transition temperature, suggesting that the chemical freeze-out occurs soon after themore » hadronization takes place.« less

  12. Use of Ice-Nucleating Proteins To Improve the Performance of Freeze-Thaw Valves in Microfluidic Devices.

    PubMed

    Gaiteri, Joseph C; Henley, W Hampton; Siegfried, Nathan A; Linz, Thomas H; Ramsey, J Michael

    2017-06-06

    Currently, reliable valving on integrated microfluidic devices fabricated from rigid materials is confined to expensive and complex methods. Freeze-thaw valves (FTVs) can provide a low cost, low complexity valving mechanism, but reliable implementation of them has been greatly hindered by the lack of ice nucleation sites within the valve body's small volume. Work to date has required very low temperatures (on the order of -40 °C or colder) to induce freezing without nucleation sites, making FTVs impractical due to instrument engineering challenges. Here, we report the use of ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) to induce ice formation at relatively warm temperatures in microfluidic devices. Microfluidic channels were filled with buffers containing femtomolar INP concentrations from Pseudomonas syringae. The channels were cooled externally with simple, small-footprint Peltier thermoelectric coolers (TECs), and the times required for channel freezing (valve closure) and thawing (valve opening) were measured. Under optimized conditions in plastic chips, INPs made sub-10 s actuations possible at TEC temperatures as warm as -13 °C. Additionally, INPs were found to have no discernible inhibitory effects in model enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or polymerase chain reactions, indicating their compatibility with microfluidic systems that incorporate these widely used bioassays. FTVs with INPs provide a much needed reliable valving scheme for rigid plastic devices with low complexity, low cost, and no moving parts on the device or instrument. The reduction in freeze time, accessible actuation temperatures, chemical compatibility, and low complexity make the implementation of compact INP-based FTV arrays practical and attractive for the control of integrated biochemical assays.

  13. Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the "in vivo cryotechnique".

    PubMed

    Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Sei; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Ohguro, Hiroshi; Ohno, Shinichi

    2007-07-01

    The wavelength of Raman-scattered light depends on the molecular composition of the substance. This is the first attempt to acquire Raman spectra of a mouse eyeball removed from a living mouse, in which the eyeball was preserved using the "in vivo cryotechnique" followed by freeze-drying. Eyeballs were cryofixed using a rapid freezing cryotechnique, and then sliced in the cryostat machine. The slices were sandwiched between glass slides, freeze-dried, and analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. Important areas including various eyeball tissue layers were selected using bright-field microscopy, and then the Raman spectra were obtained at 240 locations. Four typical patterns of Raman spectra were electronically mapped on the specimen images obtained by the bright-field microscopy. Tissue organization was confirmed by embedding the same eyeball slice used for Raman spectra into epoxy resin and the thick sections were prepared with the inverted capsule method. Each Raman spectral pattern represents a different histological layer in the eyeball which was mapped by comparing the images of toluidine blue staining and Raman mapping with different colors. In the choroid and pigment cell layer, the Raman spectrum had two peaks, corresponding to melanin. Some of the peaks of the Raman spectra obtained from the blood vessels in sclera and the photoreceptor layer were similar to those obtained from the purified hemoglobin and rhodopsin proteins, respectively. Our experimental protocol can distinguish different tissue components with Raman microscopy; therefore, this method can be very useful for examining the distribution of a biological structures and/or chemical components in rapidly frozen freeze-dried tissue.

  14. A comparative study of spray-dried and freeze-dried hydrocortisone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Dontireddy, Rakesh; Crean, Abina M

    2011-10-01

    Poor water solubility of new chemical entities (NCEs) is one of the major challenges the pharmaceutical industry currently faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of freeze-drying as an alternative technique to spray-drying to produce solid dispersions of poorly water-soluble drugs. Also investigated was the use of aqueous solvent mixtures in place of pure solvent for the production of solid dispersions. Aqueous solvent systems would reduce the environmental impact of pure organic solvent systems. Spray-dried and freeze-dried hydrocortisone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone solid dispersions exhibited differences in dissolution behavior. Freeze-dried dispersions exhibited faster dissolution rates than the corresponding spray-dried dispersions. Spray-dried systems prepared using both solvent systems (20% v/v and 96% v/v ethanol) displayed similar dissolution performance despite displaying differences in glass transition temperatures (T(g)) and surface areas. All dispersions showed drug/polymer interactions indicated by positive deviations in T(g) from the predicted values calculated using the Couchman-Karasz equation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic results confirmed the conversion of crystalline drug to the amorphous in the dispersions. Stability studies were preformed at 40°C and 75% relative humidity to investigate the physical stability of prepared dispersions. Recrystallization was observed after a month and the resultant dispersions were tested for their dissolution performance to compare with the dissolution performance of the dispersions prior to the stability study. The dissolution rate of the freeze-dried dispersions remained higher than both spray-dried dispersions after storage.

  15. Role of precursors on greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs, and its control with freeze-dried onion powder.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Lachrymatory factor (LF) synthase in onion bulbs reacts with S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), a key compound in garlic greening. In this study, freeze-dried onion powder containing LF synthase was used in treatments to control garlic greening. Prior to the use of freeze-dried onion powder to treat greening garlic bulbs, model reactions were conducted to confirm the reactivity of 1-PeCSO in onion bulbs to garlic greening. While pink pigments were generated from 1-PeCSO, green pigments were produced from the combination of 1-PeCSO and S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2-PeCSO). However, pigments were formed in the systems containing 1-PeCSO, amino acid and alliinase. Even non-greening garlic bulbs stored at 20 °C turned green with the reaction of 200 g L(-1) 1-PeCSO; therefore 1-PeCSO isolated from onion bulbs had the same role as 1-PeCSO in garlic bulbs in terms of greening. Onion bulbs turned green after the addition of 600 g L(-1) 2-PeCSO. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited garlic greening, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited the greening in crushed garlic bulbs, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Aseptic Freeze-Dried versus Sterile Wet-Packaged Human Cadaveric Acellular Dermal Matrix in Immediate Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Summer E; Meaike, Jesse D; Selber, Jesse C; Liu, Jun; Li, Liang; Hassid, Victor J; Baumann, Donald P; Butler, Charles E; Garvey, Patrick B

    2018-05-01

    Although multiple acellular dermal matrix sources exist, it is unclear how its processing impacts complication rates. The authors compared complications between two preparations of human cadaveric acellular dermal matrix (freeze dried and ready-to-use) in immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction to analyze the effect of processing on complications. The authors retrospectively reviewed all alloplastic breast reconstructions with freeze-dried or ready-to-use human acellular dermal matrices between 2006 and 2016. The primary outcome measure was surgical-site occurrence defined as seroma, skin dehiscence, surgical-site infection, or reconstruction failure. The two groups were compared before and after propensity score matching. The authors included 988 reconstructions (freeze-dried, 53.8 percent; ready-to-use, 46.2 percent). Analysis of 384 propensity score-matched pairs demonstrated a slightly higher rate of surgical-site occurrence (21.4 percent versus 16.7 percent; p = 0.10) and surgical-site infection (9.6 percent versus 7.8 percent; p = 0.13) in the freeze-dried group than in the ready-to-use group, but the difference was not significant. However, failure was significantly higher for the freeze-dried versus ready-to-use group (7.8 percent versus 4.4 percent; p = 0.050). This is the largest study comparing the outcomes of alloplastic breast reconstruction using human acellular dermal matrix materials prepared by different methods. The authors demonstrated higher early complications with aseptic, freeze-dried matrix than with sterile ready-to-use matrix; reconstructive failure was the only outcome to achieve statistical significance. The authors conclude that acellular dermal matrix preparation has an independent impact on patient outcomes in their comparison of one company's product. Therapeutic, III.

  17. Improvements in the realization of the ITS-90 over the temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM

    SciT

    Sun, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Ping, Q.

    2013-09-11

    The temperature primary standard over the range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver in National institute of Metrology (NIM), China, was established in the early 1990s. The performance of all of fixed-point furnaces degraded and needs to be updated due to many years of use. Nowadays, the satisfactory fixed point materials can be available with the development of the modern purification techniques. NIM plans to use a group of three cells for each defining fixed point temperature. In this way the eventual drift of individual cells can be evidenced by periodic intercomparison and thismore » will increase the reliability in disseminating the ITS-90 in China. This article describes the recent improvements in realization of ITS-90 over temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM. Taking advantages of the technological advances in the design and manufacture of furnaces, the new three-zone furnaces and the open-type fixed points were developed from the freezing point of indium to the freezing point of silver, and a furnace with the three-zone semiconductor cooling was designed to automatically realize the melting point of gallium. The reproducibility of the new melting point of gallium and the new open-type freezing points of In, Sn, Zn. Al and Ag is improved, especially the freezing points of Al and Ag with the reproducibility of 0.2mK and 0.5mK respectively. The expanded uncertainty in the realization of these defining fixed point temperatures is 0.34mK, 0.44mK, 0.54mK, 0.60mK, 1.30mK and 1.88mK respectively.« less

  18. Coupled Nd-142, Nd-143 and Hf-176 Isotopic Data from 3.6-3.9 Ga Rocks: New Constraints on the Timing of Early Terrestrial Chemical Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Vickie C.; Brandon, alan D.; Hiess, Joe; Nutman, Allen P.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly precise data from a range of isotopic decay schemes, including now extinct parent isotopes, from samples of the Earth, Mars, Moon and meteorites are rapidly revising our views of early planetary differentiation. Recognising Nd-142 isotopic variations in terrestrial rocks (which can only arise from events occurring during the lifetime of now extinct Sm-146 [t(sub 1/2)=103 myr]) has been an on-going quest starting with Harper and Jacobsen. The significance of Nd-142 variations is that they unequivocally