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Sample records for early childhood growth

  1. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  2. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of early childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of early childhood education in modern times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…

  4. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children’s inhibitory control from ages 2 to 4, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the Family Check-Up (FCU), children’s inhibitory control was assessed yearly at ages 2, 3, and 4. Inhibitory control was initially low and increased linearly to age 4. High levels of harsh parenting and male gender were associated with low initial status in inhibitory control. High levels of supportive parenting were associated with faster growth. Extreme family poverty and African American ethnicity were also associated with slower growth. The results highlight parenting as a target for early interventions in contexts of high socioeconomic risk. PMID:20376201

  5. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  6. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    PubMed

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Early Childhood Memory and Attention as Predictors of Academic Growth Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah; Valentino, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to assess how well measures of short-term and working memory and attention in early childhood predicted longitudinal growth trajectories in mathematics and reading comprehension. Analyses also examined whether changes in memory and attention were more…

  8. Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Maluccio, John A; Melgar, Paul; Quisumbing, Agnes R; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D; Yount, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital. PMID:24004889

  9. Effect of maternal smoking cessation before and during early pregnancy on fetal and childhood growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. Our study included children born between 1991 and 2006 and their mothers. Using a questionnaire, maternal smoking status was recorded at pregnancy. The anthropometric data of the children were collected during a medical check-up at age 3 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis stratified by sex. In total, 2663 mothers reported their smoking status during early pregnancy, and data were collected from 2230 (83.7%) children at age 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (approximately 120-150 g). Body mass index at age 3 years was significantly higher among boys born to smoking mothers than among boys born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with overweight at age 3 years among boys (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.03-5.4). However, among women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy, there was no increase in the risks of a small for gestational age birth or childhood overweight at age 3 years. Children born to mothers who stopped smoking before or during early pregnancy had appropriate fetal and childhood growth.

  10. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  11. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    PubMed

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  13. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework"…

  15. Early Life Growth Predictors of Childhood Adiposity Trajectories and Future Risk for Obesity: Birth to Twenty Cohort.

    PubMed

    Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947). The association between the trajectories and early life growth patterns, and future obesity risk was assessed by multivariate linear and multinomial logistic and logistic regressions. Conditional weight gain independent of height was computed for infancy (0-2 years) and early childhood (2-4 years). Conditional weight gain before 5 years of age was significantly associated with early onset of obesity or overweight (excess weight) BMI trajectories in both boys and girls. In girls, greater conditional weight gain in infancy was associated with increased relative risk of being in the early-onset obese to morbid obese trajectory, with relative risk ratios of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.52) compared to belonging to a BMI trajectory in the normal range. Boys and girls in the early-onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to be overweight or obese in early adulthood. Excessive weight gain in infancy and early childhood, independent of linear growth, predicts childhood and adolescent BMI trajectories toward obesity. These results underscore the importance of early life factors in the development of obesity and other NCDs in later life.

  16. The Early Growth and Development Study: a prospective adoption study from birth through middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children's adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in 1-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described.

  17. The Early Growth and Development Study: A Prospective Adoption Study from Birth Through Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children recruited in two cohorts (N = 561 triads). The primary study aims are to examine how family, peer, and contextual processes affect children’s adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Participants were recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing, in 9-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age and in one-year intervals thereafter through age 9. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, social behavior, school performance, mental health, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, competence, stress, health, context, substance use, parenting, and marital relations; and pregnancy use of drugs and maternal stress during pregnancy. DNA and salivary cortisol samples have also been collected. Analyses have indicated evidence for genotype-environment interactions during early childhood. Study procedures, sample representativeness (including tests of potential confounds in the adoption design), and an overview of findings to date are summarized, and future plans are described. PMID:23218244

  18. Maternal depression and early childhood growth in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal depression and child growth in developing countries through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Methods Six databases were searched for studies from developing countries on maternal depression and child growth published up until 2010. Standard meta-analytical methods were followed and pooled odds ratios (ORs) for underweight and stunting in the children of depressed mothers were calculated using random effects models for all studies and for subsets of studies that met strict criteria on study design, exposure to maternal depression and outcome variables. The population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for selected studies. Findings Seventeen studies including a total of 13 923 mother and child pairs from 11 countries met inclusion criteria. The children of mothers with depression or depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight (OR: 1.5; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.2–1.8) or stunted (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2–1.7). Subanalysis of three longitudinal studies showed a stronger effect: the OR for underweight was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.2) and for stunting, 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0–3.9). The PAR for selected studies indicated that if the infant population were entirely unexposed to maternal depressive symptoms 23% to 29% fewer children would be underweight or stunted. Conclusion Maternal depression was associated with early childhood underweight and stunting. Rigorous prospective studies are needed to identify mechanisms and causes. Early identification, treatment and prevention of maternal depression may help reduce child stunting and underweight in developing countries. PMID:21836759

  19. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frank, D A; Augustyn, M; Knight, W G; Pell, T; Zuckerman, B

    2001-03-28

    Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peer-reviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity, scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought

  20. Growth, Development, and Behavior in Early Childhood Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Augustyn, Marilyn; Knight, Wanda Grant; Pell, Tripler; Zuckerman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. Objective To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Study Selection Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peerreviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Data Extraction Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Conclusions Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity

  1. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01) and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01), whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  2. Colorado Early Childhood Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Planning and Evaluation Unit.

    The Colorado State Board of Education allocated Title IV-V funds in 1975 for a study of the status of early childhood education in Colorado. The purposes of the study were to: (1) gather data relevant to early childhood education on the status of all children from birth through age 5; (2) identify needs of children of this age within the state;…

  3. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  4. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study in Project Viva.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S; Haugaard, Line K; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting for confounders, each additional z-score gain in body mass index during birth to 6 months and 2 to 3 years was associated with 0.81 (0.15, 1.46) and 1.61 (0.33, 2.89) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, respectively. Length/height gain was unrelated to mid-childhood blood pressure, and there was no evidence of effect modification by birth size for body mass index or length/height z-score gain. Our findings suggest that more rapid gain in body mass index during the first 6 postnatal months and in the preschool years may lead to higher systolic blood pressure in mid-childhood, regardless of size at birth. Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Rethinking Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Rethinking Early Childhood Education" is alive with the conviction that teaching young children involves values and vision. This anthology collects inspiring stories about social justice teaching with young children. Included here is outstanding writing from childcare teachers, early-grade public school teachers, scholars, and parents.…

  6. Growth hormone treatment for childhood short stature and risk of stroke in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Poidvin, Amélie; Touzé, Emmanuel; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Landier, Fabienne; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Rothwell, Peter M; Carel, Jean-Claude; Coste, Joël

    2014-08-26

    We investigated the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes in a population-based cohort of patients in France treated with growth hormone (GH) for short stature in childhood. Adult morbidity data were obtained in 2008-2010 for 6,874 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency or short stature who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Cerebrovascular events were validated using medical reports and imaging data and classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. Case ascertainment completeness was estimated with capture-recapture methods. The incidence of stroke and of stroke subtypes was calculated and compared with population values extracted from registries in Dijon and Oxford, between 2000 and 2012. Using both Dijon and Oxford population-based registries as references, there was a significantly higher risk of stroke among patients treated with GH in childhood. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to a very substantially and significantly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (standardized incidence ratio from 3.5 to 7.0 according to the registry rates considered, and accounting or not accounting for missed cases), and particularly subarachnoid hemorrhage (standardized incidence ratio from 5.7 to 9.3). We report a strong relationship between hemorrhagic stroke and GH treatment in childhood for isolated growth hormone deficiency or childhood short stature. Patients treated with GH worldwide should be advised about this association and further studies should evaluate the potentially causal role of GH treatment in these findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  8. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  9. Early Childhood Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Kathy; Zimanyi, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Recognizing the need to identify the level, nature, and impact of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs on children and their families, this theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" seeks to complement and further the international efforts at collecting information on ECCD for use at national and international levels.…

  10. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children <5 y old was mildly, moderately, or severely stunted worldwide in 2010. However, national estimates of the human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early-childhood

  12. Beyond Developmentalism? Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of Multiage Grouping in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Blaise, Mindy; Hammer, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Postdevelopmental perspectives in early childhood education and care increasingly reference alternative ways of understanding learning, growth and development in early learning. Drawing on these ideas, this paper examines research findings which focused on early childhood teachers' understandings of multiage grouping. The findings suggested that…

  13. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C

    2013-09-01

    maternal uterine environment from the time before conception, through embryonic development until fetal growth is complete. The remaining challenge is how 'early' will we be able to act, now that we can better monitor fetal growth. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  14. Dietary Intake of Protein in Early Childhood Is Associated with Growth Trajectories between 1 and 9 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kim Ve; Erler, Nicole S; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; van den Hooven, Edith H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-11-01

    High protein intake in infancy might lead to a higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. However, whether these associations differ between different sources of protein is unclear. We investigated associations between the intake of total protein, protein from different sources, and individual amino acids in early childhood and repeatedly measured height, weight, and BMI up to the age of 9 y. This study was performed in 3564 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Intakes of total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, and individual amino acids (including methionine, arginine, lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, cysteine, tyrosine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, proline, and serine) at 1 y were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured at the approximate ages of 14, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 45 mo and at 6 and 9 y, and BMI was calculated. After adjustment for confounders, linear mixed models showed that a 10-g higher total protein intake/d at 1 y was significantly associated with a 0.03-SD greater height (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06), a 0.06-SD higher weight (95% CI: 0.03, 0.09), and a 0.05-SD higher BMI (95% CI: 0.03, 0.08) up to the age of 9 y. Associations were stronger for animal than for vegetable protein intake but did not differ between dairy and nondairy animal protein or between specific amino acids. A higher intake of protein, especially animal protein, at 1 y of age was associated with a greater height, weight, and BMI in childhood up to 9 y of age. Future studies should explore the role of growth hormones and investigate whether protein intake in early childhood affects health later in life. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries. PMID:22007218

  16. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  17. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging as First-Line Investigation for Growth Hormone Deficiency Diagnosis in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Pampanini, Valentina; Pedicelli, Stefania; Gubinelli, Jessica; Scirè, Giuseppe; Cappa, Marco; Boscherini, Brunetto; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in infancy and early childhood is not straightforward. GH stimulation tests are unsafe and unreliable in infants, and normative data are lacking. This study aims to investigate whether brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may replace GH stimulation tests in the diagnosis of GHD in children younger than 4 years. We examined a retrospective cohort, with longitudinal follow-up, of 68 children consecutively diagnosed with GHD before the age of 4 years. The prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) alterations at MRI and the associations with age and either isolated GHD (IGHD) or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) were assessed. The prevalences of IGHD and MPHD were 54.4 and 45.6%, respectively. In the first group, brain MRI showed abnormalities in 83.8%: isolated pituitary hypoplasia in 48.7% and complex defects in 35.1%. In patients with MPHD, MRI showed complex alterations in 100%. All children younger than 24 months showed HP MRI abnormalities, regardless of the diagnosis. Complex defects were found in 94% of patients younger than 12 months and in 75% of patients between 13 and 24 months. Our data suggest that brain MRI may represent the first-line investigation for diagnosing GHD in infancy and early childhood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Early Childhood Home Visiting.

    PubMed

    Duffee, James H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Kuo, Alice A; Legano, Lori A; Earls, Marian F

    2017-09-01

    High-quality home-visiting services for infants and young children can improve family relationships, advance school readiness, reduce child maltreatment, improve maternal-infant health outcomes, and increase family economic self-sufficiency. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports unwavering federal funding of state home-visiting initiatives, the expansion of evidence-based programs, and a robust, coordinated national evaluation designed to confirm best practices and cost-efficiency. Community home visiting is most effective as a component of a comprehensive early childhood system that actively includes and enhances a family-centered medical home. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  20. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (<30 weeks' gestation or <1250 g) born between April 11, 2001, and April 26, 2004, and followed up at 7 years' corrected age. The setting was The Royal Women's Hospital and The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Of 224 VPT infants and 46 full-term (FT) infants, usable magnetic resonance imaging data at either infancy or 7 years were collected for 214 VPT children (95.5%) and 46 FT children (100%), while 126 VPT children (56.3%) and 31 FT children (67.4%) had usable magnetic resonance imaging data at both time points. Follow-up was conducted from April 28, 2008, to August 9, 2011. Our final analysis was on March 3, 2016. Prematurity. Absolute tissue growth, defined as change in absolute tissue volume, between infancy and 7 years was calculated for cortical gray matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV), and subcortical GMV. IQ, language, and motor function were measured at 7 years. The study cohort comprised 260 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 7.5 (0.2) years, and 49.2% (128 of 260) were female. Early GMV deficits in VPT infants were magnified by 7 years, with less growth than FT controls. Growth differences were 31.4 (95% CI, 14.8-48.1) cm3 for cortical GMV and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.5-2.8) cm3 for subcortical GMV. Within the VPT group, greater growth was observed in boys for cortical GMV (31.9; 95% CI, 16.8-46.9 cm3), WMV (31.7; 95% CI, 19.7-43.7 cm3), and subcortical GMV (1.8; 95% CI, 0.8-2.8 cm3). After controlling for sex and

  1. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  2. Transforming growth factor- 1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Salam, Muhammad T; Gauderman, W James; McConnell, Rob; Lin, Pi-Chu; Gilliland, Frank D

    2007-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is involved in airway inflammation and remodeling, two key processes in asthma pathogenesis. Tobacco smoke and traffic emissions induce airway inflammation and modulate TGF-beta1 gene expression. We hypothesized that the effects of functional TGF-beta1 variants on asthma occurrence vary by these exposures. We tested these hypotheses among 3,023 children who participated in the Children's Health Study. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs4803457 C>T and C-509T (a functional promoter polymorphism) accounted for 94% of the haplotype diversity of the upstream region. Exposure to maternal smoking in utero was based on smoking by biological mother during pregnancy. Residential distance from nearest freeway was calculated based on residential address at study entry. Children with the -509TT genotype had a 1.8-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.95). This association varied marginally significantly by in utero exposure to maternal smoking. Compared with children with the -509CC/CT genotype with no in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with the -509TT genotype with such exposure had a 3.4-fold increased risk of early persistent asthma (95% CI, 1.46-7.80; interaction, P = 0.11). The association between TGF-beta1 C-509T and lifetime asthma varied by residential proximity to freeways (interaction P = 0.02). Children with the -509TT genotype living within 500 m of a freeway had over three-fold increased lifetime asthma risk (95% CI, 1.29-7.44) compared with children with CC/CT genotype living > 1500 m from a freeway. Children with the TGF-beta1 -509TT genotype are at increased risk of asthma when they are exposed to maternal smoking in utero or to traffic-related emissions.

  3. Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

    Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

  4. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  6. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  7. Childhood growth and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Stavola, B L; dos Santos Silva, I; McCormack, V; Hardy, R J; Kuh, D J; Wadsworth, M E J

    2004-04-01

    Adult height is known to be positively associated with breast cancer risk. The mechanism underlying this association is complex, since adult height is positively correlated with age at menarche, which in turn is negatively associated with breast cancer risk. The authors used prospective data from a British cohort of 2,547 girls followed from birth in 1946 to the end of 1999 to examine breast cancer risk in relation to childhood growth. As expected, adult height was positively associated with age at menarche and breast cancer. In childhood, cases were taller and leaner, on average, than noncases. Significant predictors of breast cancer risk in models containing all components of growth were height velocity at age 4-7 years (for a one-standard-deviation increase, odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 2.09) and age 11-15 years (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.71) and body mass index velocity (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)/year) at age 2-4 years (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.83). The effects of these variables were particularly marked in women with early menarche (age <12.5 years). These findings suggest that women who grow faster in childhood and reach an adult height above the average for their menarche category are at particularly increased risk of breast cancer.

  8. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W R; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2017-01-01

    In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length.

  10. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. Methods We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Results Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Conclusions Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length. PMID:28182752

  11. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  12. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth

  13. Catch-up growth in children fed a macrobiotic diet in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Van Dusseldorp, M; Arts, I C; Bergsma, J S; De Jong, N; Dagnelie, P C; Van Staveren, W A

    1996-12-01

    To study the relationship between diet and growth, a longitudinal anthropometric study was conducted in a Dutch population consuming a macrobiotic diet. Measurements (anthropometry and food habit questionnaire) were taken in 1985 (0-7 y), 1987, and in 1993 (7-16 y, n = 209). Z-scores were calculated for anthropometric measures and changes expressed as the differences between 1993 and the mean of 1985 and 1987. Analysis indicated significant (P < 0.002) catch-up in height [(mean Z-score +/-sEM) +0.59 +/- 0.071 and arm circumference (+0.34 +/- 0.09) for age (boys and girls combined). In 1993, both girls and boys were still significantly (P < 0.05) below the reference for height and sum of four skinfolds for age, and girls were below reference for weight-for-height and arm circumference for age. In girls, multiple regression analyses showed a significant positive effect of the consumption frequency of dairy products on catch-up growth in height, weight and arm circumference, after adjustment for menarche, age, and baseline height, weight and arm circumference (P < 0.05). The addition of moderate amounts of dairy products to a vegan type of diet improved growth of children, especially girls.

  14. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  15. Childhood growth predicts higher bone mass and greater bone area in early old age: findings among a subgroup of women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, T M; von Bonsdorff, M B; Osmond, C; Salonen, M K; Kajantie, E; Cooper, C; Välimäki, M J; Eriksson, J G

    2017-09-01

    We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age. We examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age. A subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-1944, participated in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of the lumbar spine and hip. Height and weight at 0, 2, 7, and 11 years, obtained from health care records, were reconstructed into conditional variables representing growth velocity independent of earlier growth. Weight was adjusted for corresponding height. Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders. Birth length and growth in height before 7 years of age were positively associated with femoral neck area (p < 0.05) and growth in height at all age periods studied with spine bone area (p < 0.01). Growth in height before the age of 7 years was associated with BMC in the femoral neck (p < 0.01) and birth length and growth in height before the age of 7 years were associated with BMC in the spine (p < 0.05). After entering adult height into the models, nearly all associations disappeared. Weight gain during childhood was not associated with bone area or BMC, and aBMD was not associated with early growth. Optimal growth in height in girls is important for obtaining larger skeleton and consequently higher bone mass. However, when predicting bone mineral mass among elderly women, information on early growth does not improve prediction beyond that predicted by current height and weight.

  16. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Children of Low Socioeconomic Status Show Accelerated Linear Growth in Early Childhood; Results from the Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lindsay M.; van Rossem, Lenie; Jansen, Pauline W.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Objectives People of low socioeconomic status are shorter than those of high socioeconomic status. The first two years of life being critical for height development, we hypothesized that a low socioeconomic status is associated with a slower linear growth in early childhood. We studied maternal educational level (high, mid-high, mid-low, and low) as a measure of socioeconomic status and its association with repeatedly measured height in children aged 0–2 years, and also examined to what extent known determinants of postnatal growth contribute to this association. Methods This study was based on data from 2972 mothers with a Dutch ethnicity, and their children participating in The Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (participation rate 61%). All children were born between April 2002 and January 2006. Height was measured at 2 months (mid-90% range 1.0–3.9), 6 months (mid-90% range 5.6–11.4), 14 months (mid-90% range 13.7–17.9) and 25 months of age (mid-90% range 23.6–29.6). Results At 2 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were shorter than those in the highest (difference: −0.87 cm; 95% CI: −1.16, −0.58). Between 1 and 18 months, they grew faster than their counterparts. By 14 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were taller than those in the highest (difference at 14 months: 0.40 cm; 95% CI: 0.08,0.72). Adjustment for other determinants of postnatal growth did not explain the taller height. On the contrary, the differences became even larger (difference at 14 months: 0.61 cm; 95% CI: 0.26,0.95; and at 25 months: 1.00 cm; 95% CI: 0.57,1.43) Conclusions Compared with children of high socioeconomic status, those of low socioeconomic status show an accelerated linear growth until the18th month of life, leading to an overcompensation of their initial height deficit. The long-term consequences of these findings remain unclear and require further study. PMID:22649522

  18. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically reviews…

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  20. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  1. EARLY CHILDHOOD PEREFCTIONISM

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, Katherine A.; Bellace, Dara; Berthod, Samantha; Ghosh, Samiran; Berrettini, Wade; Brandt, Harry A.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Johnson, Craig L.; Kaplan, Allan; Kaye, Walter H.; Thornton, Laura; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Strober, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood perfectionism in anorexia nervosa (AN) restricting (RAN), purging (PAN), and binge eating with or without purging (BAN) subtypes. Method The EATATE, a retrospective assessment of childhood perfectionism, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) were administered to 728 AN participants. Results EATATE responses revealed General Childhood Perfectionism, 22.3% of 333 with RAN, 29.2% of 220 with PAN, and 24.8% of 116 with BAN; School Work Perfectionism, 31.2% with RAN, 30.4% with PAN, and 24.8% with BAN; Childhood Order and Symmetry, 18.7% with RAN, 21.7% with PAN, and 17.8% with BAN; and Global Childhood Rigidity, 42.6% with RAN, 48.3% with PAN and 48.1% with BAN. Perfectionism preceded the onset of AN in all subtypes. Significant associations between EDI-2 Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction were present with four EATATE subscales. Discussion Global Childhood Rigidity was the predominate feature that preceded all AN subtypes. This may be a risk factor for AN. PMID:22488115

  2. Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a global endeavor to prioritize early childhood care and education as a foundation for later learning and development, as evidenced by the Global Guidelines for Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century (Association for Childhood Education International/World Organization for Early Childhood, 1999). Such efforts…

  3. Promoting Health in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…

  4. Invest in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Reid, Jeanne L.

    2009-01-01

    The history of American early education is one of changing roles and goals. As federal engagement in early childhood has shifted in response to social, political, and economic needs, few policy efforts have focused on long-term planning or coordination. The authors identify the appropriate roles of federal, state, and local governments and make 13…

  5. Arizona Early Childhood Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    In an effort to provide a sound basis for educational accountability for preschool programs, the Arizona Early Childhood Education (ECE) Standards were developed as a framework for literacy-based programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and to provide parents with a basic understanding of indicators of early learning. These standards, to be adopted by…

  6. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  7. Growth patterns in early childhood: Better trajectories in Afro-Ecuadorians independent of sex and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Amorim, Leila D; Campos, Ana Clara P; Barreto, Mauricio L; Rodrigues, Laura C; Morejón, Yadira A; Chico, Martha E; Cooper, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    The first years of life are the most dynamic period for childhood growth. There are limited data available on growth patterns of infants and children living in rural Latin America. The aim of this study was to describe the growth patterns from birth to 5years in children living in a rural District of tropical coastal Ecuador using data from a birth cohort of 2404 neonates. We hypothesize that there would be growth differences according to ethnicity and sex. Evaluations were conducted at birth or until 2weeks of age and at 7, 13, 24, 36 and 60months during clinic and home visits. Individual growth trajectories for weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight/height-for-age Z-scores were estimated using multilevel models. Girls were lighter and shorter than boys at birth. However, Afro-Ecuadorian children (versus mestizo or indigenous) were longer/taller and heavier throughout the first 5years of life and had greater mean trajectories for HAZ and WAZ independent of sex and socioeconomic factors. Our data indicate that ethnicity is a determinant of growth trajectories during the first 5years of life independent of socioeconomic factors in a birth cohort conducted in a rural region of Latin America. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intersections: Feminisms/Early Childhoods. Rethinking Childhood, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Mary E., Ed.; Jipson, Janice A., Ed.

    Through personal narrative and scholarly reflection, this book examines the foundations of early childhood education, contemporary curricular and pedagogical practice in early childhood education, and critical issues affecting the multiple worlds of childhood. Essays by individual contributors are linked by contributors' conversations. An…

  9. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  10. Physical Education in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Steve; Sanders, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the incidence and quality of physical activity instruction during early childhood. Although the positive effect of physical activity on the cognitive, social, and physical development of young children is generally acknowledged, there is little emphasis nationally on ensuring appropriate physical educational experiences…

  11. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  13. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  14. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  15. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  16. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  17. Curriculum in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    At a seminar on Compensatory Early Childhood Education held in Jerusalem in the fall of 1972 the idea of compensatory education and its viability in cross cultural terms was examined in conjunction with a critical review of the whole notion of social and cultural disadvantage. Twenty-two participants from international governmental organizations…

  18. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  19. Films in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Gary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography provides descriptions of films concerning child development and various approaches to early childhood education. Some are for classroom use, and others are intended as guides and resource materials for teachers. Attachments give addresses and phone numbers of film distributors and addresses, managers and phone number of…

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  1. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  2. The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Dathan D.; Shelden, M'Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based and highly effective, "coaching" helps early childhood practitioners support other professionals and families as they enhance existing knowledge, develop new skills, and promote healthy development of young children. This hands-on guide shows professionals how to conduct skillful coaching in any setting--home, school, or community.…

  3. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  4. Leadership in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Samita Berry

    2013-01-01

    With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…

  5. Early Childhood Education: A Workbook for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara

    Business management theory and principles as applied to the administration of early childhood programs are presented in this workbook. Following a brief survey of the historical background of early childhood education and current early childhood programs, information and guidance to help plan, operate, and evaluate program facilities are provided.…

  6. Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings…

  7. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Oría, Reinaldo B.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Moore, Sean R.; Luna, Max A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses–and potentially young children—undergo adaptive epigenetic changes with longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following malnutrition. In the developing world there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting—linear growth failure due to inadequate calories that may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption from intestinal mucosa changes now termed “environmental enteropathy.” Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with increased CVD risk factors in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation or both. Given increases in CVD in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early life infections and increased CVD risk factors underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide. PMID:23110643

  8. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  9. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocate, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This special theme issue of the journal "The Advocate," offers articles on early interventions for preschoolers with special needs, including three articles in Spanish. Contents include: "Providing An Orientation for Life" (Galen D. Kirkland); "AFC Fights Cuts in Education at 'Speak Out' Rally" (Nadine Renazile);…

  10. Growth trajectories in early childhood, their relationship with antenatal and postnatal factors, and development of obesity by age 9 years: results from an Australian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Davies, M J; Davies, C E; Rumbold, A R; Moore, V M

    2015-07-01

    In an era where around one in four children in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia are overweight or obese, the development of obesity in early life needs to be better understood. We aimed to identify groups of children with distinct trajectories of growth in infancy and early childhood, to examine any association between these trajectories and body size at age 9, and to assess the relative influence of antenatal and postnatal exposures on growth trajectories. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In total, 557 children with serial height and weight measurements from birth to 9 years were included in the study. Latent class growth models were used to derive distinct groups of growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore antenatal and postnatal predictors of growth trajectory groups, and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between growth trajectory groups and body size at age 9 years. We identified four discrete growth trajectories from birth to age 3½ years, characterised as low, intermediate, high, or accelerating growth. Relative to the intermediate growth group, the low group had reduced z-body mass index (BMI) (-0.75 s.d.; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.02, -0.47), and the high and accelerating groups were associated with increased body size at age 9 years (high: z-BMI 0.70 s.d.; 95% CI 0.49, 0.62; accelerating: z-BMI 1.64 s.d.; 95% CI 1.16, 2.11). Of the antenatal and postnatal exposures considered, the most important differentiating factor was maternal obesity in early pregnancy, associated with a near quadrupling of risk of membership of the accelerating growth trajectory group compared with the intermediate growth group (odds ratio (OR) 3.72; 95% CI 1.15, 12.05). Efforts to prevent childhood obesity may need to be embedded within population-wide strategies that also pay attention to healthy weight for women in

  11. Prenatal Stress, Methylation in Inflammation-Related Genes, and Adiposity Measures in Early Childhood: the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.

  12. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  13. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding) has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109) aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast), bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food) associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula) with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness, higher food

  14. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  15. Growth during infancy and early childhood in relation to blood pressure and body fat measures at age 8-18 years of IVF children and spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents.

    PubMed

    Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Prein, Janneke; Smit, Judith J; Vermeiden, Jan P W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about post-natal growth in IVF offspring and the effects of rates of early post-natal growth on blood pressure and body fat composition during childhood and adolescence. The follow-up study comprised 233 IVF children aged 8-18 years and 233 spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents. Growth data from birth to 4 years of age, available for 392 children (n = 193 IVF, n = 199 control), were used to study early post-natal growth. Furthermore, early post-natal growth velocity (weight gain) was related to blood pressure and skinfold measurements at follow-up. We found significantly lower weight, height and BMI standard deviation scores (SDSs) at 3 months, and weight SDS at 6 months of age in IVF children compared with controls. Likewise, IVF children demonstrated a greater gain in weight SDS (P < 0.001), height SDS (P = 0.013) and BMI SDS (P = 0.029) during late infancy (3 months to 1 year) versus controls. Weight gain during early childhood (1-3 years) was related to blood pressure in IVF children (P = 0.014 systolic, 0.04 diastolic) but not in controls. Growth during late infancy was not related to skinfold thickness in IVF children, unlike controls (P = 0.002 peripheral sum, 0.003 total sum). Growth during early childhood was related to skinfold thickness in both IVF and controls (P = 0.005 and 0.01 peripheral sum and P = 0.003 and 0.005 total sum, respectively). Late infancy growth velocity of IVF children was significantly higher compared with controls. Nevertheless, early childhood growth instead of infancy growth seemed to predict cardiovascular risk factors in IVF children. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to follow-up growth and development of IVF children into adulthood.

  16. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  18. Evaluating and Supporting Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passe, Angèle Sancho

    2015-01-01

    There's a lot of conversation in the early childhood community on evaluating teachers to improve their performance. Raising the quality of early care and education is a priority for policymakers and practitioners on local, state, and federal levels. As a result, much attention is being focused on early childhood educators to ensure that they do a…

  19. Early Childhood Services in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Glennie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the types and characteristics of New Zealand early childhood education services. Specific areas addressed include: (1) Te Whaariki, the New Zealand early childhood curriculum; (2) great outdoors as a feature of early education; (3) education and care centers; (4) kindergartens and playcenters; and (5) Te Kohanga Reo, Maori language and…

  20. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  1. Global Trends in Early Childhood Education: 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger; Goodeve, Emily

    2009-01-01

    As early childhood professionals from 78 countries prepare to travel to Belfast for the 2009 World Forum on Early Care and Education, these authors surveyed a sampling of those who will be attending on the current trends in early childhood education in their country. Delegates from over 40 countries responded, and in reviewing the reports from…

  2. An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Trlsha, Ed.; Thomas, Nigel, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this book is to provide a core introductory text for the many undergraduate students who are now studying early childhood. Four key themes are emphasised throughout this book: The first is the social construction of childhood. This is the idea that childhood is not a naturally given phenomenon, but the result of social…

  3. Early Childhood Caries: A Review.

    PubMed

    Alazmah, Abdulfatah

    2017-08-01

    To review and update the current knowledge about early childhood caries (ECC) and its etiology, prevalence, risk factors, management, and preventive strategies. Early childhood caries is a disease affecting significantly both well-developed and industrial nations. The ECC can significantly affect the child's quality of life, as it may lead to infection, swelling, pain, and other symptoms. The ECC affects children after eruption of primary teeth until age of around 5 years. The ECC affects all parts of the tooth including the smooth surface. Upper anterior teeth and primary molars are usually affected. The lower anterior teeth are less likely affected. The risk factors for ECC are diet, bacteria, and host susceptibility. The additional factors, such as presence of enamel defect and the feeding practices also contribute to the initiation and progress of ECC. Dentists must focus on utilizing existing techniques to distinguish indications of right on time and propelled caries and give guidance on the best way to counteract and control caries in children. Approaches should be directed to preventive caries control strategies among children. Preventing and controlling the development of ECC among children is important to maintain effective eating, speech development, and formation of a positive self-image.

  4. Birthweight, childhood growth and hypertension in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingfang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Jin, Fan; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Liu, Da-Ke; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-10-01

    Low birthweight (BW) and childhood growth have been hypothesized to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension in later life. We analysed data among 13,467 women with a recalled BW from the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Cases included those with a self-reported hypertension with ('confirmed cases') or without ('possible cases') antihypertensive medication(s) use. Logistic regression was used to derive adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. Birthweight was inversely associated with the odds of early onset (at age 20-40 years) hypertension in a dose response manner (P for trend = 0.01). This association is stronger for 'confirmed' hypertension (only OR for 'confirmed' hypertension are referred to subsequently). Being heavier or taller than average at 15 years of age were both related to elevated odds of early onset hypertension. Women who had a low BW but were heavier than average at age 15 were more than four times (OR = 4.63, 95% CI: 2.40-8.94) more likely to have an early onset hypertension, and those who had a low BW and became taller at 15 years of age had an OR of 1.87 (95% CI: 1.05-3.31). A significant interaction between BW and weight at age 15 was observed (P = 0.04). Our study suggests that low BW, particularly if accompanied by accelerated childhood growth, may increase the risk of early onset hypertension in adulthood.

  5. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  6. Early Childhood Practice and Refrains of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…

  7. Computer Training for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specht, Jacqueline; Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena

    Recent research in early childhood education (ECE) centers suggests that some teacher characteristics are not at a level that would support computer learning opportunities for children. This study identified areas of support required by teachers to provide a smooth introduction of the computer into the early childhood education classroom.…

  8. Early Childhood Teachers' Sustainment in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of Australian early childhood teachers' sustainment in their profession, focussing on those factors which enhance professional commitment, job satisfaction and occupational motivation. Utilizing qualitative methodology this study also identified key factors early childhood teachers consider crucial to…

  9. Ethical Behavior in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.

    This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…

  10. Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stanley L.

    The report describes the Western Illinois University 0-6 Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Handicapped Personnel Training Project (WIU 0-6 Project)--a model project designed to demonstrate innovative methods to fill personnel needs for early childhood handicapped programs. The project is a 2 semester program to train professional educators in the…

  11. Nutrition Education Needs of Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Hazel; Wesley, Myrna

    This study sought to determine the needs of early childhood teachers in Kentucky for education to help them manage children's nutrition in early childhood programs. The study also sought to determine whether formal classes, self-study via computer, or site-based inservice workshops is the most desirable format for teacher nutrition education. A…

  12. Democratic Group Process in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lois C.

    This paper examines ways in which early childhood education can provide the vital foundation for lifelong attitudes and values toward the democratic process. One goal of early childhood education is to empower the social bonding which brings collaborative relationships to their full potential and gives the child a sense of connectedness to others.…

  13. Early Childhood Education: Training for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the future training of early childhood educators, focusing on techniques for teachers to build prosocial skills, develop aesthetic appreciation, inculcate acceptance and inclusion, and develop a curiosity for learning among children. Also discusses the political status of early childhood education. (MDM)

  14. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  15. Early Childhood Education: Society and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anning, Angela, Ed.; Cullen, Joy, Ed.; Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book aims to provide research-based evidence that links theory and research to practice in early childhood settings. Different ways of constructing learning in contrasting settings are explored through the analysis of research in early childhood contexts in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. The cross-national focus extends the…

  16. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  17. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book examines critical issues in early childhood education across a broad range of contexts. The issues explored are not only critical in terms of being fundamental to early childhood education but they are also critical in that they present ideas and utilize frameworks which are not traditional to the field. The topics under review include…

  18. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    A study examined six aspects of learning communities in early childhood settings in rural New South Wales (Australia). These aspects are reflection, individual development, diversity, conversation, caring, and shared responsibility. Surveys of 15 directors of early childhood programs indicated that the reflective component of the learning…

  19. Pedagogy for Early Childhood Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Federal attention is focused currently on investing and improving the quality of early childhood education, so that children's potential and talent development can be used as a natural resource for the future of our country. This article engages readers in transitioning their thinking about early childhood gifted education from a traditional…

  20. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  1. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  2. Early Childhood Training Workbook [and Videos].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Barrington, IL.

    This early childhood training workbook and three accompanying video series provide instruction for early childhood caregivers and teachers in the areas of guidance and discipline, math, and diversity. The video series "Guidance and Discipline" demonstrates the ways in which teachers help children become self disciplined. The three videos…

  3. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  4. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  5. Early Childhood Education: A Workbook for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy; Hartman, Barbara

    This text-workbook is designed to present management theories and principles as they apply to the administration of early childhood programs, and serve as a resource and discussion guide applicable to a wide range of child care situations. Following a brief historical consideration of early childhood education in the United States, information to…

  6. Publication Opportunities for Early Childhood Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    Recognizing the increasing pressure for publication for early childhood academics and the lack of current information about journals' publication practices, this study surveyed editors of Australian and international journals. The journals were selected through a survey of 43 academic staff of an institute of early childhood education and through…

  7. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  8. Age-related changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of gait accompany ongoing lower limb linear growth in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Froehle, Andrew W; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-05-01

    Walking gait is generally held to reach maturity, including walking at adult-like velocities, by 7-8 years of age. Lower limb length, however, is a major determinant of gait, and continues to increase until 13-15 years of age. This study used a sample from the Fels Longitudinal Study (ages 8-30 years) to test the hypothesis that walking with adult-like velocity on immature lower limbs results in the retention of immature gait characteristics during late childhood and early adolescence. There was no relationship between walking velocity and age in this sample, whereas the lower limb continued to grow, reaching maturity at 13.2 years in females and 15.6 years in males. Piecewise linear mixed models regression analysis revealed significant age-related trends in normalized cadence, initial double support time, single support time, base of support, and normalized step length in both sexes. Each trend reached its own, variable-specific age at maturity, after which the gait variables' relationships with age reached plateaus and did not differ significantly from zero. Offsets in ages at maturity occurred among the gait variables, and between the gait variables and lower limb length. The sexes also differed in their patterns of maturation. Generally, however, immature walkers of both sexes took more frequent and relatively longer steps than did mature walkers. These results support the hypothesis that maturational changes in gait accompany ongoing lower limb growth, with implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating movement-related disorders and injuries during late childhood and early adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…

  10. Issues and Realities in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard

    This paper investigates three issues vital to early childhood education: (1) sources of curriculum, (2) sources of financial support, and (3) the relationship between racism and compensatory education. "Natural" childhood and child development theories are discussed, and their use as a source of curriculum for young children is questioned, as is…

  11. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  12. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  13. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  14. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  15. Assessing Thai Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.; Klibthong, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of children with and without disabilities are attending early childhood programmes and learning together. Early childhood inclusion considers all children with and without disabilities, and their families as full members of the early childhood community. Although many early childhood teachers accept the educational rights…

  16. Men in Early Childhood: What Do Women Think about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Margaret

    This study sought to determine Australian attitudes toward men working in the early childhood profession. Subjects were 100 first-year and 100 third-year female early childhood undergraduates and 22 practicing early childhood teachers and caregivers. Survey respondents were asked to describe how three imaginary early childhood teachers named Mary,…

  17. Identification of Special Educational Needs for Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Florence Akua; Badu-Shayar, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education is a key element for the growth and development of every country. This paper, provides a summary of reviewing the impact of early childhood special educational assessment on children to be "at risk" of developing special educational needs. It was identified mainly that early identification of at-risk factors for…

  18. Association between economic growth and early childhood undernutrition: evidence from 121 Demographic and Health Surveys from 36 low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Finlay, Jocelyn; Klasen, Stephan; Subramanian, S V

    2014-04-01

    Economic growth is widely regarded as a necessary, and often sufficient, condition for the improvement of population health. We aimed to assess whether macroeconomic growth was associated with reductions in early childhood undernutrition in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from 121 Demographic and Health Surveys from 36 countries done between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2011. The sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of children aged 0-35 months, and the outcome variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting. The main independent variable was per-head gross domestic product (GDP) in constant prices and adjusted for purchasing power parity. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between changes in per-head GDP and changes in child undernutrition outcomes. Models were adjusted for country fixed effects, survey-year fixed effects, clustering, and demographic and socioeconomic covariates for the child, mother, and household. Sample sizes were 462,854 for stunting, 485,152 for underweight, and 459,538 for wasting. Overall, 35·6% (95% CI 35·4-35·9) of young children were stunted (ranging from 8·7% [7·6-9·7] in Jordan to 51·1% [49·1-53·1] in Niger), 22·7% (22·5-22·9) were underweight (ranging from 1·8% [1·3-2·3] in Jordan to 41·7% [41·1-42·3] in India), and 12·8% (12·6-12·9) were wasted (ranging from 1·2% [0·6-1·8] in Peru to 28·8% [27·5-30·0] in Burkina Faso). At the country level, no association was seen between average changes in the prevalence of child undernutrition outcomes and average growth of per-head GDP. In models adjusted only for country and survey-year fixed effects, a 5% increase in per-head GDP was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 0·993 (95% CI 0·989-0·995) for stunting, 0·986 (0·982-0·990) for underweight, and 0·984 (0·981-0·986) for wasting. ORs after adjustment for the full set of covariates were 0·996 (0·993-1·000) for stunting, 0

  19. Early growth hormone treatment start in childhood growth hormone deficiency improves near adult height: analysis from NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michel; Blair, Jo; Kotnik, Primoz; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD). NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting. Patients ( n  = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity <2 cm/year at ≥16 (boys) or ≥15 (girls) years) were grouped by age (years) at treatment start (early (girls, <8; boys, <9), intermediate (girls, 8-10; boys, 9-11) or late (girls, >10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (<3 ng/mL or 3 to ≤10 ng/mL). Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of age at treatment start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS). Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early ( n  = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) -0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n  = 42 (boys, 57.1%); -1.14 (0.15); late, n  = 90 (boys, 68.9%); -1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start ( P  < 0.0242), baseline height SDS (HSDS) ( P  < 0.0001), target HSDS ( P  < 0.0001), and GHD severity ( P  = 0.0012). Most (78.5%) patients achieved a normal NAH irrespective of age at treatment start. Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential. © 2017 The authors.

  20. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth: Effects on early childhood infections, growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-11-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), which is used to protect against tuberculosis, has been associated with a variety of other effects since it was developed almost 100 years ago. Most notably, observational studies and randomized clinical trials from low-income countries indicate that it protects against unrelated infections, i.e. a so-called non-specific effect. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted to study these effects in a high-income population. The immune response to BCG is not fully understood but involves a pro-inflammatory profiling of the immune system, also when exposed to unrelated pathogens. Immune changes have been implicated in changes in both child growth and child development and for that reason we also studied these outcomes. We randomized 4262 children at birth to receive BCG vaccination at birth or to a no-intervention control group. We had pre-specified subgroup analyses of child sex, prematurity, and maternal BCG vaccination. The statistical analysis plan was finalized prior to unblinding of the data. Follow-up for the outcomes reported in this thesis consisted of telephone interviews and clinical examination at age 3 and 13 months, as well as online developmental questionnaires distributed to the parents at 12 months and additionally to the parents of premature children at age 6 and 22 months. The outcomes of this thesis were number of parent reported infections, child growth and body composition, and child psychomotor development. Overall, there was no effect of BCG on either incidence of infections, growth, body composition or psychomotor development. A subgroup analysis of children of mothers who were BCG vaccinated showed a reduced incidence of infections from 0 to 3 months among BCG vaccinated children (incidence rate ratio = 0.62, CI: 0.39 to 0.98), but there was no effect from 3 to 13 months. Previous research has shown that maternal exposure to BCG or mycobacteria can alter the effect of BCG in the offspring, and thus the

  1. Children with Special Needs: Lessons for Early Childhood Professionals. Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelnik, Marjorie J.; Onaga, Esther; Rohde, Barbara; Whiren, Alice

    Bridging the gap between child development and strategies for inclusion, this book is intended to help early childhood practitioners and pre-service teachers feel better equipped to meet the needs of all the children in their early childhood setting. Each chapter of the book is a case study introducing a child (ages birth to 8 years) with one or…

  2. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  3. Contemporary Perspectives on Early Childhood Curriculum. Contemporary Perspectives in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N. Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    Noting that the curriculum in early childhood education is dramatically different from that at other levels of education, this volume seeks to clarify some of the issues related to early childhood curriculum development and its bases in both personal knowledge and knowledge from the different disciplines to achieve a "balanced curriculum."…

  4. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities during Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…

  5. Early Childhoods in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret M., Ed.; Tucker, Stanley, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book challenges taken for granted views of early childhood across the globe. It deepens and broadens our understanding of what it means to be a child today and of the challenges children face in different parts of the world. It will be essential reading for all who work with young children or are students of early years education and…

  6. Current Issues in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    If present trends in family life and education continue into the next decade, most children under five will spend substantial proportions of their early years in various types of early childhood programs, most five- to six-year-olds will attend all-day kindergarten, and during their elementary school years they will spend much of their time before…

  7. Psychological Functioning of Women Taking Illicit Drugs during Pregnancy and the Growth and Development of Their Offspring in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Serino, Dana; Peterson, Bradley S; Rosen, Tove S

    2018-04-25

    methadone group had persistent growth and cognitive deficits. Their mothers demonstrated more anxiety, depression, and stress, the combination of which left these women and children liable to ongoing psychosocial struggle and psychological distress. Dual interventions for mother and child should be considered in attempting to optimize outcome.

  8. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  9. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. Methods We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0–1 month; 1–3 months; 3–6 months; 6–12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Results Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; P<0.01 for all. Coefficients were similar for different periods of infancy and also for relative weight gain and linear growth. Compared to breastfeeding <1 month, breastfeeding >1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P<0.001). Compared to >6 months, introduction of complementary feeding <6 months was associated with higher blood pressure (e.g. 4–6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). Conclusions After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be

  10. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Marieke; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Fall, Caroline H D; van Eijsden, Manon; Osmond, Clive; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2016-01-01

    Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0-1 month; 1-3 months; 3-6 months; 6-12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; P<0.01 for all. Coefficients were similar for different periods of infancy and also for relative weight gain and linear growth. Compared to breastfeeding <1 month, breastfeeding >1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P<0.001). Compared to >6 months, introduction of complementary feeding <6 months was associated with higher blood pressure (e.g. 4-6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be associated with lower adult blood pressure.

  11. Tablet Nuff but Life Still Rough: Technology for Early Childhood Sustainable Development in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Williams, Suzette; Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education has a role to play in constructing a sustainable society. In particular, increasing global attention has focused on how early childhood may help alleviate poverty among children and their families and promote economic growth. Part of this discourse involves the use of technology as a means to improve the quality of early…

  12. Early Childhood Education, The Year in Review: A Look at 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    This is a report on the happenings in early childhood education in the United States in 1988. Contents focus on: (1) the week, the year, and the decade of the young child; (2) the proposed Act for Better Child Care Services; (3) other child care developments; (4) other early childhood programs; (5) growth of pre-kindergarten programs; (6) the need…

  13. Near Heterophoria in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to measure near heterophoria in young children to determine the impact of early growth and development on the alignment of the eyes. Methods. Fifty young children (≥2 and <7 years of age; range of spherical equivalent refractive error −1.25 diopters [D] to +3.75 D) and 13 adults participated. Their eye position and accommodation responses, in the absence of optical correction, were measured using simultaneous Purkinje image tracking and photorefraction technology (MCS PowerRefractor, PR). The resulting heterophorias, and both accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) and convergence accommodation/convergence (CA/C) ratios were then computed as a function of age, refractive error, and an alternating cover test. Results. The mean heterophoria after approximately 60 seconds of dissociation at a 33-cm viewing distance was 5.0 prism diopters (pd) of exophoria (SD ± 3.7) in the children (78% of children > 2 pd exophoric) and 5.6 pd of exophoria (SD ± 4.7) in adults (69% of adults > 2pd exophoric; a nonsignificant difference), with no effect of age between 2 and 6 years. In these children, heterophoria was not significantly correlated with AC/A (r = 0.25), CA/C (r = 0.12), or refractive error (r = 0.21). The mean difference between heterophoria measurements from the PR and the clinical cover test was −2.4 pd (SD = ±3.4), with an exophoric bias in the PR measurements. Conclusions. Despite developmental maturation of interpupillary distance, refractive error, and AC/A, in a typical sample of young children the predominant dissociated position is one of exophoria. PMID:25634983

  14. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  15. Early Childhood Review: Papers from GAEC, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Penny, Ed.; Kelly, Clare, Ed.; McLean, Kathy, Ed.; Mellor, Nikki, Ed.; Pidgeon, Sue, Ed.; Stevens, Judith, Ed.; Stables, Kay, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This periodical, from Goldsmiths Association for Early Childhood (GAEC), addresses a variety of issues related to early childhood education in Great Britain. Articles included in the Spring 1996 issue are: (1) "Traditional Story Telling in the Early Years" (Fiona Collins); (2) "International Focus--Early Childhood Education…

  16. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  17. Indicators of Access to Early Childhood Services in the Mississippi Delta. Rural Early Childhood Report No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Elizabeth F.; Barbaro, Erin; Barbaro, Michael C.; Flenner, Michelle; Bell, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Atlas facilitates spatial analysis in early childhood services research for the promotion of greater quality and accessibility of early care and education. The Atlas team collects and geocodes federal, state and nongovernmental datasets about early childhood services, integrating selected data elements into its online mapmaking…

  18. Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan

    2010-01-01

    "Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…

  19. Embedding Augmentative Communication within Early Childhood Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras

    2000-01-01

    This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…

  20. Suffolk Community College Early Childhood Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Darlene; Kaplan, Paul

    The Early Childhood Program (ECP) at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) was established to train students in the instruction of young children by providing them with theoretical knowledge, skills training, and practical experience. This report provides information on the philosophy, structure, and outcomes of the ECP. The first section…

  1. Early Childhood Education in Northern Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertan, Biran

    The history of early childhood education in Cyprus, from the time of the Ottoman Empire to the present, is reviewed in this paper as the context for reporting on a survey of 1,071 full-time and working Turkish Cypriot mothers regarding the daily difficulties of child rearing. The survey was undertaken to inform policymaking efforts of the…

  2. The Importance of Music in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinowitz, Lili M.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys some of the research in music education that validates the inclusion of music for its own sake in models for early childhood learning. Focuses on topics that include, but are not limited to, child and vocal development, the importance of movement for children, and adult involvement in music education. (CMK)

  3. New Directions in Tribal Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of tribal communities building more coordinated and effective early childhood systems by taking advantage of federal funding opportunities and partnerships. Given a new level of understanding and response from federal agencies regarding the unique nature of tribal communities, efforts are being made to acknowledge…

  4. Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

  5. Early Childhood Trends around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This article shares the views of the members of the World Forum community regarding early childhood education trends around the world. It summarizes trends from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Denmark, The Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Nepal, Vietnam, Tajikistan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, New Zealand, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt,…

  6. Discerning the Future of Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward; Berman, Winnie

    1983-01-01

    Examines the recent history of early childhood intervention efforts; discusses principles that guided the formation of intervention programs in the 1960s and 1970s; describes the Head Start program and lessons learned from its development; considers issues in evaluating intervention programs; and presents suggestions for future directions in early…

  7. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  8. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  9. Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Cordelia C.; And Others

    Part of a volume which explores current issues in service delivery to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions, this chapter discusses the nature of parent involvement in early childhood special education. Acceptance of the basic axiom of parent involvement needs to be accompanied by an understanding of individual differences in family…

  10. Constructivism and Jewish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Meir

    2013-01-01

    Having an educational theory as a school's foundation is a key component in successful educational endeavors. However, many Jewish early childhood programs do not commonly use educational theory to support methods of instruction. In this study 14 children from a constructivist-based Jewish kindergarten class are interviewed to determine how they…

  11. Transforming Early Childhood Education through Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    There is tension growing in early childhood education between an emphasis on higher learning standards, teacher-directed activities, and evidence-based instructional methods and maintaining active, dynamic and integrated learning experiences for young children. This short essay highlights the ways in which our existing values and beliefs,…

  12. In Early Childhood: What's Language about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozere, Liane

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that in daycare centres in France, where children are cared for from four months to age three, the competence of female staff members is usually denied and unvalued vis a vis the expert opinions. The paper highlights empirical research on early childhood and gender, providing pragmatic access to children's languages of desire, a…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion: Focus on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    Early childhood inclusion is a field characterized by a philosophy and practice that encourages full participation of children with disabilities and their families in everyday activities with their typically developing peers. Noting that success in inclusion endeavors requires substantial changes in the way our society thinks, feels, and acts,…

  14. Early Childhood Numeracy in a Multiage Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  16. Early Childhood Gifted Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara

    2017-01-01

    In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…

  17. Annotations of Early Childhood Assessment Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    An annotated listing of selected instruments which may be appropriate for the young child who appears to be handicapped and who may be placed in an early childhood unit for the handicapped is provided. The list is not comprehensive nor does it contain annotations from all companies which produce this type of material. It is offered to apprise…

  18. National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Charlyn Harper

    2014-01-01

    The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…

  19. "Queerying" Gender: Heteronormativity in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kerry H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…

  20. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  1. Adaptation and Agency in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    This article condenses the milestones of a long project. The ambition of the project has been to seek a balanced view of early childhood education, where both the adaptive and agentive nature of action is considered. A model based on the relationships between perception and environmental change serves as the project's theoretical foundation. The…

  2. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhuemer, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The early years of childhood are receiving increased public policy attention in many countries around the world. Debates on providing quality services and ensuring a good foundation for lifelong learning are generating a new interest in curriculum issues. What understandings do we have of young children? How do they access and construct knowledge…

  3. Physical Fitness and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2006-01-01

    The state of children's fitness is the responsibility of all who are involved with children. As early childhood professionals, they have a duty to educate the whole (thinking, feeling, "moving") child. Moreover, teachers of preschoolers can be more realistic than parents in their assessment of children's physical inactivity levels, and preschool…

  4. Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education…

  5. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  6. Froebel and Early Childhood Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sniegoski, Stephen J.

    The idea of a special type of education for young children emerged in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, with the kindergarten movement. The kindergarten was created by Friedrich Froebel, the German educator whose ideas, although no longer popular, can be traced to contemporary early childhood education. Froebel explicitly rejected…

  7. Constructing Relational Space in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuorisalo, Mari; Rutanen, Niina; Raittila, Raija

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines early childhood education (ECE) by applying and developing relational-spatial perspectives on everyday life in educational institutions for young children. The aim is to investigate the dynamic process of construction of space and to illustrate with selected empirical episodes how this process occurs in ECE. Drawing on authors…

  8. HIV/AIDS and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is increasingly concerned with the lack of attention to children affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" examines issues related to ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children under 5 years receive attention in the international,…

  9. Interculturalism: Addressing Diversity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponciano, Leslie; Shabazian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators work with children and families from a range of diverse backgrounds. As society becomes increasingly multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural, so too grows the need for educators' abilities to support children's development by instilling in them the tools they need to live together respectfully and stand up to…

  10. Emotional Intersections in Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Nikki A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the emotional experiences of three early childhood education leaders directing diverse programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Application of a poststructural theoretical framework was completed to better understand how leaders' emotion was performed within social and…

  11. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  12. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  13. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  14. Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…

  15. Perceptions of Men in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Kelvin

    In an effort to determine the effect of sex-role expectations and low economic return on the number of men teaching at the preschool level, this study surveyed 116 women and 10 men involved in early childhood education. A questionnaire sent to participants raised questions about either an imaginary young man or woman who had recently received a…

  16. An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

  17. The Imagination of Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    This book examines historical features from antiquity through present times that are important to early childhood scholars. Chapter 1 presents the history of education, including discussions of educational practices from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries in Europe and the United States, recent efforts to merge preschool and…

  18. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  19. Where We Stand: Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This document details the position of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) regarding universal access to early childhood education as represented in a resolution of the AFT convention in 2003. The document points out that the lack of access to high-quality preschool programs is a major problem affecting nearly every working family, and as the…

  20. Feminist Pedagogy in Early Childhood Teachers' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Haggith Gor

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and practice of applying critical feminist pedagogy in a teacher's training college. It is based on an analysis of the education of students in an early childhood teaching program (BEd) that seeks to promote social justice through education. This article discusses the areas of the student's education that…

  1. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  2. A Universal Early Childhood Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how the current emphasis on viewing early childhood education (ECE) as an investment keeps ECE at the margins of U.S. political debates as well as in other discussions around the world. Historically, the field of ECE in the United States has struggled, and continues to struggle, for political positioning.…

  3. Early Childhood Music Education Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a short commentary on the "state of play" in early childhood music education research to accompany the articles published in this special issue. It provides an international overview of recent research trends in this field, with examples drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, the Middle East, East and South Africa and…

  4. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  5. Negotiating "Otherness": A Male Early Childhood Educator's Gender Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Describes the gender positioning strategies adopted by a male Australian preschool teacher-director as he faces attitudes that early childhood education is "women's work." Discusses implications of a greater male presence in early childhood education. (JPB)

  6. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  7. Early Childhood Teachers' Integration of ICTs: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jillian; Diezmann, Carmel; Lamb, Janeen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on barriers to ICT integration in teaching practices from the perspective of early childhood teachers. Six early childhood teachers from a combined private school in Queensland participated in this study. Individual interviews explored the ICT tools used in early childhood programs and the barriers to integration…

  8. "Doing" Social Justice in Early Childhood: The Potential of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the twentieth century. More recently, with the introduction of the National Early Childhood Reform Agenda, early…

  9. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  10. Workforce Issues in Early Childhood Education and Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    This paper addresses, in two parts, some issues in the staffing of early childhood services. Taking an international perspective, the first part of the paper discusses: (1) the structure of the early childhood workforce; (2) the social construction of the early childhood worker; (3) gender; (4) staff to child ratios; (5) processes of transition in…

  11. Breaking Bread: Spirituality, Food and Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The spiritual aspect of early childhood education is supported by the early childhood curriculum in Aotearoa New Zealand, "Te Whariki". Research in three different early childhood settings presents new perspectives on the everyday experiences of children in terms of spirituality. Each setting formed a case study that included the voices…

  12. Screening for Sleep Problems in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education: A Systematic Review of Screening and Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonuck, Karen A.; Hyden, Christel; Ury, Guenn; Barnett, Josephine; Ashkinaze, Hannah; Briggs, Rahil D.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral insomnias of childhood (BIC) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) disorders cause disrupted and/or inefficient sleep. Left untreated in early childhood, both conditions increase the risk of compromised development, particularly in the areas of behavior, cognition, and growth. This systematic review determined whether and how current…

  13. Music Experiences in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andress, Barbara

    This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…

  14. Language in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazden, Courtney B., Ed.

    Eight articles about oral language education for preschool children are presented. They are: (1) a point of view on oral language education--"Suggestions from Studies of Early Language Acquisition,""Language Programs for Young Children: Notes from England and Wales," and "The Issue of Structure," by Courtney Cazden; (2) suggestions for curriculum…

  15. Handbook of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and authoritative, this forward-thinking book reviews the breadth of current knowledge about early education and identifies important priorities for practice and policy. Robert C. Pianta and his associates bring together foremost experts to examine what works in promoting all children's school readiness and social-emotional…

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  17. Creative Abilities in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Maria Dolores; Parra, Joaquin; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Sanchez, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore creativity in Spanish children during their early years and to explore differences regarding gender and age. We have used a sample of 285 children between five and seven years old. To measure their creativity we used the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT). We have used the test of figured expression that…

  18. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education in Turkey within the Scope of the Developmental System Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…

  19. Investigating Early Childhood Teachers' Views on Science Teaching Practices: The Integration of Science with Visual Art in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk Yilmaztekin, Elif; Erden, Feyza Tantekin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates early childhood teachers' views about science teaching practices in an early childhood settings. It was conducted in a preschool located in Ankara, Turkey. The data of the study were collected through multiple sources of information such as interviews with early childhood teachers and observations of their practices in the…

  20. Early childhood development: putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.

  1. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  2. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  3. Changing Faces: The Early Childhood Profession in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Beverley, Ed.

    This collection of 14 essays addresses the changes and challenges that the early childhood education profession in Australia has faced in recent years, and covers a wide range of important issues of particular relevance to the preparation of early childhood professionals. The essays are: (1) "The Changing Ecology of Australian Childhood"…

  4. Spotlight on daytime napping during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.

  5. Spotlight on daytime napping during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development. PMID:29576733

  6. Understanding Diversity and the Teacher's Role in Supporting Learning in Diverse Classrooms: Scaffolding Early Childhood Preservice Teacher's Growth in Initial Placements with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solvie, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to examine the ways in which early childhood preservice teachers develop an understanding of diversity and the teacher's role in supporting learning in diverse classrooms. Preservice teachers in their initial foundations course and in their initial placements in early childhood settings were participants in the…

  7. Abusive early child rearing and early childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, R C; Russo, M J

    2001-02-01

    Childhood aggression is significant for children, their families, and the society because aggressive children often become violent adolescents. This article examines the relationship between maltreatment and early childhood aggression. Data are from a longitudinal study of maltreated and nonmaltreated children assessed as preschoolers and again at school age. The dependent variable is the child's teacher's rating of aggression at school age. The independent variables are from preschool and school age observations of the mother-child interaction and the mother's report of physical discipline practices. Using structural equation modeling, harshness of interaction at preschool age but not school age and severity of physical discipline at school age but not preschool age, relate to aggression at school age. Results suggest a difference in the developmental stage at which different features of harsh child rearing exert their influence. Strategies for intervening to prevent the development of childhood aggression are suggested.

  8. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  9. Understanding adolescent personality pathology from growth trajectories of childhood oddity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Barbara; Verbeke, Lize; De Caluwé, Elien; Vercruysse, Tom; Hofmans, Joeri

    2017-10-01

    Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals. Personality pathology was assessed at a fourth assessment point in adolescence. Beyond a general declining trend in oddity characteristics, the results demonstrated that both an early onset and an increasing trend of oddity-related characteristics over time are independent predictors of adolescent PDs. Childhood oddity tends to be the most manifest precursor for PDs with a core oddity feature (i.e., the schizotypal and borderline PD), but also appears to predict most of the other DSM-5 PDs. Results are discussed from an overarching developmental framework on PDs (Cicchetti, 2014), specifically focusing on the principle of multifinality. From a clinical perspective, the significance of increasing or steady-high childhood oddity trajectories for adolescent PDs highlights the relevance of systematic screening processes across time.

  10. Relevance of fruits, vegetables and flavonoids from fruits and vegetables during early life, mid-childhood and adolescence for levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas; Penczynski, Katharina J; Bolzenius, Katja; Wudy, Stefan A; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-02-14

    The growth hormone (GH) insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been linked to insulin metabolism and cancer risk. Experimental evidence indicates that the GH-IGF axis itself can be influenced by dietary flavonoids. As fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a major source of flavonoid consumption, FV's beneficial health effects may be explained via flavonoids' influence on the GH-IGF axis, but observational evidence is currently rare. We used data from Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants to analyse prospective associations between FV, fruit intake and flavonoid intake from FV (FlavFV) with IGF-1 and its binding proteins IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Subjects needed to provide a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years) and at least two 3-d weighed dietary records in early life (0·5-2 years, n 191), mid-childhood (3-7 years, n 265) or adolescence (girls: 9-15 years, boys: 10-16 years, n 261). Additional analyses were conducted among those providing at least three 24-h urine samples in adolescence (n 236) to address the predictor urinary hippuric acid (HA), a biomarker of polyphenol intake. Higher fruit intake in mid-childhood and adolescence was related to higher IGFBP-2 in adulthood (P=0·03 and P=0·045). Comparable trends (P=0·045-0·09) were discernable for FV intake (but not FlavFV) in all three time windows. Similarly, higher adolescent HA excretion tended to be related (P=0·06) to higher adult IGFBP-2 levels. Regarding IGFBP-3, a marginal (P=0·08) positive association was observed with FlavFV in mid-childhood only. None of the investigated dietary factors was related to IGF-1. In conclusion, higher fruit and FV intakes during growth may be relevant for adult IGFBP-2, but probably not for IGFBP-3 or IGF-1.

  11. EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  12. Transitions for Young Children: Creating Connections across Early Childhood Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Tarrant, Kate, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Smooth early childhood transitions are key to ensuring positive outcomes for young children the world over--but in today's fragmented early education systems, it's difficult to ensure continuity among programs and services. Early childhood professionals will help change that with this book, the first to propose a comprehensive, practical framework…

  13. Test Review: C. K. Conners. Conners Early Childhood Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Colby P.; Wedeking, Travis; Galindo, Addy M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Conners Early Childhood (Conners EC; Conners, 2009), a behavior and development rating scale intended to assess children in early childhood, specifically defined as ages 2 to 6 years. Using multiple informants across multiple settings, the Conners EC is administered for the purpose of early identification of disorders or…

  14. Repositioning Early Childhood Leadership as Action and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Christine; Busch, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Robust leadership is increasingly recognised as a critical element of healthy professions, yet some research suggests that early childhood practitioners do not readily identify with the concept of leadership. This article explores some dimensions of leadership in early childhood and how it is understood and practised in Australian early childhood…

  15. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  16. Early Childhood Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for Early Childhood Educators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Whittall, Sandy Tsubokawa

    This early childhood curriculum (ages 3-6) uses games, music, art, drama, and storytelling to teach young children effective, nonviolent ways to resolve conflicts and provides caregivers with tools for helping young children develop key conflict resolution skills. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides guidance in assessing the…

  17. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  18. Early Childhood Special Education. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Philip L., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of papers recognizes ways in which the context of educational policy and its implications for practice have, in combination with other influences, defined early childhood special education and influenced its development. An introduction by Philip L. Safford is presented. Subsequent papers have the following titles and authors:…

  19. Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3)…

  20. Explorations in Early Childhood Education: The Mount Druitt Early Childhood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, John; And Others

    This book concerns the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, which was developed to provide quality educational programs for disadvantaged children living in the western suburbs of Sydney, Australia. In order to set the subsequent discussion in broader perspective, chapter 1 addresses several key issues influencing project development. Chapter 2…

  1. Early Childhood Programs and Policy in the Northwest and Hawaii: Early Childhood Policy Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Nancy Faires; And Others

    Discussed are early childhood policy issues and options for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Section I explores federal and state directions in terms of levels of policy making, federal and state issues, and interested parties. Section II focuses on policy issues in its discussions of the political climate, long-term…

  2. How Do We Educate Teachers for Early Childhood Education: Early Childhood Educators in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishigaki, Emiko

    This paper discusses the organization of early childhood education and preschool education in Japan and describes how teachers are trained for positions in these schools. It is noted that the organization of such education in Japan has undergone considerable change since the first kindergarten was established in 1877. At that time the curriculum…

  3. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  4. Language and Literacy in Early Childhood Education. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.

    As classrooms have become more culturally and linguistically diversified, the theories and methods of teaching reading to young children have changed. Early childhood educators must explore new methods of instruction in order to involve and expand the language abilities of young children and must provide engaging activities that will create more…

  5. The development of self-regulation across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Janelle J; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; McClelland, Megan M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2016-11-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and 7 years, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across 3 diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow 3 distinct developmental patterns of growth. These 3 trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds, with implications for offering individualized support across children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of three and seven, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across three diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow three distinct developmental patterns of growth. These three trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds with implications for offering individualized support across children. PMID:27709999

  7. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  8. Building Community Systems for Young Children: Early Childhood Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Stipek, Deborah; Inkelas, Moira; Kuo, Alice

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the importance and funding sources of early child care and education (ECE), and the ways in which the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative improves early childhood outcomes. Section I presents what is known about the importance of ECE, quality and access. Section II describes the current funding…

  9. Light Exposure and Eye Growth in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Collins, Michael J; Vincent, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured ambient light exposure and longitudinal changes in axial eye growth in childhood. A total of 101 children (41 myopes and 60 nonmyopes), 10 to 15 years of age participated in this prospective longitudinal observational study. Axial eye growth was determined from measurements of ocular optical biometry collected at four study visits over an 18-month period. Each child's mean daily light exposure was derived from two periods (each 14 days long) of objective light exposure measurements from a wrist-worn light sensor. Over the 18-month study period, a modest but statistically significant association between greater average daily light exposure and slower axial eye growth was observed (P = 0.047). Other significant predictors of axial eye growth in this population included children's refractive error group (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.01), and age (P < 0.001). Categorized according to their objectively measured average daily light exposure and adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, baseline axial length, parental myopia, nearwork, and physical activity), children experiencing low average daily light exposure (mean daily light exposure: 459 ± 117 lux, annual eye growth: 0.13 mm/y) exhibited significantly greater eye growth than children experiencing moderate (842 ± 109 lux, 0.060 mm/y), and high (1455 ± 317 lux, 0.065 mm/y) average daily light exposure levels (P = 0.01). In this population of children, greater daily light exposure was associated with less axial eye growth over an 18-month period. These findings support the role of light exposure in the documented association between time spent outdoors and childhood myopia.

  10. The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy and postpartum on growth and neurodevelopment in early childhood: Study Protocol for a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Kvestad, Ingrid; Shrestha, Merina; Ranjitkar, Suman; Basnet, Sudha; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Laxman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin B12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B12 status. Poor vitamin B12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. Methods and analysis The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio. A daily dose of 50 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo is given to women from early pregnancy, not later than week 15, until 6 months after birth. Weekly visits are conducted in order to record compliance, growth and morbidity. The primary outcomes are scores on the cognitive, language and motor subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, measured at 6 and 12 months of age, and growth (length and weight) measured at 6 and 12 months of age. Ethics and dissemination National Health and Research Council, Nepal (NHRC 253/2016) and Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics of Western Norway (2016/1620/REK vest) have approved the study. Investigators who have contributed to the conceptualising, conducting, as well as being involved in the data analyses and manuscript writing will be eligible for authorship and be responsible to share outcomes with different stakeholders through publications and workshops. The results from this study may support new dietary guidelines for Nepalese and possibly South Asian pregnant women that can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment and cognitive functioning in children. Trial registration number Universal Trial Number: U1111-1183-4093. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03071666. Protocol date: version 1.2, 1 June 2017. PMID:28851784

  11. Fetal Growth and Neurobehavioral Outcomes in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Pinka; Lahiri, Kajal; Kim, Dohyung

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of sibling pairs from a nationally representative U.S. survey, we examine the effects of the fetal growth rate on a set of neurobehavioral outcomes in childhood measured by parent-reported diagnosed developmental disabilities and behavior problems. Based on models that include mother fixed effects, we find that the fetal growth rate, a marker for the fetal environment, is negatively associated with lifetime diagnosis of developmental delay. We also find that the fetal growth rate is negatively associated with disruptive behaviors among male children. These results suggest that developmental disabilities and problem behaviors may play a role in explaining the well-documented association between birth weight and human capital outcomes measured in adulthood. PMID:25464342

  12. The hierarchical structure of childhood personality in five countries: continuity from early childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Slobodskaya, Helena R; Mar, Raymond A; Deal, James; Halverson, Charles F; Baker, Spencer R; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Besevegis, Elias

    2012-08-01

    Childhood personality is a rapidly growing area of investigation within individual differences research. One understudied topic is the universality of the hierarchical structure of childhood personality. In the present investigation, parents rated the personality characteristics of 3,751 children from 5 countries and 4 age groups. The hierarchical structure of childhood personality was examined for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-factor models across country (Canada, China, Greece, Russia, and the United States) and age group (3-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years of age). Many similarities were noted across both country and age. The Five-Factor Model was salient beginning in early childhood (ages 3-5). Deviations across groups and from adult findings are noted, including the prominent role of antagonism in childhood personality and the high covariation between Conscientiousness and intellect. Future directions, including the need for more explicit attempts to merge temperament and personality models, are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  14. First Steps: Stories on Inclusion in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication presents papers from 13 nations that describe the integration of children with disabilities into early childhood education programs. The compilation of case studies will serve as a reference document for the International Consultation on Early Childhood Education and Special Educational Needs, organized by UNESCO in collaboration…

  15. Evidence-Based Practices: Providing Guidance for Early Childhood Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Kristin S.; Brock, Matthew E.; Winterbottom, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education represents a pivotal opportunity to improve the developmental trajectories of young children, and evidence-based practices (EBPs) are scientifically proven to improve these outcomes. Furthermore, federal law mandates that early childhood practitioners implement EBPs. However, because EBP has not been clearly defined in…

  16. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  17. Delegation: Win-Win Strategies for Managing Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the Australian Early Childhood Association Research in Practice Series provides staff management strategies for directors and others involved with the management of early childhood settings and suggests ways to effectively delegate authority and tasks in order to reduce administrative pressures and workload. The booklet presents…

  18. Building on People's Strengths: Early Childhood in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ruth; And Others

    This report describes early childhood development (ECD) in Africa and the Bernard van Leer Foundation's strategies for early childhood programs in African nations. Chapter 1 examines the context in which Africa's children are growing up, focusing on the hardships that many children face, as well as the efforts made by families, communities, and…

  19. Teaching Practices that Promote Motor Skills in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…

  20. What's Happening with Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eileen; Willoughby, Teena; Specht, Jacqueline

    1998-01-01

    This in-depth survey of 75 early-childhood-education directors examined the current status of computer use in early childhood education (ECE). Results suggest that training may be necessary to facilitate the introduction of computers in ECE environments. (Author/LRW)

  1. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  2. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  3. A Politics of Imperceptibilities, Possibilities and Early Childhood Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that a range of "hidden" or "less tangible" aspects of early childhood practice play an important part in early childhood practice. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this existing research literature by identifying some of the complex ways that less tangible aspects…

  4. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  5. Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices in an Early Childhood Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…

  6. Creative Construction of Mathematics and Science Concepts in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallenstein, Nancy L.

    Noting that effective teaching models that emphasize critical thinking in mathematics and science are used less often in early childhood classrooms than in those for older students, this book provides early childhood educators with an explanation of teaching models that promote 3- to 8-year-olds critical thinking, problem solving, decision making,…

  7. "I Have a Hippopotamus!": Preparing Effective Early Childhood Environmental Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia; Leeper-Miller, Jennifer; Hamel, Erin; Hong, Soo-Young; Sarver, Susan; Rupiper, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood teacher-preparation program that infuses environmental education and nature experiences into courses, practicum, and student-teaching experiences. Program philosophy, pedagogy, materials, and methods are described and linked to the Early Childhood Environmental Education Programs: Guidelines for…

  8. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  9. Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

  10. Renovating Early Childhood Education Pedagogy: A Case Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thao, Dang Phuong; Boyd, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Vietnamese government has prioritised curriculum reform efforts and commitment to improving the quality of the national curriculum. The Vietnamese early childhood education renovation has encountered considerable changes and challenges, particularly in the area of pedagogical approaches. Many early childhood teachers continue to…

  11. Perspectives on Early Childhood Education in Egypt and Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Beblawi, Viola F.

    Early childhood education is rooted in the Arab culture. Of particular importance for the implementation of early childhood education is the academic psycho-educational movement in the Arab world (initiated by Tsmail El Kabani and Dr. Abel Aziz El Koussy), which began in the 1920s. This movement, combined with rapid social change (including the…

  12. Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James A.; And Others

    Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…

  13. 2005 Workforce Study: Ohio Early Childhood Centers. General Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneburner, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the current workforce in early childhood. This report highlights key characteristics of the 2005 early childhood center workforce in Ohio. Survey packets were sent to 3.600 randomly selected centers in April 2005, representing centers licensed by the Ohio Department of Job and…

  14. Parents, Participation, Partnership: Problematising New Zealand Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…

  15. Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education: Issues, Challenges, Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…

  16. Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

  17. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  18. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  19. Workforce Development in Early Childhood Education and Care. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care industry in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one on child care only. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This research overview describes the…

  20. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  1. Aesthetic Discourses in Early Childhood Settings: Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Booyeun

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…

  2. Historical and Contemporary Evaluations of Early Childhood Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers continue to be interested in the evaluation of early childhood education programmes, their interventions, and the implementation of different types of evaluation. Their interest continues to increase and attract other researchers. In understanding the nature and appropriate use of evaluation in early childhood education and the basis…

  3. Making the Case for Early Childhood Investments: Three Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, vice president of The World Bank, introduces a World Bank report, "Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation". This report, which is a must for inclusion in every advocate's make the case for investing in early childhood services. It defines three arguments…

  4. Child Abuse and Its Implications for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gootman, Marilyn E.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses how schools can facilitate the normal development of young abused/neglected children; examines how research can provide schools with the sensitivity and tools for accomplishing this task; and addresses the early childhood curriculum, the treatment of dysfunctional behavior, and the role of the early childhood teacher. (CR)

  5. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  6. Dominant Discourses of Teachers in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, H. B.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dominant discourses teachers in early childhood education (ECE) used to produce understandings of children and educational practice for them. Seven teachers from two early childhood centres in urban KwaZulu-Natal participated in this qualitative study. Data were produced through semi-structured interviews and…

  7. Writing and Publishing Qualitative Studies in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    When a study is published in a respected professional journal, it not only verifies that the research has been completed but also that it has been subjected to anonymous peer review. Published results from studies in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge and provide direction to guide future early childhood education…

  8. Praxis in Early Childhood Research with Infants and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Andi

    2017-01-01

    As emerging literature reflects, "praxis" is an important and useful concept for thinking about the many aspects of early childhood education (ECE) and early childhood research. In this article, I seek to contribute to discussions about praxis in ECE as a valuable concept for meeting the ethical challenges that arise in participatory…

  9. Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…

  10. Stress in Early Childhood: Helping Children and Their Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    This book offers practical and effective strategies for stress management for both early childhood staff and the children in their care. Here, the author uncovers valuable insights into the causes of stress and outlines a range of activities to counteract it. Early childhood practitioners know that theirs is both a stressful and rewarding…

  11. Recent Trends and Innovations in the Early Childhood Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Examines recent trends in early childhood education practice: the education of all children in inclusive classes, the management of vertical and horizontal transitions, the emergence of early childhood education and care programs, the development of school-family-community partnerships, the emphasis on language learning and emergent literacy, the…

  12. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  13. Early Childhood Folio 3: A Collection of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Judith, Ed.; Podmore, Valerie, Ed.

    This booklet is a collection of articles addressing current issues in early childhood education. The first article, "Would You Like to Pack Away Now?: Improving the Quality of Talk in Early Childhood Programs," (Laurie Makin) addresses how teachers talk to children. The second article, "Persistence When It's Difficult: A Disposition…

  14. An Evaluation of Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblin, Sherry R.

    2013-01-01

    Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) has been linked to increased teacher competence and efficacy, as well as increased social skills and decreased challenging behaviors for participating children (Green, 2009). Partnerships for Early Childhood Mental Health ("Partnerships") is an ECMHC program in Southeastern Ohio. This…

  15. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  16. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  17. Before Five: Early Childhood Care and Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Zealand Dept. of Education, Wellington.

    This publication outlines the Government of New Zealand's new plans and policies for the administration of early childhood care and education. Specific features are discussed in detail in sections concerning: (1) early childhood care and education at the local level, specifically management structures and responsibilities, the use of Crown land,…

  18. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  19. Taiwanese Model of Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was employed in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood education in Taiwan could be summarized as: (1) The…

  20. Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This review of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in twenty OECD countries describes the social, economic, conceptual and research factors that influence early childhood policy. These include increasing women's labour market participation; reconciling work and family responsibilities on a more equitable basis for women; confronting the…

  1. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  2. Early Childhood Socialization: Societal Context and Childrearing Values in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brayfield, April; Korintus, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural context of early childhood socialization in Hungary. Using a macroscopic lens, we describe the national demographic situation and the social organization of early childhood education and care. Our analysis then shifts to a microscopic focus on parental values and beliefs about the substance of what young…

  3. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…

  4. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  5. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungok R.

    2016-01-01

    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  6. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2015-01-01

    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  7. Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2013-01-01

    Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

  8. The Worldwide Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Education, 1985-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotipka, Christine Min; Rabling, Brenda Jarillo; Sugawara, Minako; Tongliemnak, Pumsaran

    2017-01-01

    Although early childhood care and education (ECCE) enrollments have expanded significantly around the world since the 1960s, little is known about the economic, social, and cultural drivers explaining this growth. Using country fixed effects and a sample of 117 countries, this study explores three predictors framing the growth of ECCE enrollments…

  9. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  10. Early childhood caries in Indigenous communities

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, JD; Holve, S; Krol, D; Schroth, R

    2011-01-01

    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) and the United States (American Indian and Alaska Native) is a major child health issue. This is exemplified by the high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) with resulting adverse health effects, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. The present statement includes recommendations for oral health preventive and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial. PMID:22654547

  11. Early childhood caries in indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    The oral health of Indigenous children of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) and the United States (American Indian, Alaska Native) is a major child health issue: there is a high prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and resulting adverse health effects in this community, as well as high rates and costs of restorative and surgical treatments under general anesthesia. ECC is an infectious disease that is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic determinants, and requires a combination of approaches for improvement. This statement includes recommendations for preventive oral health and clinical care for young infants and pregnant women by primary health care providers, community-based health-promotion initiatives, oral health workforce and access issues, and advocacy for community water fluoridation and fluoride-varnish program access. Further community-based research on the epidemiology, prevention, management, and microbiology of ECC in Indigenous communities would be beneficial.

  12. The effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy and postpartum on growth and neurodevelopment in early childhood: Study Protocol for a Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Kvestad, Ingrid; Shrestha, Merina; Ranjitkar, Suman; Basnet, Sudha; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Laxman; Strand, Tor A

    2017-08-29

    Vitamin B 12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B 12 status. Poor vitamin B 12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio. A daily dose of 50 µg of vitamin B 12 or placebo is given to women from early pregnancy, not later than week 15, until 6 months after birth. Weekly visits are conducted in order to record compliance, growth and morbidity. The primary outcomes are scores on the cognitive, language and motor subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, measured at 6 and 12 months of age, and growth (length and weight) measured at 6 and 12 months of age. National Health and Research Council, Nepal (NHRC 253/2016) and Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics of Western Norway (2016/1620/REK vest) have approved the study. Investigators who have contributed to the conceptualising, conducting, as well as being involved in the data analyses and manuscript writing will be eligible for authorship and be responsible to share outcomes with different stakeholders through publications and workshops. The results from this study may support new dietary guidelines for Nepalese and possibly South Asian pregnant women that can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment and cognitive functioning in children. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1183-4093. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03071666. Protocol date: version 1.2, 1 June 2017. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  13. Connecting Emergent Curriculum and Standards in the Early Childhood Classroom: Strengthening Content and Teaching Practice. Early Childhood Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sydney L.; Copeland, Sherry M.

    2010-01-01

    The most pressing challenge in early childhood education today is to find a way to meet the standards within a developmentally appropriate approach. In this book, two active early childhood educators provide teachers with resources to bring content alive and document it in every-day, action-based pre-K and Kindergarten classrooms. The book…

  14. Meeting the Challenge of Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in Early Childhood Education. Yearbook in Early Childhood Education Series, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others

    Geared toward early childhood educators, reading and writing teachers, bilingual and English as a Second Language teachers, and to courses in these fields, this yearbook examines the issues of linguistic and cultural diversity in early childhood programs. Following an introduction (Eugene Garcia and Barry McLaughlin) on the cultural context…

  15. Generating Visionary Policy for Early Childhood Education and Care: Politicians' and Early Childhood Sector Advocate/Activists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…

  16. Guiding Principles for the New Early Childhood Professional: Building on Strength and Competence. Early Childhood Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Valora; Gadson, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    With growing evidence about the critical period of birth to age 5 for child development and learning, the imperative to professionalize the early childhood education workforce has never been greater. In this follow-up to "The New Early Childhood Professional: A Step-By-Step Guide to Overcoming Goliath", the authors share lessons learned…

  17. Impact of Culture Context on Perceptions of Arab and Jewish Early Childhood Education Students Regarding Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimet, Gila Russo; Gilat, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    The study examined intuitive perceptions of early childhood education students regarding education and care of children from birth to age 3 in Jewish and Arab societies. Research included 182 education students majoring in early childhood at three Israeli colleges. Data were collected via a questionnaire covering five topics: What is the most…

  18. Frequency of Six Early Childhood Education Approaches: A 10-Year Content Analysis of Early Childhood Education Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Petty, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of early childhood education approaches spanning 10 years of publications was investigated. A content analysis of publications (N = 492) from "Early Childhood Education Journal" was conducted. From a previous content analysis six approaches or search words were identified: Bank Street, Head Start, High/Scope, Montessori, Reggio…

  19. Documenting with Early Childhood Education Teachers: Pedagogical Documentation as a Tool for Developing Early Childhood Pedagogy and Practises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintakorpi, Kati

    2016-01-01

    The Finnish social pedagogical curriculum for early childhood education directs early childhood teachers to use documentation to assess and develop pedagogy and practise. This empirical study examines the challenges and benefits a group of Finnish preschool teachers experienced when they learned to document their work. Although the idea of…

  20. Building Competency for Providers in the Early Childhood Mental Health Field: An Early Childhood Mental Health Endorsement®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Nichole; Eidson, Faith; Weatherston, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Early Childhood Mental Health Endorsement® (ECMH-E®) offers a credential for those whose work with or on behalf of children 3-6 years old and their families is informed by infant and early childhood mental health principles. Those who have earned ECMH-E demonstrate completion of specialized education, work, in-service training, and reflective…

  1. Early childhood linear growth faltering in low-income and middle-income countries as a whole-population condition: analysis of 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 countries (1993-2015).

    PubMed

    Roth, Daniel E; Krishna, Aditi; Leung, Michael; Shi, Joy; Bassani, Diego G; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-12-01

    The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015). Mean, standard deviation (SD), fifth percentiles, and 95th percentiles of the HAZ distribution were estimated for each age interval in each survey. Associations between mean HAZ and SD, fifth percentile, and 95th percentile were estimated using multilevel linear models. Stratified analyses were performed in consideration of potential modifiers (world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band). We also used Monte Carlo simulations to model the effects of subgroup versus whole-population faltering on the HAZ distribution. Declines in mean HAZ from birth to 3 years of age were accompanied by declines in both the fifth and 95th percentiles, leading to nearly symmetrical narrowing of the HAZ distributions. Thus, children with relatively low HAZ were not more likely to have faltered than taller same-age peers. Inferences were unchanged in surveys regardless of world region, national income, sample size, year, or mean HAZ in the 0-3 month age band. Simulations showed that the narrowing of the HAZ distribution as mean HAZ declined could not be explained by faltering limited to a growth-restricted subgroup of children. In low-income and middle-income countries, declines in mean HAZ with age are due to a downward shift in the entire HAZ distribution, revealing that children across the HAZ spectrum experience slower growth compared to

  2. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Laura; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Fisher, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic and home environmental predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood, and to examine whether effects were mediated by the timing of bedtime or wake time. Methods Participants were from Gemini, a British birth cohort of twins, and included 1702 children; one randomly selected from each twin pair. Parents reported night-time sleep duration at an average age of 15.8 months (range 14–27 months) using a modified version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of shorter sleep for this study. Results Using a cut-off of <11 h a night, shorter sleep was reported in 14.1% of children. Lower maternal education, non-white ethnic background, being male, low birth weight, living in a home with >1 older child and watching >1 h of TV in the evening were independently associated with shorter sleep. Mediation analyses showed that associations between education, ethnicity, evening TV viewing and sleep were driven predominantly by later bedtimes, while sex differences were driven predominantly by earlier wake times in boys. Conclusion In this sample, multiple environmental factors were associated with shorter sleep in young children, with several operating predominantly through later bedtime. An emphasis on the importance of an early and consistent bedtime could help promote healthy sleep and reduce inequalities in child health. PMID:24726571

  3. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047

  5. Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

  6. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Economic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia

  7. Assessment in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education: Building on the Past to Project into Our Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses three future directions of early childhood assessment: attention to assessment of progress and growth, adaptation of methods typically associated with ecobehavioral research to assess environmental conditions that affect performance, and continued integration and linkage of assessment and intervention, which will yield more…

  8. Childhood growth and chronic disease: evidence from countries undergoing the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Stein, Aryeh D; Thompson, Angela M; Waters, Ashley

    2005-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the pattern of growth in childhood is associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood, but such evidence comes mostly from developed countries. We conducted a review of studies from countries undergoing the nutrition transition. Five birth cohorts with measures of child growth and outcomes through adolescence were identified, from China, India, Guatemala, Brazil and the Philippines. Across studies there are major differences in data availability and in statistical approaches to modelling child growth and its effects. Nevertheless, generally consistent associations of growth failure in early childhood and development of overweight in later childhood with the risk of elevated blood pressure, glucose, and serum lipids in adulthood were observed. As these cohorts mature they will provide a wealth of critical information on the relation between early life factors and later disease risk, and efforts should be made to ensure ongoing follow-up using standardized approaches and more comprehensive assessments.

  9. Early Childhood Educators' Perceived and Actual Metalinguistic Knowledge, Beliefs and Enacted Practice about Teaching Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…

  10. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

  12. Early childhood numeracy in a multiage setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Karen; Frid, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    This research is a case study examining numeracy teaching and learning practices in an early childhood multiage setting with Pre-Primary to Year 2 children. Data were collected via running records, researcher reflection notes, and video and audio recordings. Video and audio transcripts were analysed using a mathematical discourse and social interactions coding system designed by MacMillan (1998), while the running records and reflection notes contributed to descriptions of the children's interactions with each other and with the teachers. Teachers used an `assisted performance' approach to instruction that supported problem solving and inquiry processes in mathematics activities, and this, combined with a child-centred pedagogy and specific values about community learning, created a learning environment designed to stimulate and foster learning. The mathematics discourse analysis showed a use of explanatory language in mathematics discourse, and this language supported scaffolding among children for new mathematics concepts. These and other interactions related to peer sharing, tutoring and regulation also emerged as key aspects of students' learning practices. However, the findings indicated that multiage grouping alone did not support learning. Rather, effective learning was dependent upon the teacher's capacities to develop productive discussion among children, as well as implement developmentally appropriate curricula that addressed the needs of the different children.

  13. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2009-10-08

    House - 11/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2013-02-27

    House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Universal Prekindergarten and Early Childhood Education Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2011-11-17

    House - 03/29/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Early Childhood Education Professional Improvement Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meng, Grace [D-NY-6

    2013-10-28

    House - 01/22/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Fetal growth and risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Tedner, S G; Örtqvist, A K; Almqvist, C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early genetic and environmental factors have been discussed as potential causes for the high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in the western world, and knowledge on fetal growth and its consequence on future health and disease development is emerging. Objective This review article is an attempt to summarize research on fetal growth and risk of asthma and allergic disease. Current knowledge and novel findings will be reviewed and open research questions identified, to give basic scientists, immunologists and clinicians an overview of an emerging research field. Methods PubMed-search on pre-defined terms and cross-references. Results Several studies have shown a correlation between low birth weight and/or gestational age and asthma and high birth weight and/or gestational age and atopy. The exact mechanism is not yet clear but both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to fetal growth. Some of these factors are confounders that can be adjusted for, and twin studies have been very helpful in this context. Suggested mechanisms behind fetal growth are often linked to the feto-maternal circulation, including the development of placenta and umbilical cord. However, the causal link between fetal growth restriction and subsequent asthma and allergic disease remains unexplained. New research regarding the catch-up growth following growth restriction has posited an alternative theory that diseases later on in life result from rapid catch-up growth rather than intrauterine growth restriction per se. Several studies have found a correlation between a rapid weight gain after birth and development of asthma or wheezing in childhood. Conclusion and clinical relevance Asthma and allergic disease are multifactorial. Several mechanisms seem to influence their development. Additional studies are needed before we fully understand the causal links between fetal growth and development of asthma and allergic diseases. PMID:22994341

  19. Tensions in Incorporating Global Childhood with Early Childhood Programs: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Hasina

    2012-01-01

    Global childhood as a concept privileges western ideals of how young children experience growing up, how adults educate them, and how priorities are set for them. Ways of knowing and doing early childhood are backed by Euro-American knowledge, international conventions and scientific evidence which gives a semblance of the truths for intervening…

  20. Greek In-Service and Preservice Teachers' Views about Bullying in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psalti, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the plethora of studies regarding bullying worldwide, there are limited studies at the early childhood level. This article presents the results of a pilot study aiming at exploring preservice and in-service early childhood teachers' views on bullying in Greek early childhood settings. A total of 192 early childhood teachers completed a…

  1. Payment in Heaven: Can Early Childhood Education Policies Help Women Too?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…

  2. Precision Dentistry in Early Childhood: The Central Role of Genomics.

    PubMed

    Divaris, Kimon

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric oral health is determined by the interaction of environmental factors and genetic influences. This is the case for early childhood caries, the most common disease of childhood. The complexity of exogenous-environmental factors interacting with innate biological predispositions results in a continuum of normal variation, as well as oral health and disease outcomes. Optimal oral health and care or precision dentistry warrants comprehensive understanding of these influences and tools enabling intervention on modifiable factors. This article reviews the current knowledge of the genomic basis of pediatric oral health and highlights known and postulated mechanistic pathways of action relevant to early childhood caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interpersonal Callousness from Childhood to Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories and Early Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2018-01-01

    Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.

  4. Building Partnerships: The Role of Nonprofit Organizations in Supporting Education Diplomacy in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilhou, Rebecca; Rose, Brittney; Eckhoff, Angela; Glasgow, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations providing early childhood services that support the healthy growth, development, and education of young children and their families have a unique relationship with communities. In order to have significant impact on quality of life, these programs must be sustainable and committed to meeting local needs. This article…

  5. Utilizing Field Experiences in an Early Childhood Center To Increase Competencies in Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Alfred L.

    The director of career education and coordinator of the department of human growth and development at a private college implemented a practicum designed to expand the knowledge level of early childhood students in teacher training by requiring that they participate in the college's day care center. The primary purpose of the practicum was to…

  6. The Transition between the Phenotypes of Prader-Willi Syndrome during Infancy and Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jill V.; Whittington, Joyce E.; Holland, Anthony J.; McAllister, Catherine J.; Goldstone, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder historically characterized by two phenotypic stages. The early phenotype in infants is associated with hypotonia, poor suck, and failure to thrive. In later childhood, PWS is associated with intellectual disability, hyperphagia, as well as growth and sex hormone deficiency. Little is known…

  7. A Talent Development Approach to Assessing Pre-Service Performance in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Susan M.; Hatch, J. Amos

    2004-01-01

    A team of early childhood teacher education faculty developed the 3-D talent development model of teacher education, blending theory and research from many sources. These sources include research on talent development, nonuniversal development, and roles of teachers and their professional growth. The faculty integrated constructs from these…

  8. Early Language Impairments and Developmental Pathways of Emotional Problems across Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh Kok Yew, Shaun; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Language impairments are associated with an increased likelihood of emotional difficulties later in childhood or adolescence, but little is known about the impact of LI on the growth of emotional problems. Aims: To examine the link between early language status (language impaired (LI), typical language (TL)) and the pattern and…

  9. Exploring Diversity: Reflections Ten Years On. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurch, Pam; Hopson, Elizabeth

    This booklet reflects the past 10 year's thoughts and experiences and presents the current debate concerning multicultural early childhood education, as experienced by the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The booklet describes how the center experienced the satisfying process of change and growth with such a program…

  10. Integrating Early Childhood Education in a Health Program: An Example from El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisova, Ivelina; Coddington, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood years (conception to age 8) are not only the most critical time for human growth but also for development and learning. Neurological and behavioral scientists document how inadequate stimulation and interactions can disrupt basic neural circuitry and cause long-term challenges for child's cognitive development. Yet, despite the…

  11. A Multilevel Study of Partnership Building to Support Early Childhood Development across Different Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Ortiz, Theresa; Maier, Roland; Navarro, Diana

    2015-01-01

    First five years are identified as a critical period of child growth in scientific literature. In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 10 that appropriated a 50 cent per pack tax on cigarettes and other tobacco products to support early childhood development. As a result, Kern County Children and Families Commission administered over $10…

  12. "Old, Borrowed, and Renewed": A Review of Early Childhood Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Octarra, Harla Sara; Hendriati, Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) is not new in Indonesia. However, in the past decade, it has received more attention, as shown by the growing number of ECE centres in both urban and rural areas. This growth is accompanied by policy development that corresponds to the global agenda of ECE. Policy development is inevitably linked with the support of…

  13. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  14. EARLY CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS OF LOW-INCOME BOYS' PATHWAYS TO ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND EARLY ADULTHOOD.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Gilliam, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys' early starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current article reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from Women, Infants, and Children Nutrition Supplement centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood and a smaller cohort of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, and court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in healthcare settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Early Childhood Predictors of Low-Income Boys’ Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Gilliam, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Guided by a bridging model of pathways leading to low-income boys’ early-starting and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior, the current paper reviews evidence supporting the model from early childhood through early adulthood. Using primarily a cohort of 310 low-income boys of families recruited from WIC centers in a large metropolitan area followed from infancy to early adulthood, and smaller cohorts of boys and girls followed through early childhood, we provide evidence supporting the critical role of parenting, maternal depression, and other proximal family risk factors in early childhood that are prospectively linked to trajectories of parent-reported conduct problems in early and middle childhood, youth-reported antisocial behavior during adolescence and early adulthood, as well as court-reported violent offending in adolescence. The findings are discussed in terms of the need to identify at-risk boys in early childhood and methods and platforms for engaging families in health care settings not previously used to implement preventive mental health services. PMID:28026042

  16. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Murcia, Mario; Bolumar, Francisco; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference. After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.9 g) heavier and 0.47 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86 cm) longer than those in the lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.013, respectively). Women with the highest AHEI scores had a significantly lower risk of delivering a fetal growth-restricted infant for weight (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55; P for trend = 0.001) than did women in the lowest quintile, but this was not the case for fetal growth restriction in length (P for trend = 0.538) or head circumference (P for trend = 0.070). A high-quality diet in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with birth size and the risk of fetal growth restriction.

  18. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678

  19. Where Are the Early Years of School in Contemporary Early Childhood Education Reforms? An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…

  20. Course of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder From Early Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine L; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2018-05-01

    Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is poorly understood beyond early childhood. The course of DSED signs in a sample of children who experienced severe, early deprivation from early childhood to early adolescence was examined using variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. The study included 124 children with a history of institutional care from a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care and 69 community comparison children matched by age and sex. DSED signs were assessed at baseline (mean age 22 months), 30, 42, and 54 months of age, and 8 and 12 years of age using a validated caregiver report of disturbed attachment behavior. Variable-centered analyses based on intent-to-treat groups indicated that signs of DSED decreased sharply for children randomized to foster care and decreased slightly but remained high for children randomized to care as usual. Person-centered analyses showed 4 profiles (i.e., elevated, persistent modest, early decreasing, and minimal). Elevated and persistent modest courses were associated with greater placement disruptions (F 3,99  = 4.29, p = .007, partial eta-squared [η 2 ] = 0.12), older age at placement into foster care (F 3,56  = 3.41, p < .05, partial η 2  = 0.16), and more time in institutional care (F 3,115  = 11.91, p < .001, partial η 2  = 0.24) compared with decreasing and minimal courses. Early and sustained placement into families after deprivation is associated with minimal or decreasing signs of DSED across development. Shortening the amount of time children spend in institutions and preserving placements could help decrease signs of DSED into early adolescence in previously institutionalized children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Takara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is challenging, in large part due to the lack of a true gold standard and the relatively poor performance of available diagnostic testing. This review discusses recent literature on this topic. Recent Findings Auxology and clinical judgment remain the foundation for the diagnosis of GHD. Provocative GH testing is poorly reproducible, dependent on factors such as body composition and pubertal status, and further limited by significant variability among commercially available GH assays. Measurement of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 is not diagnostically useful in isolation but is helpful in combination with other diagnostic measures. Neuroimaging is also useful to inform diagnosis, as pituitary abnormalities suggest a higher likelihood of GHD persisting into adulthood. Although genetic testing is not routinely performed in the diagnosis of GHD at the present time, multiple recent reports raise the possibility that it may play a more important role in diagnosing GHD in the future. Summary Beyond physicians’ integrated assessment of auxology, clinical presentation, and bone age, current tools to diagnose GHD are sub-optimal. Recent literature emphasizes the need to reappraise our current practice and to consider new tools for diagnosis. PMID:22157400

  2. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong

    2017-04-01

    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences and growth-related adaptations in bone microarchitecture, geometry, density and strength from childhood to early adulthood: a mixed longitudinal HR-pQCT study

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M.; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in bone strength and fracture risk are well-documented. However, we know little about bone strength accrual during growth and adaptations in bone microstructure, density and geometry that accompany gains in bone strength. Thus, our objectives are to 1) describe growth related adaptations in bone microarchitecture, geometry, density and strength at the distal tibia and radius in boys and girls; 2) compare differences in adaptations in bone microarchitecture, geometry, density and strength between boys and girls. We used HR-pQCT at the distal tibia (8% site) and radius (7% site) in 184 boys and 209 girls (9–20y at baseline). We aligned boys and girls on a common maturational landmark (age at peak height velocity; APHV) and fit a mixed effects model to these longitudinal data. Importantly, boys demonstrated 28–63% greater estimated bone strength across 12 years of longitudinal growth. Boys demonstrated 28–80% more porous cortices compared with girls at both sites across all biological ages, except at the radius at 9 years post-APHV. However, cortical density was similar between boys and girls at all ages at both sites, except at 9 years post-APHV at the tibia when girls’ values were 2% greater than boys’. Boys demonstrated 13–48% greater cortical and total bone area across growth. Load-to-strength ratio was 26–27% lower in boys at all ages, indicating lower risk of distal forearm fracture compared with girls. Contrary to previous HR-pQCT studies that did not align boys and girls at the same biological age, we did not observe sex differences in Ct.BMD. Boys’ superior bone size and strength compared with girls may confer them a protective advantage. However, boys’ consistently more porous cortices may contribute to boys’ higher fracture incidence during adolescence. Large prospective studies using HR-pQCT that target boys and girls who have sustained a fracture are needed to verify this. PMID:27556581

  4. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  5. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  6. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  7. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  8. In-Service and Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about ICT Use in Early Childhood Settings: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

    2010-01-01

    This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…

  9. Investigating Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about Integrating and Using Computers in Early Childhood Settings: Compilation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…

  10. Early Childhood Development and Iranian Parents' Knowledge: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Elham; Sajedi, Firouzeh; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Shahshahanipour, Soheila; Glascoe, Frances Page

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016. The purposive sampling method is utilized to select 24 participants among parents and grandparents in Tehran. The inclusion criteria consisted of speaking in Persian and having a child or grandchild <3-year-old. Data were collected through four focus group discussions and four individual interviews. Iranian parental knowledge about integrative ECD is not enough, their knowledge about motor development and speech and language are relatively better, about cognitive development is little and socialemotional is very little. They said parents and other caregivers influence the process of children's development. Parents' knowledge resources about ECD included human resources, physical resources, virtual space, and the media. According to the majority of participants, "pediatricians are the most reliable source of parents' knowledge about ECD" even though the main focus of pediatricians is on treating diseases, physical health, and growth of children. According to the results, the knowledge of Iranian parent is not enough about ECD; therefore, actions must be taken to increase their knowledge in these domains. Parents look for reliable and valid sources to enhance their knowledge and they rely the most on pediatricians in this regard. Therefore, more studies on assessing parents' knowledge in community and the practical methods for knowledge promotion in this field is recommended.

  11. Leadership Competencies in U.S. Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education Service Systems: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; LaRocco, Diana J.; Sharp, Olga L.; Sopko, Kim Moherek

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children released a position statement on leadership in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). Division for Early Childhood emphasized the importance of developing and supporting high-quality leadership within and across all levels of EI/ECSE…

  12. Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sarah L.; Scholnick, Ellin K.; Bender, Randall H.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Spieker, Susan; Pasek, Kathy Hirsh; Keating, Daniel P.; Park, Yoonjung

    2014-01-01

    Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when…

  13. Principle-Centered Leadership in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Victoria; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Corkwell, Connie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of any early childhood setting is the quality of its leadership. Leaders set the tone and are critical to the development of a nurturing environment that supports families and staff, who then encourage children to flourish. A principle-centered leadership approach is an effective model for early childhood…

  14. Handwriting in Early Childhood Education: Current Research and Future Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura H.

    2015-01-01

    Early fine motor writing skills are quickly becoming recognized as an important school readiness skill associated with later academic success (Dinehart and Manfra, 2013; Grissmer et al., 2010; Son and Meisels, 2006). Yet, little is known about the development of handwriting, the extent to which it is of value in the early childhood classroom and…

  15. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  16. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  17. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  18. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  19. Investing in Early Childhood Education: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. S.; Nores, M.

    2012-01-01

    The last several decades have seen growing global interest in the potential for public investments in early childhood care and education (ECCE) to improve the development of young children, especially those from socially disadvantaged groups. This interest is based on evidence of the importance of environmental influences on early cognitive and…

  20. Preparing Speech Language Pathology Students to Work in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Moore, Heather W.; Squires, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of highly qualified speech language pathologists (SLPs) with specialized training in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) is a pressing issue facing the field and dramatically impacts young children's social and academic success. SLP personnel preparation programs focused on training specialists in…

  1. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  2. Hide and Seek: Values in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sacha

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education and care settings in England and the people who work in them constitute an important sphere of influence, shaping young children's characters and values. But the values and dispositions expected of the early years workforce are missing from statutory policy documentation despite its clear requirement that practitioners…

  3. Guidance Every Day: A Helping Manual for Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Richard; And Others

    Intended to help early childhood educators examine ways in which guidance can be infused into daily instruction, this manual aims to enable teachers to act as facilitators in the guidance process without adding a new assignment to an already busy schedule. Section A describes the integration of five guidance strands into the early childhood…

  4. Staff Training Tips: Focusing on Early Childhood Education and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document collects 15 brief guides to staff training in inclusive early childhood education settings. Guides offer examples of successful programs, research findings, and practical tips. Titles are: (1) "Giving Families Better Access to Early Intervention Services"; (2) "Creating Integrated Classrooms that Work"; (3) "Seamless Transition…

  5. Early Childhood Care and Education: A Child Perspective Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Dion; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Hundeide, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    From research we know that there is no specific early childhood education programme that is superior to other approaches (National Research Council. 2001). At the same time, historically it looks like people think there is a specific programme that will solve all problems and guarantee a high quality in early years education, since different…

  6. Understanding Early Childhood Mental Health: A Practical Guide for Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…

  7. Digital, Hybrid, and Multilingual Literacies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah

    2010-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…

  8. Building Quality Early Childhood Assessment: What Really Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ann Elise

    2017-01-01

    This research explored the knowledge, skills, and strategies early childhood teachers possess related to implementing curriculum and authentic assessment. Research suggests that early educators rate their knowledge of curriculum and authentic assessment and their implementation of both as excellent. Despite these self-reported, high levels of…

  9. Advocacy: The Early Childhood Historian's Not-So-Hidden Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranck, Edna Runnels

    To examine how knowledge of history and politics informs the early education and child care field, this paper identifies sources of historical knowledge and unexamined underlying presuppositions frequently held by early childhood professionals which, if allowed to remain unchallenged, contribute to professional burn-out, repeated frustration at…

  10. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  11. Early Childhood Services in AEAs: A Blueprint for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to facilitate discussion among decision makers at the Iowa Department of Education (DE), Area Education Agencies (AEAs) and local communities (including school districts) to establish early childhood priorities, and define the AEA role in the statewide efforts to build a strong early care, health, and education…

  12. Deconstructing Teacher Quality in Urban Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jemimah L.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Dolzhenko, Inna N.; Ardrey, Tameka N.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers' educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings.…

  13. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  14. Selecting "Just Right" Electronic Books for the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNelly, Tracy A.

    2018-01-01

    The effective use of e-books--now common in school libraries and classrooms--begins when teachers understand how to choose e-books that help to support emergent and early literacy skills for students in their early childhood classrooms.

  15. A Consumer's Guide To Outcomes in Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…

  16. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  17. Early Childhood Education in Ireland: Change and Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Rosaleen

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood care and education in Ireland has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, as a result of public concern about standards in some early years services. Services for children before they enter primary school are largely the responsibility of the department of health, while children in the formal school system are the…

  18. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  19. Children's Prenatal Exposure to Drugs: Implications for Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Phyllis K.; Chapman, J. Keith

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of drug use during pregnancy on early and later child development, the extent of women's drug use, and behavioral and learning characteristics of children prenatally exposed to drugs. Provides intervention guidelines for early childhood settings including children with prenatal drug exposure, focusing on recommendations for…

  20. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…

  1. Sensorimotor Analysis of Early Onset Childhood Psychosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, David; Voyat, Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Jean Piaget's theories about children's cognitive development are applied to the evaluation of childhood psychosis. Problems with the testing of such children are described, and results of a research project that used the Piaget-inspired Uzgiris and Hunt Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development to assess autistic children's cognitive processes…

  2. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  3. An assessment of early mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E F; L'Abbé, E N; Oettlé, A C

    2012-04-10

    Quantification of skeletal data has been shown to be an effective and reliable method of demonstrating variation in human growth as well as for monitoring and interpreting growth. In South Africa as well as internationally, few researchers have assessed mandibular growth in late fetal period and early childhood and therefore standards for growth and age determination in these groups are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth in the mandible from the period of 31 gestational weeks to 36 months postnatal. A total of 74 mandibles were used. Dried mandibles were sourced from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (University of Witwatersrand), and cadaveric remains were obtained from the Universities of Pretoria and the Witwatersrand. The sample was divided into four groups; 31-40 gestational weeks (group 1), 0-11 months (group 2), 12-24 months (group 3), and 25-36 months (group 4). Twenty-one osteological landmarks were digitized using a MicroScribe G2. Ten standard measurements were created and included: the maximum length of mandible, mandibular body length and width, mandibular notch width and depth, mental foramen to inferior border of mandible, mandibular basilar widths bigonial and biantegonial, bigonial width of mental foramen and mental angle. Data were analyzed using PAST statistical software and Morphologika2 v2.5. Statistically significant differences were noted in the linear measurements for all group comparisons except between groups 3 and 4. The mandible morphologically changed from a round, smooth contour anteriorly to adopt a more sharp and narrow adult shape. A progressive increase in the depth and definition of the mandibular arch was also noted. In conclusion, the mandible initially grows to accommodate the developing tongue (up to 11 months), progressive dental eruption and mastication from 12 to 36 months. Mastication is associated with muscle mass development; this would necessitate an increase in the dimensions of the mandibular notch

  4. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  5. Healthy Eating Index Is a Predictor of Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, M.E.; Braunstein, N.S.; Krall Kaye, E.A.; Dietrich, T.; Garcia, R.I.; Henshaw, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a preventable form of dental caries that affects very young children, particularly among low-income families and certain racial/ethnic minorities. The current study examined the relationship of dietary quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), to the prevalence of ECC in 2- to 5-year-old children. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used for the study. We used logistic regression to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR) for ECC and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Children with the best dietary practices (uppermost tertile of the HEI) were 44% less likely to exhibit severe ECC compared with children with the worst dietary practices (lowest tertile of the HEI). A healthy eating pattern geared for promotion of optimal child development and prevention of chronic disease in later life may also reduce the risk of early childhood caries, particularly severe early childhood caries. PMID:19407158

  6. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  7. Enabling Childhoods: A Unique Opportunity for Early Childhood in Armenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lata, Divya; Stepanyan, Anahit

    2013-01-01

    Despite reasonably high economic growth in recent years, many countries in the Central Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) region struggle to achieve high national standards to guarantee basic rights for all their citizens. Families with young children are particularly vulnerable and are often unable to provide a stable and…

  8. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  9. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  10. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity

  11. Early Childhood Educator Competencies: A Literature Review of Current Best Practices, and a Public Input Process on Next Steps for California. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, growing knowledge of the critical importance of early childhood development for lifelong learning and growth had led to increased calls for the professionalism of early childhood educators, including higher standards for their training and education. As part of this attention to professional development, many states are…

  12. Early Childhood Reform in Seven Communities: Front-Line Practice, Agency Management, and Public Policy. [Volume I: Final Technical Report.] Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Tom; And Others

    An era of substantial growth in investment of resources, program development, and research has led to tangible gains in the scope and quality of early childhood education programs. However, the system of early childhood education programs is plagued by unequal access and inconsistent, inadequate levels of quality. Additionally, the focus of…

  13. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  14. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p < .001) ranging from a high of 12.9 years in the oldest cohort (age 59 or older at the time of interview) to a low of 12.4 in the second youngest cohort (age 28-37). Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly

  15. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  16. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  17. Childhood growth, schooling, and cognitive development: further evidence from the Young Lives study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Rockers, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    A growing literature has linked early childhood growth to later-life cognition and schooling outcomes in developing countries. Although existing evidence suggests that children's ability to recover from early growth delays in later childhood is limited, longitudinal studies on the persistence and risk of growth faltering beyond age 5 y remain scarce. Using longitudinal data recently collected from 4 developing countries as part of the Young Lives study, we investigated catch-up growth in children between the ages of 8 and 15 y and the effects of growth during this late-childhood and early-adolescence period on schooling and developmental outcomes. We analyzed the associations between children's physical growth and development by using longitudinal data from 3327 children aged 8-15 y collected in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam as part of the Young Lives project. The study yielded 2 main results. First, 36% of children stunted at age 8 y managed to catch up with their peers by age 15 y, and those who caught up had smaller deficits in cognitive scores than did children who remained stunted. Second, physical growth faltering was not restricted to early childhood but rather affected a substantial share of children in the 8-15-y age range, with large negative consequences for cognition and schooling outcomes. The results from this study suggest that child development in developing countries is a dynamic process offering continued opportunities for children to catch up during adolescence and sustained risks for children to fall behind in their developmental trajectories. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    PubMed

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  19. Group-Based Modeling of Time Spent in Structured Activity Trajectories from Middle Childhood into Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of time spent in structured activities from middle childhood to early adolescence by using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. We used latent class growth analyses and identified five trajectories (stable low, increasing high, decreasing low,…

  20. Patterns of Growth and Decline in Lung Function in Persistent Childhood Asthma.

    PubMed

    McGeachie, M J; Yates, K P; Zhou, X; Guo, F; Sternberg, A L; Van Natta, M L; Wise, R A; Szefler, S J; Sharma, S; Kho, A T; Cho, M H; Croteau-Chonka, D C; Castaldi, P J; Jain, G; Sanyal, A; Zhan, Y; Lajoie, B R; Dekker, J; Stamatoyannopoulos, J; Covar, R A; Zeiger, R S; Adkinson, N F; Williams, P V; Kelly, H W; Grasemann, H; Vonk, J M; Koppelman, G H; Postma, D S; Raby, B A; Houston, I; Lu, Q; Fuhlbrigge, A L; Tantisira, K G; Silverman, E K; Tonascia, J; Weiss, S T; Strunk, R C

    2016-05-12

    Tracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow obstruction. We classified children with asthma according to four characteristic patterns of lung-function growth and decline on the basis of graphs showing forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), representing spirometric measurements performed from childhood into adulthood. Risk factors associated with abnormal patterns were also examined. To define normal values, we used FEV1 values from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not have asthma. Of the 684 study participants, 170 (25%) had a normal pattern of lung-function growth without early decline, and 514 (75%) had abnormal patterns: 176 (26%) had reduced growth and an early decline, 160 (23%) had reduced growth only, and 178 (26%) had normal growth and an early decline. Lower baseline values for FEV1, smaller bronchodilator response, airway hyperresponsiveness at baseline, and male sex were associated with reduced growth (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At the last spirometric measurement (mean [±SD] age, 26.0±1.8 years), 73 participants (11%) met Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease spirometric criteria for lung-function impairment that was consistent with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); these participants were more likely to have a reduced pattern of growth than a normal pattern (18% vs. 3%, P<0.001). Childhood impairment of lung function and male sex were the most significant predictors of abnormal longitudinal patterns of lung-function growth and decline. Children with persistent asthma and reduced growth of lung function are at increased risk for fixed airflow obstruction and possibly COPD in early adulthood. (Funded by the Parker B. Francis Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000575.).

  1. Early Childhood Education: Babies Are Everybody's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kitt

    2009-01-01

    A movement is building that favors creating a national network of high-quality early education and care systems that begin at birth. It makes sense. Promoting positive early learning experiences, healthy caregivers, and a connection between families and community resources can reverse rising rates of expulsion, high school dropouts, and the need…

  2. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  3. Fall Activities for the Early Childhood and Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Penny

    Designed for teachers of early childhood or special education students, this guide contains instructions and illustrations for classroom activities for the months of September, October, and November. Most of the activities involve art projects and many incorporate teaching in other subject areas such as mathematics, language arts, science, and…

  4. Balancing the Readiness Equation in Early Childhood Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    As policy-makers continue to implement early childhood education reforms that frame the field as a mechanism that is to ready children for elementary school success, questions arise as to how the multiple variables in the readiness equation, such as the child, family, and program, are affected by these policies. The instrumental case study…

  5. Knowledge, Practice, and the Shaping of Early Childhood Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…

  6. Formal Education, Credential, or Both: Early Childhood Program Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…

  7. Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education 06/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciorek, Karen Menke, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This 27th edition of "Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education" provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for…

  8. Research in Early Childhood Music and Movement Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie

    Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…

  9. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  10. Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Practices and Challenges in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Abdullah, Anna Christina

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural early childhood education is necessary in a culturally diverse country like Malaysia. Preschool teachers play an important role in implementing multicultural education in the classroom. This paper reports the findings of a self-report questionnaire involving 854 preschool teachers in Malaysia. The preschool teachers disclosed their…

  11. Individual Differences in Sibling Teaching in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Recchia, Holly

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Sibling teaching and learning behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of children in early and middle childhood. Study 1 addressed individual differences in teaching/learning and associations with dyadic age, age gap, gender, birth order, and relationship quality in 71 middle-class dyads (firstborns M age = 81.54 months;…

  12. Community Engagement Project for Preservice Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a preservice early childhood program collaborates with a local agency in a community engagement project. The project was implemented in a family-community partnership class for preservice teachers. There were three purposes for this project. First, to build a partnership between the University of Alaska Anchorage…

  13. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  14. Identifying Online Preferences and Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Weiser, Dana A.; Bales, Diane W.; Moyses, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of early childhood professionals use the Internet to improve their skills, knowledge, and practice. The Internet may be a practical alternative for providing high-quality, research-based training, information, and resources to these professionals. When designing online materials and Web sites, however, it is important to first…

  15. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and…

  16. Qualities of Early Childhood Teachers: Reflections from Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitman, Catheryn J.; Humphries, Janie H.

    Data were collected from elementary school principals and kindergarten teachers in Texas and Louisiana in an effort to identify qualities that are thought to be important for kindergarten teachers. A questionnaire listing 462 qualities of early childhood teachers was compiled from literature reviews. Subjects were asked to check a maximum of 50…

  17. Measuring and Improving Quality in Early Childhood Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The International Consultation, convened in Leiden (the Netherlands) in September 2014, brought together early childhood experts and stakeholders--supported by the International Step by Step Association (ISSA), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the…

  18. Free Play in Early Childhood Education: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Selda

    2016-01-01

    It is aimed to investigate perceptions and implementations of early childhood teachers on free play and their involvement in children's free play. Recent studies focused on that, although there is an increase in the amount of teacher involvement, the quality of this involvement should be clearly examined. Lev Vygotsky examined play as an…

  19. "Pedagogy of Third Space": A Multidimensional Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    This paper will illustrate how philosophical and pedagogical boundaries that are defined by diverse cultures and ideologies might be navigated in the practical implementation of an early childhood curriculum in postcolonial urban India. Findings from a qualitative naturalistic inquiry indicated that a complex, multifaceted curriculum shaped by…

  20. Early Childhood Leadership through the Lens of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikka, Johanna; Hujala, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution of responsibilities for leadership in early childhood education (ECE) context. It focuses on the enactments of leadership by investigating how ECE stakeholders, e.g. teachers, ECE centre directors and administrative ECE leaders in municipalities perceive the leadership responsibilities. Using focus…

  1. Curriculum for the Special Education Early Childhood Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    This document presents Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District's Special Education Early Childhood Center's 1988 curriculum. Sections focus on: (1) the center's program; (2) play observation; (3) eligibility; (4) classroom structure and function; (5) the importance of play; (6) developmental milestones; (7) planning and teaching…

  2. Time and Temporality in Early Childhood Educators' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the persistence and significance of notions of time and temporality in interviews with early childhood educators in Victoria and Queensland, Australia, in two studies designed to explore the concept of "pedagogical leadership". Interpretive analysis of the interview transcripts of the 19 participants identified…

  3. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  4. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  5. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  6. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  7. "Aprons are for Girls": Promoting Equity in Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ann K.; Martin, Ruth E.

    1984-01-01

    A 1982-83 study evaluating the level of sex equity in early childhood settings found that, while the areas of teaching behaviors and child awareness were strong, the areas of center/community, facilities and equipment, and career awareness need improvement in terms of encouraging sex equity and eliminating stereotypes. (SK)

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  9. The Construction Site Project: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…

  10. Development and Evaluation of Metacognition in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…

  11. Constructions of Early Childhood Education and Care Provision: Negotiating Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2014-01-01

    Drives to increase the number of early childhood education and care places in England have relied on a mixed economy of providers. Yet this is not a free market as policy makers have sought to create a discursive truth of an entrepreneurial provider in order to secure their initial pump priming investment. However, there remain sustainability…

  12. New Explorations with Waste Materials in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Inal, Gozde; Calisandemir, Fatma; Can-Yasar, Munevver; Kandir, Adalet

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is innately brought with secret power which can emerge at any time throughout life and be enhanced if fostered. Properly designed art activities serve as a potential for emergence and the enhancement of children's creativities in their early childhood educations. Those children who cannot express their emotions through oral language or…

  13. Early Childhood Care & Education: Basic Indicators on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Young Child and the Family Environment Unit.

    This document provides information on eleven basic indicators of the well being of young children, their families, and communities worldwide. It consists of two parts: The first summarizes information on the importance of the early childhood period for children, the education system, and parents; describes the organization of efficient early…

  14. Linking Brain Principles to High-Quality Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Stephen; Juola-Rushton, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Many educators are already knowledgeable about and skilled in best practices. And much of what is happening in developmentally appropriate programs exemplifies "brain compatible" practices. Being educated in the connections between best practices and brain compatibility is an important part of the knowledge base of early childhood educators. Just…

  15. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  16. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  17. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  18. How Do They Manage? An Investigation of Early Childhood Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Harris, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) leadership literature indicates few theoretically based studies identifying and testing different models and characteristics of leadership. Objectives were thus to identify, describe and analyse what leadership meant to key EC participants; to consider roles, responsibilities and characteristics; to investigate core…

  19. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  20. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  1. Early Childhood Curriculum and the Definition of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spodek, Bernard

    This paper delineates conceptions of early childhood programs from the 18th through the 20th centuries, and reveals how the programs changed as the concept of what constitutes knowledge changed. Discussion begins with reading instruction and hornbooks in Colonial America, and national language learning in the knitting school of Jean Frederick…

  2. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  3. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  4. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  5. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  6. 101 Ways To Build Enrollment in Your Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton

    Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)…

  7. "Growing Up WILD": Teaching Environmental Education in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortino, Carol; Gerretson, Helen; Button, Linda; Masters, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research, both nationally and internationally, indicates that children in the early childhood years (birth to age 8) learn primarily through their senses and from direct experience. They develop an understanding about the world through play, exploration, and creative activities as well as by watching and imitating adults and…

  8. The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakins, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

  9. Early Childhood Program Evaluations: A Decision-Maker's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for evidence-based early childhood services and the need by policymakers to know whether a program is effective or whether it warrants a significant investment of public and/or private funds--coupled with the often-politicized debate around these topics--make it imperative for policymakers and civic leaders to have independent…

  10. Current Topics in Early Childhood Education. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; And Others

    The ten papers in this volume present integrative reviews, analyses and syntheses of research and development of current concern to early childhood educators. Four papers represent investigations and reports of programmatic or educational activities. House and Hutchins critically analyze Abt Associates' national evaluation of Project Follow…

  11. Music's Representation in Early Childhood Education Journals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review of literature, the author explored the representation of music in early childhood education researcher and practitioner journal articles. Thirty-eight pertinent journal articles were identified in a keyword search for "music" in eight journals. The search was limited to a 5-year period, 2005-2010. Article summaries were categorized…

  12. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  13. Early Childhood Discipline: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Castle, Sally L.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review concerning early childhood discipline we particularly highlight American children's discipline with respect to historical perspectives, generational theories, gender issues, parental styles, methods of discipline, and corporal punishment. We also address corporal punishment's history, the debate among experts, beliefs and…

  14. ECHOS: Early Childhood Hands-On Science Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bell, Elizabeth; Juárez, Cheryl Lani; Myers, Ted; Nayfeld, Irena

    2013-01-01

    "ECHOS: Early Childhood Hands-On Science" was developed at the Miami Science Museum as a comprehensive set of science lessons sequenced to lead children toward a deeper understanding of science content and the use of science process skills. The purpose of the research is to determine whether use of the "ECHOS" model will…

  15. Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park…

  16. Analyzing Teacher Narratives in Early Childhood Garden-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christopher Daniel; Su-Russell, Chang; Manfra, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Learning gardens can provide dynamic learning and developmental experiences for young children. This case study of 12 early childhood teachers explores how teachers describe (1) learning across numerous school readiness domains and (2) how to support this learning by promoting opportunities for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Participants…

  17. Assessing Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishimine, Karin; Tayler, Collette

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) service internationally is increasingly important. Research to date indicates that it is "high-quality" programmes that boost and sustain children's achievement outcomes over time. There is also growing interest in the accountability of public funds used for ECEC…

  18. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    1999-01-01

    Working with early childhood colleagues in other countries can be enlightening and enriching. This paper offers seven insights gained from the international experience: (1) "What It Feels Like To Be a Teacher" discusses observations of student and teacher behavior and attitudes in classrooms in China, a Caribbean island, and India; (2)…

  19. Multicultural Early Childhood Education Bibliography and Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Karen R., Comp.

    Compiled for early childhood educators, this list of resources for multicultural education provides a total of 153 entries in the categories of readings for teachers, curriculum materials, nonprint media, children's books, resource bibliographies and catalogues, Canadian periodicals, and resource agencies. Brief annotations accompany most entries.…

  20. Early Childhood Commercial Exhibit Controversies: 1890 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    The controversy over the contrast between early childhood principles and the commercial exhibits at the 1990 annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children prompted a search for historical antecedents. Research disclosed that the first popular linking of Froebelian kindergarten curriculum and manufactured equipment…

  1. The Use of Email to Coach Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Fuller, Elizabeth A.; Schnitz, Alana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of performance feedback on preservice teachers' use of recommended practices within inclusive early childhood classrooms. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine the relation between performance feedback delivered via email and practicum students' use of target-recommended…

  2. Out of Place: Economic Imperialisms in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has received world-wide accolades for its Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum, Te Whariki. This paper explores the tension between economic imperialism, and a curriculum acknowledged as visionary. The foundational ideas of Te Whariki emanate from sociocultural and anti-racist pedagogies. However, its implementation is hampered…

  3. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  4. Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten through Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Recognizing the value and need for quality early childhood education programs for children ages four through eight years, the Michigan State Board of Education appointed an ad hoc committee to develop standards of quality. Based on the draft developed by this committee, this standards guide is designed to assist administrators, teachers, and…

  5. Possible Sources of Data for Early Childhood (Age 3) Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    This booklet is designed to be used in developing a system of indicators of educational outcomes for 3-year-old children, including those with disabilities. The document summarizes a conceptual model of educational outcomes, lists specific outcomes for the early childhood level, and matches indicators with each of the outcomes. It then focuses on…

  6. Early Childhood Education in Botswana: A Case of Fragmented "Fits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunganidze, Langtone; Tsamaase, Marea

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly and institutional research on early childhood education is not a new phenomenon, but what is perhaps limited is extant literature that particularly focuses on revisiting current practices and their "dialogue" with the ever-changing environment that prevails especially in an African setting. The practices of providers of early…

  7. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  8. Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguma, Miho; Litjens, Ineke; Makowiecki, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is a topic of increased policy interest in the Slovak Republic where improving quality in the ECEC sector is a subject of growing importance. The OECD has identified five effective policy levers to encourage quality in the sector: 1) quality goals and regulations; 2) curriculum and guidelines; 3)…

  9. At Sea: What Direction for Critical Early Childhood Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on the dilemma critical early childhood research finds itself in today. In order to distinguish and distance ourselves from the certainties and seemingly unquestionable truths of post-political, mainstream, "normalised" research and its entanglement with neoliberal agendas and corporate interests, have we rendered…

  10. Early Childhood Education: Teacher Behaviors from a Cross Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Patricia Ann

    Reported in this document are observations of early childhood education in England, Israel, Seychelles, and China. Specifically, observations focus on (1) teacher behavior, including behavior toward individuals, small groups, and large groups or whole classes; (2) teacher demonstration behaviors; (3) teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as…

  11. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  12. Conceptions of Early Childhood Leadership: Driving New Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Margaret; Forrest, Rhonda; Semann, Anthony; Slattery, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the understandings of leadership held by 351 Victorian early childhood leaders (ECLs). Internationally, ECLs are expected to drive quality improvement through mentoring and modelling: a concept associated with distributive leadership. However, ECLs often move into leadership positions by accident and are ill-prepared for their…

  13. Early Childhood Mental Health and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Keri; Garro, Adrienne; Rosen, Gabrielle; Gubi, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood, defined as infancy through age 5 years, is a critical period and serves as the foundation for development throughout the life span. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in July 2015, there were almost 20 million children ages birth to 5 years. The physical health of infants and young children is addressed and monitored through…

  14. Listening in Early Childhood: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2010-01-01

    Three general purposes of research in human development are to explain, predict, and modify behavior. Studies of listening during early childhood (birth through age eight) are of particular significance to the field because they enable researchers to describe listening processes from their very origins (explain), they demonstrate the effects of…

  15. Pedagogical Silences in Australian Early Childhood Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheeseman, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing international interest in the early childhood years has been accompanied by an expansion of public programs in Australia targeting young children and their families. This article explores some of the influences and rhetoric that frame these initiatives. It encourages critical examination of the discourses that shape the nature of early…

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  17. The Paradox of Power in Leadership in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Dora

    2012-01-01

    Western frameworks for school improvement, including the stakeholder model and the model of decentralized leadership, have recently been promoted as solutions for school improvement. Using early childhood education in Hong Kong as an illustrative case, this article focuses on the power and authority of leadership in school decision making. The…

  18. Research Ideas for the Classroom: Early Childhood Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert J., Ed.

    Research Ideas for the Classroom is a three-volume series of research interpretations for early childhood, middle grades, and high school mathematics classrooms. Each volume looks at research from the perspective of the learner, the content, and the teacher, and chapters are co-authored by a researcher and a teacher. Chapter titles in the early…

  19. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  20. Striking a Balance: Families, Work, and Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Paul; And Others

    This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this…