Science.gov

Sample records for early cold war

  1. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.; Whorton, M.

    1999-03-08

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that had acquired historical value in the context of the Cold War. In response, the US Department of Defense in 1991 initiated a broad effort to inventory properties of this era. US Air Force installations in Alaska were in the forefront of these evaluations because of the role of the Cold War in the state's development and history and the high interest on the part of the Alaska State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in these properties. The 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) owns many of Alaska's early Cold War properties, most were associated with strategic air defense. The 611 ASG determined that three systems it operates, which were all part of the integrated defense against Soviet nuclear strategic bomber threat, were eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and would require treatment as historic properties. These systems include the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) System, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs). As part of a massive cleanup operation, Clean Sweep, the 611 ASG plans to demolish many of the properties associated with these systems. To mitigate the effects of demolition, the 611 ASG negotiated agreements on the system level (e.g., the DEW Line) with the Alaska SHPO to document the history and architectural/engineering features associated with these properties. This system approach allowed the US Air Force to mitigate effects on many individual properties in a more cost-effective and efficient manner.

  2. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  3. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  4. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  5. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  6. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  7. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  8. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  9. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  10. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  11. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  12. Images of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  13. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    PubMed

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production.

  14. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  15. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants. PMID:12117658

  16. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-07-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants.

  17. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  18. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  19. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  20. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  1. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  2. The Cold War: An Assessment of Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    capitalized on their vulnerabilities even at the expense of the U.S. economy, and directly contributed to the demise of the USSR. INSIGHTS GAINED FOR... capital . This was an ideological war, but the difference between ideologies was political and economic views. In the post-Cold War world order...SDI", Foreign Affairs. Spring, 1988. Larson, Deborah W. Origins of Containment: A Psycological E.x.planation Princton Univ. Press, 1985. Lippmann

  3. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    War The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade FRANK N. SCHUBERT The Author Frank Schubert was born in Washington...than War The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade FRANK N. SCHUBERT Joint History Office Office of the Chairman...American military experience and operations in the post-Cold War decade / Frank N. Schubert. p;lgcs till Includes bibliographical references and index

  4. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  5. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    King.4 0 Undoubtedly, the majority was more of a vote against the Left than it was for the King. Nonetheless, the King returned and further insulated ...much stock in any pledge by the King to prevent such a regime would probably be less responsive to American influence and desire then it more pliable ...London: Hart- Davis, MacGibbon. 1976. Woods , Randall B., and Jones, Howard. Dawning of the Cold War: The United States’ Ouest For Order. Athens

  6. James B. Conant, nuclear weapons, and the cold war, 1945-1950

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberg, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the impact of James B. Conant -- president of Harvard University, adviser to the U.S. government on atomic matters, national public figure -- on the transition period from the end of World War II to the crystallization of the Cold War with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. The dissertation delves into Conant's role in formulating U.S. policy on the international control of atomic weapons; his reaction to Cold War pressures on U.S. universities and education; his unsuccessful efforts to lessen official atomic secrecy; his evolving view of the Cold War and nuclear policy; and his part in the controversy over the decision to build the hydrogen bomb. Using newly-available sources, and going beyond the account provided in Conant's memoirs, the dissertation attempts to shed new light on an important figure of the early Cold War period whose actions influenced both U.S. public opinion and secret government policy.

  7. Romania and the New Cold War Security Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    world’s oceans, international airspace, outer space, and cyberspace as international commons .5 New Cold war: This title raised many controversies...ROMANIA AND THE NEW COLD WAR SECURITY CHALLENGES A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Romania and The New Cold War Security Challenges 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  9. British nuclear deterrent after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Trident nuclear deterrent program is one of the United Kingdom`s largest-ever military acquisitions. Planned and initiated in the depths of the Cold War, it is now coming to fruition, when the most obvious justification for it--the Soviet threat to Western Europe--has disappeared. The continuation of the program is not in doubt; the money is largely spent or committed, and the main political parties agree on deploying the force. But the rationale needs refurbishment. Britain has traditionally preferred to represent her nuclear capability primarily as a contribution to NATO`s collective deterrence. The second center of decisionmaking concept defined a particular value for that contribution. This rationale seized the moral high ground (by associating Britain`s deterrent with NATO`s strategy to prevent war), guarded the proliferation flank, and underpinned Anglo-American relations.

  10. The Cold War is over. What now?

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  11. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    PubMed

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  12. Propaganda, Effect, and the Cold War: Gauging the Status of America's "War of Words."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Giles, Shawn J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship among propaganda, effect, and the Cold War during congressional debates over America's first peacetime propaganda program. Argues that the "war of words" metaphor further heightened the need for empirical proof of America's status in that conflict. Suggests that the Cold War helped to ensure the…

  13. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  14. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  15. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  16. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  17. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  18. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  19. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  20. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi, cancer and the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 1946, the international community of cancer researchers was inspired by the announcement that two Soviet scientists, Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, had discovered anticancer properties in culture extracts made from the South American protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, and had produced a preparation--named after its discoverers KR--which showed clear therapeutic effects on cancer patients. Research teams from various countries enthusiastically pursued the promising new line of investigation. The story of the rise and fall of interest in the anticancer properties of T. cruzi in different countries suggests that during the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War competition between the superpowers played an important role in shaping the research agendas of cancer studies.

  2. We all lost the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lebow, R.N.; Stein, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the book is to use the experience of two actual Cold War crises to test the hypothesis that it was the U.S. strategy of deterrence that was primarily responsible for preventing war with the Soviet Union and teaching them that aggression would not pay. The two crises; the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and the Middle East crisis of 1973 have been widely interpreted as victories for U.S. deterence strategy. The authors draw on sources that were previously unavailable, both documents and interviews. The authors show that it was the fear of any nuclear use, not quantitative assessments of the nuclear balance, that deterred both Soviet and American leaders in the two crises examined. Each side believed that the loss of even a single city was unacceptable. This implies that the benefits of nuclear weapons derive from their ability to annihilate cities. A policy of finite deterence would rely almost exclusively on this threat to civilians, raising further moral questions.

  3. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection.

  4. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  5. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  6. Teaching the Revisionist Interpretation of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    1986-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan, complete with readings and teaching procedures, for teaching students about the revisionist interpretations of Cold War history. Students are challenged to think critically about the differences in the traditional and revisionist interpretations. (JDH)

  7. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  8. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  9. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  10. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal.

  11. Deterrence from Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The U-2 and Corona would 11 See Rosenberg and Moore (1981–1982) for discussion of the expansion of targets and the nuclear arsenal. 12 Capt. William...Moore, quoted in Rosenberg and Moore (1981–1982, p. 25). 30 Deterrence—From Cold War to Long War soon make counterforce targeting vastly more...damage limitation clear. It stated that, if LNOs fail to control escala - tion and general war occurs, then damage limitation is second in prior- ity only

  12. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  13. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  14. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  15. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  16. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  17. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  18. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  19. Reel History and the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the Cold War era has little historical meaning for today's students. Maintains that the use of feature-length films on videocassettes can be used effectively with appropriate reading and writing exercises. Provides a filmography focusing on social issues and a lesson plan. (CFR)

  20. "The Iron Curtain" (1948): Hollywood's First Cold War Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leab, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the nature of Hollywood movies produced during the Cold War and the transformation of U.S. popular culture. Discusses the 1948 production of "The Iron Curtain," based on the defection of Igor Gouzenko. Appendices include (1) the defection of Igor Gouzenko; and (2) Twentieth Century-Fox's purchase of the Igor Gouzenko story…

  1. The Army Before Last: Military Transformation and the Impact of Nuclear Weapons on the US Army During the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    deterrent rather than increasing investment in nuclear weapons and delivery systems .9 This thinking was based on the Army’s belief that nuclear weapons...War .................................................. 21 Table 2. US Army Cannon Delivery System (Nuclear Capable)....................... 42 Table 3...US Army Rocket & Missile Systems 1953-1991................................. 43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  2. To Be Black, & Gifted & Red: Cold War Period Yields New, Provocative Ground for Contemporary Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's climate of supercharged patriotism and apparent intolerance for comment or critique calls to mind an earlier period of U.S. history. The Cold War that began in the mid-to late-1940s, along with McCarthyism and the anti-communist movement in the early 1950s, created an atmosphere of national hysteria and paranoia. For the past decade,…

  3. To Be Black, & Gifted & Red: Cold War Period Yields New, Provocative Ground for Contemporary Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's climate of supercharged patriotism and apparent intolerance for comment or critique calls to mind an earlier period of U.S. history. The Cold War that began in the mid-to late-1940s, along with McCarthyism and the anti-communist movement in the early 1950s, created an atmosphere of national hysteria and paranoia. For the past decade,…

  4. How adaptive optics may have won the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    2013-05-01

    While there are many theories and studies concerning the end of the Cold War, circa 1990, I postulate that one of the contributors to the result was the development of adaptive optics. The emergence of directed energy weapons, specifically space-based and ground-based high energy lasers made practicable with adaptive optics, showed that a successful defense against inter-continental ballistic missiles was not only possible, but achievable in a reasonable period of time.

  5. Cold War Context Statement: Sandia National Laboratories, California Site

    SciTech Connect

    ULLRICH, REBECCA A.

    2003-01-01

    This document was prepared to support the Department of Energy's compliance with Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act. It provides an overview of the historic context in which Sandia National Laboratories/California was created and developed. Establishing such a context allows for a reasonable and reasoned historical assessment of Sandia National Laboratories/California properties. The Cold War arms race provides the primary historical context for the SNL/CA built environment.

  6. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  7. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  8. The Origins of the Cold War in United States History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. Samuel

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the impact of the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union on U.S. politics and society during the post-World War II era can hardly be overstated. Reviews 18 college history survey textbooks on their interpretation of the origins of the Cold War. (CFR)

  9. Medical triage in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Jeffer, E K

    1994-05-01

    Military medicine is caught at the confluence of two major currents of change. The Department of Defense and the American system of health care are both undergoing major revisions. Triage was a key operational concept for patient care during the Cold War era. With the changed world situation, the author suggests new operational concepts including the relegation of triage to a marginal role in wartime care. The author argues that increasing the ratio of medical personnel to combat troops is consistent with a changed national perspective on wartime casualties.

  10. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  11. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  12. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  13. The Strategic Defense Initiative and the End of the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Evangelista, Turning Points in Arms Control, ed. Richard K. Herrmann and Richard Ned Lebow, Ending the Cold War (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), p. 83...Evangelista, Matthew. Turning Points in Arms Control. Edited by Richard K. Herrmann and Richard Ned Lebow, Ending the Cold War. New York: Palgrave

  14. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  15. Who Won the Cold War? A Learning Packet for Secondary Level Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Center for Russian and East European Studies.

    Realizing that the Cold War is a topic that often is neglected as time runs short at the end of a school year, a group of University of Kansas (Lawrence) educators sought to create effective classroom materials for secondary/community college instructors to teach about the Cold War. The group's main goal was to create a flexible model that…

  16. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  17. Mathematical models, rational choice, and the search for Cold War culture.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Paul

    2010-06-01

    A key feature of the social, behavioral, and biological sciences after World War II has been the widespread adoption of new mathematical techniques drawn from cybernetics, information theory, and theories of rational choice. Historians of science have typically sought to explain this adoption either by reference to military patronage, or to a characteristic Cold War culture or discursive framework strongly shaped by the concerns of national security. This essay explores several episodes in the history of game theory--a mathematical theory of rational choice--that demonstrate the limits of such explanations. Military funding was indeed critical to game theory's early development in the 1940s. However, the theory's subsequent spread across disciplines ranging from political science to evolutionary biology was the result of a diverse collection of debates about the nature of "rationality" and "choice" that marked the Cold War era. These debates are not easily reduced to the national security imperatives that have been the focus of much historiography to date.

  18. Post-cold war nuclear dangers: Proliferation and terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1995-02-24

    This article discusses several aspects of post cold war nuclear problems facing both the world and the USA. Included are the following topics: four nuclear nightmare scenarios; availability of nuclear weapons, materials, and expertise; US programs to reduce smoggling of nuclear weapons and materials; US options in the future; Global options; and priority actions, including effective nuclear intelligence; read teams to find vulverablities and evaluate countermeasures to nuclear terrorism; accelerate development of advanced detection and disarmament technologies; implement urgent CISAC recommendation on management of nuclear materials and inherent security technologies; accelerate research and development of a globle space-based missile defence; ensure crediability of nuclear deterrent; accelerate development of conventional weapons that reduce the role of nuclear weapons. 9 refs.

  19. [Refugee movements in the post-Cold War era].

    PubMed

    Loescher, G

    1994-01-01

    "This article briefly describes the scope and dimensions of contemporary refugee movements by analyzing some of the forces which shape these flows. Democratization, problems of nationality and minority rights, and structural, political, economic, environmental and social changes in the post-Cold War world (especially in large parts of the developing world and in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), are likely to result in growing numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons in the years ahead. Refugees and asylum seekers are increasingly regarded not only as a major humanitarian challenge but as a political problem and a threat to the national security of Western states. Refugee policy involves much more than defining or adjudicating claims for asylum, safe haven and refugee status for those who seek to enter or stay in the West. It is now apparent that an effective response to these issues will have to involve major Western foreign policy and international actions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.

    1997-04-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase.

  1. Plasma aerodynamics since the end of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Dennis C.

    This study examines two former adversarial scientific and technological aerospace constructs created, for the most part, separately during the Cold War and their subsequent meeting and collaboration after the Soviet Union collapse. They both strove first separately, then in unison to create a hypersonic aircraft. In studying this collaboration, one must evaluate each research communities' strengths and weaknesses as well as historians' efforts to explain the exact relationship between science and technology, or applied science. This "international" approach offers some advantages in determining both nations' research capabilities. If one accepts a 'science' and 'technology' as separate entities, I show that it was actually each country's technological or 'applied science' capabilities that defined their 'science' and punctuated the two contending scientific communities views regarding the work together.

  2. Revising the history of Cold War research ethics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D; Lederer, Susan E

    1996-09-01

    President Clinton's charge to the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments included the identification of ethical and legal standards for evaluating government-sponsored radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War. In this paper, we review the traditional account of the history of American research ethics, and then highlight and explain the significance of a number of the Committee's historical findings as they relate to this account. These findings include both the national defense establishment's struggles with legal and insurance issues concerning human experiments, and the medical profession's perspective on human experimentation in the years following the Nuremberg Medical Trials. We conclude that the Committee's work both enriches the traditional view of the history of research ethics and opens important new areas for study.

  3. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    PubMed

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  4. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    PubMed

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  5. Scaling up: human genetics as a Cold War network.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2014-09-01

    In this commentary I explore how the papers here illuminate the processes of collection that have been so central to the history of human genetics since 1945. The development of human population genetics in the Cold War period produced databases and biobanks that have endured into the present, and that continue to be used and debated. In the decades after the bomb, scientists collected and transferred human biological materials and information from populations of interest, and as they moved these biological resources or biosocial resources acquired new meanings and uses. The papers here collate these practices and map their desires and ironies. They explore how a large international network of geneticists, biological anthropologists, virologists and other physicians and scientists interacted with local informants, research subjects and public officials. They also track the networks and standards that mobilized the transfer of information, genealogies, tissue and blood samples. As Joanna Radin suggests here, the massive collections of human biological materials and data were often understood to be resources for an "as-yet-unknown" future. The stories told here contain elements of surveillance, extraction, salvage and eschatology.

  6. A post cold war assessment of US space policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    The V.P. of the US, Dan Quayle, asked his Space Policy Advisory Board to conduct a review of current national space policy. He charged them with making policy recommendations that would: increase the efficiency of federal government space activities to enable the best space program possible for the funds available; maintain US leadership and competitiveness for the 21st century; and sustain an industrial base capable of supporting future national security, civil, and commercial space requirements. The group has completed this review and found that space systems and missions remain important elements of government activity. Specifically, some findings are: current space activities are not appropriate for post Cold War era; economic competitiveness of the space related industrial sector promotes civil and national security interest; and enhanced international cooperation presents an opportunity for the US which should be pursued. The group recommends that the US: change the way space activities are organized and managed; reduce and eliminate security constraints associated with national security; revitalize a more productive cooperation between the government and the space industry; and take the initiative in shaping a common international agenda in selected areas of civil and national security space activity to address global problems and to maintain US influence.

  7. [Childbirth without pain. Politics in France during the cold war. ].

    PubMed

    Caron-Leulliez, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Lamaze introduced Natural Childbirth (ASD) in France in 1951. While this event is significant to the history of obstetrics and women's experience, we would like to concentrate upon another aspect here: how it is situated within the political debates of the period. In the midst of the Cold War, Lamaze was a sympathizer, although not a member of the Communist Party (PCF). He ran a maternity clinic for the CGT, a union affiliated with the PCE During a trip to Russia in 1951, he discovered a new method to relieve pain in labour through a psychological technique inspired by Pavlov. Upon his return, when he dedicated his energies towards the popularization of ASD, he looked for support from the PCF and to draw upon their propaganda network; this subsequently aroused suspicion and hostility. A few years later, ASD received the blessing of women's groups won over by its improvements to birthing. At the moment of Lamaze's triumph, he fell victim to a resurgence of Stalinism. With his team, he denounced the Soviet invasion of Hungary and lost the financial support of the unions which owned the clinic. Exhausted and profoundly disappointed, he died in March 1957.

  8. Aviation medicine in the United Kingdom: cold war and peace dividend, 1946-2000.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T Michael; Harrison, Michael H

    2005-08-01

    This is the third of three brief papers that summarize the history of aviation medicine in the Royal Air Force. Unusually, at the end of the Second World War, British aviation medicine research did not enter a period of decline. The needs of the Royal Air Force during the Cold War ensured the continuing development of the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine. However, reduction of the threat with the end of the Cold War led to the requirement for a peace dividend. British aviation medicine research has now entered a commercial era, competing for funding from industry as well as from the Royal Air Force.

  9. Post-Cold War Science and Technology at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, John C.

    2002-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory serves the nation through the development and application of leading-edge science and technology in support of national security. Our mission supports national security by: ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile; reducing the threat of weapons of mass destruction in support of counter terrorism and homeland defense; and solving national energy, environment, infrastructure, and health security problems. We require crosscutting fundamental and advanced science and technology research to accomplish our mission. The Stockpile Stewardship Program develops and applies, advanced experimental science, computational simulation, and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear weapons in the absence of nuclear testing. This effort in itself is a grand challenge. However, the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, reminded us of the importance of robust and vibrant research and development capabilities to meet new and evolving threats to our national security. Today through rapid prototyping we are applying new, innovative, science and technology for homeland defense, to address the threats of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons globally. Synergistically, with the capabilities that we require for our core mission, we contribute in many other areas of scientific endeavor. For example, our Laboratory has been part of the NASA effort on mapping water on the moon and NSF/DOE projects studying high-energy astrophysical phenomena, understanding fundamental scaling phenomena of life, exploring high-temperature superconductors, investigating quantum information systems, applying neutrons to condensed-matter and nuclear physics research, developing large-scale modeling and simulations to understand complex phenomena, and exploring nanoscience that bridges the atomic to macroscopic scales. In this presentation, I will highlight some of these post-cold war science and technology advances

  10. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  11. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  12. The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2012-01-01

    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

  13. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  14. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  15. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  16. Coercive Air Strategy in Post-Cold War Peace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Muslim overlords and were supported by Serbia and Montenegro . Russia entered into the conflict on the side of the Christian peasants and crushed the...on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. May 1994. Corsini, Roberto . The Balkan War: What Role for Air Power? Maxwell AFB, AL: April 1995. Doyle

  17. Lessons from the Cold War: Military Service and College Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alair

    2005-01-01

    Since World War II, the federal government has provided funds to pay for the education of veterans through the GI bill. Yet, these funds were unavailable from 1955 to 1965. This article considers four potentially overlapping hypotheses to describe the effect of military service on veterans' educational attainment in the absence of government…

  18. Nuclear weapons, the end of the cold war, and the future of the international system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    The collapse of empires, the overthrow of dynasties, the outbreak of plagues, the onset of revolutions, and even the improvement of the human condition itself - all of these are categories of events, which means that they have happened before and will almost certainly happen again. There are very few occurrences of which it can be said that nothing like them has ever taken place; but surely what took place in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945, qualifies as such as occurrence. The first test explosion of an atomic bomb, together with the actual use of that weapon three weeks later against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was as sharp a break from the past as any in all of history. Theory had intersected reality to produce a weapon that was regarded at the time as unlike any other that had ever been invented, and that is still so regarded today, almost half a century later. The result, it now appears, has been a fundamental, and possibly permanent, change in human behavior. `The unleashed power of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking,` Albert Einstein wrote in 1946, `and thus we drift toward unparalleled catastrophe.` Einstein would have been as surprised as anyone else who lived through the early Cold War years had he known that Nagasaki would be the last occasion upon which atomic weapons would be used in anger for at least the next four and one-half decades, despite the fact that the great geopolitical rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union would drag on throughout that length of time. History is full of unexpected developments, but few have been as completely unexpected as that the great powers would produce some 70,000 nuclear weapons between the end of World War II and the present day, without a single one of them having been used. Perfecting the ultimate instrument of war had made the ancient institution of war, for the first time in history, obsolete. Or so it would appear. 23 refs.

  19. Engineering Science Education and the Indian Institutes of Technology: Reframing the Context of the "Cold War and Science" (1950-1970)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a revival of research interest in the Cold War, and on science during the Cold War, from a revised social theoretic perspective. Part of this reframing is evident in explorations of the relationship underpinning the Cold War discourse and modernisation theory. Drawing on this new turn, this article switches the…

  20. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  1. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    PubMed

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  2. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  3. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    FBIS), Daiy Report, BastAsia [hereinafter, PBIS -.EAS], December 17,1992, p. 5. 12 The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War Japan’s...have applied for mem- bership: Argentina, Ecuador, Chile, India, Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru , and Russia. LI II The Japanese

  4. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  5. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  6. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  7. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  8. How the Cold War is Taught: Six American History Textbooks Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Martin F.

    This booklet is a comparative analysis of how six high school history textbooks present events and issues related to the Cold War. The texts are "History of a Free People" (Macmillan, 1973), "Rise of the American Nation" (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1977), "The American Experience" (Addison-Wesley, 1975), "A New…

  9. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  10. The Cold War within American Higher Education: Rutgers University as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Thomas F.

    This book examines the impact of anticommunism on American campuses, using Rutgers University (New Jersey) from 1950 through 1965 as a case example. Following an introductory chapter which provides background information, chapter 2 discusses the period January 1950 to August 1952, when Cold War politics intensified at Rutgers University and the…

  11. The Fate of German Studies After the End of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohendahl, Peter Uwe

    1998-01-01

    Both declining second-language enrollments in colleges and universities and the rapid metamorphosis of higher education are linked to the end of the Cold War. The strong state as the protector of the university's relative independence has ended, and the business sector is the new standard for measuring performance. In this context, German…

  12. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  13. The Fate of German Studies After the End of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohendahl, Peter Uwe

    1998-01-01

    Both declining second-language enrollments in colleges and universities and the rapid metamorphosis of higher education are linked to the end of the Cold War. The strong state as the protector of the university's relative independence has ended, and the business sector is the new standard for measuring performance. In this context, German…

  14. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  15. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  16. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  17. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  18. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  19. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  20. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  1. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  2. How the Cold War is Taught: Six American History Textbooks Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Martin F.

    This booklet is a comparative analysis of how six high school history textbooks present events and issues related to the Cold War. The texts are "History of a Free People" (Macmillan, 1973), "Rise of the American Nation" (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1977), "The American Experience" (Addison-Wesley, 1975), "A New…

  3. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  4. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  5. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  6. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  7. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  8. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  9. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  10. The British Nuclear Deterrent After the Cold War,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    collaborative project with France (the Air-Sol Longue Portee, or ASLP). - 37 - Such, then, was the position as Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union...security structure in Europe, while Brooke’s poem 񓞚"--"To turn, as swimmers into cleanness leaping Glad from a world grown old and cold and weary

  11. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  12. The "Starch Wars" and the Early History of DNA Profiling.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J D

    2006-01-01

    Just as the movie Star Wars had a prequel, so did the "DNA Wars"-the series of legal, scientific, and personal battles that took place over the admissibility of forensic DNA evidence from 1989 to 1994. Between the late 1970s and the mid-1980s, another forensic identification technique became mired in controversy: electrophoresis-based blood protein analysis. Although the debates over blood analysis were every bit as rancorous and frustrating to almost everybody involved - so much so that they became known as the "Starch Wars" - their importance has not been adequately appreciated in the recent history of forensic science. After reviewing the early history of blood typing, I will describe the development of the Multi-System approach to blood protein analysis that took place in California from 1977 to 1978. I will then elucidate the history of the Starch Wars, and demonstrate the ways that they shaped subsequent disputes over DNA evidence, especially in California. I will show that: (a) many of the forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, and lawyers who became prominent players in the DNA Wars were deeply involved in the court cases involving protein electrophoresis; and (b) many of the issues that became controversial in the disputes over DNA evidence first emerged in the Starch Wars. In the conclusion, I will suggest various ways to improve the quality of forensic science based on my analysis of the Starch Wars.

  13. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    PubMed

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold blood and clinical research during World War I.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; King, S C

    1996-07-01

    Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.

  15. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  16. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period.

  17. Petrobarter: oil, inequality, and the political imagination in and after the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Petrobarter--the exchange of oil for goods and services without reference to monetary currency--has been a widespread and underappreciated practice among corporations, states, and state agencies over the past half century. Analyzing this practice with reference to anthropological theories of barter adds to our understandings of two significant and intertwined concerns in contemporary social science: (1) the production and reproduction of inequality at various scales, from subnational regions to the international system as a whole, and (2) the generation and fate of mobilizing political imaginaries that challenge the abstracted, universalizing imaginaries so often associated with monetized exchange, especially in capitalist contexts. Barter exchanges featuring oil are, therefore, as analytically significant as the much more commonly studied transactions of oil and money. Ethnographic and historical case studies of petrobarter are drawn from the Perm region of the Russian Urals in the post-Soviet period and the global oil trade in the early Cold War. This view from the perspective of the socialist and postsocialist world, it is argued, provides an instructive counterpoint to the many existing studies of oil and money, both in and beyond anthropology, that are situated in the European-American colonial and postcolonial periphery.

  18. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  19. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  20. From Containment to Global Leadership? America and the World After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    28 Preserve American Military Preeminence ........... 31 Preserve American Economic Strength ............. 35 Obtain and Maintain Domestic...central feature of American post-Cold War grand strategy. Prevent Hegemony over Critical Regions The United States should be willing to use force if...importance of various regions can change. A region that Is criti- cal to American interests now might become less important, while some other region might gain

  1. Seeing Off the Bear: Anglo-American Air Power Cooperation During the Cold War,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    threat to a free Europe, shows many of the USAF aircraft that were stationed at RAF bases during the Cold War, and features the distinctive RAF...long and 200 feet wide. How was it possible that the largest combat-tested bomber in the free world, possessed only by the United States, could deploy to...telecom- munications free of charge, provided that the expenditures did not exceed the normal costs of RAF requirements and standards. That " free of

  2. The Arctic: A New Partnership Paradigm or the Next Cold War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-27

    FINAL 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Arctic: A New Partnership Paradigm or the Next “Cold War...200,000 square miles in the Arctic.24 Accession acts to strengthen and extend Arctic jurisdiction, open up additional hydrocarbon and mineral...1 Background: United States is Unprepared 2 Opposing Views of Partnership 3 Analysis of Multinational Moves in the Arctic 5

  3. The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within the Post-Cold War Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    ANALYSIS WITHIN THE POST-COLD WAR SECURITY ENVIRONMENT by Matthew K. Moeller December 1992 Thesis Advisor: R. Mitchell Brown III Second Reader: Rodney...WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. I ITLE (Include Security Classification) The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within... Analysis Within the Post-Cold War Security Environment by Matthew K. Moeller Lieutenant, United States Air Force B.S., San Jose State University, 1989

  4. International Science in the Cold War: The Politics of U.S.-Soviet Astronomy, 1950-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, R.

    1993-12-01

    During the height of the Cold War, scientific relations between American and Soviet astronomers grew deeply strained. Polemical statements by Soviet astronomers in the early 1950s caused American astronomers, including Otto Struve, Fred L. Whipple, and Leo Goldberg, to worry that political coercion had breached the integrity of the Soviet astronomical community. At the same time, Struve, Goldberg, and other U.S. astronomers faced growing pressure from State Department officials to adhere to American foreign policy objectives, including restrictions on contacts between American and Soviet scientists. By the late 1950s, American astronomers participated in a significant yet little-known effort to challenge State Department policy towards international science. Nevertheless, the close relation between U.S. scientists and the state after 1945 limited the options that American astronomers had in maintaining international cooperation in astronomy. Understanding this political and intellectual framework provides new insights into how the Cold War influenced American astronomy in the 1950s. Priority debates, competition over disciplinary leadership, and national loyalties also strongly shaped international scientific cooperation during this period.

  5. The post-cold war settlement in Europe: A triumph of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1997-03-01

    {open_quotes}The military capabilities of the countries of Europe are also less threatening now than in the past, and this has been accomplished by arms control.{close_quotes} The author argues that there is a new security order in place in Europe, one that differs from the two most familiar ways of organizing security: balance-of-power politics and world government. Balance-of-power politics has been the source of such stability as Europe has enjoyed for most of its recorded history, including during the Cold War years. World government is a utopian dream that has been envisioned and advocated but never implemented, and that might not be a source of celebration if it were implemented, which it almost surely will not be. The theme of The Dawn of Peace in Europe is that, in the wake of the Cold War, Europe has established a third method for achieving security, called common security and that owes something to the concept of cooperative security that was developed at the Brookings Institution. Within this common security regime, Europe is still made up of soverign states. There is no supranational authority. The states of Europe are still armed. But peace in Europe does not depend-as it has for most of Europe`s recorded history-on a finely balanced hostility between and among the most powerful European nations. The new common security order has dramatically reduced both the incentives and the capabilities for war.

  6. Nowhere to run, rabbit: the cold-war calculus of disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2017-06-01

    During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.

  7. Radiation exposure: Hot legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1990-08-03

    The article tells about the routine management of nuclear safety in the U.S.S.R. and, more specifically, about the hazards of long-term exposure to big doses of radiation. Half the workers at the Cheliabinsk site in the Ural Mountains east of Moscow were routinely receiving 100 rem per year in the late 1940s and early 1950s. For comparison, this is about 20 times the maximum annual dose a worker is allowed to get in the United States today. The consequences of the very large doses to workers in the U.S.S.R. are not fully revealed. But the report mentions that 8 to 9% of the staff who began work before 1958 and received high radiation doses (more than 100 rem) die of cancer. In addition, the report says that nearly a quarter of the workers between 1950 and 1952 were suffering from chronic radiation disease. Cancer mortality among severely exposed workers (100 rem and above) was 88% higher than among those who received less than 100 rem.

  8. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  9. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-01-20

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications.

  10. Risk-Based Ranking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of government agencies in the United States have faced increasing public scrutiny for their efforts to address the wide range of potential environmental issues related to Cold War legacies. Risk-based ranking was selected as a means of defining the relative importance of issues. Ambitious facility-wide risk-based ranking applications were undertaken. However, although facility-wide risk-based ranking efforts can build invaluable understanding of the potential issues related to Cold War legacies, conducting such efforts is difficult because of the potentially enormous scope and the potentially strong institutional barriers. The U.S. experience is that such efforts are worth undertaking to start building a knowledge base and infrastructure that are based on a thorough understanding of risk. In both the East and the West, the legacy of the Cold War includes a wide range of potential environmental issues associated with large industrial complexes of weapon production facilities. The responsible agencies or ministries are required to make decisions that could benefit greatly from information on the relative importance of these potential issues. Facility-wide risk-based ranking of potential health and environmental issues is one means to help these decision makers. The initial U.S. risk-based ranking applications described in this chapter were “ground-breaking” in that they defined new methodologies and approaches to meet the challenges. Many of these approaches fit the designation of a population-centred risk assessment. These U.S. activities parallel efforts that are just beginning for similar facilities in the countries of the former Soviet Union. As described below, conducting a facility-wide risk-based ranking has special challenges and potential pitfalls. Little guidance exists to conduct major risk-based rankings. For those considering undertaking such efforts, the material contained in this chapter should be useful

  11. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations.

  12. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  13. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  14. Breaking the Code for Operational Planners: A Comparative Analysis of National Security Strategies Since the End of the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-04

    Presidents articulated in the post-Cold War era is that America cannot return to a strategy of protectionism nor isolationism . But even more important...responsibilities. As our nation learned after World War I, we can find no security for America in isolationism , nor prosperity in protectionism …Without...of America, (September 2002), preface. 54 Speaking to the disadvantages of fear, isolationism , and protectionism , President Bush reconfirmed

  15. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    PubMed

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  16. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    PubMed

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  17. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  18. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon

  19. Past to Present, St. Paul to Prague: A Cold War Autobiography. A Discussion of Patricia Hampl's "Aromantic Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven

    1986-01-01

    States that autobiographies such as Patricia Hampl's may be the best source of information for revealing the effects of the Cold War on the American psyche. Maintains that such works may help counteract the narrow and naive view of superpower relations youth gain from such movies as "Rocky" and "Rambo." (JDH)

  20. Cold (and hot) wars: superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waysand, Georges

    2005-03-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed.

  1. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  2. Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the pledge by President Kennedy to land a man on the moon and return him safely "before the decade is out" was a Cold War tactic designed to bring national unity. Presents a lesson plan, a chronological chart, three primary documents, step-by-step implementation procedures, and related student activities. (CFR)

  3. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  4. Bridging the Cold War and the 21st century: chronicling the history of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    A historical perspective is given for Sandia National Laboratories from its beginnings as a small engineering group at an offshoot of Los Alamos Laboratory to a facility of 7000 people at its main facility in Albuquerque, another 1000 people in Livermore, California and test ranges in Tonopah, Nevada and Kauai, Hawaii. The Sandia army base became the Z division of Los Alamos and $25 million construction program began the structures that would carry out a test program for nuclear weapons during the cold war. Bell System/AT&T stewardship of the site continued from 1949 to 1993, when Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) was chosen as the new contractor. Management decisions, personnel, and political aspects of the Laboratory are presented up to 1997 and forecasts are given for future policy and programs of Sandia.

  5. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  6. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  7. The Cold War and Modern Memory: Veterans Reflect on Military Service

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alair

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from focused interviews to look at how veterans who served primarily during the peacetime Cold War portrayed the effects of military service. Most veterans described being a soldier, sailor, or airman as a neutral, transitional role. Veterans also described their service as having features that are consistent with views of such service as both a positive turning point and a negative disruption. However, only one veteran described military service as operating as a positive turning point in his own life, and just two described it has having been a disruption in their lives. In addition, veterans who served as officers described learning leadership and confidence in the armed forces, which may help explain an observed quantitative officer premium. This latter finding is consistent with a view of the armed forces as facilitating the accumulation of advantage. PMID:25328253

  8. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  9. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  10. Tactical nuclear weapons in the post cold war era: Implications for the Operational Commander. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tunstall, S.

    1993-01-01

    The United States and the former Soviet Union have made and continue to make historic progress toward nuclear weapons disarmament. In 1991, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev decided to destroy or withdraw (FROM FORWARD-DEPLOYED UNITS) all land and sea-based tactical nuclear weapons. This paper examines why Regional CINCs must retain a substrategic nuclear weapons capability until substantial improvements are made in our anti-tactical missile defense systems. The threat of nuclear proliferation and the deterrent value of tactical nuclear weapons are discussed. The paper also addresses the issue of tactical nuclear weapons as a warfighting capability and concludes that Combatant Commanders won't need this capability once we improve our theater-based missile defense systems..... Tactical Nuclear Weapons in the Post Cold War Era: Implications for the Operational Commander.

  11. In the shadow of giants: Superpower arms transfers and Third World conflict during the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.

  12. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  13. Mission Command During the War of Movement in World War I Initiative and Synchronization of the German Right Wing in August and Early September 1914

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Mission Command During the War of Movement in World War I – Initiative and Synchronization of the German Right Wing in August and Early...German Right Wing in August and early September 1914 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC...War I – Initiative and Synchronization of the German Right Wing in August and early September 1914 Approved by: , Monograph Director

  14. Scientists in the classroom: Curriculum reform and the Cold War, 1949--1963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, John Laurence

    This dissertation focuses on the origins of the National Science Foundation-supported curriculum reform movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Using the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) as exemplars of the curriculum projects that proliferated during this era, this work provides a historical analysis of the shift in school curriculum from the life adjustment, functional approach to schooling prevalent after World War II to the discipline-centered approach characteristic of the 1960s. Important factors in this shift include the rising technological threat posed by the Soviet Union along with the Red Scare in the United States, which aroused public suspicion of the ideological underpinnings of the life adjustment curricular program. The efforts of the scientific elite to develop new science curricula were welcomed as a means to combat both the technological threat of the Soviets and, through science's identification with free inquiry and democracy, the ideological threat of communism. This dissertation specifically illustrates how the key elements of the new science curriculum materials---the focus on inquiry, laboratory work, and instructional technology---were shaped by the social and political atmosphere of the Cold War and how those elements were designed to advance the interests of the American scientific community in the postwar period. This social and political atmosphere, this work argues, was not only responsible for moving science instruction away from an emphasis on the every-day applications of science toward the disciplinary structure of scientific knowledge, but also contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the substantive content of the scientific knowledge itself that made up the subject matter of the new curricula.

  15. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  16. Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update: Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Counterinsurgency Scorecard Update Afghanistan in Early 2015 Relative to Insurgencies Since World War II Christopher Paul, Colin P. Clarke C O R P...and update similar RAND efforts published in 2011 and 2013, Counterinsurgency Scorecard: Afghanistan in Early 2011 Relative to the Insurgencies of the...Past 30 Years and Counterinsurgency Scorecard: Afghanistan in Early 2013 Relative to Insurgen- cies Since World War II, respectively. The core of

  17. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  18. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  19. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  20. Field Stations in the Cold War Arctic: Pedagogy and Practice in the Physical Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the first decades of Cold War America, the number of university-affiliated geophysical institutes expanded rapidly--and recruited new graduate students as they did. But how did these new recruits learn the ropes of their new profession? How did young scientists learn which concepts to take seriously, and which ones to discard--and how important were experiences gained outside the seminar room? How did they learn to design instruments, and develop research programs? Archival collections are often silent about graduate training, since many scientists began saving letters only after their professional careers were launched. But an important set of oral history interviews with individuals at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory sheds light on these questions. Interviews of researchers who were graduate students during the 1950s--including participants in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58--reveals the importance of opportunities to pursue wide-ranging investigations on research ships and remote field stations. This poster explores a particularly intriguing case, on a high-latitude ice island.

  1. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen´s The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  2. Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Maoists placed relentless pressure on communist cadres for ruthless implementation of the Great Leap Forward. Contrary to Maoist plans, China's grain output in 1959-1960 declined sharply from 1957 levels and rural per capita grain retention decreased dramatically. Throughout China, party cadres' mismanagement of agricultural production was responsible for the decline in grain output, and the communist state's excessive requisition of grain caused food shortages for the peasants. But the key factor determining the famine's uneven impact on the peasantry in the provinces was the degree to which provincial leaders genuinely and energetically embraced Maoist programs. This is illustrated by a close examination of the Great Leap famine in Anhui Province.

  3. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Elizabeth K; Laumann, Anne E

    2008-03-01

    We have seen a number of individuals who received blood-type tattoos on the left side of the chest as schoolchildren in northwest Indiana during the 1950s. To investigate the history of blood-type tattooing. Historical research was conducted using newspaper and journal articles found in medical libraries, online archives, American Medical Association archives, Chicago Historical Society records, local medical society documents, in addition to personal interviews. Blood-type tattoos were used during the Cold War to enable rapid transfusions as part of a "walking blood bank" in case of atomic attack. Nationwide blood-typing programs occurred to inform individuals of their own blood types and to provide local communities with lists of possible donors. The blood-type tattooing program was part of this effort, but community-wide tattooing occurred only in two parts of the United States: Lake County, Indiana, and Cache and Rich counties, Utah. In these communities, during 1951 and 1952, schoolchildren were tattooed to facilitate emergency transfusions. Events occurred more than 50 years ago, so we relied on original documents and interviews from individuals involved in the program who are still alive. The use of blood-type tattoos was short lived, lasting less than a year, and ultimately failed because physicians did not trust tattoos for medical information.

  4. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  6. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    1984-06-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cod injury, moderate but not heavy cigarette smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falkland Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Adolescents' views on war and peace in the early phases of the Iraq conflict.

    PubMed

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the Vietnam War, the first Persian Gulf War, and the U.S. military involvement in Latin America. The study took place in early fall 2003, and results were interpreted in light of the social climate and complex realities of post 9/11 in New York State, the Catholic Church's initial opposition to the Iraq conflict, and popular opinion. In spite of differences between the Iraq War and other conflicts, findings are remarkably similar. Although the present group is highly preoccupied with terrorism and nuclear war, even in a time of war, participants show concern for what they perceived as affecting their lives directly, rather than with conventional war. While they believe that President Bush was honest about the war in Iraq and right in sending troops, they do not glorify war. On a theoretical level, they overwhelmingly believe that wars are bad and the majority is optimistic that world peace is possible, though they realize that wars are difficult to prevent, believe that they are sometimes needed, and will occur in the future. Unlike the Catholic group surveyed by Tolley during the Vietnam War, however, participants are not as ready to die for their country, although findings show that, overall, like past groups, more boys tend to be pro-war than are girls and participants' views tend to reflect contemporary public opinions.

  8. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  9. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  10. Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze

    SciTech Connect

    Rojecki, A.

    1993-12-31

    The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes? (3) Has the character of voices permitted into this space changed over time? (4) Are there differences between the more elite-oriented media and those aiming for mass audiences? The study begins by tracing the formation of arms control policy in the three presidential administrations that span the two movements. Finally, it examines the news frames used to depict movement messages and participants. The study found that space provided to movement politics varied both with administration policy formation and editorial policy. Because news coverage followed the contours of elite policy, the movements succeeded only in placing their issues on the policy agenda but not in achieving their desired goals. There were significant differences in the types of voiced permitted into the news across the two movements. Moral authority to participate in and influence arms control policy debates was virtually unquestioned during the cold war, but by the 1980s, the media were more likely to defer to expert opinion, despite its underlying partisan interest. The most significant difference in news treatment was between the elite press and television news: The simplicity of the television report was more likely to elicit core issues. But neither the press, the opposition party in Congress, nor the movement used these to challenge the rationale of administration policy or to explore the ethical implications of the influence of defense industry PACs on policy-making.

  11. Evolution of Cold War Rules of Engagement: The Soviet Combat Role in the Korean War, 1950-1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    this were to happen in Germany the 51 effect upon Westl ~g Europe and eventually upon us might be catastrophic. NSC 68 considered four options: Status...McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982), 4. 63 1 0 0 Ibid, 1. 1 0 1 Bruce Cumings, The Origins of the Korean War. vol. I (Princeton: Princeton University...these attacks were rehearsals for the DPRK invasion. Bruce Cumings was one of the later Korean historians who presented an opposing view and

  12. What Does It Mean to Win in the Cold War--The Maximization Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA AWC LOG Copy No.___ of 8 Copies 66-4-179 U 0U~ C)2cJC USAWC RESEARCH ELEMENT (Thesis) What Does It...the Korean War became difficult to describe. The ques- tion can still be asked, "What did it mean to win in the Korean War?" APPROACHES TO THE TEORY OF...It is always a process . 𔃽 IKarl von Clausewitz, On War, p. 21. 2David S. McLellan, and others, The Theory and Practice of International Politics, p

  13. Relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and PTSD symptom severity: a retrospective study on female civilian victims of war

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Aleksandra; Frančišković, Tanja; Vermetten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS), the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ), and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65) in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war. PMID:27056034

  14. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  15. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Valentine Bay (105 miles to the east of Vladivostok). 2 0The crew members lost in the B-29 incident of June 13, 1952, were: Major Samuel N. Busch A0733811...Heydekrug, POW Camp No. 6, Grave 3, East Prussia 17. Robinson, Roy A. SIc 611 0637 City Cemetery, Murmansk, in lots for foreigners, USSR 18. Roland ...Nathan Ernser, Roland R. Irving, Edward J. Lang, Frederick A. Lord, Orvil H. Each set of remains was recovered from the far eastern area of the

  16. The 1965 coup and reformasi 1998: two critical moments in Indonesia-Malaysia relations during and after the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Maksum, Ali; Bustami, Reevany

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the significant impact of the two crucial moments in Indonesia namely, the 1965 coup and reformasi (reformation) in May 1998 and the impact towards the Indonesia-Malaysia relationship. History had demonstrated that both events were followed by some changes in the bilateral relationship. The 1965 coup for instance resulted the fall of Sukarno and the collapse of PKI, while reformasi brought the fall of Suharto and the collapse of New Order. However, it was undeniable that the demands of international situation especially during and after the Cold War were significant factor in driving of those events.

  17. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly.

  18. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  19. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  1. The IGY and the Satellite Race: A Reconsideration of a Cold War Crisis that Never Should Have Been

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, R. D.

    2006-05-01

    In October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the crisis that resulted led to numerous actions in the United States aimed at "remediating" a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957- 1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in the aftermath of the "crisis" and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  2. World War II Radar and Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.

    2005-08-01

    The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

  3. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  4. The Inner Cold War: State Party Control and East German Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    in an effort to control and conform society to embrace the benefits of a worker’s paradise and its guiding Marxist- Leninist ideology. The SED...the spirit of their new ideological mandate, popular resistance was strong on both sides of the inner German border because of the lost war and

  5. The Tightrope: French Colonial Collapse and the Shaping of Cold War Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    day, including Jean-Paul Sartre , were not only bitterly against the war in Indochina, but also against the Expeditionary Corps itself, which further... Sartre , France’s most influential intellectual. Censorship was not effective and the word of France’s atrocities spread worldwide, providing the worst

  6. The Office of Technical Services: A New Deal Idea in the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes a key legislative initiative following World War II which sought to assign to the federal government a role in gathering and communicating scientific and technical information to private industry. Creation of the Office of Technical Services and its eventual transformation to the National and Technical Information Service is…

  7. The San Francisco Peace Treaty: The Cold War and the Peace Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Rachel

    International treaties have played a central role in diplomatic history since the rise of the modern nation state. Since the end of World War II, more treaties have been formed than in the preceding four centuries. The year 2001 marks the 50th anniversary of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. This unit provides students with historical knowledge of…

  8. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  9. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  10. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  11. Cold War and the Politics of Comparative Education: The Case of Divided Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Theodor

    This paper deals with the political role and the political self-definition of researchers in the field of comparative education in East and West Germany in the post World War II period. The study addresses some of the general assumptions made about comparative education bridging the gap between cultures but asserts that none of these assumptions…

  12. Soviet-American Relations: Cold War to New Thinking. Topic #5 in a Series of International Security and Conflict [Curricula] for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    This 12-day unit is designed for use in the social studies classroom for grades 9-12 and community college level. Students first learn about the ideological, political, and military rivalries of the United States and the Soviet Union that marked the Cold War. They are then introduced to the nuclear build-up, and they study its impact on matters of…

  13. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  14. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  15. "If You Had Told Me before That These Students Were Russians, I Would Not Have Believed It": An International Project about the (New) "Cold War"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wansink, Bjorn; Zuiker, Itzél; Wubbels, Theo; Kamman, Maurits; Akkerman, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Bjorn Wansink and his co-authors have aligned their teaching of a recent and controversial historical issue--the Cold War--in the light of a contemporary incident. This article demonstrates a means of ensuring that students understand that different cultures' views of their shared past are nuanced, rather than monolithic--a different concept in…

  16. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  17. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  18. The ephemeral and the enduring: Trajectories of disappearance for the scientific objects of American Cold War nuclear weapons testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Here, the historical material culture produced by American Cold War nuclear weapons testing includes objects of scientific inquiry that can be generally categorized as being either ephemeral or enduring. Objects deemed to be ephemeral were of a less substantial nature, being impermanent and expendable in a nuclear test, while enduring objects were by nature more durable and long-lasting. Although all of these objects were ultimately subject to disappearance, the processes by which they were transformed, degraded, or destroyed prior to their disappearing differ. Drawing principally upon archaeological theory, this paper proposes a functional dichotomy for categorizing and studying the historical trajectories of nuclear weapons testing technoscience artifacts. In examining the transformation patterns of steel towers and concrete blockhouses in particular, it explores an associated loss of scientific method that accompanies a science object's disappearance.

  19. The ephemeral and the enduring: Trajectories of disappearance for the scientific objects of American Cold War nuclear weapons testing

    DOE PAGES

    Hanson, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Here, the historical material culture produced by American Cold War nuclear weapons testing includes objects of scientific inquiry that can be generally categorized as being either ephemeral or enduring. Objects deemed to be ephemeral were of a less substantial nature, being impermanent and expendable in a nuclear test, while enduring objects were by nature more durable and long-lasting. Although all of these objects were ultimately subject to disappearance, the processes by which they were transformed, degraded, or destroyed prior to their disappearing differ. Drawing principally upon archaeological theory, this paper proposes a functional dichotomy for categorizing and studying the historicalmore » trajectories of nuclear weapons testing technoscience artifacts. In examining the transformation patterns of steel towers and concrete blockhouses in particular, it explores an associated loss of scientific method that accompanies a science object's disappearance.« less

  20. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  1. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  2. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    PubMed

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  3. The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    economic and social disintegration continued unabated under Putin, and corruption had become an essential aspect of Russian life.44) By late summer...critics had lambasted his social and economic arrangements as leading to the current con- ditions. In the critics’ views, only a transformation of...La guerre irregulière, Paris, France: Economia , 2011; Robert Johnston, The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight, New York: Ox- ford University

  4. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    critical war sup- plies and troop reinforcements south through the Laotian panhandle by this time. And like honey drawing bees , the NVA activity brought... bees , these unconventional warriors relentlessly hunted their quarry, the Fifteenth Imperial Japanese Army. Their sting was unmistakable; the...their lives when 100,000-plus North Koreans poured over the 38th parallel like a huge swarm of killer bees . Leaving "a bloody wake of massacred

  5. Toward a New National Defense Strategy: Policing the Battlefields of the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-23

    especially military intervention!) in the maelstrom of civil war. Although the American, British and French military expeditions to the Kola...weapons. By removing a major impediment to the Navy’s free access to ports and world oceans (e.g., particularly in Southeast Asia) the loss of these...to address many of the most critical and ultimately most threatening of the true threats to our long-term national security. Earth is an ocean

  6. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  7. Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    2017-07-26

    This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). Coincident with that, new drug treatments for these disorders were introduced. War science also created an important number of tools and instruments, such as the radioisotopes, that played a significant role in the development of our story. The scientific context was marked by the development of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and the introduction in the early 80's of the DNA recombinant technologies. The concepts of chemical neurotransmission in the brain and of receptors for drugs and transmitters, although proposed before the war, where not generally accepted. Neurotransmitters were identified and the mechanisms of biosynthesis, storage, release and termination of action by mechanisms such as reuptake, elucidated. Furthermore, the synapse was seen with the electron microscope and more important for our account, neurons and their processes visualized in the brain first by fluorescence histochemistry, then using radioisotopes and autoradiography, and later by immunohistochemistry (IHC), originating the Chemical Neuroanatomy. The concept of chemical neurotransmission evolved from the amines, expanded to excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, then to neuropeptides and finally to gases and other "atypical" neurotransmitters. In addition, coexpression of more than one transmitter in a neuron, changed the initial ideas of neurotransmission. The concept of receptors for these and other messengers underwent a significant evolution from an abstract

  8. Cold War salons, social science, and the cure for modern society.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2009-06-01

    This essay examines how post-World War II Americans linked their understanding of domestic society and international affairs by using a common lens of psychological and characterological analysis for both. That lens was fashioned by social scientists and developed to study conformity and its opposite, creative and autonomous selfhood. Creativity offered a means to achieve the liberal national society they desired. Social scientists managed their technical definitions of conformity and autonomy as a way of defining reasonable political sentiment. This essay details how, ultimately, the forms of self and sociality they advocated for America were grounded in the kinds of community and interpersonal interaction they valued in their own professional lives.

  9. Cost-Performance Choices in Post-Cold War Weapons Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    accounts and comluent- 7. van Creveld. 320-22. taries. See John T. Correll. -"he Force at War." and 8. Fuller, 17: van Creveld. 21.9-21). James Canaan...Creveld, 67. 70. Air Force Macazine 74. no. 2 (Febmuary 1991): 46- 18. See Edward L. Katzenbach . Jr.. ’The Horse 51. For a summary of the ACEVAL...University more: Johns hlopkins University press. 1977). 369- Pre-,s. 1985). 84-85. 104-6. 70. 28. van Creveld. 365-84. 19. van Creveld, 69. 207. 318

  10. Are Standing Joint Task Force Headquarters the First Step in Transforming Cold War Formations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    leoorst. 129 Jetfetrson Oavn Suihw ty,lte 1204, ArlingtOn, V 222024302. and t0 the Otfice of Manaqemett and Buidget. PaierwoeK Reduci on PrOlec (0704...Progress." 18. 113 "JFC Forum - The Persian Gulf War. Ten Years After." (Joint Forces Quarterly. Winter 2000-01). 10. 114 James R . Helmly, "Future U.S... R . Stocker. Canadian Jointery, (Joint Forces Quarterly, Winter 95-96), 116. & James R . Heimly. "Future U.S. Military Strategy: The Need for a

  11. The War on Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Is Fighting the Good Fight.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).

  12. Spines of Steel: A Case of Surgical Enthusiasm in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Just as the prevalence of scoliosis began to decline precipitously after World War II, American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Paul R. Harrington devised a new, invasive surgical system whereby implantable prosthetic metal rods and hooks were used to straighten curved backs. By the 1970s, "Harrington rods" had become the gold standard of surgical scoliosis care in the United States, replacing more conventional methods of exercise, bracing, and casting. This article situates the success of Harrington rods within a much larger and historically longer debate about why, when compared to those in other nations, American surgeons appear to be "more aggressive" and "knife-happy." Using Harrington's papers and correspondence, I argue that patients played a vital role in the rise of spinal surgery. As such, this article examines not only how surgical enthusiasm has been historically measured, defined, and morally evaluated, but also how scoliosis became classified as a debility in need of surgical management.

  13. A Comparison of the Post-Cold War Defense Budget Reduction to Prior Post-Conflict Reductions after World War II, Korea and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    after all conflicts through World War II, and to a lessor extent after Korea and Vietnam. The current drawdown is different because of the all volunteer...scale of endeavor in World War II, both military and civilian at home, dwarfed all other events in modern history. The 1945 defense budget took 90...still driven by security concerns, even though defense spending had fallen dramatically since the war . The 1950 Budget, like all those since the end of

  14. The Case of Martha Deane: Sexuality and Power at Cold War UCLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a loyalty oath for professors at the University of California was part of the nationwide search for political subversives in all key institutions in the late 1940s and early 1950s. By the early 1950s, the panic over political subversives that led to the imposition of a loyalty oath at the University of California had spilled…

  15. The Case of Martha Deane: Sexuality and Power at Cold War UCLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a loyalty oath for professors at the University of California was part of the nationwide search for political subversives in all key institutions in the late 1940s and early 1950s. By the early 1950s, the panic over political subversives that led to the imposition of a loyalty oath at the University of California had spilled…

  16. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    through the championing of the maneuverist movement, which were directly influenced by Boyd’s writings and teaching. The Cold War is the subject of...volumes of writings and discourse. Most of these works focus on how and why it started, where and when confrontation took place, and eventually how...legacy as the foremost expert on strategic thought in the Marine Corps through organizationally and individually published writings .43 He directed a

  17. The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy’s Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines (Newport Paper No. 16, 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    between the submarine and its opponents. The first section provides a his- torical overview from the initial development of the modern submarine in 1900...a focus on the dual challenge posed by the end of the Cold War and the wide availability of modern , non-nuclear submarines. Inevitably, this structure...Fifty Years The first modern submarine was the Holland, which the U.S. Navy adopted in 1900, and the design for which was sold to other naval powers of

  18. Cold vs. Hot War: A Model for Building Conceptual Knowledge in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Students often report that social studies is their most boring and least favorite subject. As a child, Woodrow Wilson was bored by history, later describing his early studies as "one damn fact after another." Of course, Wilson went on to become an eminent historian, but only after he learned to reach beyond the "closed catechism" of "questions…

  19. Cold vs. Hot War: A Model for Building Conceptual Knowledge in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Students often report that social studies is their most boring and least favorite subject. As a child, Woodrow Wilson was bored by history, later describing his early studies as "one damn fact after another." Of course, Wilson went on to become an eminent historian, but only after he learned to reach beyond the "closed catechism" of "questions…

  20. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  1. Evolution of CO2 and H2O on Mars: A cold Early History?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The martian climate has long been thought to have evolved substantially through history from a warm and wet period to the current cold and dry conditions on the martian surface. This view has been challenged based primarily on evidence that the early Sun had a substantially reduced luminosity and that a greenhouse atmosphere would be difficult to sustain on Mars for long periods of time. In addition, the evidence for a warm, wet period of martian history is far from conclusive with many of the salient features capable of being explained by an early cold climate. An important test of the warm, wet early Mars hypothesis is the abundance of carbonates in the crust [1]. Recent high precision isotopic measurements of the martian atmosphere and discoveries of carbonates on the martian surface provide new constraints on the evolution of the martian atmosphere. This work seeks to apply these constraints to test the feasibility of the cold early scenario

  2. A literature review of medical aspects of post-cold war UN peacekeeping operations: trends, lessons learnt, courses of action and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2016-08-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of medical aspects crucial to UN PKOs. The intent of this article is to report on a review of principal medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKOs. This review was assembled through a comprehensive, grounded, systematic iterative inquiry of open-source articles. This inquiry revealed that the principal medical aspects in post-Cold War UN missions were the following: (1) the changed nature of UN PKOs, (2) new challenges in terms of proximity and distance to medical care, (3) expanded need for preventive medicine and disease contagion prevention and (4) increased propensity for psychological morbidity and need for intervention. Post Cold War, the dramatically changed nature of UN PKOs has resulted in new challenges mainly in terms of medical logistics, preventive medicine and psychiatry. The changed nature of post-Cold War UN PKOs altered the character of medical support most notably regarding (1) a need for emphasis on immediate response proximate to medical events and rapid transport over long distances and traversing barriers to higher levels of care, (2) proactive contagion and hazard identification and prevention and (3) interventions designed to reduce psychological morbidity. Recommendations are offered about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in identified medical aspects of PKOs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. Japan’s Post-Cold War North Korea Policy: Hedging toward Autonomy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Socialist Party (JSP) led by Deputy Prime Minister Kanemaru Shin visited Pyongyang from September 24 through 28, 1990, it was part of a calculated effort...Early Rounds, 1991–1992 When Shin Kanemaru led his delegation into Pyongyang in September 1990 the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) expected...and Korean Unification (Seoul, Korea: Yonsei University Press, 1999). 2. Jung Hyun Shin , Japanese-North Korean Relations: Linkage Politics in the

  4. Searches for Cold Relics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, Laura

    2005-11-01

    Up to 90% of matter in the Universe could be composed of heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they froze-out from the primordial soup. I will review current searches for these hypothetical particles, both via elastic scattering from nuclei in deep underground detectors, and via the observation of their annihilation products in the Sun, galactic halo and galactic center. The emphasis will be on most recent results, and on comparison with reaches of future particle colliders, such as the LHC and ILC.

  5. Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education.

    PubMed

    Akera, Atsushi

    2017-09-12

    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self-paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery-based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher-order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley

  6. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East.

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-04-08

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D&D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D&D projects.

  7. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests.

  8. The role of cold and hot gas flows in feeding early-type galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We study the evolution of the gaseous components in massive simulated galaxies and show that their early formation is fuelled by cold, low entropy gas streams. At lower redshifts of z <~ 3 the simulated galaxies are massive enough to support stable virial shocks resulting in a transition from cold to hot gas accretion. The gas accretion history of early-type galaxies is directly linked to the formation of their stellar component in the two phased formation scenario, in which the central parts of the galaxy assemble rapidly through in situ star formation and the later assembly is dominated primarily by minor stellar mergers.

  9. Casualty Aversion in the Post-Cold War Era: Defined and Analyzed Through the Logic of Clausewitz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    instrument”.11 10 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War, 88. 11 Jeffrey Record, “Force Protection Fetishism ...Protection Fetishism ,” stated his belief that: Casualty phobia reflects a misperceived lesson of the Vietnam War that, unfortunately, is shared among...12 Jeffrey Record, “Force Protection Fetishism .” 13 Eric V. Larson, Casualties and Consensus: The Historical role of Casualties in Domestic

  10. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  11. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  12. Early and delayed thallium 201 imaging. Diagnosis of patients with cold thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bleichrodt, R.P.; Vermey, A.; Piers, D.A.; de Langen, Z.J.

    1987-12-01

    To investigate the utility of thallium 201 (Tl-201) thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of thyroid malignancies, early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy was done in 70 consecutive patients with a clinically solitary cold (Iodine 123 (I-123)) nodule. Early Tl-201 scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 7% in predicting malignancy. With a combination of early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy, sensitivity ranged from 17 to 25% and specificity from 95 to 100%. Early and and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy are only of limited value for the detection of thyroid cancer.

  13. Review of Cold War Freud, Psychiatry in Communist Europe, and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Communist Culture: Ideological Battles in the Cold War].

    PubMed

    Innamorati, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power. In the United States, on the other hand, as Herzog (2016) pinpoints, the political situation affected the same field, even if indirectly, as in the Christianization of a discipline-psychoanalysis-the creator of which proudly declared himself an atheist Jew. In other Western countries, the relationship between psychiatry and power could bring about paradoxical results. From Vezzetti's (2016) book, one can ascertain that psychiatric culture might assume an overtly opposing stance toward political power. Vezzetti scans the case of Argentina, and partly of France, but they were not isolated cases. In Italy, for example, a movement of radical psychiatrists understood their role as a necessary opposition to political power, having as an aim the "liberation" of patients locked up in the psychiatric hospitals (Foot, 2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Homeland Security Strategy from the Cold War into the Global War on Terrorism: An Analysis of Deterrence, Forward Presence, and Homeland Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    hurricanes, wildfires, and blizzards . The Army also supported the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta and aircraft and victim recovery in the TWA Flight...there has been an explosion of terrorism research in the form of war gaming , conspiracy theorizing, 3 and drawing conclusions from hindsight...Instead of maintaining a large standing force, Truman favored mobilization of reserve forces in the traditional American fashion of “declare and then

  15. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths.

  16. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  17. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-03-29

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian-early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼ 42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous.

  18. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-01-01

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian—early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous. PMID:21393569

  19. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives.

  20. Formation of Valley Networks in a Cold and Icy Early Mars Climate: Predictions for Erosion Rates and Channel Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, J. P.; Head, J. W.

    2017-10-01

    Climate models suggest early Mars was cold and icy. To test this prediction we assess the influence of cold conditions and the presence of an ice-cemented substrate on the formation of the valley networks and compare results to morphometric data.

  1. Cold seep-related occurrence of the Early Jurassic rhynchonellid brachiopod Anarhynchia from the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálfy, József; Price, Gregory D.; Vörös, Attila; Kovács, Zsófia; Johannson, Gary G.

    2017-04-01

    Cold seeps, where seepage of methane and/or other hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrogen-sulfide occurs in the sea floor, are sites which harbor highly specialized ecosystems associated with distinctive carbonate sediments. Although their Mesozoic record is scarce and patchy, it commonly includes rhynchonellid brachiopods, often of large size. Each new occurrence is valuable in filling gaps and providing additional insight into these peculiar ecosystems. Here we report a monospecific assemblage of Anarhynchia from a boulder-sized limestone clast of Early Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) age in the Inklin Formation of the Whitehorse Trough in Stikine terrane, recovered from a locality at Copper Island in Atlin Lake, northern British Columbia, Canada. Specimens are of unusually large size, up to 9 cm in length, and their external and internal morphology allows assignment to Anarhynchia but warrants introduction of a new species. Although d13C and d18O values of the shells are close to equilibrium with ancient seawater, early precipitated carbonate cement phases of the enclosing limestone are characterised by highly depleted carbon isotopic composition, indicative of the influence of microbial oxidation of methane derived from a cold seep. Carbonate petrography of the isopachous, banded-fibrous cement supports its origin in a cold seep environment. Volcanogenic detrital grains in the micritic matrix of the limestone clast are indistinguishable from those in the sandstone layers in the siliciclastic sequence, suggesting that the seep carbonate is broadly coeval with the enclosing conglomerate. Previously, Anarhynchia has been known from the Lower Jurassic of California and Oregon, from both cold seep and hydrothermal vent deposits. Our new record extends the geographic range and species-level diversity of the genus, but supports its endemism to the East Pacific and membership in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

  2. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  3. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  4. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) < 0.001) but not for the number of days in the Khamisiyah plume (p(trend) = 0.17). Exposure to low-level sarin nerve agent in fallout from bombing early in the air campaign contributed more to chronic illness than post-war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. "Early Psychosis" as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term "early psychosis" was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about "early psychosis" under names such as "latent," "masked," "mild," "simple" or "sluggish" schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals "early psychosis" as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry.

  6. Early-age cold conditioning of broilers: effects of timing and temperature.

    PubMed

    Shahir, M H; Dilmagani, S; Tzschentke, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early-age cold conditioning (CC) on performance, ascites mortality, thyroid hormones status and immune response (leucocytes count) of broiler chickens. 2. A total of 336 chicks at 2 and 3 d of age were exposed to 20 or 25°C (for 3 or 6 h) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, while a control group was kept under normal temperature conditions (30°C). Thereafter, both control and cold conditioned birds were reared under standard conditions until 42 d of age. 3. The results showed that performance (weight gain and feed efficiency) was improved by CC at the end of the rearing period. Carcase traits (breast, thigh and abdominal fat percentage) were not affected by different treatments. Heart weight was lower in cold conditioned birds accompanied with lower ascites mortality. Total leucocyte count was higher in CC birds. Higher concentrations of thyroxin (T(4)) were found in plasma of treated groups, while triiodothyronine (T(3)) to T(4) ratio was decreased. 4. In conclusion, it seems that early age CC improves performance and reduces ascites mortality of broilers through altered thyroid hormones metabolism and leucocyte function. According to the results, the best timing for CC of broilers was 20°C for 6 h at the age of 2 d, and no significant benefit was observed by repeated CC.

  7. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  8. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Security, Vol. 27, No. 4, Spring 2003. 6. While realism as a whole has been associated with zero- sum thinking and severe pessimism about international... Realism : Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy 45 in Chinese History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1995; David Kang, “Getting Asia Wrong: The...Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his

  9. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    tension, there was friction among the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. See Brooks L. Bash , “Leadership and Parochialism: An Enduring Reality?” Joint Force...Quarterly, Summer 1999, p. 65. Bash notes that the decision by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell to rely mainly on Army forces to...1. Capitalization in the original. 11 U.S. War Department (1943), p. 2. Capitalization in the original. American Ground Power and Air Power Before the

  10. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  11. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic.

  12. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  13. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  14. An early experiment in national identity cards: the battle over registration in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2006-04-10

    The current debate on issuing identity cards to the British population was foreshadowed during the First World War, when the National Registration Act of 1915 provided for a register of all men and women between 15 and 65, later used to aid conscription. The National Register was produced by Bernard Mallet, the Registrar General of England and Wales. The information demands of the war also provided an opportunity for Mallet to press forward his pre-war agenda of reforming the system of routine registration of births, marriages and deaths. His desire for reform was shaped by the pressing eugenic questions of the day - infant mortality and national efficiency - and as the war progressed, he developed his ideas to include a permanent universal register of all individuals. This article examines the fate of Mallet's proposals, and shows how lack of political consensus and lack of support, even from colleagues in the General Register Office for Scotland, prevented his proposals coming to fruition.

  15. Adiposity and height of adult Hmong refugees: relationship with war-related early malnutrition and later migration.

    PubMed

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled in French Guiana or the United States following the Second Indochina War. Overall, 30.5% were born in a war zone in Laos, while 38.8% were displaced as infants; these individuals were presumed to have experienced malnutrition in the perinatal and infant periods, respectively. Resettlement in urban areas in the US was utilized as a proxy for greater exposure to excessive energy balance, compared with Hmong who resettled in rural areas in French Guiana. In multiple linear regression models, being displaced in infancy was negatively associated with height after controlling for confounders, while being born in a war zone was associated with higher adiposity and centralized body fat distribution. Resettlement in the US was associated with a higher centralization of subcutaneous fat, but not overall adiposity. These findings may be of interest to the study of the developmental origins of obesity, in a population that has undergone early malnutrition followed by migration and rapid nutritional transition.

  16. Effects of the duration of cold stratification on early life stages of the Mediterranean alpine plant Silene ciliata.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, A; Escudero, A; Lara-Romero, C; Iriondo, J M

    2015-03-01

    Cold stratification provided by snow cover is essential to break seed dormancy in many alpine plant species. The forecast reduction in snow precipitation and snow cover duration in most temperate mountains as a result of global warming could threaten alpine plant populations, especially those at the edge of their species distribution, by altering the dynamics of early life stages. We simulated some effects of a reduction in the snow cover period by manipulating the duration of cold stratification in seeds of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean alpine specialist. Seeds from three populations distributed along an altitudinal gradient were exposed to different periods of cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 months) in the laboratory and then moved to common garden conditions in a greenhouse. The duration of the cold stratification treatment and population origin significantly affected seed emergence percentage, emergence rate and seedling size, but not the number of seedling leaves. The 6-month and 4-month cold stratification treatments produced higher emergence percentages and faster emergence rates than seeds without cold stratification treatment. No significant cold stratification duration x seed population origin interactions were found, thus differential sensitivity to cold stratification along elevation is not supported. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  18. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    PubMed Central

    Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene

  19. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  20. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  1. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  2. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    PubMed

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  3. Polyethylene glycol reduces early and long-term cold ischemia-reperfusion and renal medulla injury.

    PubMed

    Faure, Jean Pierre; Hauet, Thierry; Han, Zeqiu; Goujon, Jean Michel; Petit, Isabelle; Mauco, Gerard; Eugene, Michel; Carretier, Michel; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2002-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after transplantation is a major cause of delayed graft function, which has a negative impact on early and late graft function and improve acute rejection. We have previously shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and particularly PEG 20M has a protective effect against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in an isolated perfused pig and rat kidney model. We extended those observations to investigate the role of PEG using different doses (30g or 50g/l) added (ICPEG30 or ICPEG50) or not (IC) to a simplified preservation solution to reduce IRI after prolonged cold storage (48-h) of pig kidneys when compared with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions. The study of renal function and medulla injury was performed with biochemical methods and proton NMR spectroscopy. Histological and inflammatory cell studies were performed after reperfusion (30-40 min) and on days 7 and 14 and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a mitochondrial protein involved in cholesterol homeostasis, was also studied. The results demonstrated that ICPEG30 improved renal function and reduced medulla injury. ICPEG30 also improved tubular function and strongly protect mitochondrial integrity. Post-IRI inflammation was strongly reduced in this group, particularly lymphocytes TCD4(+), PBR expression was influenced by IRI in the early period and during the development of chronic dysfunction. This study clearly shows that PEG has a beneficial effect in renal preservation and suggests a role of PBR as a marker IRI and repair processes.

  4. Adolescents' Views on War and Peace in the Early Phases of the Iraq Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the…

  5. Adolescents' Views on War and Peace in the Early Phases of the Iraq Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the…

  6. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements.

    PubMed

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-04-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (~20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations.

  7. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements

    PubMed Central

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (∼20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations. PMID:22968131

  8. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    In this document, students examine the economic and military concerns that linked the history of the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. Organized into four chapters, the first chapter examines the history of U.S. relations with the Caribbean and Central America from the early 19th century to 1961. The second chapter focuses on the…

  9. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    In this document, students examine the economic and military concerns that linked the history of the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. Organized into four chapters, the first chapter examines the history of U.S. relations with the Caribbean and Central America from the early 19th century to 1961. The second chapter focuses on the…

  10. Following the Flag: An Air Force Officer Provides an Eyewitness View of Major Events and Policies during the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    make a circumlunar orbit. On Christmas Eve 968, Borman and his fellow astronauts during the first lunar orbit each read a verse from Genesis and...on emergency procedures. Flying Safety magazine printed a favorable article on this safety program in January 1956. In early January 1955, I attended...officer, 3d Brigade, 4th Infantry Division, and assistant chief of staff of the 11th Field Force. He then became executive of- ficer and senior aide to

  11. Behavioral Problems and Emotional Difficulties at Children and Early Adolescents of the Veterans of War with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Selimbasic, Zihnet; Sinanovic, Osman; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Hamidovic, Jasmin

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children of the veterans of war with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been researched entirely. In our country, which has a lot of persons suffering from some psychological traumas, this trauma seems to continue. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure, manifestations of behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children and early adolescents, whose fathers were the veterans of war demonstrating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The analyzed group comprised 120 school age children (10-15 years of age), whose parents/fathers were the veterans of war. The children were divided into two groups, and each group into the following two age sub-groups: 10-12 (children) and 13-15 (early adolescents) according to PTSD presence at their fathers - veterans of war. PTSD symptoms at fathers, veterans of war, were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Bosnia and Herzegovina version and MKB-10 - audit of criteria. To assess the behavioral problems of children, the Child Behavior Checklist for parents was used, and to evaluate the neuroticism at children Hanes-Scale of neuroticism-extraversion was used while the depression level was evaluated using the Depression self-rating scale (DSRS). To analyze the obtained results, SPSS 17 program was used. The value p <0. 05 is considered significant. Children of fathers, the veterans of war, demonstrating the PTSD symptoms show more problems in activity, social and school conduct as well as in symptoms of behavioral problems compared to the children whose fathers do not demonstrate the PTSD symptoms (p<0. 001). Children of the war veterans demonstrating the symptoms of the post-traumatic stress disorder show significant difference at neuroticism sub-scales (p<0.001). Negative correlation between PTSD and activity, social and school conduct has been determined (p <0. 01), while positive correlation was determined between PTSD of war veterans

  12. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  13. Cold Accretion in Early Galaxy Formation and Its Lyα Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Lyα emission has played an important role in detecting high-redshift galaxies, including recently distant ones at redshifts z\\gt 7. It may also contain important information concerning the origin of these galaxies. Here, we investigate the formation of a typical L* galaxy and its observational signatures at the earliest stage by combining a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional radiative transfer (RT) calculations using the newly improved AR{{T}2} code. Our cosmological simulation uses the Aquila initial condition, which zooms in on a Milky-Way-like halo with high resolutions, and our RT couples multi-wavelength continuum, Lyα line, and ionization of hydrogen. We find that the modeled galaxy starts to form at redshift z ∼ 24 through the efficient accretion of cold gas, which produces a strong Lyα line with a luminosity of {{L}Lyα }∼ {{10}42} erg {{s}-1} as early as z ∼ 14. The Lyα emission appears to trace the cold, dense gas. The lines exhibit asymmetric, single-peak profiles, and are shifted to the blue wing, a characteristic feature of gas inflow. Moreover, the contribution to the total Lyα luminosity from excitation cooling increases with redshift and becomes dominant at z ≳ 6. We predict that L* galaxies such as the modeled one may be detected at z ≲ 8 by the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array with a reasonable integration time. Beyond redshift 12, however, the Lyα line may only be observable by spectroscopic surveys. Our results suggest that the Lyα line is one of the most powerful tools to detect the first generation of galaxies and decipher their formation mechanism.

  14. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  15. The risk to the United Kingdom population of zinc cadmium sulfide dispersion by the Ministry of Defence during the "cold war"

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, P; Phillips, C; Clayton, B; Lachmann, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate exposures to cadmium (Cd) received by the United Kingdom population as a result of the dispersion of zinc Cd sulfide (ZnCdS) by the Ministry of Defence between 1953 and 1964, as a simulator of biological warfare agents. Methods: A retrospective risk assessment study was carried out on the United Kingdom population during the period 1953–64. This determined land and air dispersion of ZnCdS over most of the United Kingdom, inhalation exposure of the United Kingdom population, soil contamination, and risks to personnel operating equipment that dispersed ZnCdS. Results: About 4600 kg ZnCdS were dispersed from aircraft and ships, at times when the prevailing winds would allow large areas of the country to be covered. Cadmium released from 44 long range trials for which data are available, and extrapolated to a total of 76 trials to allow for trials with incomplete information, is about 1.2% of the estimated total release of Cd into the atmosphere over the same period. "Worst case" estimates are 10 µg Cd inhaled over 8 years, equivalent to Cd inhaled in an urban environment in 12–100 days, or from smoking 100 cigarettes. A further 250 kg ZnCdS was dispersed from the land based sites, but significant soil contamination occurred only in limited areas, which were and have remained uninhabited. Of the four personnel involved in the dispersion procedures (who were probably exposed to much higher concentrations of Cd than people on the ground), none are suspected of having related illnesses. Conclusion: Exposure to Cd from dissemination of ZnCdS during the "cold war" should not have resulted in adverse health effects in the United Kingdom population. PMID:11836463

  16. The risk to the United Kingdom population of zinc cadmium sulfide dispersion by the Ministry of Defence during the "cold war".

    PubMed

    Elliott, P J; Phillips, C J C; Clayton, B; Lachmann, P J

    2002-01-01

    To estimate exposures to cadmium (Cd) received by the United Kingdom population as a result of the dispersion of zinc Cd sulfide (ZnCdS) by the Ministry of Defence between 1953 and 1964, as a simulator of biological warfare agents. A retrospective risk assessment study was carried out on the United Kingdom population during the period 1953-64. This determined land and air dispersion of ZnCdS over most of the United Kingdom, inhalation exposure of the United Kingdom population, soil contamination, and risks to personnel operating equipment that dispersed ZnCdS. About 4600 kg ZnCdS were dispersed from aircraft and ships, at times when the prevailing winds would allow large areas of the country to be covered. Cadmium released from 44 long range trials for which data are available, and extrapolated to a total of 76 trials to allow for trials with incomplete information, is about 1.2% of the estimated total release of Cd into the atmosphere over the same period. "Worst case" estimates are 10 microg Cd inhaled over 8 years, equivalent to Cd inhaled in an urban environment in 12100 days, or from smoking 100 cigarettes. A further 250 kg ZnCdS was dispersed from the land based sites, but significant soil contamination occurred only in limited areas, which were and have remained uninhabited. Of the four personnel involved in the dispersion procedures (who were probably exposed to much higher concentrations of Cd than people on the ground), none are suspected of having related illnesses. Exposure to Cd from dissemination of ZnCdS during the "cold war" should not have resulted in adverse health effects in the United Kingdom population.

  17. Physio-biochemical and proteome analysis of chickpea in early phases of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Heidarvand, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza

    2013-03-15

    Intensive and short-term strategies can aid in more rapid screening with informative and reliable results for long-term investigations under cold stress (CS). The integration of cellular analysis of chickpea during 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h CS supplied us with novel possible responsive components and the possible interactions embedded inside, still remaining a Maze. Seedlings showed a biphasic pattern of responses over time. The transitory phase happened after 8h, when cells are presumably experiencing a new stage of responses and setting the stage for long-term adjustments. Physio-biochemical analysis confirmed the direct effect of fatty acids composition, lipoxygenase activity and antioxidant systems in cell responses under CS. Also, proteome results using MALDI-TOF-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS were able to differentiate changes in early phases of CS. Two-dimensional gel analysis results showed the possible targets of CS as mitochondria, chloroplast, organelle-nucleus communications, storage resources, stress and defense, protein degradation and signal transduction that confirmed the cell intended to re-establish a new homeostasis, in energy and primary metabolites to adapt to long-term CS. Here we propose a time course dynamic assessing multi-dimensional approaches for CS studies as one of the first studies in short-term treatment to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events and touch the cell architecture for a better comprehension of the nature of plant stress response.

  18. Coeval Formation of Mineral Sequences on a Cold and Wet Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, A. G.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Gago-Duport, L.; Losa-Adams, E.; Chevrier, V.; Gil-Lozano, C.

    2017-10-01

    A Martian substrate associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits can produce different mineralogical sequences under the same environmental conditions: a generally cold planet with transitional warm periods.

  19. Late Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) Cold Seep Carbonates: Methane Release Prior to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Harazim, D.; Sorichter, K.; Fiebig, J.; Zanella, F.; Oschmann, W.; Rosenthal, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present evidence for methane seepage during the Early Jurassic (~ 185 Ma) in the form of newly discovered extensive occurrences of carbonate concretions that resemble the subsurface plumbing system of better known Cenozoic to Recent examples of cold seep carbonates. Columnar carbonate concretions of up to 1 m in length that are perpendicular to bedding, occur abundantly in the Upper Pliensbachian (upper Amaltheus margaritatus Zone, gibbosus Subzone) in outcrops in the vicinity of Riviere-sur-Tarn, southern France. Stable isotope analyses of these nodules show depleted δ13C values that decrease from the rim to the center from -18.8 to -25.7‰ (V-PDB), but normal marine δ18O values (-1.8‰). Computer tomographic (CT) scanning of the columnar concretions show one or more central canals that are lined or filled entirely with pyrite and late diagenetic minerals. Septarian cracks are also filled with secondary calcite and/or siderite. Based on our preliminary geochemical and sedimentological observations we suggest that these concretions formed as a combination of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulfate reduction within the sediment. Previously, these concretions with one, two or more central tubes have been ascribed to the activity of an enigmatic organism, possibly with annelid or arthropod affinities, known as Tisoa siphonalis. Our results suggest tisoan structures are abiogenic. Interestingly, Tisoa siphonalis has been described from many locations in the Grands Causses Basin in southern France, and from northern France and Luxemburg, always occurring at the same stratigraphic level. Upper Pliensbachian cold seep carbonates thus possibly cover an area of several thousand square kilometers, largely distributed across the basin centres of the NW European epicontinental seaway. Our findings may have far reaching implications for understanding the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event, which is interpreted to bear the hallmarks of catastrophic methane release

  20. Civil Wars Hijacked: A Case Study of the Lebanese Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of regime change via boots on the ground was temporarily halted during the Cold War as the Soviet Union challenged the United States’ freedom of...maneuver overseas.11 During this period, the United States employed clandestine operations to overthrow regimes.12 However, with the end of the Cold War...advocate more limited approaches that emphasize disruption or coercion. Contrary to Kinzer’s argument that the end of the Cold War ushered in an era

  1. The War in Vietnam: A Story in Photographs. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Linda Darus

    During the Vietnam War, the U.S. military gave the press unprecedented freedom of access to combat zones. This allowed newspaper reporters, photographers, and television crews to document a war involving U.S. sons and daughters on the other side of the world. This willingness to allow war documentation also was extended to the military's own…

  2. Blasphemy: How the U.S. Government Practiced a Type of Operational Art to Defend Latin America During the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Albatross of Decisive Victory (Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 1996), 13. 39 Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military...Thought. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. Gawrych, George. The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: The Albatross of Decisive Victory. Ft. Leavenworth

  3. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps : Looking at the early stages of star-formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montier, Ludovic

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite has provided an unprecedented view of the submm sky, allowing us to search for the dust emission of Galactic cold sources. Combining Planck-HFI all-sky maps in the high frequency channels with the IRAS map at 100um, we built the Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015), counting 13188 sources distributed over the whole sky, and following mainly the Galactic structures at low and intermediate latitudes. This is the first all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold sources obtained with a single instrument at this resolution and sensitivity, which opens a new window on star-formation processes in our Galaxy.I will briefly describe the colour detection method used to extract the Galactic cold sources, i.e., the Cold Core Colour Detection Tool (CoCoCoDeT, Montier et al. 2010), and its application to the Planck data. I will discuss the statistical distribution of the properties of the PGCC sources (in terms of dust temperature, distance, mass, density and luminosity), which illustrates that the PGCC catalogue spans a large variety of environments and objects, from molecular clouds to cold cores, and covers various stages of evolution. The Planck catalogue is a very powerful tool to study the formation and the evolution of prestellar objects and star-forming regions.I will finally present an overview of the Herschel Key Program Galactic Cold Cores (PI. M.Juvela), which allowed us to follow-up about 350 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps, in various stages of evolution and environments. With this program, the nature and the composition of the 5' Planck sources have been revealed at a sub-arcmin resolution, showing very different configurations, such as starless cold cores or multiple Young Stellar objects still embedded in their cold envelope.

  4. Reconsidering American Indian historical trauma: lessons from an early Gros Ventre war narrative.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    Professional clinicians and human services providers are increasingly attributing the mental health problems of American Indians (AIs) to historical trauma (HT). As an alternative to established psychiatric disorders, AI HT was formulated to explain enduring mental health disparities as originating in tribal experiences of Euro-American colonization. As a result, AI HT has been described as the collective, cumulative, and intergenerational psychosocial disability resulting from massive group-based oppression, such as forced relocation, political subjugation, cultural domination, and genocide. One objective of the HT construct is to frame AI distress and dysfunction in social and historical terms. Given widespread indigenous experiences of colonization, the debilitating effects of HT are presumed to affect most AI communities today. With this background in mind, I explore AI HT with specific reference to a "war narrative" obtained by an anthropologist in 1901 from an elderly Gros Ventre woman. In this account, Watches All described her participation in a historic intertribal battle, and her subsequent captivity and escape from the enemy during the late 1860s. This historical narrative references many first-hand experiences that would today be identified as traumatogenic. Interestingly, however, this account complicates several assumptions underlying AI HT, leading to vexing questions of whether Watches All's ordeal actually qualifies as an instance of AI HT. No matter how one answers these questions, such ambiguity highlights serious theoretical confusions requiring elaboration and refinement if AI HT is to remain a useful construct in the behavioral health sciences.

  5. The Early Climate History of Mars: "Warm and Wet" or "Cold and Icy"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2013-04-01

    The Amazonian climate (last ~66% of history) was much like today, a cold and dry climate regime, characterized by the latitudinal migration of surface ice in response to variations in spin-axis/orbital parameters. But what characterized the Noachian climate (first ~20% of history)? Some data support a "warm and wet" early Mars, but this evidence has been challenged. New models of early Mars climate (Forget, Wordsworth et al.) find that for atmospheric pressures greater than a few hundred millibars, surface temperatures vary with altitude due to atmosphere-surface thermal coupling: an adiabatic cooling effect (ACE) results in deposition of snow and ice at high altitudes, in contrast to Amazonian conditions. Without other warming mechanisms, no combination of parameters lead to mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) consistent with widespread liquid water anywhere on the planet. The ACE causes southern highland region temperatures to fall significantly below the global average leading to a "Noachian Icy Highlands" scenario: Water is transported to the highlands from low-lying regions due to the ACE and snows out to form an extended H2O ice cap at the southern pole, and altitude-dependent snow and ice deposits down to lower southern latitudes. Could the predictions of this "Noachian Icy Highlands" model be consistent with the many lines of evidence traditionally cited for a "warm, wet" early Mars? Perturbing this predominant Noachian environment with punctuated impacts and volcanism/greenhouse gases would lead to raising of global surface temperatures toward the melting point of water, with the following consequences: 1) ice above the surface ice stability line undergoes rapid altitude/latitude dependent warming during each Mars summer; 2) meltwater runoff from the continuous ice sheet drains and flows downslope to the edge of the ice sheet, where meltwater channels encounter cratered terrain, forming closed-basin and open-basin lakes; 3) seasonal top-down heating and

  6. A warm or a cold early Earth? New insights from a 3-D climate-carbon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, Benjamin; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Forget, François; Catling, David C.

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen isotopes in marine cherts have been used to infer hot oceans during the Archean with temperatures between 60 °C (333 K) and 80 °C (353 K). Such climates are challenging for the early Earth warmed by the faint young Sun. The interpretation of the data has therefore been controversial. 1D climate modeling inferred that such hot climates would require very high levels of CO2 (2-6 bars). Previous carbon cycle modeling concluded that such stable hot climates were impossible and that the carbon cycle should lead to cold climates during the Hadean and the Archean. Here, we revisit the climate and carbon cycle of the early Earth at 3.8 Ga using a 3D climate-carbon model. We find that CO2 partial pressures of around 1 bar could have produced hot climates given a low land fraction and cloud feedback effects. However, such high CO2 partial pressures should not have been stable because of the weathering of terrestrial and oceanic basalts, producing an efficient stabilizing feedback. Moreover, the weathering of impact ejecta during the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) would have strongly reduced the CO2 partial pressure leading to cold climates and potentially snowball Earth events after large impacts. Our results therefore favor cold or temperate climates with global mean temperatures between around 8 °C (281 K) and 30 °C (303 K) and with 0.1-0.36 bar of CO2 for the late Hadean and early Archean. Finally, our model suggests that the carbon cycle was efficient for preserving clement conditions on the early Earth without necessarily requiring any other greenhouse gas or warming process.

  7. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  8. The medical profession and nuclear war. A social history.

    PubMed

    Day, B; Waitzkin, H

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the United States have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  9. Effects of ingesting [13C]glucose early or late into cold exposure on substrate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, Denis P.; Péronnet, François

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors limiting the oxidation of exogenous glucose during cold exposure may be the delay in establishing a shivering steady state (∼60 min), reducing glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Therefore, using indirect calorimetry and isotopic methodologies in non-cold-acclimatized men, the main purpose of this study was to determine whether ingesting glucose at a moment coinciding with the maximal shivering intensity could increase the utilization rate of the ingested glucose. 13C-enriched glucose was ingested (800 mg/min) from the onset (G0) or after 60 min (G60) of cold exposure when the thermogenic rate was stabilized to low-intensity shivering (∼2.5 times resting metabolic rate). For the same quantity of glucose ingested, the oxidation rate of exogenous glucose was 35% higher in G60 (159 ± 17 vs. 118 ± 17 mg/min in G0) between minutes 60 and 90. By the end of cold exposure, exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly greater in G0, reaching 231 ± 14 mg/min, ∼15% higher than the only rates previously reported. This considerably reduced the utilization of endogenous reserves over time and compared with the G60 condition. This study also demonstrates a fall in muscle glycogen utilization, when glucose was ingested from the onset of cold exposure (from ∼150 to ∼75 mg/min). Together, these findings indicate the importance of ingesting glucose immediately on exposure to a cold condition, relying on shivering thermogenesis and sustaining that consumption for as long as possible. This substrate not only provides an auxiliary fuel source for shivering thermogenesis, but, more importantly, preserves the limited endogenous glucose reserves. PMID:20651221

  10. 77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... defining moments of the Cold War. Today, on the 59th anniversary of the Military Armistice Agreement signed at Panmunjom, we honor all who served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute to the brave men...

  11. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue to...

  12. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  13. Effects of early feed restriction and cold temperature on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites morbidity in broilers under normal and cold temperature.

    PubMed

    Pan, J Q; Tan, X; Li, J C; Sun, W D; Wang, X L

    2005-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early feed restriction on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites incidence in broilers under normal and low ambient temperature. In experiment 1, the restricted birds were fed 8h per day either from 7 to 14 d or from 7 to 21 d, while the controlled birds were fed ad libitum. In experiment 2, the restricted birds were fed 80 or 60% of the previous 24-h feed consumption of full-fed controls for 7 d from 7 to 14 d. On d 14, half of the birds in each treatment both in experiment 1 and experiment 2 were exposed to low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. The incidences of ascites and other disease were recorded to determine ascites morbidity and total mortality. Blood samples were taken on d 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 to measure the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). On d 42, samples were taken to determine the right/total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV), vessel wall area/vessel total area ratio (WA/TA) and mean media thickness in pulmonary arterioles (mMTPA). Low-temperature treatment increased plasma MDA concentration. When broilers were exposed to a cool environment for 3 weeks, plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity were decreased compared with normal-temperature chicks. RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA on d 42 were increased in birds exposed to cold, consistent with the increased pulmonary hypertension and ascites morbidity. Early feed restriction markedly decreased plasma MDA concentration. The plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity of feed-restricted birds were markedly higher than those fed ad libitum on d 35 and d 42. All early feed restriction treatments reduced ascites morbidity and total mortality. On d 42, the RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA of feed-restricted broilers were lower than that of the ad libitum-fed broilers. The results suggested that early feed restriction alleviated the lipid

  14. Back to the Future: How a Look Back at Cold War Naval Doctrine can Inform Operational Planning for U.S.-PRC Maritime Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-28

    War Soviet-to-PLAN influence is the plethora of Russian and Russian-derived equipment operated by the PRC’s armed forces. Due to U.S. and European ...the Tupolev Tu-16 Badger ); and the Shenyang J-11 fighter (a copy of the Sukhoi SU-27 fighter). 22

  15. The evolution of endothermy is explained by thyroid hormone-mediated responses to cold in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-05-15

    The evolution of endothermy is one of the most intriguing and consistently debated topics in vertebrate biology, but the proximate mechanisms that mediated its evolution are unknown. Here, we suggest that the function of thyroid hormone in regulating physiological processes in response to cold is key to understanding the evolution of endothermy. We argue that the capacity of early chordates to produce thyroid hormone internally was the first step in this evolutionary process. Selection could then act on the capacity of thyroid hormone to regulate metabolism, muscle force production and cardiac performance to maintain their function against the negative thermodynamic effects of decreasing temperature. Thyroid-mediated cold acclimation would have been the principal selective advantage. The actions of thyroid hormone during cold acclimation in zebrafish are very similar to its role during endothermic thermogenesis. The thyroid-mediated increases in metabolism and locomotor performance in ectotherms eventually resulted in sufficient heat production to affect body temperature. From this point onwards, increased body temperature per se could be of selective advantage and reinforce thyroid-induced increases in physiological rates. Selection for increased body temperature would promote those mechanisms that maximise heat production, such as increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, futile cycling by SERCA, and mitochondrial uncoupling, all of which are regulated by thyroid hormone. The specific end point of this broader evolutionary process would be endothermic thermoregulation. However, considering the evolution of endothermy in isolation is misleading because the selective advantages that drove the evolutionary process were independent from endothermy. In other words, without the selective advantages of thyroid-mediated cold acclimation in fish, there would be no endotherms.

  16. Army War College Review: Student Publications. Volume 2, Issue 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    four post- Cold War presidents share three things in common with regard to the promotion of democracy: all embraced it as an American responsibility...United States Army Democracy Promotion in the Post- Cold War Era 11 Mr. Stewart C. Eales United States Department of State Public Disclosure...grand strategy since the Cold War strategy of Containment. He claims current U.S. policies towards Iran, Russia, and China remain unchanged—the

  17. Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-04-01

    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox.

  18. Effects of Cold Irrigation on Early Results after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhirui; Liu, Daohong; Dong, Jiyuan; Gong, Long; Wang, Yong; Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have indicated that pain peaks at 24 to 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. TKA has been associated with disruption in normal sleep patterns, swelling knee, and significant blood loss. However, a satisfactory regime to resolve these mentioned problems has yet to be found. In this study, a total of 420 patients were randomly allocated into two groups and treated with continuous irrigation of either 4000 mL cold saline with 0.5% epinephrine or normal temperature solution. Clinical outcomes including pain scores at rest during postoperative three days, drainage output, analgesic consumption, decreased hemoglobin, sleep quality, and satisfaction rate were analyzed. Mean scores and postoperative change in scores were calculated. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the treatment group were significantly reduced from 4 hours (P = 0.0016) to 24 hours (P = 0.0004) after TKA. Additional benefits including reduced analgesic consumption, improved satisfaction rate, and sleep quality were observed. In addition, a significant reduction in blood loss reflected by decreased Hb and drainage was found. In this study, irrigation with a cold 0.5% epinephrine solution was a beneficial and cost-effective treatment that decreased acute postoperative VAS pain scores immediately after and 1 day after surgery. Patients reported postoperative improvement in sleep quality and overall satisfaction rate with a decrease in morphine usage. In addition, a reduction of intraoperative blood loss might decrease the blood transfusion rate and related costs. Collectively, irrigation with cold 0.5% epinephrine offers a safe, simple, and effective treatment that might improve recovery and enhance quality of life of patients undergoing TKA. PMID:27310945

  19. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    atomic bombs, code-named through 1950 as Pincher, Broiler , Grabber, and Sizzle. During 1945-1946, the United States and Britain withdraw their occupation... Digest 53. 5 (May 1970): 163, 171. 250 Termena, Peiffer, and Carlin, Logistics, ca.1981, 212-213. 251 Closeout History Air Force Systems Command 1...Section of the Logistics Planning Division, Plans (T-5) at Wright Field digested German World War II achievements, including German submarine pens, and

  20. The interaction between hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-01-01

    SO and Sa galaxies have approximately equal masses of H I and X-ray emitting gas and are ideal sites for studying the interaction between hot and cold gas. An X-ray observation of the Sa galaxy NGC 1291 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) shows a striking spatial anticorrelation between hot and cold gas where X-ray emitting material fills the large central black hole in the H I disk. This supports a previous suggestion that hot gas is a bulge phenomenon and neutral hydrogen is a disk phenomenon. The X-ray luminosity (1.5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s) and radial surface brightness distribution (beta = 0.51) is the same as for elliptical galaxies with optical luminosities and velocity dispersions like that of the bulge of NGC 1291. Modeling of the X-ray spectrum requires a component with a temperature of 0.15 keV, similar to that expected from the velocity dispersion of the stars, and with a hotter component where kT = 1.07 keV. This hotter component is not due to emission from stars and its origin remains unclear. PSPC observations are reported for the SO NGC 4203, where a nuclear point source dominates the emission, preventing a study of the radial distribution of the hot gas relative to the H I.

  1. The interaction between hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-01-01

    SO and Sa galaxies have approximately equal masses of H I and X-ray emitting gas and are ideal sites for studying the interaction between hot and cold gas. An X-ray observation of the Sa galaxy NGC 1291 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) shows a striking spatial anticorrelation between hot and cold gas where X-ray emitting material fills the large central black hole in the H I disk. This supports a previous suggestion that hot gas is a bulge phenomenon and neutral hydrogen is a disk phenomenon. The X-ray luminosity (1.5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s) and radial surface brightness distribution (beta = 0.51) is the same as for elliptical galaxies with optical luminosities and velocity dispersions like that of the bulge of NGC 1291. Modeling of the X-ray spectrum requires a component with a temperature of 0.15 keV, similar to that expected from the velocity dispersion of the stars, and with a hotter component where kT = 1.07 keV. This hotter component is not due to emission from stars and its origin remains unclear. PSPC observations are reported for the SO NGC 4203, where a nuclear point source dominates the emission, preventing a study of the radial distribution of the hot gas relative to the H I.

  2. Evidence for an early pliocene cold event in the southern oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Burckle, L.H.; Mortlock, R.A. ); Rudolph, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Although it is generally agreed that the early Pliocene witnessed the last great climate warming before the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, it is generally not recognized that this time interval also witnessed what appear to be major glaciations in both northern and southern Hemispheres. This describes a study of brief, intense warm events in the early Pliocene as well as evidence for at least one major glaciation during this time interval. 13 refs.

  3. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloupka, Allan B.; Finn, Kevin P.; Parsons, Duane A.

    2012-07-01

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was approximately 18,580 m{sup 2} (200

  4. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    were at sea. Ships that drilled only on the weekends in local waters were wasted assets. Trost pointed out that the cost savings of Lehman’s plan...focused on global war, which was to be fought primarily in Europe and the surrounding waters , and now had to adapt to the new environment. “We must shift...to its trading partners. In positioning the United States and its core of industrialized allies to take advantage of such instruments, the U.S

  5. Early Psychosis” as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry†

    PubMed Central

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term “early psychosis” was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about “early psychosis” under names such as “latent,” “masked,” “mild,” “simple” or “sluggish” schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals “early psychosis” as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry. PMID:23908638

  6. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E

    2009-01-22

    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture.

  7. An early experiment in national identity cards: the battle over registration in the First World War1

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on issuing identity cards to the British population was foreshadowed during the First World War, when the National Registration Act of 1915 provided for a register of all men and women between 15 and 65, later used to aid conscription. The National Register was produced by Bernard Mallet, the Registrar General of England and Wales. The information demands of the war also provided an opportunity for Mallet to press forward his pre-war agenda of reforming the system of routine registration of births, marriages and deaths. His desire for reform was shaped by the pressing eugenic questions of the day - infant mortality and national efficiency - and as the war progressed, he developed his ideas to include a permanent universal register of all individuals. This article examines the fate of Mallet’s proposals, and shows how lack of political consensus and lack of support, even from colleagues in the General Register Office for Scotland, prevented his proposals coming to fruition. PMID:18958178

  8. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2010 Thesis Advisor: S . Paul Kapur Second Reader: Douglas Porch THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved...An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent 6. AUTHOR( S ) Quinn J. Rhodes 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  9. Mineralogy of Rock Flour in Glaciated Volcanic Terrains: An Analog for a Cold and Icy Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Scudder, N.; Smith, R. J.; Rutledge, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Geomorphological and mineralogical data from early Martian surfaces indicate liquid water was present on ancient Mars. The relative surface temperatures, however, remain a subject of debate. Was early Mars warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of warmth and ice melt? By characterizing the mineralogy and geochemistry of modern icy mafic terrains on Earth, we can search for these characteristics in early Martian terrains to better constrain the early Martian climate. Here, we describe the mineralogy of glacial flour in a modern glaciated volcanic terrain in Oregon, USA. We are particularly interested in secondary phases that form in these environments, and we hypothesize that poorly crystalline phases may preferentially form in these terrains because of the low temperatures and the seasonality of melt water production. A description of the mineralogy of the moraines, the composition of the amorphous materials, and the geochemistry of the glacial melt waters are presented elsewhere. Glacial flour is made up of silt- and clay-sized particles that form from the physical weathering of rock underlying a wet-based glacier as the glacier slides over it. Flour is usually transported from underneath a glacier by melt water streams. The geochemistry of glacial melt water streams has been studied extensively and has been used to infer weathering reactions within glacial systems. However, the mineralogy of these environments, especially on mafic volcanic terrains, is not well studied. Rock flour is a ubiquitous physical weathering product in glaciated terrains and, therefore, affects microbial habitats, stream and lake chemistry, and chemical weathering processes. and by studying the mineralogy of glacial flour, we can better understand geochemical and microbiological processes in subglacial and proglacial terrains.

  10. Inflation of the early cold Universe filled with a nonlinear scalar field and a nonideal relativistic Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a possible scenario for the evolution of the early cold Universe born from a fairly large quantum fluctuation in a vacuum with a size a 0 ≫ l P (where l P is the Planck length) and filled with both a nonlinear scalar field φ, whose potential energy density U(φ) determines the vacuum energy density λ, and a nonideal Fermi gas with short-range repulsion between particles, whose equation of state is characterized by the ratio of pressure P( n F ) to energy density ɛ( n F ) dependent on the number density of fermions n F . As the early Universe expands, the dimensionless quantity ν( n F ) = P( n F )/ɛ( n F ) decreases with decreasing n F from its maximum value νmax = 1 for n F → ∞ to zero for n F → 0. The interaction of the scalar and gravitational fields, which is characterized by a dimensionless constant ξ, is proportional to the scalar curvature of four-dimensional space R = κ[3 P( n F )-ɛ( n F )-4λ] (where κ is Einstein's gravitational constant), and contains terms both quadratic and linear in φ. As a result, the expanding early Universe reaches the point of first-order phase transition in a finite time interval at critical values of the scalar curvature R = R c =-μ2/ξ and radius a c ≫ a 0. Thereafter, the early closed Universe "rolls down" from the flat inflection point of the potential U(φ) to the zero potential minimum in a finite time. The release of the total potential energy of the scalar field in the entire volume of the expanding Universe as it "rolls down" must be accompanied by the production of a large number of massive particles and antiparticles of various kinds, whose annihilation plays the role of the Big Bang. We also discuss the fundamental nature of Newton' gravitational constant G N .

  11. The extraordinarily strong and cold polar vortex in the early northern winter 2015/2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic polar vortex in the early winter 2015/2016 was the strongest and coldest of the last 68 years. Using global reanalysis data, satellite observations, and mesospheric radar wind measurements over northern Scandinavia we investigate the characteristics of the early stage polar vortex and relate them to previous winters. We found a correlation between the planetary wave (PW) activity and the strength and temperature of the northern polar vortex in the stratosphere and mesosphere. In November/December 2015, a reduced PW generation in the troposphere and a stronger PW filtering in the troposphere and stratosphere, caused by stronger zonal winds in midlatitudes, resulted in a stronger polar vortex. This effect was strengthened by the equatorward shift of PWs due to the strong zonal wind in polar latitudes resulting in a southward shift of the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and hence inducing a decreased deceleration of the polar vortex by PWs.

  12. Misalignment between cold gas and stellar components in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, O. Ivy; Schawinski, K.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Urry, C. M.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Kaviraj, S.; Masters, K. L.

    2015-03-01

    Recent work suggests blue ellipticals form in mergers and migrate quickly from the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies to the red sequence of passively evolving galaxies, perhaps as a result of black hole feedback. Such rapid reddening of stellar populations implies that large gas reservoirs in the pre-merger star-forming pair must be depleted on short time-scales. Here we present pilot observations of atomic hydrogen gas in four blue early-type galaxies that reveal increasing spatial offsets between the gas reservoirs and the stellar components of the galaxies, with advancing post-starburst age. Emission line spectra show associated nuclear activity in two of the merged galaxies, and in one case radio lobes aligned with the displaced gas reservoir. These early results suggest that a kinetic process (possibly feedback from black hole activity) is driving the quick truncation of star formation in these systems, rather than a simple exhaustion of gas supply.

  13. Cold Lake Blend diluted bitumen toxicity to the early development of Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, Peter V; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-03-20

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit(®)EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity. Apart from nfe2 (an antioxidant transcription factor), there were no statistically significant monotonic exposure-responses of ahr, arnt2, cat, sod, gpx, gst, gsr, g6pdh, p53, and hsp70 transcripts at total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) concentrations bracketing EC50s for embryotoxicity (WAF ≅ 3 μg/L; CEWAF ≅ 0.1 μg/L TPAH). Based on measured TPAH concentrations in exposure test solutions, CLB dilbit was 6-10 fold more toxic to medaka than AWB during chronic exposures. Lack of direct monotonic gene transcription responses to increasing oil concentrations during exposures that were embryotoxic suggests that the capacity of the oxidative stress response is limited in earlier lifestages or that differences exist among species in mechanisms of toxicity. This study provides a comparative framework for identifying suitable biomarkers and toxicity methods for those fish species in sensitive lifestages at highest risk of Canadian oil sands dilbit exposure following a spill in the freshwater environment.

  14. Long, cold, early r process? Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in He shells revisited.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Haxton, W C; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2011-05-20

    We revisit a ν-driven r-process mechanism in the He shell of a core-collapse supernova, finding that it could succeed in early stars of metallicity Z ≲ 10⁻³ Z(⊙), at relatively low temperatures and neutron densities, producing A ~ 130 and 195 abundance peaks over ~10-20 s. The mechanism is sensitive to the ν emission model and to ν oscillations. We discuss the implications of an r process that could alter interpretations of abundance data from metal-poor stars, and point out the need for further calculations that include effects of the supernova shock.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and seasonal cold acclimation-associated expression of early light-induced protein genes of Rhododendron catawbiense.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Wei, Hui; Krebs, Stephen L; Arora, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    The early light-induced proteins (ELIPs) are nuclear-encoded, light stress-induced proteins located in thylakoid membranes and related to light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding proteins. Recent evidence from physiological and genetic (mutant) studies supports a photoprotective function for ELIPs, particularly when green tissues are exposed to high light intensities at suboptimal temperatures. Broad-leaved evergreens belonging to genus Rhododendron are often exposed to a combination of low temperatures and high light in their natural habitat as the understory plants in deciduous forests and, therefore, are expected to employ photoprotective strategies during overwintering phase. Here we report analysis and characterization of previously identified ELIP expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from winter-collected Rhododendron catawbiense leaves. 5' or 3' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACEs) coupled with bioinformatic analyses were used to identify seven unique ELIPs from the 40 ESTs and were designated as RcELIP1-RcELIP7. Phylogenetic analysis revealed separate clustering of ELIP homologs from lower plants, monocots and eudicots (including RcELIPs) and further indicated an evolutionary divergence of ELIPs among angiosperms and gymnosperms. To gain insights into the cold acclimation (CA) physiology of rhododendrons, relative and absolute quantitative expression of RcELIPs was examined during seasonal CA of R. catawbiense leaves using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. All seven RcELIPs were distinctly upregulated during the CA. It is postulated that RcELIPs expression constitutes an adaptive response to cold and high light in winter-adapted rhododendron leaves and perhaps plays a key role in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus from these stresses.

  16. The non-uniform early structural response of globular proteins to cold denaturing conditions: A case study with Yfh1

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prathit; Bagchi, Sayan E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in; Sengupta, Neelanjana E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in

    2014-11-28

    The mechanism of cold denaturation in proteins is often incompletely understood due to limitations in accessing the denatured states at extremely low temperatures. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we have compared early (nanosecond timescale) structural and solvation properties of yeast frataxin (Yfh1) at its temperature of maximum stability, 292 K (T{sub s}), and the experimentally observed temperature of complete unfolding, 268 K (T{sub c}). Within the simulated timescales, discernible “global” level structural loss at T{sub c} is correlated with a distinct increase in surface hydration. However, the hydration and the unfolding events do not occur uniformly over the entire protein surface, but are sensitive to local structural propensity and hydrophobicity. Calculated infrared absorption spectra in the amide-I region of the whole protein show a distinct red shift at T{sub c} in comparison to T{sub s}. Domain specific calculations of IR spectra indicate that the red shift primarily arises from the beta strands. This is commensurate with a marked increase in solvent accessible surface area per residue for the beta-sheets at T{sub c}. Detailed analyses of structure and dynamics of hydration water around the hydrophobic residues of the beta-sheets show a more bulk water like behavior at T{sub c} due to preferential disruption of the hydrophobic effects around these domains. Our results indicate that in this protein, the surface exposed beta-sheet domains are more susceptible to cold denaturing conditions, in qualitative agreement with solution NMR experimental results.

  17. G305.136+0.068: A MASSIVE AND DENSE COLD CORE IN AN EARLY STAGE OF EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Contreras, Yanett; Servajean, Elise; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Pineda, Jaime E.

    2015-01-20

    We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, toward the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of 1.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as r {sup –1.8}, and that the turbulent velocity increases toward the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm{sup –2}, a value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high-mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of 17 ± 2 K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 μm and that it is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20'' centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of 66 L {sub ☉}, and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate of ∼1 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high-mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high-mass star has just started.

  18. War Termination and the Gulf War: Can We Plan Better?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-09

    planning stages of war and not after combat has started. Using the Gulf War as an example, the problems with how that war ended and could have ended ...understanding of transition issues. This ensures that conflict termination criteria are realized early in the planning stages of war and not after...saying ’What, what will the end game be? You know, when do we terminate all this? What is it that we are trying to accomplish at the end of the day

  19. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailin; Luo, Xianghong; Zhou, Zhaowei; Liu, Juying; Tralau-Stewart, Catherine; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a common finding in kidney grafts with functional impairment. Prolonged hypothermic storage-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with the early onset of CAN. As the noble gas xenon is clinically used as an anesthetic and has renoprotective properties in a rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we studied whether early treatment with xenon could attenuate CAN associated with prolonged hypothermic storage. Exposure to xenon enhanced the expression of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor in human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, which, in turn, increased cell proliferation. Xenon treatment before or after hypothermia-hypoxia decreased cell apoptosis and cell inflammation after reoxygenation. The xenon-induced HK-2 cell proliferation was abolished by blocking the IGF-1 receptor, mTOR, and HIF-1α individually. In the Fischer-to-Lewis rat allogeneic renal transplantation model, xenon exposure of donors before graft retrieval or recipients after engraftment enhanced tubular cell proliferation and decreased tubular cell death and cell inflammation associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with control allografts, xenon treatment significantly suppressed T-cell infiltration and fibrosis, prevented the development of CAN, and improved renal function. Thus, xenon treatment promoted recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduced susceptibility to the subsequent development of CAN in allografts.

  1. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  2. Arranged Marriages: Relationships Between Regular and Irregular Forces, During the Early American Revolutionary War in Monmouth County, New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    in past experience with British regulars as well as leading militia forces. Among the rebel officers who considered the militia a capable force were...1981. Greene, Jack P., and J.R. Pole, ed. A Companion to the American Revolution. Malden, MA: Blackwell , 2000. Grenier, John. The First Way of War...Army on Campaign in North America, 1775-1783. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. Stryker, William S. "The New Jersey Volunteers" (Loyalists) in

  3. On the origin of Hawking mini black-holes and the cold early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple argument is outlined leading to the result that the mass of mini black holes exploding today is 10 to the 15th power g. A mathematical model is discussed which indicates that the equation of state is greatly softened in the high-density regime and a phase transition may exist, such that any length (particularly very small sizes) will grow with time irrespective of its relation to the size of the particle horizon. It is shown that the effect of spin-2 mesons with respect to the equation of state is to soften the pressure and make it negative. An analytical expression is given for the probability that any particular region in a hot early universe will evolve into a black hole.

  4. On the origin of Hawking mini black-holes and the cold early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple argument is outlined leading to the result that the mass of mini black holes exploding today is 10 to the 15th power g. A mathematical model is discussed which indicates that the equation of state is greatly softened in the high-density regime and a phase transition may exist, such that any length (particularly very small sizes) will grow with time irrespective of its relation to the size of the particle horizon. It is shown that the effect of spin-2 mesons with respect to the equation of state is to soften the pressure and make it negative. An analytical expression is given for the probability that any particular region in a hot early universe will evolve into a black hole.

  5. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being.

  6. On Strategy: The War on Terror in Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (New York, Vintage Books, 2000). Creveld, Transformation of War. 62...document_387_NCW_Book_LowRes.pdf (accessed 02/23/06); Huntington, “Clash of Civilizations,” Kaplan, Coming Anarchy, Shattering The Dreams of The Post Cold War. Pre...technology, it just demands lucid and incisive thinking. However, this is not a strong point of the Americans, who are slaves to technology in their

  7. The molecular signal for the adaptation to cold temperature during early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Mathieu; Boussau, Bastien; Charles, Sandrine; Blanquart, Samuel; Gouy, Manolo

    2013-10-23

    Several lines of evidence such as the basal location of thermophilic lineages in large-scale phylogenetic trees and the ancestral sequence reconstruction of single enzymes or large protein concatenations support the conclusion that the ancestors of the bacterial and archaeal domains were thermophilic organisms which were adapted to hot environments during the early stages of the Earth. A parsimonious reasoning would therefore suggest that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) was also thermophilic. Various authors have used branch-wise non-homogeneous evolutionary models that better capture the variation of molecular compositions among lineages to accurately reconstruct the ancestral G + C contents of ribosomal RNAs and the ancestral amino acid composition of highly conserved proteins. They confirmed the thermophilic nature of the ancestors of Bacteria and Archaea but concluded that LUCA, their last common ancestor, was a mesophilic organism having a moderate optimal growth temperature. In this letter, we investigate the unknown nature of the phylogenetic signal that informs ancestral sequence reconstruction to support this non-parsimonious scenario. We find that rate variation across sites of molecular sequences provides information at different time scales by recording the oldest adaptation to temperature in slow-evolving regions and subsequent adaptations in fast-evolving ones.

  8. Early ischemic lesions following subarachnoid hemorrhage: common cold remedy as precipitating factor?

    PubMed

    Genonceaux, Sandrine; Cosnard, Guy; Van De Wyngaert, Françoise; Hantson, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with tetraplegia contrasting with a relatively preserved consciousness following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multiple ischemic lesions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the absence of vasospasm or signs of increased intracranial pressure. During the weeks before SAH, the patient had repeatedly used a nasal decongestant containing phenylephrine. After coiling of the aneurysm harboured by the right posterior cerebral artery, symptomatic vasospasm developed in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and required aggressive therapy by intra-arterial infusion of milrinone followed by continuous intravenous administration. Follow-up MRI did not reveal new ischemic lesions. Echocardiography had demonstrated the presence of a patent foramen ovale. At 3 months follow-up, a major motor deficit persisted with akinetic mutism. The mechanisms of multiple early infarction following aneurysmal SAH are still debated, as vasospasm is usually not seen on the first imaging. Among precipitating factors of microvascular vasospasm, vasoactive substances like phenylephrine, may play a significant role.

  9. Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

  10. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  11. Heavy-ion beam mutagenesis identified an essential gene for chloroplast development under cold stress conditions during both early growth and tillering stages in rice.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ryouhei; Nakagawa, Mayu; Takehisa, Hinako; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Usuda, Sachiko; Ichinose, Katsunori; Abe, Hiroshi; Shirakawa, Yuki; Sato, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Makoto T; Itoh, Ryuuichi D; Abe, Tomoko

    2017-02-01

    We isolated a cold sensitive virescent1 (csv1) mutant from a rice (Oryza sativa L.) population mutagenized by carbon ion irradiation. The mutant exhibited chlorotic leaves during the early growth stages, and produced normal green leaves as it grew. The growth of csv1 plants displayed sensitivity to low temperatures. In addition, the mutant plants that were transferred to low temperatures at the fifth leaf stage produced chlorotic leaves subsequently. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed translocation of a 13-kb genomic fragment that disrupted the causative gene (CSV1; LOC_Os05g34040). CSV1 encodes a plastid-targeted oxidoreductase-like protein conserved among land plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. Furthermore, CSV1 transcripts were more abundant in immature than in mature leaves, and they did not markedly increase or decrease with temperature. Taken together, our results indicate that CSV1 supports chloroplast development under cold stress conditions, in both the early growth and tillering stages in rice.

  12. A History of Intravenous Anesthesia in War (1656-1988).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew; Jagdish, S

    2016-01-01

    The practice of anesthesia in war places significant restraints on the choice of anesthetic technique used; these include, but are not limited to, safety, simplicity, and portability. Ever since intravenous anesthesia became a practical alternative, there have been military doctors who felt that this technique was particularly suited to this environment. The challenge, as in civilian practice, has been to find the appropriate drugs as well as simple and safe delivery systems. The urgency of war has always stimulated innovation in medicine to counteract the ongoing development of weapons of war and their effects on the human body and to achieve improved survival as public expectations rise. This article traces the development of and the use of intravenous anesthesia by military physicians for battle casualties. The story starts long before the era of modern anesthesia, and the discussion concludes in the dog days of the cold war. The rapidly increasing interest in intravenous anesthesia in both civilian and military practice since the early 1990s is left for other authors to examine.

  13. VARIATIONS OF MID- AND FAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AMONG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: RELATION TO STELLAR METALLICITY AND COLD DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 {mu}m variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies, cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 {mu}m may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 {mu}m luminosity in elliptical galaxies is due to dust transported from galactic cores by feedback events in (currently IR-quiet) AGNs. Cooler dusty gas naturally accumulates in the cores of elliptical galaxies due to dust-cooled local stellar mass loss and may accrete onto the central black hole, releasing energy. AGN-heated gas can transport dust in cores 5-10 kpc out into the hot gas atmospheres where it radiates extended 70 {mu}m emission but is eventually destroyed by sputtering. This, and some modest star formation, defines a cycle of dust creation and destruction. Elliptical galaxies evidently undergo large transient excursions in the banana plot in times comparable to the sputtering time or AGN duty cycle, 10 Myr. Normally regarded as passive, elliptical galaxies are the most active galaxies in the IR color-color correlation.

  14. Metal Exposure in Veterans With Embedded Fragments From War-Related Injuries: Early Findings From Surveillance Efforts.

    PubMed

    Gaitens, Joanna M; Condon, Marian; Squibb, Katherine S; Centeno, Jose A; McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2017-07-28

    To characterize systemic metal exposures from retained fragments in a cohort of war-injured US Veterans enrolled in the Department of Veterans Affairs' Embedded Fragment Registry. Five hundred seventy nine registry-enrolled Veterans submitted an exposure questionnaire and urine sample for analyses of 14 metals often found in fragments. Urine metal results were compared with reference values of unexposed populations to identify elevations. 55% of Veterans had normal urine metal values. When observed, tungsten and zinc were the metals most frequently elevated, followed by cobalt; however, cobalt levels were not associated with a fragment source, but with surgical implants present. Though most metal elevations observed are not significantly outside the normal range, on-going accrual of metal burdens in these Veterans over time recommends continued surveillance which may inform future medical management.

  15. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  16. Hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies - A comparison of X-ray, HI and far infrared emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the hot and cold phases of the interstellar medium in nearby elliptical and SO galaxies is examined by a comparison of X-ray, HI and 100 micron emission. The data suggest that there is little relationship between the presence and amount of hot and cold gas in these galaxies. The X-ray emission is more closely related to the stellar content of Es than are the HI or infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas originates in mass loss from stars while the cold gas is the remains of the original interstellar medium plus accretion from outside the galaxy.

  17. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2013-03-20

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  18. Early Childhood Education--The Year in Review: A Look at 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    This report covers major events in early childhood education in 1989. Discussion addresses: (1) the possibility of newly available funding due to the end of the Cold War; (2) legislation stalled in Congress; (3) new studies documenting problems in child day care; (4) slow increases in corporate child care; (5) increases in public school child…

  19. Reactive oxygen species trigger a regulatory module invovled in the early responses of rice seedlings to cold stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants respond to low temperature through an intricately coordinated transcriptional network controlled by specific groups of transcription factors. Major regulatory pathways in plants that evolved to withstand freezing by cold acclimation have been elucidated in Arabidopsis. A prominent pathway i...

  20. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  2. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  3. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  4. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  5. Germ Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kris

    2009-01-01

    It's estimated that at least 22 million school days are lost every year because of colds caught by students and faculty, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There's still no cure for the common cold, but there is a time-honored way to prevent it: handwashing, ideally with good old soap and water. It's still the best…

  6. Germ Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kris

    2009-01-01

    It's estimated that at least 22 million school days are lost every year because of colds caught by students and faculty, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There's still no cure for the common cold, but there is a time-honored way to prevent it: handwashing, ideally with good old soap and water. It's still the best…

  7. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  8. Post Cold War Nuclear Weapons Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    are unknown.”14 This instability threatens the success and future of the NPT. According to scholar Joseph F. Pilat , While the vision of a nuclear...for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, April 2007. 15 Joseph F. Pilat , “Nonproliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament, and ExtendedDeterrence

  9. Cold War rivals find common ground

    SciTech Connect

    Taubes, G.

    1995-04-28

    Nuclear weapons scientists from the United States and the former Soviet Union have been quietly collaborating on a range of research projects. The goal: to keep the lid on the bomb. This article examines the new interactions between the US and the former Soviet Union by discussing the following areas: how the `iron` curtain was bridged; the first interactions between US scientists and individual Russian laboratories in scientific areas; Moving from lab-to-lab collaborations to nuclear related issues, spurred by the interception of smuggled nuclear materials; and the future including the financing.

  10. The Cold War in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Secondary-level history textbooks' treatments of United States-Soviet relations can be biased and misleading. Ideological treatments present the relationship as a struggle between good and evil; "real politik" treatments recognize opposing viewpoints but are usually subordinate interpretations. Neither approach discusses U.S.-Soviet…

  11. Nuclear proliferation after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, M.; Litwak, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Today, former Soviet republics threaten to gain control over nuclear weapons sited on their territories, and reports on North Korea, Pakistan, India, and Iraq reveal current or recent weapon development programs. This document offers a timely assessment of the prospects for nuclear nonproliferation.

  12. Teaching the Cold War through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the "historical detective work" of oral history helps students break free of their textbooks and become active collectors of information. Provides five recommendations, six teacher guidelines, and seven student guidelines for implementing oral history in the classroom. (CFR)

  13. The Air Force and the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EC-135 Airborne Command Post “Looking Glass” begins operations. April 12, 1961. Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned spaceflight...chance that it might work and that if it did, MAD was out of business. For their part, the Russians took SDI seriously. Yuri Andropov, during his...Communist Party, the protégés of Yuri Andropov, who preceded Chernenko as general secretary. Chernenko had been aligned with Brezhnev, during whose

  14. East European Security After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Christian National Union (Poland) ZPL League of Poles in Lithuania vi ."• ... almpter One INTRODUCION More than two decades ago, Zbignlew Brzezinski ...which Brzezinski drew inspiration captures even more aptly and poignantly Eastern Europe’s current security dilemma. Eastern Europe today is...new Defense Minister, Admiral Piotr Kolodziejczyk. has close ties to President Walesa and was Defense Minister in the Mazowiecki government (1990

  15. The cold war of the social amoebae.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Gad; Kessin, Richard H

    2007-08-21

    When confronted with starvation, the amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum initiate a developmental process that begins with cell aggregation and ends with a ball of spores supported on a stalk. Spores live and stalk cells die. Because the multicellular organism is produced by cell aggregation and not by growth and division of a single cell, genetically diverse amoebae may enter an aggregate and, if one lineage has a capacity to avoid the stalk cell fate, it may have a selective advantage. Such cheater mutants have been found among wild isolates and created in laboratory strains. The mutants raise a number of questions--how did such a cooperative system evolve in the face of cheating? What is the basis of self recognition? What genes are involved? How is cheating constrained? This review summarizes the results of studies on the social behavior of Dictyostelium and its relatives, including the familiar asexual developmental cycle and the lesser known, but puzzling, sexual cycle.

  16. Magnetostratigraphic evidence from the Cold Creek bar for onset of ice-age cataclysmic floods in eastern Washington during the early Pleistocene

    SciTech Connect

    Pluhar, Christopher J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Reidel, Steve P.; Coe, Robert S.; Nelson, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides a detailed magnetostratigraphy of sediments composing the Cold Creek cataclysmic flood bar in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Our interpretation suggests onset of Missoula floods or similar events prior to 1.1 myr, later than previously suggested by Bjornstad et al. [Bjornstad B.N., Fecht, K.R., Pluhar, C.J., 2001]. Long history of pre-Wisconsin, Ice Age cataclysmic floods: evidence from southeastern Washington State. [Journal of Geology 109 (6), 695-713]. Nonetheless these data suggest that Channeled Scabland features formed over a much longer timespan than commonly cited, that continental ice sheets of the early Pleistocene reached as far south as those of the late Pleistocene, and that similar physiography existed in eastern Washington and perhaps Montana to both generate and route Missoula-flood-like events. This study adds paleomagnetic polarity results from 213 new samples of silts and sands derived from nine new drill cores penetrating the Cold Creek cataclysmic flood bar to our previous database of 53 samples from four boreholes, resulting in a much more robust and detailed magnetostratigraphy. Rock magnetic studies on these sediments show pure magnetite to be the predominant remanence-carrying magnetic mineral, ruling out widespread remagnetization by secondary mineralization. The magnetostratigraphy at eastern Cold Creek bar is characterized by a normal polarity interval bracketed by reversed polarities. Equating the normal zone with the Jaramillo subchron (0.99-1.07 myr) affords the simplest correlation to the magnetic polarity timescale. Western Cold Creek bar was likely deposited during the Brunhes chron (0-0.78 myr) since it exhibits mainly normal polarities with only two thin reversed-polarity horizons that we interpret as magnetic excursions during the Brunhes.

  17. Rutherford's war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  18. Fossil gastropods from the Indian Upper Siwaliks and their stable carbon and oxygen isotope values indicate presence of cold climatic conditions in the Early Pleistocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Kotla, Simran

    2016-04-01

    The Early Pleistocene in general is characterized by widespread glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere. Early to Middle Pleistocene freshwater Pinjor Formation (Upper Siwalik) exposed all along the Himalayan Foothills preserves a diverse faunal and floral assemblage. We carried out paleontological (gastropods) and stable isotope (carbon and oxygen isotope) studies of a 6 m thick swamp/pond deposit (that represents ~ 12,000 yrs) of Pinjor Formation, exposed near the Village Nadah, Panchkula (Haryana) and dated to ~ 1.8 Ma (Azzaroli and Napoleon,1982). We have identified four gastropod species in the assemblage, Lymnae sp., Gyraulus sp., Viviparous bengalensis and Hippeutis complantus. The first two are widespread throughout the globe. Lymnae can exist in temperature range of 19 to 24 ° C and occur in Palearctic and Neoartic regions (animalbase.org). Gyraulus occur in Holoarctic region with temperature ranging from 17.8 to 30 ° C (animalbase.org, theaquariumwiki.com), whereas Viviparous bengalensis typically exists in the Oriental region suggesting an overall warm and humid condition (Moore,1997). Hippeutis complantus on the other hand exists in palearctic regions upto 63 ° N (Aplinarska and Cisewka 2006) under cold (6 ° to 23.3 ° C) and dry climatic conditions (Spyra., 2014).The powdered gastropod shell samples were analyzed using Continues Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India. The δ13C values of gastropod shells fall between -2.56‰ and 6.14‰ VPDB and suggest the dominance of C4 vegetation. The δ18O value of gastropod shell fall between -0.64‰ and -7.80‰ VPDB, suggesting fluctuation of climate between warm and cold conditions . Presence of Hippeutis complantus may suggest the extension of palearctic region up to Panchkula (Haryana, India) in the Early Pleistocene which presently lies in the Oriental Province. Therefore, our results indicate that the overall climatic condition

  19. Comparison of "warm and wet" and "cold and icy" scenarios for early Mars in a 3-D climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, Robin D.; Kerber, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forget, Francois; Head, James W.

    2015-06-01

    We use a 3-D general circulation model to compare the primitive Martian hydrological cycle in "warm and wet" and "cold and icy" scenarios. In the warm and wet scenario, an anomalously high solar flux or intense greenhouse warming artificially added to the climate model are required to maintain warm conditions and an ice-free northern ocean. Precipitation shows strong surface variations, with high rates around Hellas basin and west of Tharsis but low rates around Margaritifer Sinus (where the observed valley network drainage density is nonetheless high). In the cold and icy scenario, snow migration is a function of both obliquity and surface pressure, and limited episodic melting is possible through combinations of seasonal, volcanic, and impact forcing. At surface pressures above those required to avoid atmospheric collapse (˜0.5 bar) and moderate to high obliquity, snow is transported to the equatorial highland regions where the concentration of valley networks is highest. Snow accumulation in the Aeolis quadrangle is high, indicating an ice-free northern ocean is not required to supply water to Gale crater. At lower surface pressures and obliquities, both H2O and CO2 are trapped as ice at the poles and the equatorial regions become extremely dry. The valley network distribution is positively correlated with snow accumulation produced by the cold and icy simulation at 41.8° obliquity but uncorrelated with precipitation produced by the warm and wet simulation. Because our simulations make specific predictions for precipitation patterns under different climate scenarios, they motivate future targeted geological studies.

  20. Effects of Cold Irrigation on Early Results after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhirui; Liu, Daohong; Dong, Jiyuan; Gong, Long; Wang, Yong; Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have indicated that pain peaks at 24 to 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. TKA has been associated with disruption in normal sleep patterns, swelling knee, and significant blood loss. However, a satisfactory regime to resolve these mentioned problems has yet to be found.In this study, a total of 420 patients were randomly allocated into two groups and treated with continuous irrigation of either 4000 mL cold saline with 0.5% epinephrine or normal temperature solution. Clinical outcomes including pain scores at rest during postoperative three days, drainage output, analgesic consumption, decreased hemoglobin, sleep quality, and satisfaction rate were analyzed. Mean scores and postoperative change in scores were calculated.Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the treatment group were significantly reduced from 4 hours (P = 0.0016) to 24 hours (P = 0.0004) after TKA. Additional benefits including reduced analgesic consumption, improved satisfaction rate, and sleep quality were observed. In addition, a significant reduction in blood loss reflected by decreased Hb and drainage was found.In this study, irrigation with a cold 0.5% epinephrine solution was a beneficial and cost-effective treatment that decreased acute postoperative VAS pain scores immediately after and 1 day after surgery. Patients reported postoperative improvement in sleep quality and overall satisfaction rate with a decrease in morphine usage. In addition, a reduction of intraoperative blood loss might decrease the blood transfusion rate and related costs. Collectively, irrigation with cold 0.5% epinephrine offers a safe, simple, and effective treatment that might improve recovery and enhance quality of life of patients undergoing TKA.

  1. Efficacy and safety of iota-carrageenan nasal spray versus placebo in early treatment of the common cold in adults: the ICICC trial.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Winther, B; Johnston, S L; Robinson, P; Trampisch, M; Koelsch, S

    2015-10-05

    Iota-carrageenan (I-C) is active against respiratory viruses in vitro and was effective as nasal spray in three previous clinical trials. The current trial served to further investigate I-C in patients with early common cold symptoms. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IV trial was conducted in 200 adult patients with self-diagnosed colds of <48 h' duration that were confirmed by baseline cold symptom scores. Patients were to self-administer 0.12 % I-C or placebo spray (NaCl 0.5 %) four times daily for four to ten days and record symptom information for ten days. Common respiratory viruses were quantified by RT-PCR during pretreatment and on Day 3 or 4. The primary endpoint was the mean total symptom score (TSS) of eight cold symptoms on Days 2-4 (TSS2-4). Patients in both treatment groups had similar baseline TSSs (mean TSS: 6.75 for I-C and 6.79 for placebo). Viruses were detected in baseline samples from 53 of 98 I-C patients (54.1 %) and 54 of 97 placebo patients (55.7 %). Mean ± SE for TSS2-4 was 5.78 ± 0.25 for I-C patients and 6.39 ± 0.25 for placebo (p = 0.0895). Exploratory analyses after unblinding (TSS2-4 excluding a patient with aberrantly high symptom scores [TSS2-4, ex 1pt]; mean of TSS over Days 1-4 [TSS1-4]; change in TSS1-4 relative to baseline [TSS1-4, rel]) demonstrated treatment differences in favor of I-C (p = 0.0364, p = 0.0495 and p = 0.0421, respectively). For patients with quantifiable rhinovirus/enterovirus at baseline, there was a trend towards greater reduction of virus load at Day 3 or 4 (p = 0.0958; I-C: 90.2 % reduction in viral load; placebo: 72.0 %). Treatments were well tolerated with no differences in adverse event rates. The primary endpoint did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between I-C and placebo but showed a trend towards I-C benefit. Exploratory analyses indicated significant reduction of cold symptoms in the I-C group relative to placebo during

  2. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  3. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  4. Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Results Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1α, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-α2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Conclusions Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results. PMID:20696083

  5. Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ron; Meier, Christiane; Jawad, Martez; Weinmüllner, Regina; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2010-08-10

    The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1alpha, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-alpha2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.

  6. Dopamine treatment of brain-dead Fisher rats improves renal histology but not early renal function in Lewis recipients after prolonged static cold storage.

    PubMed

    Fontana, J; Yard, B; Stamellou, E; Wenz, H; Benck, U; Schnuelle, P; Hoeger, S

    2014-12-01

    Brain death (BD) and cold preservation are major risk factors for an unfavorable transplantation outcome. Although donor dopamine treatment in brain-dead rats improves renal function and histology in allogeneic recipients, it remains to be assessed if this also holds true for the combinations of BD and prolonged static cold preservation. BD was induced in F344 donor rats, which were subsequently treated with NaCl 1 mL/h (BD, n = 11), NaCl/hydroxy ethyl starch (BD-norm, n = 10), or 10 μg/min/kg dopamine (BD-dopa, n = 10). Renal grafts were harvested 4 h after BD and transplanted into bilateral nephrectomized Lewis recipients 6 h after cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Renal function was evaluated by use of serum creatinine and urea concentrations at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10. Ten days after transplantation, recipients were killed and the renal allografts were processed for light microscopy and immune histology. Serum urea concentrations at days 5 and 10 were significantly lower in recipients that received a renal graft from dopamine-treated rats; for serum creatinine, only a trend was observed at day 10. Immune histology revealed a lower degree of ED1-positive cells in the donor dopamine-treated group. Under light microscopy, Banff classification revealed significantly less intimal arteritis in these grafts (P < .05). Although donor dopamine treatment clearly improves renal histology in this model, the beneficial effect on early renal function was marginal. It remains to be assessed if donor dopamine treatment has a beneficial effect on renal function in long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  8. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  9. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  10. Climate not to blame for African civil wars

    PubMed Central

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-01-01

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system. PMID:20823241

  11. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  12. Young Children and War Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  13. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  14. Decisively Avoiding Defeat: Strategy, the Operational Artist, and Limited War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Sean Kalic’s thoughts on the Cold War set me on the path to this project, while Dr. John Kuehn’s instruction illuminated the theory behind it. At...military leader, such as the theories that emerged from the Cold War’s existential threats. Huntington’s assertion that “politics is beyond the scope of...military competence,” outlined a hierarchy where policy makers dictate military action.10 Published in 1957, this work reflected Cold War fears over

  15. The Civil War Soldier: Romantic and Realist. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Jay; And Others

    This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…

  16. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  17. Use of a Remote Controlled Plane to Identify Cold Tolerant Clones from Early Stages of a Selection Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stress tolerance is one of the most important selection traits for sugarcane. However, it is a time consuming and laborious process to identify stress tolerant clones from among the thousands of clones in the early stages of a selection program. Additionally, some of the weather-related stress event...

  18. [Effect of cold preservation and reperfusion injury on early-stage bile salt secretion after liver transplantation in rat model].

    PubMed

    Chen, Geng; Ding, Min; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Li, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Shu-Guang; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2007-08-01

    To explore the effect of cold preservation and reperfusion injury (CPRI) on the bile salt spectrum in rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) model. A special analysis method was established to investigate the bile salts in rat by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A (control group, n = 6), group B (group with 1 h graft preservation pre-OLT, n = 6) and group C (group with 12 h graft preservation pre-OLT, n = 6). The bile samples of 0 - 14 post-transplantation days were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Eleven kinds of bile salts were detected in rat bile. It showed that CPRI could influence the concentration of bile salts significantly in rat model after OLT, the concentration of hydrophobic bile salts (TCA and TCDCA) increased significantly in group B and C. However, the concentration of hydrophilic bile salts (TUDCA and THDCA) just increased in a short-time. The hydrophobicity index (HI) wasn't significantly changed during the first 4 post-transplant days. Thus the HI of bile salts elevated gradually from the 5th day and reached the peak at the 10th day after OLT. The increase of the proportion of hydrophobic bile salts may be one of the major factors leading to the increase of bile toxicity after OLT.

  19. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    PubMed Central

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  20. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.

    PubMed

    Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-07

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P.

  1. A plastid protein NUS1 is essential for build-up of the genetic system for early chloroplast development under cold stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Kensuke; Sakata, Chikako; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawasaki, Shinji; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Iba, Koh

    2011-12-01

    During early chloroplast differentiation, the regulation of the plastid genetic system including transcription and translation differs greatly from that in the mature chloroplast, suggesting the existence of a stage-dependent mechanism that regulates the chloroplast genetic system during this period. The virescent-1 (v(1)) mutant of rice (Oryza sativa) is temperature-conditional and develops chlorotic leaves under low-temperature conditions. We reported previously that leaf chlorosis in the v(1) mutant is caused by blockage of the activation of the chloroplast genetic system during early leaf development. Here we identify the V(1) gene, which encodes a chloroplast-localized protein NUS1. Accumulation of NUS1 specifically occurred in the pre-emerged immature leaves, and is enhanced by low-temperature treatment. The C-terminus of NUS1 shows structural similarity to the bacterial antitermination factor NusB, which is known to play roles in the regulation of ribosomal RNA transcription. The RNA-immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays indicated that NUS1 binds to several regions of chloroplast RNA including the upstream leader region of the 16S rRNA precursor. In the leaves of the NUS1-deficient mutant, accumulation of chloroplast rRNA during early leaf development was impaired and chloroplast translation/transcription capacity was severely suppressed under low temperature. Our results suggest that NUS1 is involved in the regulation of chloroplast RNA metabolism and promotes the establishment of the plastid genetic system during early chloroplast development under cold stress conditions. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  3. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  4. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  5. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  6. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  7. Hope, Hostility, and Interest: What Motivated Teachers to Teach about the Soviet Union after World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the cold war was a watershed that separated two epochs: the time of abnormal, although compelled, partnership of two political systems and the period of peaceful coexistence with barely hidden hostility. The peacefulness of the latter, however elusive and vulnerable it was from time to time, has to be credited to the cold war, a…

  8. Spanish-American War to Vietnam: Booklet 4. Critical Thinking in American History. Teacher's Guide, Source Envelope, [and Student Manual].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    These curriculum materials in U.S. history are part of a series designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically. The teacher's guide presents a series of supplementary ready-to-use lesson plans for teaching high school students about the Spanish-American War, the Depression era, the cold war, and post-World War II issues. The…

  9. Spanish-American War to Vietnam: Booklet 4. Critical Thinking in American History. Teacher's Guide, Source Envelope, [and Student Manual].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    These curriculum materials in U.S. history are part of a series designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically. The teacher's guide presents a series of supplementary ready-to-use lesson plans for teaching high school students about the Spanish-American War, the Depression era, the cold war, and post-World War II issues. The…

  10. Early Holocene change in atmospheric circulation in the Northern great plains: An upstream view of the 8.2 ka cold event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elk Lake, in northwestern Minnesota, contains numerous proxy records of climatic and environmental change contained in varved sediments with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. These proxies show that about 8200 calendar years ago (8.2 cal. ka; 7300 radiocarbon years) Elk Lake went from a well-stratified lake that was wind-protected in a boreal forest to a well-mixed lake in open prairie savanna receiving northwesterly wind-blown dust, probably from the dry floor of Lake Agassiz. This change in climate marks the initiation of the widely recognized mid-Holocene "altithermal" in central North America. The coincidence of this change with the so-called 8.2 cal. ka cold event, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic discharge of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, suggests that the two "events" might be related. Our interpretation of the Elk Lake proxy records, and of other records from less accurately dated sites, suggests that change in climate over North America was the result of a fundamental change in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the early Holocene. This change in circulation probably post-dates the final drainage of proglacial lakes along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, and may have produced a minor perturbation in climate over Greenland that resulted in a brief cold pulse detected in ice cores. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered snowfall and soil disturbance influence the early life stage transitions and recruitment of a native and invasive grass in a cold desert.

    PubMed

    Gornish, Elise S; Aanderud, Zachary T; Sheley, Roger L; Rinella, Mathew J; Svejcar, Tony; Englund, Suzanne D; James, Jeremy J

    2015-02-01

    Climate change effects on plants are expected to be primarily mediated through early life stage transitions. Snowfall variability, in particular, may have profound impacts on seedling recruitment, structuring plant populations and communities, especially in mid-latitude systems. These water-limited and frequently invaded environments experience tremendous variation in snowfall, and species in these systems must contend with harsh winter conditions and frequent disturbance. In this study, we examined the mechanisms driving the effects of snowpack depth and soil disturbance on the germination, emergence, and establishment of the native Pseudoroegnaria spicata and the invasive Bromus tectorum, two grass species that are widely distributed across the cold deserts of North America. The absence of snow in winter exposed seeds to an increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles and greater fungal pathogen infection. A shallower snowpack promoted the formation of a frozen surface crust, reducing the emergence of both species (more so for P. spicata). Conversely, a deeper snowpack recharged the soil and improved seedling establishment of both species by creating higher and more stable levels of soil moisture availability following spring thaw. Across several snow treatments, experimental disturbance served to decrease the cumulative survival of both species. Furthermore, we observed that, regardless of snowpack treatment, most seed mortality (70-80%) occurred between seed germination and seedling emergence (November-March), suggesting that other wintertime factors or just winter conditions in general limited survival. Our results suggest that snowpack variation and legacy effects of the snowpack influence emergence and establishment but might not facilitate invasion of cold deserts.

  12. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadalipour, R; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, R; Riasi, A; Mohammadalipour, M; Nili, N

    2017-02-01

    Intensive selection of broilers for faster growth and better feed efficiency resulted in greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome, which is one of the major causes of mortality and economic loss in broiler industry. Whereas cool temperature is one of the primary triggers for ascites, early feed restriction (FDR) significantly alleviates its incidence and mortality. However, little is known about effects of FDR, cold environmental temperature and their interaction on physiological responses in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old male broilers were divided into two treatment groups of Ad libitum (Ad) and feed restricted (FR) with eight pen replicates each. Chickens in FR group underwent feed access limitation from days 7 to 14 of age. On day 21 half of the birds (four pens) in each group exposed to the cold temperature (CT) and the other half (four pens) continued at normal temperature (NT). Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. At 39 and 46 days of age two chicks with a BW around the pen average were selected from each pen and slaughtered after collecting blood samples. Then, relative weight of internal organs and right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV : TV) ratio were calculated. Compared with NT group, CT birds had higher daily feed intake and FCR (P<0.05) from day 28 to 42. Cumulative ascites mortality in CT chickens was higher (P<0.001) than NT chicks. Within the CT group, ascites mortality in FR chickens was reduced (P<0.001) to 1.25% compared with 8.75% in Ad chicks. Birds in CT group had significantly (P<0.05) thicker right ventricle and greater relative weight of heart, hematocrit and triiodothyronine concentration. However, none of these parameters were affected by FDR. Under cold stress conditions, FDR reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.05). Serum triglyceride

  13. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    PubMed

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation.

  14. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation. PMID:27170996

  15. War Games and Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    manifestation of war--or portrayal of Its physical essence--is logistics" (4:9) then clearly our war plans (and war games) should reflect an active and ongoing... active training and testing program for logistics? The next chapter will address that question. 21 CHAPTER IV THEATER WAR EXERCISE (TWX) The TWX Is a ten...War Exercise (TWX) as the model. The report concludes by suggesting several logistics simulation models now in use by the military that could be

  16. Early Serologic Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia: An Observational Study on Changes in Titers of Specific-IgM Antibodies and Cold Agglutinins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Youn, You-Sook; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Han; Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There have been some limitations on early diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection because of no immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses and variable detection rates of polymerase chain reaction in the early stage of the disease. We wanted to discuss regarding early diagnostic method using short-term paired titration of MP-specific IgM and cold agglutinins (CAs) in the early stage of MP pneumonia. The participants of this study were 418 children with MP pneumonia during 2 recent epidemics (2006–2007 and 2011), and they were diagnosed by an anti-MP IgM antibody test (Serodia Myco II) examined twice during hospitalization at presentation and around discharge (mean of 3.4 ± 1.3 days apart). CA titers were simultaneously examined twice during study period. Anti-MP IgM antibody titer ≥1:40 and CA titer ≥1:4 were considered positive, respectively. The relationships between 2 IgM antibodies in the early stage were evaluated. Regarding MP-specific antibody titers, 148 patients showed a seroconversion, 245 patients exhibited increased titers, and 25 patients had unchanged higher titers (≥1:640) during hospitalization. The median MP-specific antibody titers at each examination time were 1:80 and 1:640, respectively; those of CAs were 1:8 and 1:32, respectively. Illness duration prior to admission showed a trend of association with both titers, and patients with shorter illness duration had a higher rate of negative titers or lower titers at each examination time. CAs and MP-specific antibody titers were correlated in the total patients at presentation and at 2nd examination (P < 0.001, respectively), and the diagnostic corresponding rates of CAs to IgM antibody test were 81% to 96% in patient subgroups. Short-term paired MP specific-IgM determinations in the acute stage may be used as a definitive diagnostic method for MP pneumonia. Paired CA titers showed a correlation with MP-specific antibody titers, suggesting they can be used as an adjuvant

  17. Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  18. From cold to cool in northernmost Norway: Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-proxy environmental and climate reconstructions from Jansvatnet, Hammerfest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Birks, H. John B.; Telford, Richard J.; Juggins, Stephen; Peglar, Sylvia M.

    2012-02-01

    A multi-proxy palaeoecological study of the lateglacial and early Holocene sediments of Jansvatnet, Hammerfest, northernmost Norway (70°39' N) showed that cold and arid conditions prevailed in both the lateglacial interstadial and the Younger Dryas. Terrestrial proxies are macrofossils and pollen. Aquatic proxies are plant and invertebrate macrofossils, pollen, diatoms, and chironomids. Mean July temperatures were reconstructed using pollen and chironomid calibration functions and ecological knowledge of the fossil flora and fauna. Lake-water pH was reconstructed using a diatom pH-calibration function. Above sterile basal deglacial silts, biotic activity was detected around 14600 years ago in the interstadial (chronologically equivalent to the Bølling-Allerød in the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology). Catchment vegetation resembled polar desert and ultra-cold stenothermic chironomids lived in the lake. However, diatom assemblages were diverse and dynamic. In the Younger Dryas stadial, conditions deteriorated. In the early Younger Dryas chironomid-inferred air temperatures (CI-Tjul) fell about 1 °C. Pollen-inferred temperatures (PI-Tjul) did not fall and the terrestrial vegetation hardly changed because of the extreme aridity. The lake water was turbid from suspended clay which diminished aquatic life. Later in the Younger Dryas (ca 12400 cal yr BP) reconstructed mean July temperatures fell by a further 3 °C and were close to the minimum to support life, at around 3-4 °C. However, decreased turbidity allowed moss growth on the lake bottom that provided habitats for invertebrates and diatoms. In the last 200 years of the Younger Dryas temperatures increased by 2-3 °C and terrestrial and aquatic organisms responded quickly. At the start of the Holocene a rapid increase of more than 3 °C in PI-Tjul to 9.5 °C initiated the replacement of sparse arctic tundra by low-arctic dwarf-shrub heath. Simultaneously, a further 2 °C increase in CI-Tjul to 10-11 °C reflected

  19. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  20. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  1. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  2. Suicide among War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  3. Suicide among war veterans.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  4. America’s Transitional Capacity: War, Systems, and Globalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    such as the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). During the Cold War, American foreign policy focused on...free markets abroad are deeply rooted in America’s foreign policy objectives. The United States selectively uses its military as a means to implement... policy objectives. The United States selectively uses its military as a means to implement these ideas abroad. However, the American way of war creates

  5. War, Conflict and Play. Debating Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyder, Tina

    2004-01-01

    Young refugees from many parts of the world are increasingly present in UK early years settings. This book explores the crucial importance of play for young refugee children's development. It considers the implications of war and conflict on young children and notes how opportunities for play are denied. It provides a framework for early years…

  6. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  7. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  8. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  9. Mixtures of Silica and Disulfide Rocks Can Explain the Coeval Formation of Mineral Sequences on a Cold and Wet Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, A. G.; Mateo, E.; Gago-Duport, L.; Losa-Adams, E.; Chevrier, V.; Gil-Lozano, C.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of Mg-Fe-phyllosilicate, carbonate and sulfate bearing rocks on Mars is consistent with a wide variety of aqueous environments ―from alkaline-neutral to acidic waters― existing in the past, which are usually explained assuming the existence of subsurface hydrothermal environments and a drastic climate change early on Mars' history. Here we present aqueous alteration experiments on different olivine and pyrite powdered mixtures, prepared by weight to analyze their weathering products under early Mars surface conditions: a CO2 atmosphere (PCO2 = 0.5 bar), low temperature (i.e., not hydrothermal conditions, <20º C), low fluid-to-rock ratio ( 10), and UV irradiation, recreating the geological setting of surface ponded water, to discuss the effect that the host-rock composition could have on the resulting mineral assemblage. We used mechanically active pyrite as the source of sulfur because it's ability to produce both acidic and oxidizing conditions through aqueous alteration without the addition of an external oxidizing agent. Consequently, pyrite is able to promoting the formation of iron hydroxides and sulfates even in oxygen limited conditions. In addition, we analyze the stability of the surface products after UV irradiation inside a simulation Planetary Atmosphere and Surface Chamber (PASC) at CAB. Preliminary results (time of aqueous reaction: 42 days, plus 5 days until total water evaporation) show appreciable differences in the altered samples, mostly related to sulfate and carbonate compounds. As the pyrite content increased, the most acidic and oxidizing conditions of the leaching solution caused the increase of the rate of olivine dissolution, modifying the formation pathways of secondary products. These results suggest that some of the alteration products identified on Mars could have formed on the surface coevally, without the necessity to invoke subsurface hydrothermalism, abrupt atmospheric changes or long periods of warming on early

  10. Deterrence at the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    by limited use of nuclear weapons. The Behavioral Model of Deterrence Will Predominate Cold War deterrence was built on the rational actor model...of the other, would be so risky that no one—regardless of cultural or behavioral attributes or institutional decision-making processes—would ever con...the Soviet Union developed mutual understanding of the limits of escalation and the “redlines” of crisis behavior and military action, though, as a

  11. Teaching About War and War Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William A.

    The book provides a conceptual framework along with classroom suggestions for secondary social studies teachers dealing with the complex war/peace subjects. The book aims at studying wars as a social phenomenon in a new course, or in combination with interdisciplinary courses. It is divided into four major parts. Part I, Developing an…

  12. Periods of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Snyder’s Historical Guide to World War Two (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982), p. 736; and the World Almanac of World War II, ed. Brigadier Peter Young...his historic broadcast to the Japanese people telling of Japan’s surrender, is cited as V-J Day in The World Almanac of World War II, p. 353. World

  13. Science and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

  14. Images, Imagination and Impact: War in Painting and Photography from Vietnam to Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    discontent with the establishment, providing the “look and feel” of the movements. Stephanie Barron documents in Art of Two Germanys/Cold War Cultures...Stephanie Barron and Sabine Eckmann, eds., Art of Two Germanys/Cold War Cultures (New York: Abrams, 2009). 17 Gerd Knischewski and Ulla Spittler, “Memories...eds. Anne Wilkes Tucker, Will Michels and Natalie Zelt (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 21. 49 Goldberg, The Power of Photography, 193

  15. Effects of an early fall cold front on heat, phosphorus, silica, and manganese distributions in the hypolimnion of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Robert E.

    1993-10-01

    I examined the effects of an early fall (8-10 September 1977) cold front on eutrophic Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, during which 'Lake Number' LN (dimensionless) attained a minimum 3 h value of 0.45, and remained below 1.0 for a total of 39 h. The front accelerated heat transport downward through the main thermocline, resulting in hypolimnetic warming; the vertical eddy conductivity Kz increased monotonically with depth from a minimum 0.8 m 2 day -1 at 16 m to 1.9 m 2 day -1 at 21 m. The front also affected significant lateral and vertical redistribution of three passive solute 'tracers': phosphate (P), silicic acid (Si) and soluble reduced manganese (Mn 2+). Lateral concentration gradients along isopycnals predating the storm were erased. For Mn, especially, the vertical redistribution within the hypolimnion agreed with modeled changes based on vertical gradients and the Kz profile. Mn and P behaved quasi-conservatively within the anoxic hypolimnion (no net sources or sinks), but additional supplies of Si appeared in the hypolimnion (8.0 ± 1.5 mg m -3 day -1). This rate over 4 days agreed with the mean rate of hypolimnetic Si accumulation over the 80 day interval preceding 7 September 1977 (8.7 mg m -3 day -1). These results corroborate other environmental evidence that Mn and P both enter Lake Mendota's hypolimnion mainly during the first half of the summer, prior to the onset of bulk hypolimnetic anoxia, whereas Si is released by hypolimnetic sediments continuing into the late summer.

  16. Thinking about Our Future: War, Society, and the Environment. A Series of Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harik, Ramsay M.

    This packet of 11 lesson plans is designed to help high school social studies classes examine socio-political issues facing the post-Cold War world. Though its multi-disciplinary approach touches upon a number of current topics, the packet's particular focus is on the wide-ranging impact of war and militarism on the planet's growing ecological…

  17. American War Narratives: An Analytic Study and Linkage to National Will

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Continental Congress. The final component of the war narrative that addresses what was at stake relates to the concept of individual freedom and liberties...... drifted into the Cold War, communism became the primary concern of US foreign policy and containment was being directly challenged. The time between

  18. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  19. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  20. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  1. Impact of infectious diseases on war.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2004-06-01

    Wartime epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and nonbelligerent states. This article summarizes the principal factors that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases in past wars and reviews the associated demographic losses in military and civil populations. Drawing on the detailed epidemiologic records for the United States Army, case studies of the spread of infectious diseases in relation to military mobilization are presented for the American Civil War, Spanish-American War,and World War I. The article concludes with a brief overview of infectious disease activity in high- and low-intensity conflicts of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

  2. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  3. Countering Textbook Distortion: War Atrocities in Asia, 1937-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In the early months of 2005, much of the world celebrated the 60th anniversary of the World War II Allied victory over Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. Around the same time, protests erupted in Asia against a revised Japanese history textbook, "The New History Textbook," which critics said covered up Japanese World War II atrocities.…

  4. Countering Textbook Distortion: War Atrocities in Asia, 1937-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In the early months of 2005, much of the world celebrated the 60th anniversary of the World War II Allied victory over Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. Around the same time, protests erupted in Asia against a revised Japanese history textbook, "The New History Textbook," which critics said covered up Japanese World War II atrocities.…

  5. The Responses of Arabidopsis Early Light-Induced Protein2 to Ultraviolet B, High Light, and Cold Stress Are Regulated by a Transcriptional Regulatory Unit Composed of Two Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hayami, Natsuki; Sakai, Yusaku; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tatsunori; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kurihara, Yukio; Matsui, Minami; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Early Light-Induced Protein (ELIP) is thought to act as a photoprotectant, reducing the damaging effects of high light (HL). Expression of ELIP2 is activated by multiple environmental stresses related to photoinhibition. We have identified putative regulatory elements in an ELIP2 promoter using an octamer-based frequency comparison method, analyzed the role of these elements using synthetic promoters, and revealed a key transcriptional regulatory unit for ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, HL, and cold stress responses. The unit is composed of two elements, designated as Elements A (TACACACC) and B (GGCCACGCCA), and shows functionality only when paired. Our genome-wide correlation analysis between possession of these elements in the promoter region and expression profiles in response to UV-B, HL, and cold suggests that Element B receives and integrates these multiple stress signals. In vitro protein-DNA binding assays revealed that LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a basic domain-Leucine zipper transcription factor, directly binds to Element B. In addition, mutant analysis of HY5 showed partial involvement in the UV-B and HL responses but not in the cold stress response. These results suggest that signals for UV-B, HL, and cold stress join at Element B, which recognizes the signals of multiple transcription factors, including HY5. PMID:26175515

  6. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia.

  7. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  8. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  9. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  10. From Our President. Scuds, Sorties, and Yellow Ribbons: The Costs of War for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Lana

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that early childhood professionals must confront the challenges of alleviating children's fears about the Persian Gulf War. Topics addressed include emotional support for children with parents stationed in the Gulf; effects of the media's war coverage on children; and fiscal and human costs of the war. (BB)

  11. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  12. The Army War College Review. Volume 2, Number 3, August 2016. Student Publications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    other states to “flout long-established human rights standards”); Common Dreams, “Time to End the ‘Conspiracy of Silence Over Drone Attacks’: UN...About the Court.” (noting that following the Cold War, the ICTY and ICTR were “established to try crimes committed only within a specific time-frame and...the Cold War: Arguments on Causes of War and Peace, ed. Richard K. Betts 2th ed. (Boston: Pearson, 2013), 122. 20 The individual level of analysis

  13. Physical and mental health costs of traumatic war experiences among Civil War veterans.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Judith; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Prause, JoAnn

    2006-02-01

    Hundreds of thousands of soldiers face exposure to combat during wars across the globe. The health effects of traumatic war experiences have not been adequately assessed across the lifetime of these veterans. To identify the role of traumatic war experiences in predicting postwar nervous and physical disease and mortality using archival data from military and medical records of veterans from the Civil War. An archival examination of military and medical records of Civil War veterans was conducted. Degree of trauma experienced (prisoner-of-war experience, percentage of company killed, being wounded, and early age at enlistment), signs of lifetime physician-diagnosed disease, and age at death were recorded. The US Pension Board surgeons conducted standardized medical examinations of Civil War veterans over their postwar lifetimes. Military records of 17,700 Civil War veterans were matched to postwar medical records. Signs of physician-diagnosed disease, including cardiac, gastrointestinal, and nervous disease; number of unique ailments within each disease; and mortality. Military trauma was related to signs of disease and mortality. A greater percentage of company killed was associated with signs of postwar cardiac and gastrointestinal disease (incidence risk ratio [IRR], 1.34; P < .02), comorbid nervous and physical disease (IRR, 1.51; P < .005), and more unique ailments within each disease (IRR, 1.14; P < .005). Younger soldiers (<18 years), compared with older enlistees (>30 years), showed a higher mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.52), signs of comorbid nervous and physical disease (IRR, 1.93), and more unique ailments within each disease (IRR, 1.32) (P < .005 for all), controlling for time lived and other covariates. Greater exposure to death of military comrades and younger exposure to war trauma were associated with increased signs of physician-diagnosed cardiac, gastrointestinal, and nervous disease and more unique disease ailments across the life of Civil War

  14. Russian war surgery in 1812: 200 years since Russia's war triumph.

    PubMed

    Boсkeria, Leo A; Glyantsev, Sergey P; Kolesnikov, Yan G

    2012-01-01

    Specific wounds inflicted on soldiers and officers of the Russian Army by French firearms and cold weapon and wound treatment by Russian surgeons during 1812 Napoleon's invasion (better known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812) are discussed. An inference is made that the then surgical treatment was not only administered at a high level but was also versatile and efficient and thus could make a certain contribution to the victory of the Russian arms.

  15. Concept of Security for Gulf States After Gulf War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    112 27 Ibid page 113 28 Ibid pages 114-115 29 Abdul Munam Al Mashad Towards The ArabicFormula for The National Security Theory Dar Al Mustaqbil...Search For Strategic Stability. England: Mansell Publishing, 1985 Noyes, James H. The Persian Gulf After The Cold War. Westport, CT, 1984 Al Mashad

  16. Current Military Needs. War Gaming Department Perspectives, Connections 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-12

    attacks continue  “Fear factor” increases  Globalization  Economy is recovering from energy poverty  BRIC growing slowly  Increasing...recession  Trade blocks have risen  Displacement Challenge Resource shortage  Energy poverty Peer competitor groups Cold War Innovation

  17. Science and Public Policy since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Margaret W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: material/personnel shortages and surpluses around 1950; federal aid to nonmilitary research; loyalty oaths and security checks; rise of the behavioral sciences; science education, from the Cold War to creationism; antinuclear protests and the limited test ban treaty, 1954-1963; Sputnik and the space program; and health, safety, and…

  18. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  19. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  20. Science and Public Policy since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Margaret W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: material/personnel shortages and surpluses around 1950; federal aid to nonmilitary research; loyalty oaths and security checks; rise of the behavioral sciences; science education, from the Cold War to creationism; antinuclear protests and the limited test ban treaty, 1954-1963; Sputnik and the space program; and health, safety, and…

  1. Turkey’s Crucial Contributions to the War Against Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    outside Turkey. The best-known of these groups, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation ( ASALA ), apparently was formed in 1975 among leftist Armenians...living in Beirut, Lebanon. The ASALA assassinated twenty-five Turkish diplomats between 1975 and 1984. Nearly at the end of the Cold War Era, the

  2. Firepower in Limited War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    tac- tical utility, had no place in the armies under his command. "Americans assess the cost of war in terms of human lives," he wrote, "the Russians in...aircraft have been best suited for this purpose; bombing and shelling from great distances have proven to be the most efficient and cost effective...entrenched, unshaken enemy. Technology thus favored the defense, and in the American Civil War and the Franco-Prussian War four years later, the cost of

  3. The War for Yemen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    iii Abstract Yemen faces a difficult struggle for unity and sovereignty due to the proxy war waged within its borders between Iran and Saudi...stability in Yemen and the region. AU/ACSC/J WATSON/AY16 1 The War for Yemen The current conflict in Yemen is a direct proxy war between Iran ...policies of Mohammad Reza Shah, then the leader of Iran , and the Prime minister. In particular, he opposed policies dealing with the US that, in

  4. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  5. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  6. An historical perspective of early Italian air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The early times of aviation medicine were dominated by military actions and needs. This article describes the pioneering era of Italian air medical transport during the period between World War I and early World War II.

  7. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  8. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  9. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  10. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  11. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  12. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  13. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  14. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  15. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  16. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  17. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies.

  18. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.

  19. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  20. Early Mars climate near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary: Independent evidence for cold conditions from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa Argentea Formation) and implications for valley network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    Currently, and throughout much of the Amazonian, the mean annual surface temperatures of Mars are so cold that basal melting does not occur in ice sheets and glaciers and they are cold-based. The documented evidence for extensive and well-developed eskers (sediment-filled former sub-glacial meltwater channels) in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation is an indication that basal melting and wet-based glaciation occurred at the South Pole near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. We employ glacial accumulation and ice-flow models to distinguish between basal melting from bottom-up heat sources (elevated geothermal fluxes) and top-down induced basal melting (elevated atmospheric temperatures warming the ice). We show that under mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures (-100 °C) simulated in typical Amazonian climate experiments and typical Noachian-Hesperian geothermal heat fluxes (45-65 mW/m2), south polar ice accumulations remain cold-based. In order to produce significant basal melting with these typical geothermal heat fluxes, the mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures must be raised from today's temperature at the surface (-100 °C) to the range of -50 to -75 °C. This mean annual polar surface atmospheric temperature range implies lower latitude mean annual temperatures that are likely to be below the melting point of water, and thus does not favor a "warm and wet" early Mars. Seasonal temperatures at lower latitudes, however, could range above the melting point of water, perhaps explaining the concurrent development of valley networks and open basin lakes in these areas. This treatment provides an independent estimate of the polar (and non-polar) surface temperatures near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary of Mars history and implies a cold and relatively dry Mars climate, similar to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, where seasonal melting forms transient streams and permanent ice-covered lakes in an otherwise hyperarid, hypothermal climate.

  1. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  2. War Experiences and War-related Distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eight Years after War

    PubMed Central

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Results Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Conclusion Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:18293460

  3. War experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina eight years after war.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

    2008-02-01

    To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  5. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  6. Why Wars End: An Expected Utility War Termination Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    END : AN EXPECTED UTILITY WAR TERMINATION MODEL BY T~f~ Lieutenant Colonel David J. OberstD ~ United States Army ELECTE JUN02 1992 DISTRIBUTION...by the appropriate ailitarv service or government agency. WHY WARS END : AN EXPECTED UTILITY WAR TERMINATION MODEL by Lieutenant Colonel David J. Oberst...distribution is unimuited. ABSTRACT AUTHOR: David J. Oberst, LTC, MI TITLE: Why Wars End : An Expected Utility War Termination Model FORMAT

  7. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  8. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  9. Physicians confront the apocalypse. The American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    Boyer, P

    1985-08-02

    Boyer traces the American medical profession's involvement with the nuclear war issue from World War II to 1963. Research on the effects of radiation began with the Manhattan Project in 1942, and continued in Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the war. Interest in the narrow clinical aspects of radiation was rarely matched by an awareness of the social and medical implications of nuclear war, as attention focused instead on optimistic predictions about the benefits of atomic medicine. The medical community entered wholeheartedly into Cold War civil defense planning, and physicians and the public were encouraged to believe that a nuclear attack was survivable with advance planning. Medical activism against nuclear war began in the late 1950s and peaked in 1962 to 1963 with a series of New England Journal of Medicine articles, laying the foundation for physicians' renewed involvement in the 1980s.

  10. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    PubMed

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  11. Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2007-12-01

    As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  13. "War dysentery" and the limitations of German military hygiene during World War I.

    PubMed

    Linton, Derek S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines major epidemics of bacillary dysentery in the German army as well as among civilians in eastern Europe and in Germany during World War I. These epidemics were all the more surprising in light of prewar advances in understanding the disease and limiting dysentery outbreaks. Three major reasons are adduced for the incapacity of German military hygienists to prevent wartime epidemics. First was the difficulty of bacteriological testing at the front, especially early in the war, with negative consequences for diagnosis, therapy, and disease control. Second was inadequate hygiene including major shortcomings in latrine cleanliness and attempts to grapple with the "fly plague." Third was the lack of a Pasteur-type vaccine until late in the war. Susceptibility to dysentery was also heightened by war-related nutritional deficiencies. Taking off from an article by the English medical historian Roger Cooter, this article shows that the concept of "war dysentery" was socially constructed and served a variety of professional interests but at the same time takes issue with Cooter's arguments against linking "war" and "epidemics" pathogenetically.

  14. The operational status of the Russian space-based early warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Podvig, P.

    1994-08-01

    Early warning against ballistic missile attack has played a very important role in the military doctrines of the United States and Russia. Both countries have deployed systems of early warning satellites that could detect an attack almost immediately after the missiles were launched. These systems were vital for providing a launch on warning capability that was an important building block of their deterrence policies. With the end of the Cold War, the probability of a large-scale nuclear conflict has practically disappeared and the mission of the early warning system has become more diversified. The new missions, such as detection of accidental or unauthorized launches or countering the emerging threat of ballistic missile launches from third-world countries, becoming almost equally important, could require an early warning system of a different kind. This article analyzes the capabilities of the currently deployed Russian space based early warning system and shows that the system could not be modified to be effectively used in the post Cold War environment.

  15. Fixing the War Powers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    POWERS: IS THERE ANY SUBSTANCE WITHIN THE "ZONE OF TWILIGHT ?" ............... ............................................... 24 A. THE ILLUSIVE "INTENT OF...unpopular war. The * unfolding saga of Nixon’s "imperial Presidency" legitimized Congress’s claim that the President had usurped the war powers. The...a constitutional " twilight zone" 79 and the court’s abdication means that few of the constitutional issues will ever be settled definitely-except

  16. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  17. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  18. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  19. What Students Need To Know about America's Wars, Part I: 1622-1919. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On July 26-27, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 37 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching U.S. Military history. Sessions included: (1) The Revolutionary War and Early American Military History (Kyle Zelner); (2) The Mexican-American War (Paul Springer); (3) The Civil War (Mark Grimsley); (4) The Frontier Years…

  20. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.