Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…
Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.
Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…
Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.
Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…
TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.
The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696
Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B F; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43; M = 55.40 months, SD = 8.05 months) completed a Dot Probe task, which provides a measure of attention biases to emotional stimuli, following a mid-day nap and an equivalent interval spent awake. No emotional attention biases emerged when children napped. However, when nap-deprived, children exhibited biases towards negative and positive stimuli. This emotional bias after wake was greater in children who napped habitually. Gender differences also emerged such that females were more attentive to positive emotional stimuli whereas males showed heightened attention to negative emotional stimuli, regardless of having napped or not. Moreover, greater slow wave activity (SWA) during the nap was associated with faster responding, which suggests that SWA may promote efficiency of attention allocation. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIoZ8mzxQgg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann
Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perry, Nicole B.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann
Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build upon early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior, and whether infant's attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion in early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that, greater EEG power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10 months were associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention, and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present in the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10-months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infant's attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities in childhood. PMID:26381926
Burling, Joseph M; Yoshida, Hanako
The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However, little is known how this learning effect itself emerges among children, whose memory and attention are much more limited compared to adults. Two experiments were conducted using different versions of the general highlighting paradigm: Experiment 1 tested 3 to 6 year olds with a newly developed image-based version of the paradigm, which was designed specifically to test young children. Experiment 2 tested the validity of an image-based implementation of the highlighting paradigm with adult participants. The results from Experiment 1 provide evidence for the highlighting effect among children 3-6 years old, and they suggest age-related differences in dividing attention among multiple cues during learning. Experiment 2 replicated results from previous studies by showing robust biases for both image-based and text-based versions of the highlighting task. This study suggests that sensitivity to learning order emerges early through the process of cued attention, and the role of the highlighting effect in early language learning is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Stipek, Deborah; Valentino, Rachel A.
Longitudinal data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to assess how well measures of short-term and working memory and attention in early childhood predicted longitudinal growth trajectories in mathematics and reading comprehension. Analyses also examined whether changes in memory and attention were more…
Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.
The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…
Burling, Joseph M.; Yoshida, Hanako
The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However,…
Peter, Cyril J.; Fischer, Laura K.; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C.; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A.; Rosene, Douglas L.; McGaughy, Jill A.; Sharp, Andrew J.; Galler, Janina R.; Akbarian, Schahram
Background Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. Methods We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations (G1,G2), including 50 G1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale (CAARS) and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by qRT-PCR in rat prefrontal cortex. Results We identified altogether 134 nutrition-sensitive differentially methylated genomic regions (DMR), with the overwhelming majority (87%) specific for G1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1 and VIP2R showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. Interferon Gamma (IFNG) expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Conclusions Early childhood malnutrition entails long lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. PMID:27184921
Peter, Cyril J; Fischer, Laura K; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A; Rosene, Douglas L; McGaughy, Jill A; Sharp, Andrew J; Galler, Janina R; Akbarian, Schahram
Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations, including 50 generation 1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with the Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in rat prefrontal cortex. We identified 134 nutrition-sensitive, differentially methylated genomic regions, with most (87%) specific for generation 1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1, and VIPR2 showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. IFNG expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Early childhood malnutrition entails long-lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hooper, Stephen R; Ashley, Timothy A; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Poe, Michele D
This study examined the impact of otitis media with effusion (OME) and associated hearing loss between 6 and 48 months of age on attention dimensions (i.e., selective/focus, sustained) during the elementary school years. A prospective cohort design in which 74 African American infants were recruited between ages 6 and 12 months. Ear examinations were done repeatedly using both otoscopy and tympanometry, and hearing was assessed using standard audiometric procedures between 6 and 48 months. Multiple measures of attention (i.e., direct assessment, behavioral observations, parent/teacher ratings) were administered from kindergarten through second grade to assess two theoretical dimensions of attention: selective/focused and sustained. The home environment was assessed annually. Results indicated that neither early childhood OME nor hearing loss showed significant correlations with any of the longitudinal or cross-sectional measures of selective/focused attention and sustained attention. In contrast, children with mothers who had fewer years of education and who lived in less responsive and supportive home environments scored higher on both parent and teacher ratings of sustained attention (i.e., hyperactivity) through the second grade of elementary school. For NEPSY Auditory Attention in second grade, a significant interaction between the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and hearing loss was uncovered. This interaction showed that children with hearing loss from poor home environments experienced greater difficulties on the NEPSY Auditory Attention task than those with hearing loss from good home environments. These findings do not support a direct linkage of a history of OME and associated hearing loss to difficulties in selective/focused attention or sustained attention in early elementary school children. Relationships between sociodemographic variables and attention-related functions appear stronger and should be considered as mediators in any
Breckenridge, Kate; Braddick, Oliver; Anker, Shirley; Woodhouse, Margaret; Atkinson, Janette
Attentional problems are commonly reported as a feature of the behavioural profile in both Williams syndrome (WS) and Down's syndrome (DS). Recent studies have begun to investigate these impairments empirically, acknowledging the need for an approach that considers cross-syndrome comparisons and developmental changes across the different component…
Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Larsson, Henrik; Sariaslan, Amir; Långström, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian; Lichtenstein, Paul
Background: Studies have found negative associations between socioeconomic position and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear if this association is causal. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the association between family income in early childhood and subsequent ADHD depends on measured…
Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.
This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…
Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of BI and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. However, we know relatively little about the cognitive processes that accompany BI and shape later socio-emotional functioning. We examined the relations among BI in childhood, attention biases to threat in adolescence, and adolescent social withdrawal in a longitudinal study (N = 126, Mean age = 15 years). As has been reported in anxious adults, adolescents who were behaviorally inhibited as toddlers and young children showed heightened attention bias to threat. In addition, attention bias to threat moderated the relation between childhood BI and adolescent social withdrawal.
The World Conference on Education for All (1990) stated that learning begins at birth. The Dakar Framework for Action (2000) included the expansion and improvement of early childhood care and education as the first of six global goals. A number of countries have launched a variety of efforts to meet their global commitment to the development of…
Blaise, Mindy; Hamm, Catherine; Iorio, Jeanne Marie
This article considers the role of early childhood education within these uncertain times of human induced climate change. It draws from feminism and environmental humanities to experiment with different ways of becoming-with the world. By bringing together Donna Haraway's figure of the Modest Witness and Deborah Bird Rose's notion of witnessing,…
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Hartman, Catharina A.
For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the present study is to identify early indicators of…
Polderman, Tinca J C; Gosso, M Florencia; Posthuma, Danielle; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Heutink, Peter; Verhulst, Frank C; Boomsma, Dorret I
Variation in human behavior may be caused by differences in genotype and by non-genetic differences ("environment") between individuals. The relative contributions of genotype (G) and environment (E) to phenotypic variation can be assessed with the classical twin design. We illustrate this approach with longitudinal data collected in 5 and 12-year-old Dutch twins. At age 5 data on cognitive abilities as assessed with a standard intelligence test (IQ), working memory, selective and sustained attention, and attention problems were collected in 237 twin pairs. Seven years later, 172 twin pairs participated again when they were 12 years old and underwent a similar protocol. Results showed that variation in all phenotypes was influenced by genetic factors. For IQ the heritability estimates increased from 30% at age 5, to 80% at age 12. For executive functioning performance genetic factors accounted for around 50% of the variance at both ages. Attention problems showed high heritabilities (above 60%) at both ages, for maternal and teacher ratings. Longitudinal analyses revealed that executive functioning during childhood was weakly correlated with IQ scores at age 12. Attention problems during childhood, as rated by the mother and the teacher were stronger predictors (r = -0.28 and -0.36, respectively). This association could be attributed to a partly overlapping set of genes influencing attention problems at age 5 and IQ at age 12. IQ performance at age 5 was the best predictor of IQ at age 12. IQ at both ages was influenced by the same genes, whose influence was amplified during development.
Loman, Michelle M; Johnson, Anna E; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D; Nelson, Charles A; Gunnar, Megan R
Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. The performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10- and 11-year-old internationally adopted PI children on two executive attention tasks, go/no-go and Flanker, were compared with two groups: children internationally adopted early from foster care (PF) and nonadopted children (NA). Behavioral measures suggested problems with sustained attention, with PIs performing more poorly on go trials and not on no-go trials of the go/no-go and made more errors on both congruent and incongruent trials on the Flanker. ERPs suggested differences in inhibitory control and error monitoring, as PIs had smaller N2 amplitude on go/no-go and smaller error-related negativity on Flanker. This pattern of results raises questions regarding the nature of attention difficulties for PI children. The behavioral errors are not specific to executive attention and instead likely reflect difficulties in overall sustained attention. The ERP results are consistent with neural activity related to deficits in inhibitory control (N2) and error monitoring (error-related negativity). Questions emerge regarding the similarity of attention regulatory difficulties in PIs to those experienced by non-PI children with ADHD. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Riley, Anne W; Lee, Li-Ching; Surkan, Pamela J; Bartell, Tami R; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin
To investigate the prospective associations between early childhood lead exposure and subsequent risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and its potential effect modifiers. We analyzed data from 1479 mother-infant pairs (299 ADHD, 1180 neurotypical) in the Boston Birth Cohort. The child's first blood lead measurement and physician-diagnosed ADHD was obtained from electronic medical records. Graphic plots and multiple logistic regression were used to examine dose-response associations between lead exposure and ADHD and potential effect modifiers, adjusting for pertinent covariables. We found that 8.9% of the children in the Boston Birth Cohort had elevated lead levels (5-10 µg/dL) in early childhood, which was associated with a 66% increased risk of ADHD (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.08-2.56). Among boys, the association was significantly stronger (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.46-4.26); in girls, the association was largely attenuated (P value for sex-lead interaction = .017). The OR of ADHD associated with elevated lead levels among boys was reduced by one-half if mothers had adequate high-density lipoprotein levels compared with low high-density lipoprotein, or if mothers had low stress compared with high stress during pregnancy. Elevated early childhood blood lead levels increased the risk of ADHD. Boys were more vulnerable than girls at a given lead level. This risk of ADHD in boys was reduced by one-half if the mother had adequate high-density lipoprotein levels or low stress. These findings shed new light on the sex difference in ADHD and point to opportunities for early risk assessment and primary prevention of ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drechsler, Renate; Brandeis, Daniel; Foldenyi, Monika; Imhof, Katrin; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
Objective: The aim of this follow-up study was to investigate the course of performance in attentional tasks in children with ADHD and normal controls in late childhood and preadolescence over short periods of time. The development of two dimensions of attention was compared: alertness/arousal and inhibitory control. Method: Children with ADHD (N…
Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.
Background: Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. Methods: The performance and…
This article examines how joint attention episodes constitute a core feature of relational pedagogy for infants and toddlers. It draws on social interactionist approaches to language and cognitive development to propose that joint attention may afford significant current and future potential for young children's learning. However, most joint…
Miller, Natalie V; Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie A; Fox, Nathan A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with origins early in life. There is growing evidence that individual differences in temperament reactivity are predictive of ADHD symptoms, yet little is known about the relations between temperament reactivity in early infancy and later ADHD symptoms or the combined effect of reactivity with early environmental factors on ADHD symptom development. Using a 9-year prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the independent and interactive contributions of infant reactivity and maternal caregiving behaviors (MCB) on parent- and teacher-reported childhood ADHD symptoms. Participants included 291 children (132 male; 159 female) who participated in a larger study of temperament and social-emotional development. Reactivity was assessed by behavioral observation of negative affect, positive affect, and motor activity during novel stimuli presentations at 4 months of age. MCB were observed during a series of semistructured mother-infant tasks at 9 months of age. Finally, ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent- and teacher-report questionnaires at 7 and 9 years, respectively. Reactivity was predictive of ADHD symptoms, but results were sex specific. For boys, infant motor activity was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms, but only at lower quality MCB. For girls, infant positive affect was positively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at lower quality MCB, and-unexpectedly-infant positive affect and motor activity were negatively predictive of later ADHD symptoms at higher quality MCB. These results point to early parenting as a moderating factor to mitigate temperament-related risk for later ADHD, suggesting this as a potential intervention target to mitigate risk for ADHD among reactive infants. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Yang, Sujin; Yang, Hwajin; Lust, Barbara
This study investigated whether early especially efficient utilization of executive functioning in young bilinguals would transcend potential cultural benefits. To dissociate potential cultural effects from bilingualism, four-year-old U.S. Korean-English bilingual children were compared to three monolingual groups--English and Korean monolinguals…
Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework"…
Hardee, Jillian E.; Benson, Brenda E.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C.; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Background Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area may clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Methods Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. Based on a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (N=44). Participants completed an event-related fMRI attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. Results The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Conclusions BI during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. PMID:23489415
Hardee, Jillian E; Benson, Brenda E; Bar-Haim, Yair; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Chen, Gang; Britton, Jennifer C; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
Biased attention to threat is found in both individuals with anxiety symptoms and children with the childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition (BI). Although perturbed fronto-amygdala function is implicated in biased attention among anxious individuals, no work has examined the neural correlates of attention biases in BI. Work in this area might clarify underlying mechanisms for anxiety in a sample at risk for internalizing disorders. We examined the relations among early childhood BI, fronto-amygdala connectivity during an attention bias task in young adulthood, and internalizing symptoms, assessed in young adulthood. Children were assessed for BI at multiple age points from infancy through age seven. On the basis of a composite of observational and maternal report data, we selected 21 young adults classified as having a history of BI and 23 classified as non-BI for this study (n = 44). Participants completed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-bias task involving threat (angry faces) and neutral trials. Internalizing symptoms were assessed by self-report and diagnostic interviews. The young adults characterized in childhood with BI exhibited greater strength in threat-related connectivity than non-behaviorally inhibited young adults. Between-group differences manifested in connections between the amygdala and two frontal regions: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Amygdala-insula connectivity also interacted with childhood BI to predict young adult internalizing symptoms. Behavioral inhibition during early childhood predicts differences as young adults in threat and attention-related fronto-amygdala connectivity. Connectivity strength, in turn, moderated the relations between early BI and later psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie
Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…
In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of early childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of early childhood education in modern times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…
Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.
Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better
Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L
To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood
Mistry, Sumit; Zammit, Stanley; Price, Valentina-Escott; Jones, Hannah J; Smith, Daniel J
There is limited understanding of the symptomatic development of bipolar disorder from childhood to early adulthood. We assessed whether borderline personality disorder traits, ADHD, and emotional, behavioural and social difficulties during childhood were associated with hypomania assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), to examine associations between measures of childhood psychopathology and lifetime hypomanic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n = 3372). We also conducted a factor analysis of the HCL to identify latent constructs underlying hypomania, and the extent to which childhood psychopathology was associated with these. We identified two factors of the HCL corresponding to energy/mood and risk-taking/irritability. There was evidence of association between childhood borderline personality disorder traits and both hypomania factors, with evidence that the association was stronger with the risk-taking/irritability factor. All individual borderline traits, with the exception of fear of abandonment, were associated with hypomania. There was also evidence of association between most other measures of childhood psychopathology (ADHD, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer relationship problems and reduced prosocial behaviour) and the risk-taking/irritability factor, but much less consistent evidence of association with the energy/mood factor. The HCL cannot diagnose bipolar disorder and may be subject to reporting bias. A broad range of childhood psychopathologies may represent early markers of risk for hypomania. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations, and to inform earlier detection of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Passe, Angèle Sancho
There's a lot of conversation in the early childhood community on evaluating teachers to improve their performance. Raising the quality of early care and education is a priority for policymakers and practitioners on local, state, and federal levels. As a result, much attention is being focused on early childhood educators to ensure that they do a…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Planning and Evaluation Unit.
The Colorado State Board of Education allocated Title IV-V funds in 1975 for a study of the status of early childhood education in Colorado. The purposes of the study were to: (1) gather data relevant to early childhood education on the status of all children from birth through age 5; (2) identify needs of children of this age within the state;…
Kaplan, Sandra; Hertzog, Nancy B.
Federal attention is focused currently on investing and improving the quality of early childhood education, so that children's potential and talent development can be used as a natural resource for the future of our country. This article engages readers in transitioning their thinking about early childhood gifted education from a traditional…
He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.
We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…
Pelo, Ann, Ed.
"Rethinking Early Childhood Education" is alive with the conviction that teaching young children involves values and vision. This anthology collects inspiring stories about social justice teaching with young children. Included here is outstanding writing from childcare teachers, early-grade public school teachers, scholars, and parents.…
Koh, Edgar, Ed.
Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…
Bartlett, Kathy; Zimanyi, Louise
Recognizing the need to identify the level, nature, and impact of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs on children and their families, this theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" seeks to complement and further the international efforts at collecting information on ECCD for use at national and international levels.…
Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki
Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries. PMID:22007218
Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.
The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is increasingly concerned with the lack of attention to children affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" examines issues related to ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children under 5 years receive attention in the international,…
Duffee, James H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Kuo, Alice A; Legano, Lori A; Earls, Marian F
High-quality home-visiting services for infants and young children can improve family relationships, advance school readiness, reduce child maltreatment, improve maternal-infant health outcomes, and increase family economic self-sufficiency. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports unwavering federal funding of state home-visiting initiatives, the expansion of evidence-based programs, and a robust, coordinated national evaluation designed to confirm best practices and cost-efficiency. Community home visiting is most effective as a component of a comprehensive early childhood system that actively includes and enhances a family-centered medical home. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.
The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…
Boivin, Michael J; Weiss, Jonathan; Chhaya, Ronak; Seffren, Victoria; Awadu, Jorem; Sikorskii, Alla; Giordani, Bruno
Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P. Tobii ×2-30 portable infrared cameras were programmed to monitor pupil direction during the ECVT 6-min animation and compared with observer-based PROCODER webcam scoring. Children watched 78% of the cartoon (Tobii) compared with 67% (webcam scoring), although the 2 measures were highly correlated (r = .90, p = .001). It is possible for 2 such measures to be highly correlated even if one is consistently higher than the other (Bergemann et al., 2012). Both ECVT Tobii and webcam ECVT measures significantly correlated with COAT immediate recall (r = .37, p = .02 vs. r = .38, p = .01, respectively) and total recall (r = .33, p = .06 vs. r = .42, p = .005) measures. However, neither the Tobii eye tracking nor PROCODER webcam ECVT measures of attention correlated with MSEL composite cognitive performance or BRIEF-P global executive composite. ECVT scoring using Tobii eye tracking is feasible with at-risk very young African children and consistent with webcam-based scoring approaches in their correspondence to one another and other neurocognitive performance-based measures. By automating measurement and scoring, eye tracking technologies can improve the efficiency and help better standardize ECVT testing of attention in younger children. This holds promise for other neurodevelopmental tests where eye movements, tracking, and gaze length can provide important behavioral markers of neuropsychological and neurodevelopmental processes
Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.
In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…
Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.
Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…
This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…
Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema
This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…
Barclay, Lisa K.
Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)
The early years of childhood are receiving increased public policy attention in many countries around the world. Debates on providing quality services and ensuring a good foundation for lifelong learning are generating a new interest in curriculum issues. What understandings do we have of young children? How do they access and construct knowledge…
Galéra, Cédric; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Fombonne, Eric; Michel, Grégory; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Melchior, Maria
To assess the link between childhood attention problems (AP) and substance use 18 years later. This cohort study was conducted in a community sample of 1103 French youths followed from 1991 to 2009. Exposures and covariates were childhood behavioral problems (based on parental report at baseline), early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity. Outcome measures were regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use (based on youth reports at follow-up). Individuals with high levels of childhood AP had higher rates of substance use (regular tobacco smoking, alcohol problems, problematic cannabis use, and lifetime cocaine use). However, when taking into account other childhood behavioral problems, early substance use, school difficulties, and family adversity, childhood AP were related only to regular tobacco smoking and lifetime cocaine use. Early cannabis exposure was the strongest risk factor for all substance use problems. This longitudinal community-based study shows that, except for tobacco and cocaine, the association between childhood AP and substance use is confounded by a range of early risk factors. Early cannabis exposure plays a central role in later substance use. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.
Describes negative contributors to young children's pretend play development and how early childhood educators can support both play development and foundational skills. Identifies ways that play influences development and contributes to children's ability to profit from academic activities. Offers suggestions for helping children create an…
The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…
Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…
Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…
Washington, Novella M.
This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…
Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel
Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…
Halmi, Katherine A.; Bellace, Dara; Berthod, Samantha; Ghosh, Samiran; Berrettini, Wade; Brandt, Harry A.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Johnson, Craig L.; Kaplan, Allan; Kaye, Walter H.; Thornton, Laura; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Strober, Michael
Objective To examine childhood perfectionism in anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting (RAN), purging (PAN), and binge eating with or without purging (BAN) subtypes. Method The EATATE, a retrospective assessment of childhood perfectionism, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) were administered to 728 AN participants. Results EATATE responses revealed General Childhood Perfectionism, 22.3% of 333 with RAN, 29.2% of 220 with PAN, and 24.8% of 116 with BAN; School Work Perfectionism, 31.2% with RAN, 30.4% with PAN, and 24.8% with BAN; Childhood Order and Symmetry, 18.7% with RAN, 21.7% with PAN, and 17.8% with BAN; and Global Childhood Rigidity, 42.6% with RAN, 48.3% with PAN and 48.1% with BAN. Perfectionism preceded the onset of AN in all subtypes. Significant associations between EDI-2 Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction were present with four EATATE subscales. Discussion Global Childhood Rigidity was the predominate feature that preceded all AN subtypes. This may be a risk factor for AN. PMID:22488115
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R; Nagy, William
Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 ( N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing the alphabet from memory in manuscript or by keyboard and fast copying of a sentence with all the letters of the alphabet. Multiple regressions based on a principal component for composites of multiple levels of language (subword, word, and syntax/text) showed that measures of attention and executive function involving language processing rather than ratings of attention and executive function not specifically related to language accounted for more variance and identified more unique predictors in the composite outcomes for oral language, reading, and writing systems. Inhibition related to focused attention uniquely predicted outcomes for the oral language system. Findings are discussed in reference to implications for assessing and teaching students who are still learning to pay attention to heard and written language and self-regulate their language learning during middle childhood and adolescence.
Mbugua, Tata J.
Recent years have seen a global endeavor to prioritize early childhood care and education as a foundation for later learning and development, as evidenced by the Global Guidelines for Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century (Association for Childhood Education International/World Organization for Early Childhood, 1999). Such efforts…
Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…
Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Reid, Jeanne L.
The history of American early education is one of changing roles and goals. As federal engagement in early childhood has shifted in response to social, political, and economic needs, few policy efforts have focused on long-term planning or coordination. The authors identify the appropriate roles of federal, state, and local governments and make 13…
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
In an effort to provide a sound basis for educational accountability for preschool programs, the Arizona Early Childhood Education (ECE) Standards were developed as a framework for literacy-based programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and to provide parents with a basic understanding of indicators of early learning. These standards, to be adopted by…
Hauser, Mary E., Ed.; Jipson, Janice A., Ed.
Through personal narrative and scholarly reflection, this book examines the foundations of early childhood education, contemporary curricular and pedagogical practice in early childhood education, and critical issues affecting the multiple worlds of childhood. Essays by individual contributors are linked by contributors' conversations. An…
This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…
Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.
This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…
The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…
Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja
This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…
Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.
This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…
This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…
Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).
At a seminar on Compensatory Early Childhood Education held in Jerusalem in the fall of 1972 the idea of compensatory education and its viability in cross cultural terms was examined in conjunction with a critical review of the whole notion of social and cultural disadvantage. Twenty-two participants from international governmental organizations…
The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Cooke, Gary, Comp.
This annotated bibliography provides descriptions of films concerning child development and various approaches to early childhood education. Some are for classroom use, and others are intended as guides and resource materials for teachers. Attachments give addresses and phone numbers of film distributors and addresses, managers and phone number of…
Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka
This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…
Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura
This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…
Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.
Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…
A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…
Arora, Samita Berry
With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…
Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara
Business management theory and principles as applied to the administration of early childhood programs are presented in this workbook. Following a brief survey of the historical background of early childhood education and current early childhood programs, information and guidance to help plan, operate, and evaluate program facilities are provided.…
Meade, Anne, Ed.
Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings…
This special theme issue of the journal "The Advocate," offers articles on early interventions for preschoolers with special needs, including three articles in Spanish. Contents include: "Providing An Orientation for Life" (Galen D. Kirkland); "AFC Fights Cuts in Education at 'Speak Out' Rally" (Nadine Renazile);…
Lee, Jin; Jang, Youn Joo
While the importance of early childhood education is well documented, scant attention is afforded to the access to institutions for early childhood education. Uneven distribution of institutions for early childhood education in segregated metropolitan areas can cause inequality of educational opportunity. By using the Geographic Information System…
This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…
Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…
Lim, Lena; Hart, Heledd; Mehta, Mitul A; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya
Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse affective and cognitive consequences including impaired emotion processing, inhibition and attention. However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in childhood maltreatment have examined emotion processing, while very few studies have tested the neurofunctional substrates of cognitive functions and none of attention. This study investigated the association between severe childhood abuse and fMRI brain activation during a parametric sustained attention task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention in 21 medication-naïve, drug-free young people with a history of childhood abuse controlling for psychiatric comorbidities by including 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses, and 27 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the participants exposed to childhood abuse showed increased omission errors in the task which correlated positively trend-wise with the duration of their abuse. Neurofunctionally, the participants with a history of childhood abuse, but not the psychiatric controls, displayed significantly reduced activation relative to the healthy controls during the most challenging attention condition only in typical attention regions including left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula and temporal areas. We therefore show for the first time that severe childhood abuse is associated with neurofunctional abnormalities in key ventral frontal-temporal sustained attention regions. The findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional abnormalities in sustained attention, which may help in the development of effective treatments for victims of childhood abuse.
Mehta, Mitul A.; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya
Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse affective and cognitive consequences including impaired emotion processing, inhibition and attention. However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in childhood maltreatment have examined emotion processing, while very few studies have tested the neurofunctional substrates of cognitive functions and none of attention. This study investigated the association between severe childhood abuse and fMRI brain activation during a parametric sustained attention task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention in 21 medication-naïve, drug-free young people with a history of childhood abuse controlling for psychiatric comorbidities by including 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses, and 27 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the participants exposed to childhood abuse showed increased omission errors in the task which correlated positively trend-wise with the duration of their abuse. Neurofunctionally, the participants with a history of childhood abuse, but not the psychiatric controls, displayed significantly reduced activation relative to the healthy controls during the most challenging attention condition only in typical attention regions including left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula and temporal areas. We therefore show for the first time that severe childhood abuse is associated with neurofunctional abnormalities in key ventral frontal-temporal sustained attention regions. The findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional abnormalities in sustained attention, which may help in the development of effective treatments for victims of childhood abuse. PMID:27832090
A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…
Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…
This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…
Neugebauer, Roger; Goodeve, Emily
As early childhood professionals from 78 countries prepare to travel to Belfast for the 2009 World Forum on Early Care and Education, these authors surveyed a sampling of those who will be attending on the current trends in early childhood education in their country. Delegates from over 40 countries responded, and in reviewing the reports from…
Maynard, Trlsha, Ed.; Thomas, Nigel, Ed.
The primary purpose of this book is to provide a core introductory text for the many undergraduate students who are now studying early childhood. Four key themes are emphasised throughout this book: The first is the social construction of childhood. This is the idea that childhood is not a naturally given phenomenon, but the result of social…
To review and update the current knowledge about early childhood caries (ECC) and its etiology, prevalence, risk factors, management, and preventive strategies. Early childhood caries is a disease affecting significantly both well-developed and industrial nations. The ECC can significantly affect the child's quality of life, as it may lead to infection, swelling, pain, and other symptoms. The ECC affects children after eruption of primary teeth until age of around 5 years. The ECC affects all parts of the tooth including the smooth surface. Upper anterior teeth and primary molars are usually affected. The lower anterior teeth are less likely affected. The risk factors for ECC are diet, bacteria, and host susceptibility. The additional factors, such as presence of enamel defect and the feeding practices also contribute to the initiation and progress of ECC. Dentists must focus on utilizing existing techniques to distinguish indications of right on time and propelled caries and give guidance on the best way to counteract and control caries in children. Approaches should be directed to preventive caries control strategies among children. Preventing and controlling the development of ECC among children is important to maintain effective eating, speech development, and formation of a positive self-image.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.
Specht, Jacqueline; Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena
Recent research in early childhood education (ECE) centers suggests that some teacher characteristics are not at a level that would support computer learning opportunities for children. This study identified areas of support required by teachers to provide a smooth introduction of the computer into the early childhood education classroom.…
Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme
This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…
Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.
This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…
Swartz, Stanley L.
The report describes the Western Illinois University 0-6 Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project (WIU 0-6 Project)--a model project designed to demonstrate innovative methods to fill personnel needs for early childhood handicapped programs. The project is a 2 semester program to train professional educators in the…
Forsythe, Hazel; Wesley, Myrna
This study sought to determine the needs of early childhood teachers in Kentucky for education to help them manage children's nutrition in early childhood programs. The study also sought to determine whether formal classes, self-study via computer, or site-based inservice workshops is the most desirable format for teacher nutrition education. A…
Wolf, Lois C.
This paper examines ways in which early childhood education can provide the vital foundation for lifelong attitudes and values toward the democratic process. One goal of early childhood education is to empower the social bonding which brings collaborative relationships to their full potential and gives the child a sense of connectedness to others.…
Honig, Alice S.
Discusses the future training of early childhood educators, focusing on techniques for teachers to build prosocial skills, develop aesthetic appreciation, inculcate acceptance and inclusion, and develop a curiosity for learning among children. Also discusses the political status of early childhood education. (MDM)
In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…
Anning, Angela, Ed.; Cullen, Joy, Ed.; Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.
This book aims to provide research-based evidence that links theory and research to practice in early childhood settings. Different ways of constructing learning in contrasting settings are explored through the analysis of research in early childhood contexts in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. The cross-national focus extends the…
Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth
Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…
Yelland, Nicola, Ed.
This book examines critical issues in early childhood education across a broad range of contexts. The issues explored are not only critical in terms of being fundamental to early childhood education but they are also critical in that they present ideas and utilize frameworks which are not traditional to the field. The topics under review include…
Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy
A study examined six aspects of learning communities in early childhood settings in rural New South Wales (Australia). These aspects are reflection, individual development, diversity, conversation, caring, and shared responsibility. Surveys of 15 directors of early childhood programs indicated that the reflective component of the learning…
This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…
An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…
Magna Systems, Inc., Barrington, IL.
This early childhood training workbook and three accompanying video series provide instruction for early childhood caregivers and teachers in the areas of guidance and discipline, math, and diversity. The video series "Guidance and Discipline" demonstrates the ways in which teachers help children become self disciplined. The three videos…
Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.
Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…
Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.
What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…
Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara
This text-workbook is designed to present management theories and principles as they apply to the administration of early childhood programs, and serve as a resource and discussion guide applicable to a wide range of child care situations. Following a brief historical consideration of early childhood education in the United States, information to…
Recognizing the increasing pressure for publication for early childhood academics and the lack of current information about journals' publication practices, this study surveyed editors of Australian and international journals. The journals were selected through a survey of 43 academic staff of an institute of early childhood education and through…
Attention to spirituality is proposed to be a means of restoring and supporting well-being in early childhood educational contexts. In Aotearoa, New Zealand, the spiritual dimension is included in the early childhood curriculum "Te Whariki". This holistic approach to education supported research in three different early childhood…
Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Roth, Jessica L.
In a rapidly shifting twenty-first century context, early childhood education and care (ECEC) must consider contextual, scientific, and policy realities in order to realize its social obligations to young children. The current status of ECEC globally bears both good and bad news; many countries are paying attention to the importance of the early…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series…
Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits--for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society. This series…
Shuker, Mary Jane; Cherrington, Sue
The early childhood education (ECE) sector in New Zealand has long been recognised for the diversity of service types and range of organisations involved in delivering ECE. However, less attention has been paid to diversity within individual ECE services. This article draws on a national survey carried out as part of a larger project, "The…
The provision of early childhood education and care for children and families has received unprecedented community attention in recent times. In the resulting policy flows, competing and contradictory discourses of professional identity have emerged. In part, these are also shaped by dominant political and economic discourses, and interact with…
This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that todays children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.
Kagan, Sharon Lynn
For over four decades, American policymakers have focused their attention on readying young children for school. Despite noble policy efforts, durable investments and a persistent belief in the ability of early childhood education to offset social inequities, significant challenges exist for America's urban young children as they enter school.…
Pozuelos, Joan P; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J; Rueda, M Rosario
In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6- to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106), alerting and orienting cues were independently manipulated, thus allowing examination of interactions between these 2 networks, as well as between them and the executive attention network. In Experiment 2 (N = 159), additional changes were made to the task in order to foster exogenous orienting cues. Results from both studies consistently revealed separate developmental trajectories for each attention network. Children younger than 7 years exhibited stronger benefits from having an alerting auditory signal prior to the target presentation. Developmental changes in orienting were mostly observed on response accuracy between middle and late childhood, whereas executive attention showed increases in efficiency between 7 years and older ages, and further improvements in late childhood. Of importance, across both experiments, significant interactions between alerting and orienting, as well as between each of these and the executive attention network, were observed. Alerting cues led to speeding shifts of attention and enhancing orienting processes. Also, both alerting and orienting cues modulated the magnitude of the flanker interference effect. These findings inform current theoretical models of human attention and its development, characterizing for the first time, the age-related course of attention networks interactions that, present in adults, stem from further refinements over childhood.
Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey
Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…
This paper investigates three issues vital to early childhood education: (1) sources of curriculum, (2) sources of financial support, and (3) the relationship between racism and compensatory education. "Natural" childhood and child development theories are discussed, and their use as a source of curriculum for young children is questioned, as is…
Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…
Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario
In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…
Edwards, Susan; Blaise, Mindy; Hammer, Marie
Postdevelopmental perspectives in early childhood education and care increasingly reference alternative ways of understanding learning, growth and development in early learning. Drawing on these ideas, this paper examines research findings which focused on early childhood teachers' understandings of multiage grouping. The findings suggested that…
Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack
In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…
America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011
America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.
Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)
Gould, Jacqueline F; Makrides, Maria; Colombo, John; Smithers, Lisa G
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the hippocampus and frontal lobes of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. These areas of the brain contribute to attention and working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC). We evaluated the effect of maternal omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on child attention and WMIC. A total of 185 term-born children of mothers who were randomly allocated to consume 800 mg DHA/d (treatment) or a placebo (control) from ∼20 wk of gestation until birth were assessed with multiple measures of attention and WMIC at a mean (± SD) of 27 ± 2 mo. Primary outcomes were the average time it took to be distracted when playing with a toy (distractibility) and the accuracy of remembering a new hiding location while inhibiting a learned response to search in the previous location (WMIC). Assessments were completed by 81 children in the treatment group (mean ± SD age: 835 ± 50.4 d) and 77 children in the control group (839 ± 65.6 d). There was no effect of supplementation on primary outcomes [distractibility mean difference: -0.2 s (95% CI: -0.7, 0.4 s); WMIC mean difference: 8.9 mm (95% CI: -10.6, 28.3 mm)]. There was no difference between DHA-supplemented and control groups except that treatment-group children looked away from the toys fewer times than controls when presented with multiple toys competing for attention but less accurately remembered a repeated hiding location. These secondary effects were not consistent with any other outcomes and may have been a result of chance. Cord plasma DHA was not consistently associated with attention and WMIC. Maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not enhance attention or WMIC in term-born preschoolers. The DHA for Maternal and Infant Outcomes trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN1260500056906.
Agbenyega, Joseph S.; Klibthong, Sunanta
An ever-increasing number of children with and without disabilities are attending early childhood programmes and learning together. Early childhood inclusion considers all children with and without disabilities, and their families as full members of the early childhood community. Although many early childhood teachers accept the educational rights…
This study sought to determine Australian attitudes toward men working in the early childhood profession. Subjects were 100 first-year and 100 third-year female early childhood undergraduates and 22 practicing early childhood teachers and caregivers. Survey respondents were asked to describe how three imaginary early childhood teachers named Mary,…
Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William
Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…
Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…
Kelly-Williams, Suzette; Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.
Early childhood education has a role to play in constructing a sustainable society. In particular, increasing global attention has focused on how early childhood may help alleviate poverty among children and their families and promote economic growth. Part of this discourse involves the use of technology as a means to improve the quality of early…
White, Bradford R.; Baron, Debra Mayconich; Klostermann, Brenda K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.
Much attention during the past decade has been given to the need to develop a well-trained early childhood education workforce. In order to address this need, the Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) awarded Early Childhood Educator Preparation Program Innovation (EPPI) grants to institutions of higher learning. The IBHE funded partnerships,…
Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo
Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this population. In this study, we investigated several components of attention in children with CAE using a unique computerized test battery for attention performance. Participants included 24 patients with CAE and 24 controls matched for age and sex. They were tested with a computerized test battery, which included the following tasks: selective attention, impulsivity, focused attention, divided attention, alertness, and vigilance. Compared with healthy controls, patients with CAE made more commission errors in the Go/No-Go task and more omission errors in the divided attention task. Childhood absence epilepsy patients also showed decreased reaction times in measures of selective attention and a great variability of reaction times in alertness and Go/No-Go tasks. Our findings suggest that patients with CAE were impaired in tonic and phasic alertness, divided attention, selective attention, and impulsivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kostelnik, Marjorie J.; Onaga, Esther; Rohde, Barbara; Whiren, Alice
Bridging the gap between child development and strategies for inclusion, this book is intended to help early childhood practitioners and pre-service teachers feel better equipped to meet the needs of all the children in their early childhood setting. Each chapter of the book is a case study introducing a child (ages birth to 8 years) with one or…
Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie
The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…
Saracho, Olivia N. Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.
Noting that the curriculum in early childhood education is dramatically different from that at other levels of education, this volume seeks to clarify some of the issues related to early childhood curriculum development and its bases in both personal knowledge and knowledge from the different disciplines to achieve a "balanced curriculum."…
Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.
Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…
Clark, Margaret M., Ed.; Tucker, Stanley, Ed.
This book challenges taken for granted views of early childhood across the globe. It deepens and broadens our understanding of what it means to be a child today and of the challenges children face in different parts of the world. It will be essential reading for all who work with young children or are students of early years education and…
Katz, Lilian G.
If present trends in family life and education continue into the next decade, most children under five will spend substantial proportions of their early years in various types of early childhood programs, most five- to six-year-olds will attend all-day kindergarten, and during their elementary school years they will spend much of their time before…
Figueiredo, Márcia Cançado; Guarienti, Cinthya Aline D; Michel, Jorge Artur; Sampaio, Mircelei Saldanha
The Infant Clinic Program believes that oral care should begin within the first days of life in order to guarantee good oral health throughout life; however it has been observed that many dental professionals are not trained attend to this segment of the population. The purpose of the Infant Clinic course is to offer the theoretical and practical knowledge that dentists need to know in order to offer education, prevention and curative treatments, providing comprehensive attention to infants and young children. To evaluate the effectiveness of this Program, a longitudinal study was conducted with the children who participated in the Program during 2004 and 2005. The analysis was performed by first defining the profiles of 303 children before they came to the Infant Clinic, and comparing their oral status in 2004 and at the end of 2005 (12 months, Chi-square test, p < 0.01). Of the 303 children observed in 2004, 72.87% came to the clinic for maintenance of oral health, compared to 14.83% who had caries lesions. During the first clinical examination (2004), it was observed that 57% of the children had good plaque control, while 33% of children had poor or very bad plaque control. After 12 months (2005), an increase in good plaque control was observed in the children (77.28% with good plaque control, and 22.72%poor or very bad plaque control) (p < 0.01). Through the treatment of active lesions, we verified a decrease in active lesions (from 82% to 32%) (p < 0.01). These results show the effectiveness of the program's education, preventive and curative procedures. In addition to the positive experience of the Infant Clinic program, it was concluded that, with the support of treatment and parental education regarding healthy diet and oral hygiene for children, preventive procedures and curative treatment of existing lesions, oral health promotion for very young children was in fact achieved.
Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen
Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…
Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.
Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…
The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.
LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin
"Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…
Cartwright, Penny, Ed.; Kelly, Clare, Ed.; McLean, Kathy, Ed.; Mellor, Nikki, Ed.; Pidgeon, Sue, Ed.; Stevens, Judith, Ed.; Stables, Kay, Ed.
This periodical, from Goldsmiths Association for Early Childhood (GAEC), addresses a variety of issues related to early childhood education in Great Britain. Articles included in the Spring 1996 issue are: (1) "Traditional Story Telling in the Early Years" (Fiona Collins); (2) "International Focus--Early Childhood Education…
Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca
This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…
Shores, Elizabeth F.; Barbaro, Erin; Barbaro, Michael C.; Flenner, Michelle; Bell, Lynn
The Early Childhood Atlas facilitates spatial analysis in early childhood services research for the promotion of greater quality and accessibility of early care and education. The Atlas team collects and geocodes federal, state and nongovernmental datasets about early childhood services, integrating selected data elements into its online mapmaking…
McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan
"Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…
DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras
This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…
Hochman, Darlene; Kaplan, Paul
The Early Childhood Program (ECP) at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) was established to train students in the instruction of young children by providing them with theoretical knowledge, skills training, and practical experience. This report provides information on the philosophy, structure, and outcomes of the ECP. The first section…
The history of early childhood education in Cyprus, from the time of the Ottoman Empire to the present, is reviewed in this paper as the context for reporting on a survey of 1,071 full-time and working Turkish Cypriot mothers regarding the daily difficulties of child rearing. The survey was undertaken to inform policymaking efforts of the…
Levinowitz, Lili M.
Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)
This article explores the efforts of tribal communities building more coordinated and effective early childhood systems by taking advantage of federal funding opportunities and partnerships. Given a new level of understanding and response from federal agencies regarding the unique nature of tribal communities, efforts are being made to acknowledge…
In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…
This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…
Zigler, Edward; Berman, Winnie
Examines the recent history of early childhood intervention efforts; discusses principles that guided the formation of intervention programs in the 1960s and 1970s; describes the Head Start program and lessons learned from its development; considers issues in evaluating intervention programs; and presents suggestions for future directions in early…
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa
Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Robinson, Cordelia C.; And Others
Part of a volume which explores current issues in service delivery to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions, this chapter discusses the nature of parent involvement in early childhood special education. Acceptance of the basic axiom of parent involvement needs to be accompanied by an understanding of individual differences in family…
Having an educational theory as a school's foundation is a key component in successful educational endeavors. However, many Jewish early childhood programs do not commonly use educational theory to support methods of instruction. In this study 14 children from a constructivist-based Jewish kindergarten class are interviewed to determine how they…
Anderson, Elizabeth M.
There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…
This paper argues that in daycare centres in France, where children are cared for from four months to age three, the competence of female staff members is usually denied and unvalued vis a vis the expert opinions. The paper highlights empirical research on early childhood and gender, providing pragmatic access to children's languages of desire, a…
Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.
Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social…
Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.
Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…
O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara
In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…
Texas Education Agency, Austin.
An annotated listing of selected instruments which may be appropriate for the young child who appears to be handicapped and who may be placed in an early childhood unit for the handicapped is provided. The list is not comprehensive nor does it contain annotations from all companies which produce this type of material. It is offered to apprise…
Browne, Charlyn Harper
The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…
Robinson, Kerry H.
This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…
Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen
Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…
This article condenses the milestones of a long project. The ambition of the project has been to seek a balanced view of early childhood education, where both the adaptive and agentive nature of action is considered. A model based on the relationships between perception and environmental change serves as the project's theoretical foundation. The…
The state of children's fitness is the responsibility of all who are involved with children. As early childhood professionals, they have a duty to educate the whole (thinking, feeling, "moving") child. Moreover, teachers of preschoolers can be more realistic than parents in their assessment of children's physical inactivity levels, and preschool…
Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education…
Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani
This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…
Sniegoski, Stephen J.
The idea of a special type of education for young children emerged in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, with the kindergarten movement. The kindergarten was created by Friedrich Froebel, the German educator whose ideas, although no longer popular, can be traced to contemporary early childhood education. Froebel explicitly rejected…
Vuorisalo, Mari; Rutanen, Niina; Raittila, Raija
This paper examines early childhood education (ECE) by applying and developing relational-spatial perspectives on everyday life in educational institutions for young children. The aim is to investigate the dynamic process of construction of space and to illustrate with selected empirical episodes how this process occurs in ECE. Drawing on authors…
Ponciano, Leslie; Shabazian, Ani
Early childhood educators work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. As society becomes increasingly multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, so too grows the need for educators' abilities to support children's development by instilling in them the tools they need to live together respectfully and stand up to…
Baldwin, Nikki A.
The purpose of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the emotional experiences of three early childhood education leaders directing diverse programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Application of a poststructural theoretical framework was completed to better understand how leaders' emotion was performed within social and…
Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…
Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)
Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.
There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically reviews…
Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen
This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…
In an effort to determine the effect of sex-role expectations and low economic return on the number of men teaching at the preschool level, this study surveyed 116 women and 10 men involved in early childhood education. A questionnaire sent to participants raised questions about either an imaginary young man or woman who had recently received a…
Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…
This book examines historical features from antiquity through present times that are important to early childhood scholars. Chapter 1 presents the history of education, including discussions of educational practices from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries in Europe and the United States, recent efforts to merge preschool and…
Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós
The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…
American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.
This document details the position of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) regarding universal access to early childhood education as represented in a resolution of the AFT convention in 2003. The document points out that the lack of access to high-quality preschool programs is a major problem affecting nearly every working family, and as the…
Ziv, Haggith Gor
This article discusses the theory and practice of applying critical feminist pedagogy in a teacher's training college. It is based on an analysis of the education of students in an early childhood teaching program (BEd) that seeks to promote social justice through education. This article discusses the areas of the student's education that…
Brown, Christopher P.
In this article, the author demonstrates how the current emphasis on viewing early childhood education (ECE) as an investment keeps ECE at the margins of U.S. political debates as well as in other discussions around the world. Historically, the field of ECE in the United States has struggled, and continues to struggle, for political positioning.…
This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…
Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…
Describes the gender positioning strategies adopted by a male Australian preschool teacher-director as he faces attitudes that early childhood education is "women's work." Discusses implications of a greater male presence in early childhood education. (JPB)
This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…
Fox, Jillian; Diezmann, Carmel; Lamb, Janeen
The aim of this paper is to report on barriers to ICT integration in teaching practices from the perspective of early childhood teachers. Six early childhood teachers from a combined private school in Queensland participated in this study. Individual interviews explored the ICT tools used in early childhood programs and the barriers to integration…
Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan
Early childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the twentieth century. More recently, with the introduction of the National Early Childhood Reform Agenda, early…
Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.
Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…
This paper addresses, in two parts, some issues in the staffing of early childhood services. Taking an international perspective, the first part of the paper discusses: (1) the structure of the early childhood workforce; (2) the social construction of the early childhood worker; (3) gender; (4) staff to child ratios; (5) processes of transition in…
The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices…
This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…
Cazden, Courtney B., Ed.
Eight articles about oral language education for preschool children are presented. They are: (1) a point of view on oral language education--"Suggestions from Studies of Early Language Acquisition,""Language Programs for Young Children: Notes from England and Wales," and "The Issue of Structure," by Courtney Cazden; (2) suggestions for curriculum…
Pianta, Robert C., Ed.
Comprehensive and authoritative, this forward-thinking book reviews the breadth of current knowledge about early education and identifies important priorities for practice and policy. Robert C. Pianta and his associates bring together foremost experts to examine what works in promoting all children's school readiness and social-emotional…
Kemp, Coral R.
From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…
Prieto, Maria Dolores; Parra, Joaquin; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Sanchez, Cristina
The aim of this study is to explore creativity in Spanish children during their early years and to explore differences regarding gender and age. We have used a sample of 285 children between five and seven years old. To measure their creativity we used the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). We have used the test of figured expression that…
Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A
Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.
Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya
The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…
Öztürk Yilmaztekin, Elif; Erden, Feyza Tantekin
This study investigates early childhood teachers' views about science teaching practices in an early childhood settings. It was conducted in a preschool located in Ankara, Turkey. The data of the study were collected through multiple sources of information such as interviews with early childhood teachers and observations of their practices in the…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula
Research has established the importance of early socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage for understanding later life outcomes, but less is known about change in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child development within the period of early childhood. Competing hypotheses drawn from the literature posited: (1) a stable SES-development relationship, (2) a stronger relationship in infancy than at older ages, and (3) a stronger relationship at school entry than at younger ages. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007), we followed 8600 children from infancy through kindergarten entry to model change over time in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cognitive and behavioral development. The unexpected main finding was that the relationships between three socioeconomic measures (household income, assets, and maternal educational attainment) strengthened from infancy through age 4 or 4½, then weakened slightly until the start of kindergarten. Indirect evidence suggested preschool education as one possible explanation. We argue for researchers to expand the school transition concept to include the now widespread prekindergarten year, as well as for attention to psychological and physiological developmental factors that may shape the relationship between SES and cognitive and behavioral development throughout early childhood. PMID:25431546
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula
Research has established the importance of early socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage for understanding later life outcomes, but less is known about change in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child development within the period of early childhood. Competing hypotheses drawn from the literature posited: (1) a stable SES-development relationship, (2) a stronger relationship in infancy than at older ages, and (3) a stronger relationship at school entry than at younger ages. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007), we followed 8600 children from infancy through kindergarten entry to model change over time in the relationship between socioeconomic status and cognitive and behavioral development. The unexpected main finding was that the relationships between three socioeconomic measures (household income, assets, and maternal educational attainment) strengthened from infancy through age 4 or 4½, then weakened slightly until the start of kindergarten. Indirect evidence suggested preschool education as one possible explanation. We argue for researchers to expand the school transition concept to include the now widespread prekindergarten year, as well as for attention to psychological and physiological developmental factors that may shape the relationship between SES and cognitive and behavioral development throughout early childhood.
Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M T; Horwood, L J
The relationship between conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours at ages 6, 8, 10 and 12 years and the early onset of cannabis usage by the age of 15 years was studied in a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The analysis showed that while conduct problems during middle childhood were significantly associated with later cannabis use (p < 0.05) there was no association between early attention deficit behaviours and cannabis use (p > 0.40) when the associations between conduct problems and attention deficit behaviours were taken into account. It was estimated that children who showed tendencies to conduct disorder behaviour in middle childhood were between 2.1 to 2.7 times more likely to engage in early cannabis use than children not prone to conduct problems even when a range of factors including family social background, parental separation and parental conflict were taken into account. It is concluded that early conduct disorder behaviours are a risk factor for later cannabis use when due allowance is made for social and contextual factors associated with both early conduct problems and later cannabis use.
As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.
Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna
Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…
Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.
The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information. PMID:27696324
Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N
The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.
Idiazábal-Alecha, M Angeles; Kosno, Magdalena
Both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy are common disorders in childhood. ADHD and epilepsy can be detrimental to the behavior, learning and social relations of affected children. Children with epilepsy and ADHD tend to be at higher risk of school difficulties compared with children who suffer from epilepsy only. We review the works on the prevalence of ADHD in the epileptic population, the prevalence of epilepsy in children with ADHD, and electroencephalographic abnormalities observed in patients with ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is higher than in the general population and as is the rate of epilepsy in ADHD. Further studies are required to assess the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and epilepsy and the impact of electroencephalographic abnormalities in the clinical course of these patients.
Lambert, Beverley, Ed.
This collection of 14 essays addresses the changes and challenges that the early childhood education profession in Australia has faced in recent years, and covers a wide range of important issues of particular relevance to the preparation of early childhood professionals. The essays are: (1) "The Changing Ecology of Australian Childhood"…
Griess, Carolyn J.
Early childhood education has gained national attention as a tool for increasing outcomes and reducing risks for young children and their families. In an effort to ensure that early childhood programs are of high quality, many states are implementing systems that identify levels of criteria that denote excellence. Pennsylvania has adopted such a…
Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.
Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development. PMID:29576733
Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and <7 years of age; range of spherical equivalent refractive error −1.25 diopters [D] to +3.75 D) and 13 adults participated. Their eye position and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983
Herrenkohl, R C; Russo, M J
Childhood aggression is significant for children, their families, and the society because aggressive children often become violent adolescents. This article examines the relationship between maltreatment and early childhood aggression. Data are from a longitudinal study of maltreated and nonmaltreated children assessed as preschoolers and again at school age. The dependent variable is the child's teacher's rating of aggression at school age. The independent variables are from preschool and school age observations of the mother-child interaction and the mother's report of physical discipline practices. Using structural equation modeling, harshness of interaction at preschool age but not school age and severity of physical discipline at school age but not preschool age, relate to aggression at school age. Results suggest a difference in the developmental stage at which different features of harsh child rearing exert their influence. Strategies for intervening to prevent the development of childhood aggression are suggested.
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Pollak, Jonathan; Hirsch, Annemarie G.; Nau, Claudia; Liu, Ann Y.; Glass, Thomas A.
BACKGROUND: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with childhood and adult obesity, and stimulant use with delayed childhood growth, but the independent influences are unclear. No longitudinal studies have examined associations of ADHD diagnosis and stimulant use on BMI trajectories throughout childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We used longitudinal electronic health record data from the Geisinger Health System on 163 820 children ages 3 to 18 years in Pennsylvania. Random effects linear regression models were used to model BMI trajectories with increasing age in relation to ADHD diagnosis, age at first stimulant use, and stimulant use duration, while controlling for confounding variables. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age at first BMI was 8.9 (5.0) years, and children provided a mean (SD) of 3.2 (2.4) annual BMI measurements. On average, BMI trajectories showed a curvilinear relation with age. There were consistent associations of unmedicated ADHD with higher BMIs during childhood compared with those without ADHD or stimulants. Younger age at first stimulant use and longer duration of stimulant use were each associated with slower BMI growth earlier in childhood but a more rapid rebound to higher BMIs in late adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides the first longitudinal evidence that ADHD during childhood not treated with stimulants was associated with higher childhood BMIs. In contrast, ADHD treated with stimulants was associated with slower early BMI growth but a rebound later in adolescence to levels above children without a history of ADHD or stimulant use. The findings have important clinical and neurobiological implications. PMID:24639278
Fleer, Marilyn; Hoban, Garry
Increased national and international attention towards early childhood education has resulted in the development of an Australian "Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) called "Belonging, Being and Becoming" (DEEWR, 2009) for realising agreed practice, principles and outcomes. The EYLF highlights the importance of educators…
Despite claims about the significance of early childhood education in improving later outcomes in an individual's life, this stage of development has not received sufficient attention by education systems across the world. Until recently, early education or preschool education did not come under the purview of the formal education system in most…
Durden, Tonia R.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Gerdes, Jennifer; Lodl, Kathleen
In recent years much attention has focused on the role of enhancing a teacher's professional knowledge and skills in helping to improve the quality of early care experiences for young children birth-5. In the study reported here, an environmental scan of the early childhood professional development programs offered within the Extension system…
Brown, Carmen Sherry; Cheddie, Tracy N.; Horry, Lynell F.; Monk, Julia E.
Professionalism in the context of early care and education has received considerable attention in recent years (Caulfield, 1997; Harte, 2011; Tigistu, 2013). According to the 2010 National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Standards for Initial & Advanced Early Childhood Professional Preparation Programs, teacher…
Pribble, Lois Marie
Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…
Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.
Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling
Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…
Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi
High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955
Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Tarrant, Kate, Ed.
Smooth early childhood transitions are key to ensuring positive outcomes for young children the world over--but in today's fragmented early education systems, it's difficult to ensure continuity among programs and services. Early childhood professionals will help change that with this book, the first to propose a comprehensive, practical framework…
Wiley, Colby P.; Wedeking, Travis; Galindo, Addy M.
This article reviews the Conners Early Childhood (Conners EC; Conners, 2009), a behavior and development rating scale intended to assess children in early childhood, specifically defined as ages 2 to 6 years. Using multiple informants across multiple settings, the Conners EC is administered for the purpose of early identification of disorders or…
Woodrow, Christine; Busch, Gillian
Robust leadership is increasingly recognised as a critical element of healthy professions, yet some research suggests that early childhood practitioners do not readily identify with the concept of leadership. This article explores some dimensions of leadership in early childhood and how it is understood and practised in Australian early childhood…
Izu, Regina Moromizato
The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.
Kreidler, William J.; Whittall, Sandy Tsubokawa
This early childhood curriculum (ages 3-6) uses games, music, art, drama, and storytelling to teach young children effective, nonviolent ways to resolve conflicts and provides caregivers with tools for helping young children develop key conflict resolution skills. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides guidance in assessing the…
McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.
The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…
Safford, Philip L., Ed.; And Others
This collection of papers recognizes ways in which the context of educational policy and its implications for practice have, in combination with other influences, defined early childhood special education and influenced its development. An introduction by Philip L. Safford is presented. Subsequent papers have the following titles and authors:…
Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.
This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3)…
Braithwaite, John; And Others
This book concerns the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, which was developed to provide quality educational programs for disadvantaged children living in the western suburbs of Sydney, Australia. In order to set the subsequent discussion in broader perspective, chapter 1 addresses several key issues influencing project development. Chapter 2…
Axton, J. H. M.
Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…
Conklin, Nancy Faires; And Others
Discussed are early childhood policy issues and options for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Section I explores federal and state directions in terms of levels of policy making, federal and state issues, and interested parties. Section II focuses on policy issues in its discussions of the political climate, long-term…
This paper discusses the organization of early childhood education and preschool education in Japan and describes how teachers are trained for positions in these schools. It is noted that the organization of such education in Japan has undergone considerable change since the first kindergarten was established in 1877. At that time the curriculum…
Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci
The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…
Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.
As classrooms have become more culturally and linguistically diversified, the theories and methods of teaching reading to young children have changed. Early childhood educators must explore new methods of instruction in order to involve and expand the language abilities of young children and must provide engaging activities that will create more…
Bassok, Daphna; Stipek, Deborah; Inkelas, Moira; Kuo, Alice
This report examines the importance and funding sources of early child care and education (ECE), and the ways in which the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative improves early childhood outcomes. Section I presents what is known about the importance of ECE, quality and access. Section II describes the current funding…
Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha
The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.
McConnell, Scott R.
This article discusses three future directions of early childhood assessment: attention to assessment of progress and growth, adaptation of methods typically associated with ecobehavioral research to assess environmental conditions that affect performance, and continued integration and linkage of assessment and intervention, which will yield more…
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Tackett, Jennifer L; Slobodskaya, Helena R; Mar, Raymond A; Deal, James; Halverson, Charles F; Baker, Spencer R; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Besevegis, Elias
Childhood personality is a rapidly growing area of investigation within individual differences research. One understudied topic is the universality of the hierarchical structure of childhood personality. In the present investigation, parents rated the personality characteristics of 3,751 children from 5 countries and 4 age groups. The hierarchical structure of childhood personality was examined for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-factor models across country (Canada, China, Greece, Russia, and the United States) and age group (3-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years of age). Many similarities were noted across both country and age. The Five-Factor Model was salient beginning in early childhood (ages 3-5). Deviations across groups and from adult findings are noted, including the prominent role of antagonism in childhood personality and the high covariation between Conscientiousness and intellect. Future directions, including the need for more explicit attempts to merge temperament and personality models, are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet
Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
This publication presents papers from 13 nations that describe the integration of children with disabilities into early childhood education programs. The compilation of case studies will serve as a reference document for the International Consultation on Early Childhood Education and Special Educational Needs, organized by UNESCO in collaboration…
Farley, Kristin S.; Brock, Matthew E.; Winterbottom, Christian
Early childhood education represents a pivotal opportunity to improve the developmental trajectories of young children, and evidence-based practices (EBPs) are scientifically proven to improve these outcomes. Furthermore, federal law mandates that early childhood practitioners implement EBPs. However, because EBP has not been clearly defined in…
Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…
This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series provides staff management strategies for directors and others involved with the management of early childhood settings and suggests ways to effectively delegate authority and tasks in order to reduce administrative pressures and workload. The booklet presents…
Cohen, Ruth; And Others
This report describes early childhood development (ECD) in Africa and the Bernard van Leer Foundation's strategies for early childhood programs in African nations. Chapter 1 examines the context in which Africa's children are growing up, focusing on the hardships that many children face, as well as the efforts made by families, communities, and…
Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.
Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…
Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena; Specht, Jacqueline
This in-depth survey of 75 early-childhood-education directors examined the current status of computer use in early childhood education (ECE). Results suggest that training may be necessary to facilitate the introduction of computers in ECE environments. (Author/LRW)
Izu, Regina Moromizato
The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer
A growing body of research suggests that a range of "hidden" or "less tangible" aspects of early childhood practice play an important part in early childhood practice. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this existing research literature by identifying some of the complex ways that less tangible aspects…
Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie
While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
Gallenstein, Nancy L.
Noting that effective teaching models that emphasize critical thinking in mathematics and science are used less often in early childhood classrooms than in those for older students, this book provides early childhood educators with an explanation of teaching models that promote 3- to 8-year-olds critical thinking, problem solving, decision making,…
Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle
This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…
Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula
There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…
This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…
Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne
Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…
El-Beblawi, Viola F.
Early childhood education is rooted in the Arab culture. Of particular importance for the implementation of early childhood education is the academic psycho-educational movement in the Arab world (initiated by Tsmail El Kabani and Dr. Abel Aziz El Koussy), which began in the 1920s. This movement, combined with rapid social change (including the…
Levine, James A.; And Others
Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…
The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the current workforce in early childhood. This report highlights key characteristics of the 2005 early childhood center workforce in Ohio. Survey packets were sent to 3.600 randomly selected centers in April 2005, representing centers licensed by the Ohio Department of Job and…
Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny
This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…
McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah
Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…
Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia
This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…
Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.
The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…
Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue
This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…
The early childhood education and care industry in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one on child care only. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This research overview describes the…
Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.
Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Researchers continue to be interested in the evaluation of early childhood education programmes, their interventions, and the implementation of different types of evaluation. Their interest continues to increase and attract other researchers. In understanding the nature and appropriate use of evaluation in early childhood education and the basis…
Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…
Gootman, Marilyn E.
This article discusses how schools can facilitate the normal development of young abused/neglected children; examines how research can provide schools with the sensitivity and tools for accomplishing this task; and addresses the early childhood curriculum, the treatment of dysfunctional behavior, and the role of the early childhood teacher. (CR)
Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.
Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…
Ebrahim, H. B.
This article examines the dominant discourses teachers in early childhood education (ECE) used to produce understandings of children and educational practice for them. Seven teachers from two early childhood centres in urban KwaZulu-Natal participated in this qualitative study. Data were produced through semi-structured interviews and…
Saracho, Olivia N.
When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…
As emerging literature reflects, "praxis" is an important and useful concept for thinking about the many aspects of early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood research. In this article, I seek to contribute to discussions about praxis in ECE as a valuable concept for meeting the ethical challenges that arise in participatory…
Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.
The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…
Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia
This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…
This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…
Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard
Examines recent trends in early childhood education practice: the education of all children in inclusive classes, the management of vertical and horizontal transitions, the emergence of early childhood education and care programs, the development of school-family-community partnerships, the emphasis on language learning and emergent literacy, the…
Swick, Kevin J.
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
Wright, Judith, Ed.; Podmore, Valerie, Ed.
This booklet is a collection of articles addressing current issues in early childhood education. The first article, "Would You Like to Pack Away Now?: Improving the Quality of Talk in Early Childhood Programs," (Laurie Makin) addresses how teachers talk to children. The second article, "Persistence When It's Difficult: A Disposition…
Shamblin, Sherry R.
Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) has been linked to increased teacher competence and efficacy, as well as increased social skills and decreased challenging behaviors for participating children (Green, 2009). Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health ("Partnerships") is an ECMHC program in Southeastern Ohio. This…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…
What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…
New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.
This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…
The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…
The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was employed in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood education in Taiwan could be summarized as: (1) The…
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2006
This review of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in twenty OECD countries describes the social, economic, conceptual and research factors that influence early childhood policy. These include increasing women's labour market participation; reconciling work and family responsibilities on a more equitable basis for women; confronting the…
The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…
Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta
This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…
Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…
Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly
We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…
Park, Sungok R.
Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…
Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H
Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.
Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511
Irvine, JD; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R
The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:22654547
The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.
Schwartz, Sydney L.; Copeland, Sherry M.
The most pressing challenge in early childhood education today is to find a way to meet the standards within a developmentally appropriate approach. In this book, two active early childhood educators provide teachers with resources to bring content alive and document it in every-day, action-based pre-K and Kindergarten classrooms. The book…
Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others
Geared toward early childhood educators, reading and writing teachers, bilingual and English as a Second Language teachers, and to courses in these fields, this yearbook examines the issues of linguistic and cultural diversity in early childhood programs. Following an introduction (Eugene Garcia and Barry McLaughlin) on the cultural context…
Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer
This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…
Washington, Valora; Gadson, Brenda
With growing evidence about the critical period of birth to age 5 for child development and learning, the imperative to professionalize the early childhood education workforce has never been greater. In this follow-up to "The New Early Childhood Professional: A Step-By-Step Guide to Overcoming Goliath", the authors share lessons learned…
Zimet, Gila Russo; Gilat, Itzhak
The study examined intuitive perceptions of early childhood education students regarding education and care of children from birth to age 3 in Jewish and Arab societies. Research included 182 education students majoring in early childhood at three Israeli colleges. Data were collected via a questionnaire covering five topics: What is the most…
Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen
The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…
The Finnish social pedagogical curriculum for early childhood education directs early childhood teachers to use documentation to assess and develop pedagogy and practise. This empirical study examines the challenges and benefits a group of Finnish preschool teachers experienced when they learned to document their work. Although the idea of…
Paradis, Nichole; Eidson, Faith; Weatherston, Deborah J.
Early Childhood Mental Health Endorsement® (ECMH-E®) offers a credential for those whose work with or on behalf of children 3-6 years old and their families is informed by infant and early childhood mental health principles. Those who have earned ECMH-E demonstrate completion of specialized education, work, in-service training, and reflective…
Stafford, Catherine A.
This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood…
McNerney, Karen; Hall, Nichola
Research in science in early childhood is an area that has not received much attention (Fleer, M., & Robbins, J. (2003). "Hit and run research" with "hit and miss" results in early childhood science education. "Research in Science Education," 33, 405-431.) and it has been reported that early children teachers lack…
Gormley, William T., Jr.; Phillips, Deborah A.; Newmark, Katie; Welti, Kate; Adelstein, Shirley
This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's early childhood education programs on social-emotional outcomes, examining teacher ratings of children's behavior from the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention and a measure of attentiveness using fixed effects regressions with propensity score matching. The sample includes 2,832…
Kangas, Jonna; Ojala, Mikko; Venninen, Tuulikki
Research Findings: Research has shown that self-regulation can support child development in the areas of children's attentional flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control for excluding impulsive responses. How this is actually related in everyday pedagogical early childhood education (ECE) activities has rarely been studied in detail. In…
Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others
Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…
Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate
Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…
Milford, Todd; Tippett, Christine
Across K-12 education, there has been recent attention to the learning opportunities available to students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Early childhood education (ECE) has been excluded from this process. The scholarly literature contains good evidence for including science teaching and learning at the ECE…
Barnett, W. Steven
Analyzes public interest in early childhood care and education (ECCE) policy. Chronicles federal policy in this area from the mid-1960s to the present, with particular attention to changes in the amount of funding and its allocation. Argues that ECCE policy is inadequately funded, fragmented, and internally inconsistent, and provides alternative…
Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.
In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…
Tippett, Christine D.; Milford, Todd M.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in early childhood education is an area currently given little attention in the literature, which is unfortunate since young children are natural scientists and engineers. Here, we outline our mixed-methods design-based research investigation of a pre-kindergarten (Pre-K) classroom where two…
Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina
Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…
Khattab, Mohammad S.
Examined the status of early childhood education (ECE) in 18 middle eastern and north African countries, incorporating country profiles, ECE institutions, teachers, and children. Identified the critical issues needing priority attention, and a set of indicators that could be used by educational planners and policymakers for monitoring and…
Increasing focus on the quality of childcare and Pre-K is calling attention to the circumstances of childcare and impact on the child's social and emotional health, specifically in terms of attachment. The early childhood profession recognizes that consistency in caregiving is essential for the child's attachment. Looping, the practice of keeping…
In pronouncements of early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy the importance of quality appears as a seemingly irrefutable concept. Yet, attention to ECEC policy history reveals tensions between discourses that construct quality in ways that endure whereas other ways are ostensibly forgotten. Drawing on a Foucauldian-influenced…
Today the issue of how young children with and without special needs play and learn together is getting more and more attention and support from a variety of sources. Although many educators and parents realize the importance of having effective early childhood programs that serve children with all abilities and their families, less clear are data…
Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Kimberly A.; McGrath, Greg S.; Harney, Corrine J.
Given the importance of social and emotional competence and confidence in early childhood, there has been growing attention on providing young children deliberate experiences to practice and acquire essential foundational skills for health and well-being. This article shares examples to illustrate how children can easily apply simple tools within…
Tekin, Ali Kemal
This study investigated the Omani early childhood pre-service teachers' motivation for teaching. Specific attention was given to the levels of their autonomous motivation, including: (1) intrinsic motivation and (2) extrinsic motivation comprised of identified, introjected, and external motivations. In addition, the effects of age, cohort (grade…
Best, Jane; Cohen, Courtney
Increased attention to proposed federal early childhood education (ECE) legislation has sparked a debate on what the future holds for state-funded ECE systems. This brief explores how the goal of universal preschool is being shaped by the federal agenda and examines state programs in various stages of development. President Obama's Preschool for…
Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E
To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Fisher, Abigail
Objective The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Methods Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14–27 months) using a modified version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of shorter sleep for this study. Results Using a cut-off of <11 h a night, shorter sleep was reported in 14.1% of children. Lower maternal education, non-white ethnic background, being male, low birth weight, living in a home with >1 older child and watching >1 h of TV in the evening were independently associated with shorter sleep. Mediation analyses showed that associations between education, ethnicity, evening TV viewing and sleep were driven predominantly by later bedtimes, while sex differences were driven predominantly by earlier wake times in boys. Conclusion In this sample, multiple environmental factors were associated with shorter sleep in young children, with several operating predominantly through later bedtime. An emphasis on the importance of an early and consistent bedtime could help promote healthy sleep and reduce inequalities in child health. PMID:24726571
Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine
Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine
BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047
Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia
Objective To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention deficit-/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students ages 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High risk youths meeting full (n=94) and subthreshold (n=75) DSM-IV ADHD criteria were matched with demographically similar low risk peers (n=163). Outcomes domains included symptoms; functional impairment; quality of life; substance use; educational outcomes; and juvenile justice involvement. Results 44% of youths with childhood ADHD had not experienced remission. Compared to unaffected peers, adolescents with childhood ADHD were more likely to display oppositional defiant disorder (OR=12.9; 95% CI 5.6-30.0), anxiety/depression (OR=10.3; 95% CI 2.7-39.3), significant functional impairment (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.7-6.9), reduced quality of life (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7), and to have been involved with juvenile justice (OR=3.1; 95% CI 1.0-9.1). Subthreshold ADHD, but not full ADHD, increased the risk of grade retention, whereas both conditions increased the risk of graduation failure. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but not childhood ADHD, increased the risk of cannabis and alcohol use. None of the adolescent outcomes of childhood ADHD were moderated by gender, race or poverty. Conclusions ADHD heralds persistence of ADHD and comorbid symptoms into adolescence, as well as significant risks for functional impairment and juvenile justice involvement. Subthreshold ADHD symptoms typically do not qualify affected students for special educational interventions, yet increase the risk for adverse educational outcomes. Findings stress the importance of early ADHD recognition, especially its comorbid presentation with ODD, for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:20494269
Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia
To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV ADHD criteria were matched with demographically similar low-risk peers (n = 163). Outcomes domains included symptom, functional impairment, quality of life, substance use, educational outcomes, and juvenile justice involvement. In all, 44% of youths with childhood ADHD had not experienced remission. Compared with unaffected peers, adolescents with childhood ADHD were more likely to display oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 12.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6-30.0), anxiety/depression (OR = 10.3, 95% CI 2.7-39.3), significant functional impairment (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-6.9), reduced quality of life (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7), and involvement with the juvenile justice system (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.0-9.1). Subthreshold ADHD, but not full ADHD, increased the risk of grade retention, whereas both conditions increased the risk of graduation failure. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but not childhood ADHD, increased the risk of cannabis and alcohol use. None of the adolescent outcomes of childhood ADHD were moderated by gender, race or poverty. ADHD heralds persistence of ADHD and comorbid symptoms into adolescence, as well as significant risks for functional impairment and juvenile justice involvement. Subthreshold ADHD symptoms typically do not qualify affected students for special educational interventions, yet increase the risk for adverse educational outcomes. Findings stress the importance of early ADHD recognition, especially its comorbid presentation with ODD, for prevention and intervention strategies. 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat
Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715
Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat
Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.
Bitar, Mariangela Lopes; Calaço, Luiz Ferreira; Simões-Zenari, Marcia
High sound pressure levels have been observed in schools, and its interference in the health of children and teachers it was taken to analyze these levels in childhood education centers serving children aged zero to six years, investigate the staff's perceptions concerning noise exposure and identify the auditory conditions of these workers and the occurrence of diseases. The study was conducted in ten institutions employing 320 workers. Sound pressure levels were measured according to the technical norms; employees completed a questionnaire on the perception of noise and underwent auditory evaluation. There was high sound pressure level and differences between institutions, situations and places. Most employees are considered exposed to noise with attention and concentration difficulties, anxiety and headache. About 30% of employees had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in specific frequency. The sound pressure levels found can affect children's learning and the health of all. The employees also perceived elevated levels of noise and indicated some possible negative aspects in their work routine. Actions to improve the acoustic comfort in these institutions will be discussed with the management teams.
Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey
This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.
Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.
We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529
Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Takemura, Shigeki; Nakai, Kunihiko
Although a measurable number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to clarify the associations between mercury exposure during embryo or early infancy and later incidences of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the conclusion still remains unclear. Meta-analysis was conducted for two major exposure sources; i.e., thimerosal vaccines that contain ethylmercury (clinical exposure), and environmental sources, using relevant literature published before April 2014. While thimerosal exposures did not show any material associations with an increased risk of ASD or ADHD (the summary odds ratio (OR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.24 for ASD; OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.70-1.13 for ADHD/ADD), significant associations were observed for environmental exposures in both ASD (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.17) and ADHD (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.33). The summary ORs were similar after excluding studies not adjusted for confounders. Moderate adverse effects were observed only between environmental inorganic or organic mercury exposures and ASD/ADHD. However, these results should be interpreted with caution since the number of epidemiological studies on this issue was limited and still at an early stage. Further studies focused on subjects with genetic vulnerabilities of developmental disorders are warranted for better understanding of the effects of such environmental exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roy, Arunima; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Sibley, Margaret H.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Swanson, James M.; Howard, Andrea L.
Objective To determine childhood factors that predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persistence and desistence in adulthood. Method Regression analyses were used to determine associations between childhood factors and adult ADHD symptom persistence in 453 participants (mean age = 25 years) from the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD study (MTA). Childhood IQ, total number of comorbidities, child-perceived parenting practices, child-perceived parent-child relationships, parental mental health problems, marital problems of parents, household income levels and parental education were assessed at a mean age of 8 years in all participants. Adult ADHD persistence was defined using DSM-5 symptom counts either with or without impairment as well as mean ADHD symptom scores on the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Age, sex, MTA site and childhood ADHD symptoms were covaried. Results The most important childhood predictors of adult ADHD symptom persistence were initial ADHD symptom severity (OR = 1.89, SE = .28, p = .025), comorbidities (OR = 1.19, SE = .07, p = .018), and parental mental health problems (OR = 1.30, SE = .09, p = .003). Childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, parental education and parent-child relationships showed no associations with adult ADHD symptom persistence. Conclusion Initial ADHD symptom severity, parental mental health and childhood comorbidity affect persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood. Addressing these areas early on may assist in reducing adult ADHD persistence and functioning problems. PMID:27806861
Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra
This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.
Griffen, Andrew S
This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu
This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu
This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches, and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the 5-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. PMID:26497315
Zhang, Kaili Chen
The main purpose of this research was to explore early childhood education teachers', principals', and parents' perceptions of the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs, and how educators and schools can support the spiritual development of these children. Three preschools, the Buddhist, Christian, and Waldorf schools, were purposefully selected on the basis that each of them reflects a philosophy that includes the spiritual. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) the influence of the schools' religion and/or spiritual orientations on inclusion; (b) support provided for the spiritual development of children with special needs; and (c) the role of spirituality in the lives of children with special needs. By drawing attention to and offering a preliminary study on early childhood inclusion and spirituality, I hope to encourage more scholars and educators to engage with research and debate on this important yet under-studied dimension of early childhood education.
Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large
House - 11/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large
House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large
House - 03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Meng, Grace [D-NY-6
House - 01/22/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Reilly, Colin J.
ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…
Global childhood as a concept privileges western ideals of how young children experience growing up, how adults educate them, and how priorities are set for them. Ways of knowing and doing early childhood are backed by Euro-American knowledge, international conventions and scientific evidence which gives a semblance of the truths for intervening…
Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…
Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri
Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…
Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy
In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…
Pediatric oral health is determined by the interaction of environmental factors and genetic influences. This is the case for early childhood caries, the most common disease of childhood. The complexity of exogenous-environmental factors interacting with innate biological predispositions results in a continuum of normal variation, as well as oral health and disease outcomes. Optimal oral health and care or precision dentistry warrants comprehensive understanding of these influences and tools enabling intervention on modifiable factors. This article reviews the current knowledge of the genomic basis of pediatric oral health and highlights known and postulated mechanistic pathways of action relevant to early childhood caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karns, Christina M; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J; Neville, Helen J
Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) across five age groups: 3-5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.
Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721
Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, 2008
In recent years, growing knowledge of the critical importance of early childhood development for lifelong learning and growth had led to increased calls for the professionalism of early childhood educators, including higher standards for their training and education. As part of this attention to professional development, many states are…
Martin, Karen L.
Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…
Belonging is emerging as an important concept for early childhood education and care. However, it is one that requires further theorisation beyond everyday or romanticised understandings. The politics of belonging provides a potentially productive focus for thinking about belonging in early childhood education and care because of its attention to…
Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A
Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Shaw, Daniel S.; Gilliam, Mary
Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys’ early-starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current paper reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from WIC centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood, and smaller cohorts of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, as well as court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in health care settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. PMID:28026042
Childhood overweight and obesity are a non-deniable health concern with increasing economic attention. International studies provide robust evidence about substantial lifetime excess costs due to childhood obesity, thereby underscoring the urgent need to implement potent obesity prevention programs in early childhood. Fortunately, this is happening more and more, as evidenced by the increase in well-conducted interventions. Nevertheless, an important piece of the puzzle is often missing, that is, health economic evaluations. There are 3 main reasons for this: an insufficient number of economic approaches which consider the complexity of childhood obesity, a lack of (significant) long-term effect sizes of an intervention, and inadequate planning of health economic evaluations in the design phase of an intervention. Key Messages: It is advisable to involve health economists during the design phase of an intervention. Equally necessary is the development of a tailored toolbox for efficient data acquisition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mehta, Mitul A.; Chatzieffraimidou, Antonia; Curtis, Charles; Xu, Xiaohui; Breen, Gerome; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya
Childhood maltreatment is associated with attention deficits. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA, FKBP5) interaction on functional brain connectivity during sustained attention in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalised psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, between 21 age-and gender-matched adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed a parametrically modulated vigilance task requiring target detection with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention. Behaviourally, participants exposed to childhood abuse had increased omission errors compared to healthy controls. During the most challenging attention condition abused participants relative to controls exhibited reduced connectivity, with a left-hemispheric bias, in typical fronto-parietal attention networks, including dorsolateral, rostromedial and inferior prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were exacerbated in individuals homozygous for the risky C-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3800373 of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene. Findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-parietal attention networks and that the FKBP5 genotype moderates neurobiological vulnerability to abuse. These findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional connectivity abnormalities, which hopefully will facilitate the development of specific treatment strategies for victims of childhood maltreatment. PMID:29190830
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva
Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678
Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay
Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…
Kauerz, Kristie Anne
State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it…
Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong
Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.
Richard, Annette E; Hodges, Elise K; Heinrich, Kimberley P
Attentional and academic difficulties, particularly in math, are common in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Of cognitive deficits experienced by survivors of childhood ALL, attention deficits may be particularly responsive to intervention. However, it is unknown whether deficits in particular aspects of attention are associated with deficits in math skills. The current study investigated relationships between math calculation skills, performance on an objective measure of sustained attention, and parent- and teacher-reported attention difficulties. Twenty-four survivors of childhood ALL (Mage = 13.5 years, SD= 2.8 years) completed a computerized measure of sustained attention and response control and a written measure of math calculation skills in the context of a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological evaluation. Parent and teacher ratings of inattention and impulsivity were obtained. Visual response control and visual attention accounted for 26.4% of the variance observed among math performance scores after controlling for IQ (p < .05). Teacher-rated, but not parent-rated, inattention was significantly negatively correlated with math calculation scores. Consistency of responses to visual stimuli on a computerized measure of attention is a unique predictor of variance in math performance among survivors of childhood ALL. Objective testing of visual response control, rather than parent-rated attentional problems, may have clinical utility in identifying ALL survivors at risk for math difficulties. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia
Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…
Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo
The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…
Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra
This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…
Bruns, Deborah A.; LaRocco, Diana J.; Sharp, Olga L.; Sopko, Kim Moherek
In 2015, the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children released a position statement on leadership in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). Division for Early Childhood emphasized the importance of developing and supporting high-quality leadership within and across all levels of EI/ECSE…
It is now established that attention influences working memory (WM) at multiple processing stages. This liaison between attention and WM poses several interesting empirical questions. Notably, does attention impact WM via its influences on early perceptual processing? If so, what are the critical factors at play in this attention-perception-WM interaction. I review recent data from our laboratory utilizing a variety of techniques (electroencephalography (EEG), functional MRI (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)), stimuli (features and complex objects), novel experimental paradigms, and research populations (younger and older adults), which converge to support the conclusion that top-down modulation of visual cortical activity at early perceptual processing stages (100–200 ms after stimulus onset) impacts subsequent WM performance. Factors that affect attentional control at this stage include cognitive load, task practice, perceptual training, and aging. These developments highlight the complex and dynamic relationships among perception, attention, and memory. PMID:21184764
Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset <7 years (early-onset); (2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung
Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…
Carr, Victoria; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Corkwell, Connie
One of the most important aspects of any early childhood setting is the quality of its leadership. Leaders set the tone and are critical to the development of a nurturing environment that supports families and staff, who then encourage children to flourish. A principle-centered leadership approach is an effective model for early childhood…
Dinehart, Laura H.
Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…
Child Care, Inc., 2008
Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…
Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.
Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…
Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.
Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…
Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.
The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…
Barnett, W. S.; Nores, M.
The last several decades have seen growing global interest in the potential for public investments in early childhood care and education (ECCE) to improve the development of young children, especially those from socially disadvantaged groups. This interest is based on evidence of the importance of environmental influences on early cognitive and…
Barton, Erin E.; Moore, Heather W.; Squires, Jane K.
The shortage of highly qualified speech language pathologists (SLPs) with specialized training in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is a pressing issue facing the field and dramatically impacts young children's social and academic success. SLP personnel preparation programs focused on training specialists in…
Breitfelder, Leisa M.
Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…
Early childhood education and care settings in England and the people who work in them constitute an important sphere of influence, shaping young children's characters and values. But the values and dispositions expected of the early years workforce are missing from statutory policy documentation despite its clear requirement that practitioners…
Feldman, Richard; And Others
Intended to help early childhood educators examine ways in which guidance can be infused into daily instruction, this manual aims to enable teachers to act as facilitators in the guidance process without adding a new assignment to an already busy schedule. Section A describes the integration of five guidance strands into the early childhood…
This document collects 15 brief guides to staff training in inclusive early childhood education settings. Guides offer examples of successful programs, research findings, and practical tips. Titles are: (1) "Giving Families Better Access to Early Intervention Services"; (2) "Creating Integrated Classrooms that Work"; (3) "Seamless Transition…
Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten
From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…
Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.
Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…
Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah
This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…
Bailey, Ann Elise
This research explored the knowledge, skills, and strategies early childhood teachers possess related to implementing curriculum and authentic assessment. Research suggests that early educators rate their knowledge of curriculum and authentic assessment and their implementation of both as excellent. Despite these self-reported, high levels of…
Ranck, Edna Runnels
To examine how knowledge of history and politics informs the early education and child care field, this paper identifies sources of historical knowledge and unexamined underlying presuppositions frequently held by early childhood professionals which, if allowed to remain unchallenged, contribute to professional burn-out, repeated frustration at…
Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…
Iowa State Department of Education, 2004
The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among decision makers at the Iowa Department of Education (DE), Area Education Agencies (AEAs) and local communities (including school districts) to establish early childhood priorities, and define the AEA role in the statewide efforts to build a strong early care, health, and education…
Young, Jemimah L.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Dolzhenko, Inna N.; Ardrey, Tameka N.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers' educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings.…
Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…
McNelly, Tracy A.
The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…
Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard
Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…
Early childhood care and education in Ireland has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, as a result of public concern about standards in some early years services. Services for children before they enter primary school are largely the responsibility of the department of health, while children in the formal school system are the…
Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca
The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…
Mayfield, Phyllis K.; Chapman, J. Keith
Examines the effects of drug use during pregnancy on early and later child development, the extent of women's drug use, and behavioral and learning characteristics of children prenatally exposed to drugs. Provides intervention guidelines for early childhood settings including children with prenatal drug exposure, focusing on recommendations for…
ALL, Childhood; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L1; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L2; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, Philadelphia-Positive; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L1; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L2; Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L1; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L2; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute; Lymphocytic Leukemia, L1; Lymphocytic Leukemia, L2; Brain Tumors; Cancer of the Brain; Cancer of Brain; Malignant Primary Brain Tumors; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant
Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.
This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human…
Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen
Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…
Ertel, David; Voyat, Gilbert
Jean Piaget's theories about children's cognitive development are applied to the evaluation of childhood psychosis. Problems with the testing of such children are described, and results of a research project that used the Piaget-inspired Uzgiris and Hunt Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development to assess autistic children's cognitive processes…
Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…
Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Taber-Thomas, Bradley; Auday, Eran; Morales, Santiago
Anxiety is a pervasive, impairing, and early appearing form of psychopathology. Even when anxiety remits, children remain at a two- to threefold increased risk for the later emergence of a mood disorder. Therefore, it is imperative to identify and examine underlying mechanisms that may shape early emerging patterns of behavior that are associated with anxiety. One of the strongest and first visible risk factors is childhood temperament. In particular, children who are behaviorally inhibited or temperamentally shy are more likely to exhibit signs of anxiety by adolescence. However, not all shy children do so, despite the early risk. We know that attention mechanisms, particularly the presence of attention biases toward or away from threat, can play a critical role in the emergence of anxiety. The current chapter will bring together these separate lines of research to examine the ways in which attention can modulate the documented link between early temperament and later anxiety. In doing so, the chapter will highlight multiple levels of analysis that focus on the behavioral, cognitive, and neural mechanisms in the temperament-attention-anxiety network. The chapter will help identify both markers and mechanisms of risk, supporting future work aimed at improving theory and intervention by focusing on attention biases to environmental threat. PMID:26663953
Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.
This study examined infants’ early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n=325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at four centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network, included high-risk (cocaine exposed) and matched non-cocaine exposed infants. Hierarchical regressions revealed that infants’ attention orienting at 1 month significantly predicted more frequent initiating joint attention at 12 (but not 18) months of age. Social engagement at 4 months predicted initiating joint attention at 18 months. Results provide the first empirical evidence for the role of visual attention and social engagement behaviors as developmental precursors for later joint attention outcome. PMID:27786527
Nunn, M.E.; Braunstein, N.S.; Krall Kaye, E.A.; Dietrich, T.; Garcia, R.I.; Henshaw, M.M.
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a preventable form of dental caries that affects very young children, particularly among low-income families and certain racial/ethnic minorities. The current study examined the relationship of dietary quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), to the prevalence of ECC in 2- to 5-year-old children. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used for the study. We used logistic regression to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR) for ECC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Children with the best dietary practices (uppermost tertile of the HEI) were 44% less likely to exhibit severe ECC compared with children with the worst dietary practices (lowest tertile of the HEI). A healthy eating pattern geared for promotion of optimal child development and prevention of chronic disease in later life may also reduce the risk of early childhood caries, particularly severe early childhood caries. PMID:19407158
Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda
Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205
Breeman, Linda D; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter
Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born individuals from birth to adulthood. Data on attention were collected at 6, 8, and 26 years of age, using parent reports, expert behavior observations, and clinical ADHD diagnoses. At each assessment, VP/VLBW individuals had significantly more attention problems, shorter attention span, and were more frequently diagnosed with ADHD than term-born comparisons. In both VP/VLBW and term-born individuals, overall, attention span increased and attention problems decreased from childhood to adulthood. Attention problems and attention span were more stable over time for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals. Similarly, ADHD diagnoses showed moderate stability from childhood to adulthood in VP/VLBW, but not in term-born individuals. However, when those with severe disabilities were excluded, differences between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals reduced. Despite improvement in attention regulation from childhood to adulthood, children born very preterm remained at increased risk for attention problems in adulthood. In contrast, term-born children with clinical attention problems outgrew these by adulthood. As inattentive behavior of VP/VLBW children may be overlooked by teachers, it may be necessary to raise awareness for school intervention programs that reduce attention problems in VP/VLBW children. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F
Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values < 10 -5 ). About 23% of bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.
Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally
Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614
Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K
The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity
Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P
We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim
Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…
Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua
Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly
Keith, Rebecca S.
The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.
Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413
Ferraro, Kenneth F; Schafer, Markus H; Wilkinson, Lindsay R
Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks.
Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A movement is building that favors creating a national network of high-quality early education and care systems that begin at birth. It makes sense. Promoting positive early learning experiences, healthy caregivers, and a connection between families and community resources can reverse rising rates of expulsion, high school dropouts, and the need…
Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke
This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248
Designed for teachers of early childhood or special education students, this guide contains instructions and illustrations for classroom activities for the months of September, October, and November. Most of the activities involve art projects and many incorporate teaching in other subject areas such as mathematics, language arts, science, and…
Brown, Christopher P.
As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…
This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee
Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…
Paciorek, Karen Menke, Ed.
This 27th edition of "Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education" provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for…
Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie
Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…
Haber, Julian S.
This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…
Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…
Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly
Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…
This article describes how a preservice early childhood program collaborates with a local agency in a community engagement project. The project was implemented in a family-community partnership class for preservice teachers. There were three purposes for this project. First, to build a partnership between the University of Alaska Anchorage…
Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue
This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Weiser, Dana A.; Bales, Diane W.; Moyses, Kendra J.
A growing number of early childhood professionals use the Internet to improve their skills, knowledge, and practice. The Internet may be a practical alternative for providing high-quality, research-based training, information, and resources to these professionals. When designing online materials and Web sites, however, it is important to first…
Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.
Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and…
Weitman, Catheryn J.; Humphries, Janie H.
Data were collected from elementary school principals and kindergarten teachers in Texas and Louisiana in an effort to identify qualities that are thought to be important for kindergarten teachers. A questionnaire listing 462 qualities of early childhood teachers was compiled from literature reviews. Subjects were asked to check a maximum of 50…
Bernard van Leer Foundation, 2015
The International Consultation, convened in Leiden (the Netherlands) in September 2014, brought together early childhood experts and stakeholders--supported by the International Step by Step Association (ISSA), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the…
It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…
This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…
Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva
This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…
Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others
This document presents Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District's Special Education Early Childhood Center's 1988 curriculum. Sections focus on: (1) the center's program; (2) play observation; (3) eligibility; (4) classroom structure and function; (5) the importance of play; (6) developmental milestones; (7) planning and teaching…
Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise
This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…
... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...
... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...
... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...
Mullis, Ann K.; Martin, Ruth E.
A 1982-83 study evaluating the level of sex equity in early childhood settings found that, while the areas of teaching behaviors and child awareness were strong, the areas of center/community, facilities and equipment, and career awareness need improvement in terms of encouraging sex equity and eliminating stereotypes. (SK)
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline
The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…
Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios
The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…
Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…
Uyanik, Ozgun; Inal, Gozde; Calisandemir, Fatma; Can-Yasar, Munevver; Kandir, Adalet
Creativity is innately brought with secret power which can emerge at any time throughout life and be enhanced if fostered. Properly designed art activities serve as a potential for emergence and the enhancement of children's creativities in their early childhood educations. Those children who cannot express their emotions through oral language or…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Young Child and the Family Environment Unit.
This document provides information on eleven basic indicators of the well being of young children, their families, and communities worldwide. It consists of two parts: The first summarizes information on the importance of the early childhood period for children, the education system, and parents; describes the organization of efficient early…
Rushton, Stephen; Juola-Rushton, Anne
Many educators are already knowledgeable about and skilled in best practices. And much of what is happening in developmentally appropriate programs exemplifies "brain compatible" practices. Being educated in the connections between best practices and brain compatibility is an important part of the knowledge base of early childhood educators. Just…
Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…
Reardon, Beverly, Comp.
This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…
Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto
This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…
Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma
Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…
Hertzog, Nancy B.
Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…
Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan
Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…
This paper delineates conceptions of early childhood programs from the 18th through the 20th centuries, and reveals how the programs changed as the concept of what constitutes knowledge changed. Discussion begins with reading instruction and hornbooks in Colonial America, and national language learning in the knitting school of Jean Frederick…
Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.
This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…
This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…
Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.
Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…
Montanari, Ellen Orton
Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)…
Fortino, Carol; Gerretson, Helen; Button, Linda; Masters, Vivian
A growing body of research, both nationally and internationally, indicates that children in the early childhood years (birth to age 8) learn primarily through their senses and from direct experience. They develop an understanding about the world through play, exploration, and creative activities as well as by watching and imitating adults and…
Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…
National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2007
Increasing demands for evidence-based early childhood services and the need by policymakers to know whether a program is effective or whether it warrants a significant investment of public and/or private funds--coupled with the often-politicized debate around these topics--make it imperative for policymakers and civic leaders to have independent…