Science.gov

Sample records for early cold war

  1. Preserving Alaska's early Cold War legacy.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.; Whorton, M.

    1999-03-08

    The US Air Force owns and operates numerous facilities that were constructed during the Cold War era. The end of the Cold War prompted many changes in the operation of these properties: missions changed, facilities were modified, and entire bases were closed or realigned. The widespread downsizing of the US military stimulated concern over the potential loss of properties that had acquired historical value in the context of the Cold War. In response, the US Department of Defense in 1991 initiated a broad effort to inventory properties of this era. US Air Force installations in Alaska were in the forefront of these evaluations because of the role of the Cold War in the state's development and history and the high interest on the part of the Alaska State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in these properties. The 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) owns many of Alaska's early Cold War properties, most were associated with strategic air defense. The 611 ASG determined that three systems it operates, which were all part of the integrated defense against Soviet nuclear strategic bomber threat, were eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and would require treatment as historic properties. These systems include the Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) System, the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and Forward Operating Bases (FOBs). As part of a massive cleanup operation, Clean Sweep, the 611 ASG plans to demolish many of the properties associated with these systems. To mitigate the effects of demolition, the 611 ASG negotiated agreements on the system level (e.g., the DEW Line) with the Alaska SHPO to document the history and architectural/engineering features associated with these properties. This system approach allowed the US Air Force to mitigate effects on many individual properties in a more cost-effective and efficient manner.

  2. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  3. POW/MIA Issues. Volume 2. World War II and the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    information on individual cases was included in this announcement. Research at the Center for Historical Documentary Collections in Moscow uncovered...Historical Documentary Collections, Moscow, Fond 1, Inventory 10E, File8, p. 210. ’I S22 POW/MIA Issues: Volume 2, World War 11 and the Early Cold War...deal of work in Tambov addressed the issue of American prisoners in February 1992: 4 &The Center for Historical Documentary Collections, Fond 1

  4. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  5. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    PubMed

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  6. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  7. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  8. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  9. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    PubMed

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production.

  10. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  11. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants. PMID:12117658

  12. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  13. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  14. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  15. The Cold War: An Assessment of Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    capitalized on their vulnerabilities even at the expense of the U.S. economy, and directly contributed to the demise of the USSR. INSIGHTS GAINED FOR... capital . This was an ideological war, but the difference between ideologies was political and economic views. In the post-Cold War world order...SDI", Foreign Affairs. Spring, 1988. Larson, Deborah W. Origins of Containment: A Psycological E.x.planation Princton Univ. Press, 1985. Lippmann

  16. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    King.4 0 Undoubtedly, the majority was more of a vote against the Left than it was for the King. Nonetheless, the King returned and further insulated ...much stock in any pledge by the King to prevent such a regime would probably be less responsive to American influence and desire then it more pliable ...London: Hart- Davis, MacGibbon. 1976. Woods , Randall B., and Jones, Howard. Dawning of the Cold War: The United States’ Ouest For Order. Athens

  17. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  18. British nuclear deterrent after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Trident nuclear deterrent program is one of the United Kingdom`s largest-ever military acquisitions. Planned and initiated in the depths of the Cold War, it is now coming to fruition, when the most obvious justification for it--the Soviet threat to Western Europe--has disappeared. The continuation of the program is not in doubt; the money is largely spent or committed, and the main political parties agree on deploying the force. But the rationale needs refurbishment. Britain has traditionally preferred to represent her nuclear capability primarily as a contribution to NATO`s collective deterrence. The second center of decisionmaking concept defined a particular value for that contribution. This rationale seized the moral high ground (by associating Britain`s deterrent with NATO`s strategy to prevent war), guarded the proliferation flank, and underpinned Anglo-American relations.

  19. The Cold War is over. What now?

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  20. Reconsidering Arthur Bestor and the Cold War in Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Burton

    2000-01-01

    Explores the development of Arthur Bestor's ideas and his differences with progressives during the 1950's. Contends their differences, exacerbated by the Cold War, were matters of emphasis not principles. Concludes that ongoing post-Cold War battles among liberal social educators should be resolved in favor of their common social and educational…

  1. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  2. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  3. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  4. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  5. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  6. We all lost the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lebow, R.N.; Stein, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the book is to use the experience of two actual Cold War crises to test the hypothesis that it was the U.S. strategy of deterrence that was primarily responsible for preventing war with the Soviet Union and teaching them that aggression would not pay. The two crises; the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and the Middle East crisis of 1973 have been widely interpreted as victories for U.S. deterence strategy. The authors draw on sources that were previously unavailable, both documents and interviews. The authors show that it was the fear of any nuclear use, not quantitative assessments of the nuclear balance, that deterred both Soviet and American leaders in the two crises examined. Each side believed that the loss of even a single city was unacceptable. This implies that the benefits of nuclear weapons derive from their ability to annihilate cities. A policy of finite deterence would rely almost exclusively on this threat to civilians, raising further moral questions.

  7. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection.

  8. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  9. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  10. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  11. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  12. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal.

  13. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  14. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  15. Reel History and the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the Cold War era has little historical meaning for today's students. Maintains that the use of feature-length films on videocassettes can be used effectively with appropriate reading and writing exercises. Provides a filmography focusing on social issues and a lesson plan. (CFR)

  16. "The Iron Curtain" (1948): Hollywood's First Cold War Movie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leab, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the nature of Hollywood movies produced during the Cold War and the transformation of U.S. popular culture. Discusses the 1948 production of "The Iron Curtain," based on the defection of Igor Gouzenko. Appendices include (1) the defection of Igor Gouzenko; and (2) Twentieth Century-Fox's purchase of the Igor Gouzenko story…

  17. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  18. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  19. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  20. Deterrence from Cold War to Long War: Lessons from Six Decades of RAND Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    rand.org Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Long, Austin G. From Cold War to long war : lessons from six decades of Rand deterrence...author thanks the RAND Library staff for help with archival and classified materials. Any errors are the responsibility of the author. xiii...client: the U.S. Air Force. The inauguration of President John F. Kennedy in 1961 marked a turning point. Many current and former RAND analysts were

  1. The Army Before Last: Military Transformation and the Impact of Nuclear Weapons on the US Army During the Early Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    deterrent rather than increasing investment in nuclear weapons and delivery systems .9 This thinking was based on the Army’s belief that nuclear weapons...War .................................................. 21 Table 2. US Army Cannon Delivery System (Nuclear Capable)....................... 42 Table 3...US Army Rocket & Missile Systems 1953-1991................................. 43 x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  2. To Be Black, & Gifted & Red: Cold War Period Yields New, Provocative Ground for Contemporary Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's climate of supercharged patriotism and apparent intolerance for comment or critique calls to mind an earlier period of U.S. history. The Cold War that began in the mid-to late-1940s, along with McCarthyism and the anti-communist movement in the early 1950s, created an atmosphere of national hysteria and paranoia. For the past decade,…

  3. Cold War Context Statement: Sandia National Laboratories, California Site

    SciTech Connect

    ULLRICH, REBECCA A.

    2003-01-01

    This document was prepared to support the Department of Energy's compliance with Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act. It provides an overview of the historic context in which Sandia National Laboratories/California was created and developed. Establishing such a context allows for a reasonable and reasoned historical assessment of Sandia National Laboratories/California properties. The Cold War arms race provides the primary historical context for the SNL/CA built environment.

  4. How adaptive optics may have won the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    2013-05-01

    While there are many theories and studies concerning the end of the Cold War, circa 1990, I postulate that one of the contributors to the result was the development of adaptive optics. The emergence of directed energy weapons, specifically space-based and ground-based high energy lasers made practicable with adaptive optics, showed that a successful defense against inter-continental ballistic missiles was not only possible, but achievable in a reasonable period of time.

  5. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  6. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  7. The Origins of the Cold War in United States History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. Samuel

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the impact of the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union on U.S. politics and society during the post-World War II era can hardly be overstated. Reviews 18 college history survey textbooks on their interpretation of the origins of the Cold War. (CFR)

  8. Medical triage in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Jeffer, E K

    1994-05-01

    Military medicine is caught at the confluence of two major currents of change. The Department of Defense and the American system of health care are both undergoing major revisions. Triage was a key operational concept for patient care during the Cold War era. With the changed world situation, the author suggests new operational concepts including the relegation of triage to a marginal role in wartime care. The author argues that increasing the ratio of medical personnel to combat troops is consistent with a changed national perspective on wartime casualties.

  9. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  10. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  11. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  12. Mathematical models, rational choice, and the search for Cold War culture.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Paul

    2010-06-01

    A key feature of the social, behavioral, and biological sciences after World War II has been the widespread adoption of new mathematical techniques drawn from cybernetics, information theory, and theories of rational choice. Historians of science have typically sought to explain this adoption either by reference to military patronage, or to a characteristic Cold War culture or discursive framework strongly shaped by the concerns of national security. This essay explores several episodes in the history of game theory--a mathematical theory of rational choice--that demonstrate the limits of such explanations. Military funding was indeed critical to game theory's early development in the 1940s. However, the theory's subsequent spread across disciplines ranging from political science to evolutionary biology was the result of a diverse collection of debates about the nature of "rationality" and "choice" that marked the Cold War era. These debates are not easily reduced to the national security imperatives that have been the focus of much historiography to date.

  13. Post-cold war nuclear dangers: Proliferation and terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1995-02-24

    This article discusses several aspects of post cold war nuclear problems facing both the world and the USA. Included are the following topics: four nuclear nightmare scenarios; availability of nuclear weapons, materials, and expertise; US programs to reduce smoggling of nuclear weapons and materials; US options in the future; Global options; and priority actions, including effective nuclear intelligence; read teams to find vulverablities and evaluate countermeasures to nuclear terrorism; accelerate development of advanced detection and disarmament technologies; implement urgent CISAC recommendation on management of nuclear materials and inherent security technologies; accelerate research and development of a globle space-based missile defence; ensure crediability of nuclear deterrent; accelerate development of conventional weapons that reduce the role of nuclear weapons. 9 refs.

  14. [Refugee movements in the post-Cold War era].

    PubMed

    Loescher, G

    1994-01-01

    "This article briefly describes the scope and dimensions of contemporary refugee movements by analyzing some of the forces which shape these flows. Democratization, problems of nationality and minority rights, and structural, political, economic, environmental and social changes in the post-Cold War world (especially in large parts of the developing world and in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), are likely to result in growing numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons in the years ahead. Refugees and asylum seekers are increasingly regarded not only as a major humanitarian challenge but as a political problem and a threat to the national security of Western states. Refugee policy involves much more than defining or adjudicating claims for asylum, safe haven and refugee status for those who seek to enter or stay in the West. It is now apparent that an effective response to these issues will have to involve major Western foreign policy and international actions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    PubMed

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  16. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    PubMed

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  17. A post cold war assessment of US space policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    The V.P. of the US, Dan Quayle, asked his Space Policy Advisory Board to conduct a review of current national space policy. He charged them with making policy recommendations that would: increase the efficiency of federal government space activities to enable the best space program possible for the funds available; maintain US leadership and competitiveness for the 21st century; and sustain an industrial base capable of supporting future national security, civil, and commercial space requirements. The group has completed this review and found that space systems and missions remain important elements of government activity. Specifically, some findings are: current space activities are not appropriate for post Cold War era; economic competitiveness of the space related industrial sector promotes civil and national security interest; and enhanced international cooperation presents an opportunity for the US which should be pursued. The group recommends that the US: change the way space activities are organized and managed; reduce and eliminate security constraints associated with national security; revitalize a more productive cooperation between the government and the space industry; and take the initiative in shaping a common international agenda in selected areas of civil and national security space activity to address global problems and to maintain US influence.

  18. Scaling up: human genetics as a Cold War network.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2014-09-01

    In this commentary I explore how the papers here illuminate the processes of collection that have been so central to the history of human genetics since 1945. The development of human population genetics in the Cold War period produced databases and biobanks that have endured into the present, and that continue to be used and debated. In the decades after the bomb, scientists collected and transferred human biological materials and information from populations of interest, and as they moved these biological resources or biosocial resources acquired new meanings and uses. The papers here collate these practices and map their desires and ironies. They explore how a large international network of geneticists, biological anthropologists, virologists and other physicians and scientists interacted with local informants, research subjects and public officials. They also track the networks and standards that mobilized the transfer of information, genealogies, tissue and blood samples. As Joanna Radin suggests here, the massive collections of human biological materials and data were often understood to be resources for an "as-yet-unknown" future. The stories told here contain elements of surveillance, extraction, salvage and eschatology.

  19. Post-Cold War Science and Technology at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, John C.

    2002-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory serves the nation through the development and application of leading-edge science and technology in support of national security. Our mission supports national security by: ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile; reducing the threat of weapons of mass destruction in support of counter terrorism and homeland defense; and solving national energy, environment, infrastructure, and health security problems. We require crosscutting fundamental and advanced science and technology research to accomplish our mission. The Stockpile Stewardship Program develops and applies, advanced experimental science, computational simulation, and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear weapons in the absence of nuclear testing. This effort in itself is a grand challenge. However, the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, reminded us of the importance of robust and vibrant research and development capabilities to meet new and evolving threats to our national security. Today through rapid prototyping we are applying new, innovative, science and technology for homeland defense, to address the threats of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons globally. Synergistically, with the capabilities that we require for our core mission, we contribute in many other areas of scientific endeavor. For example, our Laboratory has been part of the NASA effort on mapping water on the moon and NSF/DOE projects studying high-energy astrophysical phenomena, understanding fundamental scaling phenomena of life, exploring high-temperature superconductors, investigating quantum information systems, applying neutrons to condensed-matter and nuclear physics research, developing large-scale modeling and simulations to understand complex phenomena, and exploring nanoscience that bridges the atomic to macroscopic scales. In this presentation, I will highlight some of these post-cold war science and technology advances

  20. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  1. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  2. The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2012-01-01

    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

  3. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  4. Lessons from the Cold War: Military Service and College Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alair

    2005-01-01

    Since World War II, the federal government has provided funds to pay for the education of veterans through the GI bill. Yet, these funds were unavailable from 1955 to 1965. This article considers four potentially overlapping hypotheses to describe the effect of military service on veterans' educational attainment in the absence of government…

  5. Coercive Air Strategy in Post-Cold War Peace Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Muslim overlords and were supported by Serbia and Montenegro . Russia entered into the conflict on the side of the Christian peasants and crushed the...on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. May 1994. Corsini, Roberto . The Balkan War: What Role for Air Power? Maxwell AFB, AL: April 1995. Doyle

  6. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  7. The Cold War within American Higher Education: Rutgers University as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Thomas F.

    This book examines the impact of anticommunism on American campuses, using Rutgers University (New Jersey) from 1950 through 1965 as a case example. Following an introductory chapter which provides background information, chapter 2 discusses the period January 1950 to August 1952, when Cold War politics intensified at Rutgers University and the…

  8. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  9. The Fate of German Studies After the End of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohendahl, Peter Uwe

    1998-01-01

    Both declining second-language enrollments in colleges and universities and the rapid metamorphosis of higher education are linked to the end of the Cold War. The strong state as the protector of the university's relative independence has ended, and the business sector is the new standard for measuring performance. In this context, German…

  10. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  11. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  12. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  13. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  14. How the Cold War is Taught: Six American History Textbooks Examined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Martin F.

    This booklet is a comparative analysis of how six high school history textbooks present events and issues related to the Cold War. The texts are "History of a Free People" (Macmillan, 1973), "Rise of the American Nation" (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1977), "The American Experience" (Addison-Wesley, 1975), "A New…

  15. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  16. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    FBIS), Daiy Report, BastAsia [hereinafter, PBIS -.EAS], December 17,1992, p. 5. 12 The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War Japan’s...have applied for mem- bership: Argentina, Ecuador, Chile, India, Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru , and Russia. LI II The Japanese

  17. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  18. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    PubMed

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  19. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  20. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  1. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  2. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  3. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  4. The "Starch Wars" and the Early History of DNA Profiling.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J D

    2006-01-01

    Just as the movie Star Wars had a prequel, so did the "DNA Wars"-the series of legal, scientific, and personal battles that took place over the admissibility of forensic DNA evidence from 1989 to 1994. Between the late 1970s and the mid-1980s, another forensic identification technique became mired in controversy: electrophoresis-based blood protein analysis. Although the debates over blood analysis were every bit as rancorous and frustrating to almost everybody involved - so much so that they became known as the "Starch Wars" - their importance has not been adequately appreciated in the recent history of forensic science. After reviewing the early history of blood typing, I will describe the development of the Multi-System approach to blood protein analysis that took place in California from 1977 to 1978. I will then elucidate the history of the Starch Wars, and demonstrate the ways that they shaped subsequent disputes over DNA evidence, especially in California. I will show that: (a) many of the forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, and lawyers who became prominent players in the DNA Wars were deeply involved in the court cases involving protein electrophoresis; and (b) many of the issues that became controversial in the disputes over DNA evidence first emerged in the Starch Wars. In the conclusion, I will suggest various ways to improve the quality of forensic science based on my analysis of the Starch Wars.

  5. The British Nuclear Deterrent After the Cold War,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    collaborative project with France (the Air-Sol Longue Portee, or ASLP). - 37 - Such, then, was the position as Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union...security structure in Europe, while Brooke’s poem 񓞚"--"To turn, as swimmers into cleanness leaping Glad from a world grown old and cold and weary

  6. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    PubMed

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s.

  7. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G.; Barke, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  8. Cold blood and clinical research during World War I.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; King, S C

    1996-07-01

    Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.

  9. Petrobarter: oil, inequality, and the political imagination in and after the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Petrobarter--the exchange of oil for goods and services without reference to monetary currency--has been a widespread and underappreciated practice among corporations, states, and state agencies over the past half century. Analyzing this practice with reference to anthropological theories of barter adds to our understandings of two significant and intertwined concerns in contemporary social science: (1) the production and reproduction of inequality at various scales, from subnational regions to the international system as a whole, and (2) the generation and fate of mobilizing political imaginaries that challenge the abstracted, universalizing imaginaries so often associated with monetized exchange, especially in capitalist contexts. Barter exchanges featuring oil are, therefore, as analytically significant as the much more commonly studied transactions of oil and money. Ethnographic and historical case studies of petrobarter are drawn from the Perm region of the Russian Urals in the post-Soviet period and the global oil trade in the early Cold War. This view from the perspective of the socialist and postsocialist world, it is argued, provides an instructive counterpoint to the many existing studies of oil and money, both in and beyond anthropology, that are situated in the European-American colonial and postcolonial periphery.

  10. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period.

  11. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  12. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  13. Blending Science & Art: Cold War Lessons for Strategy Development in Postmodern War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Lessons For Strategy Development In Postmodern War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) School of Advanced Air And Space Studies,,Air University...Maxwell Air Force Base,,AL 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  14. The Arctic: A New Partnership Paradigm or the Next Cold War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-27

    FINAL 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Arctic: A New Partnership Paradigm or the Next “Cold War...200,000 square miles in the Arctic.24 Accession acts to strengthen and extend Arctic jurisdiction, open up additional hydrocarbon and mineral...1 Background: United States is Unprepared 2 Opposing Views of Partnership 3 Analysis of Multinational Moves in the Arctic 5

  15. Seeing Off the Bear: Anglo-American Air Power Cooperation During the Cold War,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    threat to a free Europe, shows many of the USAF aircraft that were stationed at RAF bases during the Cold War, and features the distinctive RAF...long and 200 feet wide. How was it possible that the largest combat-tested bomber in the free world, possessed only by the United States, could deploy to...telecom- munications free of charge, provided that the expenditures did not exceed the normal costs of RAF requirements and standards. That " free of

  16. The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within the Post-Cold War Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    ANALYSIS WITHIN THE POST-COLD WAR SECURITY ENVIRONMENT by Matthew K. Moeller December 1992 Thesis Advisor: R. Mitchell Brown III Second Reader: Rodney...WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. I ITLE (Include Security Classification) The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within... Analysis Within the Post-Cold War Security Environment by Matthew K. Moeller Lieutenant, United States Air Force B.S., San Jose State University, 1989

  17. Radiation exposure: Hot legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1990-08-03

    The article tells about the routine management of nuclear safety in the U.S.S.R. and, more specifically, about the hazards of long-term exposure to big doses of radiation. Half the workers at the Cheliabinsk site in the Ural Mountains east of Moscow were routinely receiving 100 rem per year in the late 1940s and early 1950s. For comparison, this is about 20 times the maximum annual dose a worker is allowed to get in the United States today. The consequences of the very large doses to workers in the U.S.S.R. are not fully revealed. But the report mentions that 8 to 9% of the staff who began work before 1958 and received high radiation doses (more than 100 rem) die of cancer. In addition, the report says that nearly a quarter of the workers between 1950 and 1952 were suffering from chronic radiation disease. Cancer mortality among severely exposed workers (100 rem and above) was 88% higher than among those who received less than 100 rem.

  18. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  19. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-01-20

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications.

  20. Risk-Based Ranking Experiences for Cold War Legacy Facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of government agencies in the United States have faced increasing public scrutiny for their efforts to address the wide range of potential environmental issues related to Cold War legacies. Risk-based ranking was selected as a means of defining the relative importance of issues. Ambitious facility-wide risk-based ranking applications were undertaken. However, although facility-wide risk-based ranking efforts can build invaluable understanding of the potential issues related to Cold War legacies, conducting such efforts is difficult because of the potentially enormous scope and the potentially strong institutional barriers. The U.S. experience is that such efforts are worth undertaking to start building a knowledge base and infrastructure that are based on a thorough understanding of risk. In both the East and the West, the legacy of the Cold War includes a wide range of potential environmental issues associated with large industrial complexes of weapon production facilities. The responsible agencies or ministries are required to make decisions that could benefit greatly from information on the relative importance of these potential issues. Facility-wide risk-based ranking of potential health and environmental issues is one means to help these decision makers. The initial U.S. risk-based ranking applications described in this chapter were “ground-breaking” in that they defined new methodologies and approaches to meet the challenges. Many of these approaches fit the designation of a population-centred risk assessment. These U.S. activities parallel efforts that are just beginning for similar facilities in the countries of the former Soviet Union. As described below, conducting a facility-wide risk-based ranking has special challenges and potential pitfalls. Little guidance exists to conduct major risk-based rankings. For those considering undertaking such efforts, the material contained in this chapter should be useful

  1. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations.

  2. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  3. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  4. Breaking the Code for Operational Planners: A Comparative Analysis of National Security Strategies Since the End of the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-04

    Presidents articulated in the post-Cold War era is that America cannot return to a strategy of protectionism nor isolationism . But even more important...responsibilities. As our nation learned after World War I, we can find no security for America in isolationism , nor prosperity in protectionism …Without...of America, (September 2002), preface. 54 Speaking to the disadvantages of fear, isolationism , and protectionism , President Bush reconfirmed

  5. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    PubMed

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  6. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    PubMed

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  7. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  8. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Nuclear disarmament after the cold war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2008-04-01

    Now that the cold war is long over, our thinking of nuclear weapons and the role that they play in international security has undergone serious changes. The emphasis has shifted from superpower confrontation to nuclear proliferation, spread of weapon materials, and to the dangers of countries developing nuclear weapon capability under a cover of a civilian program. At the same time, the old cold-war dangers, while receded, have not disappeared completely. The United States and Russia keep maintaining thousands of nuclear weapons in their arsenals, some of them in very high degree of readiness. This situation presents a serious challenge that the international community has to deal with. Although Russia and the United States are taking some steps to reduce their nuclear arsenals, the traditional arms control process has stalled -- the last treaty that was signed in 2002 does not place serious limits on strategic forces of either side. The START Treaty, which provides a framework for verification and transparency in reduction of nuclear arsenals, will expire at the end of 2009. Little effort has been undertaken to extend the treaty or renegotiate it. Moreover, in recent years Russia has stepped up the efforts to modernize its strategic nuclear forces. The United States has resisted joining the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and has been working on controversial new nuclear weapon development programs. The U.S. missile defense program makes the dialogue between Russia and the United States even more difficult. The reluctance of Russia and the United States to engage in a discussion about drastic reductions of their nuclear forces undermines the case of nuclear nonproliferation and seriously complicated their effort to contain the spread of nuclear weapon technologies and expertise. One of the reasons for the current lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is the contradiction between the diminished role that nuclear weapons play in security of nuclear weapon

  9. Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the pledge by President Kennedy to land a man on the moon and return him safely "before the decade is out" was a Cold War tactic designed to bring national unity. Presents a lesson plan, a chronological chart, three primary documents, step-by-step implementation procedures, and related student activities. (CFR)

  10. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  11. The Cold War and Modern Memory: Veterans Reflect on Military Service

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alair

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from focused interviews to look at how veterans who served primarily during the peacetime Cold War portrayed the effects of military service. Most veterans described being a soldier, sailor, or airman as a neutral, transitional role. Veterans also described their service as having features that are consistent with views of such service as both a positive turning point and a negative disruption. However, only one veteran described military service as operating as a positive turning point in his own life, and just two described it has having been a disruption in their lives. In addition, veterans who served as officers described learning leadership and confidence in the armed forces, which may help explain an observed quantitative officer premium. This latter finding is consistent with a view of the armed forces as facilitating the accumulation of advantage. PMID:25328253

  12. Bridging the Cold War and the 21st century: chronicling the history of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    A historical perspective is given for Sandia National Laboratories from its beginnings as a small engineering group at an offshoot of Los Alamos Laboratory to a facility of 7000 people at its main facility in Albuquerque, another 1000 people in Livermore, California and test ranges in Tonopah, Nevada and Kauai, Hawaii. The Sandia army base became the Z division of Los Alamos and $25 million construction program began the structures that would carry out a test program for nuclear weapons during the cold war. Bell System/AT&T stewardship of the site continued from 1949 to 1993, when Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) was chosen as the new contractor. Management decisions, personnel, and political aspects of the Laboratory are presented up to 1997 and forecasts are given for future policy and programs of Sandia.

  13. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  14. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    PubMed

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods.

  15. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  16. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  17. In the shadow of giants: Superpower arms transfers and Third World conflict during the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.

  18. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  19. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  20. Scientists in the classroom: Curriculum reform and the Cold War, 1949--1963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, John Laurence

    This dissertation focuses on the origins of the National Science Foundation-supported curriculum reform movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Using the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) as exemplars of the curriculum projects that proliferated during this era, this work provides a historical analysis of the shift in school curriculum from the life adjustment, functional approach to schooling prevalent after World War II to the discipline-centered approach characteristic of the 1960s. Important factors in this shift include the rising technological threat posed by the Soviet Union along with the Red Scare in the United States, which aroused public suspicion of the ideological underpinnings of the life adjustment curricular program. The efforts of the scientific elite to develop new science curricula were welcomed as a means to combat both the technological threat of the Soviets and, through science's identification with free inquiry and democracy, the ideological threat of communism. This dissertation specifically illustrates how the key elements of the new science curriculum materials---the focus on inquiry, laboratory work, and instructional technology---were shaped by the social and political atmosphere of the Cold War and how those elements were designed to advance the interests of the American scientific community in the postwar period. This social and political atmosphere, this work argues, was not only responsible for moving science instruction away from an emphasis on the every-day applications of science toward the disciplinary structure of scientific knowledge, but also contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the substantive content of the scientific knowledge itself that made up the subject matter of the new curricula.

  1. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  2. Attacking the Mobile Ballistic Missile Threat in the Post-Cold War Environment. New Rules to an Old Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    went on to serve as a combat crew member in the USAF Ground Launched Cruise Missile ( GLCM ) program in United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE...missile operator with numer- ous GLCM and ICBM alerts as well as 17 DOD, NASA, or commercial spacelift missions. He has a bachelor’s degree from the...combat mobile ballistic missiles in the post–Cold War environment. Ground launched cruise missile ( GLCM ) ballistic missiles are growing consistently over

  3. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  4. Adolescents' views on war and peace in the early phases of the Iraq conflict.

    PubMed

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the Vietnam War, the first Persian Gulf War, and the U.S. military involvement in Latin America. The study took place in early fall 2003, and results were interpreted in light of the social climate and complex realities of post 9/11 in New York State, the Catholic Church's initial opposition to the Iraq conflict, and popular opinion. In spite of differences between the Iraq War and other conflicts, findings are remarkably similar. Although the present group is highly preoccupied with terrorism and nuclear war, even in a time of war, participants show concern for what they perceived as affecting their lives directly, rather than with conventional war. While they believe that President Bush was honest about the war in Iraq and right in sending troops, they do not glorify war. On a theoretical level, they overwhelmingly believe that wars are bad and the majority is optimistic that world peace is possible, though they realize that wars are difficult to prevent, believe that they are sometimes needed, and will occur in the future. Unlike the Catholic group surveyed by Tolley during the Vietnam War, however, participants are not as ready to die for their country, although findings show that, overall, like past groups, more boys tend to be pro-war than are girls and participants' views tend to reflect contemporary public opinions.

  5. Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Maoists placed relentless pressure on communist cadres for ruthless implementation of the Great Leap Forward. Contrary to Maoist plans, China's grain output in 1959-1960 declined sharply from 1957 levels and rural per capita grain retention decreased dramatically. Throughout China, party cadres' mismanagement of agricultural production was responsible for the decline in grain output, and the communist state's excessive requisition of grain caused food shortages for the peasants. But the key factor determining the famine's uneven impact on the peasantry in the provinces was the degree to which provincial leaders genuinely and energetically embraced Maoist programs. This is illustrated by a close examination of the Great Leap famine in Anhui Province.

  6. Field Stations in the Cold War Arctic: Pedagogy and Practice in the Physical Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the first decades of Cold War America, the number of university-affiliated geophysical institutes expanded rapidly--and recruited new graduate students as they did. But how did these new recruits learn the ropes of their new profession? How did young scientists learn which concepts to take seriously, and which ones to discard--and how important were experiences gained outside the seminar room? How did they learn to design instruments, and develop research programs? Archival collections are often silent about graduate training, since many scientists began saving letters only after their professional careers were launched. But an important set of oral history interviews with individuals at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory sheds light on these questions. Interviews of researchers who were graduate students during the 1950s--including participants in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58--reveals the importance of opportunities to pursue wide-ranging investigations on research ships and remote field stations. This poster explores a particularly intriguing case, on a high-latitude ice island.

  7. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen´s The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  8. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  9. Maintaining the Critical Balance: The United States, NATO, and the European Security Equilibrium in the Post-Cold War Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    on a degree of cohesion, firmness and vigor which the Western World can muster. And this is the factor which it is with in our power to influence...of the importance of U.S. involvement in a developing post- war “containment” policy, the seeds of the Cold War and genesis of NATO had begun to...

  10. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  11. The Tightrope: French Colonial Collapse and the Shaping of Cold War Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    Indochina War intimately tied itself with the issues surrounding the 32Mark Philip Bradley , “Making Sense of the French War: The Postcolonial......the Casbah: Counter-Terrorism and Torture. New York: Enigma Books, 2006. Bradley , Mark Philip. “Making Sense of the French War: The Postcolonial

  12. Relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and PTSD symptom severity: a retrospective study on female civilian victims of war

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Aleksandra; Frančišković, Tanja; Vermetten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS), the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ), and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65) in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war. PMID:27056034

  13. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  14. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  15. Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze

    SciTech Connect

    Rojecki, A.

    1993-12-31

    The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes? (3) Has the character of voices permitted into this space changed over time? (4) Are there differences between the more elite-oriented media and those aiming for mass audiences? The study begins by tracing the formation of arms control policy in the three presidential administrations that span the two movements. Finally, it examines the news frames used to depict movement messages and participants. The study found that space provided to movement politics varied both with administration policy formation and editorial policy. Because news coverage followed the contours of elite policy, the movements succeeded only in placing their issues on the policy agenda but not in achieving their desired goals. There were significant differences in the types of voiced permitted into the news across the two movements. Moral authority to participate in and influence arms control policy debates was virtually unquestioned during the cold war, but by the 1980s, the media were more likely to defer to expert opinion, despite its underlying partisan interest. The most significant difference in news treatment was between the elite press and television news: The simplicity of the television report was more likely to elicit core issues. But neither the press, the opposition party in Congress, nor the movement used these to challenge the rationale of administration policy or to explore the ethical implications of the influence of defense industry PACs on policy-making.

  16. What Does It Mean to Win in the Cold War--The Maximization Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA AWC LOG Copy No.___ of 8 Copies 66-4-179 U 0U~ C)2cJC USAWC RESEARCH ELEMENT (Thesis) What Does It...the Korean War became difficult to describe. The ques- tion can still be asked, "What did it mean to win in the Korean War?" APPROACHES TO THE TEORY OF...It is always a process . 𔃽 IKarl von Clausewitz, On War, p. 21. 2David S. McLellan, and others, The Theory and Practice of International Politics, p

  17. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  18. The 1965 coup and reformasi 1998: two critical moments in Indonesia-Malaysia relations during and after the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Maksum, Ali; Bustami, Reevany

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the significant impact of the two crucial moments in Indonesia namely, the 1965 coup and reformasi (reformation) in May 1998 and the impact towards the Indonesia-Malaysia relationship. History had demonstrated that both events were followed by some changes in the bilateral relationship. The 1965 coup for instance resulted the fall of Sukarno and the collapse of PKI, while reformasi brought the fall of Suharto and the collapse of New Order. However, it was undeniable that the demands of international situation especially during and after the Cold War were significant factor in driving of those events.

  19. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  20. World War II Radar and Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.

    2005-08-01

    The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

  1. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. From Kites through Cold War: The Evolution of United States Air Force Manned Airborne ISR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    solidified as the platform of choice for airborne ISR. Airborne ISR growth was precipitous following the invention of the airplane and the navigable...an unproven capability. As a result, growth was slow and when World War I started, the United States had almost no airborne ISR capability...decision makers. Chapter Five details the travails of airborne ISR during the interwar period and its meteoric growth during World War II. Despite the

  3. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  4. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    decades of neo-liberal economic reform. This thesis explores how well he has done in promoting his brand of post-Cold War populism regionally and...region after almost three decades of neo-liberal economic reform. This thesis explores how well he has done in promoting his brand of post-Cold War...and beyond. Some ten years after he first assumed the presidency it is more important than ever to ask how well he has done in promoting his brand of

  5. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    PubMed

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  6. From Containment to Combating Terrorism: The Evolution and Application of a Post Cold War Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    no longer an organization; it is a brand name. Tony Karon noted in Time Magazine that "’al-Qaeda,’ the name describes a broad franchise of terrorist...in U.S. Army War College Guide to Strategy, ed. Joseph R. Cerami and James F. Holcomb, Jr., February 2001, 69, available from http://www.au.af.mil/au...Strategic Vision”, in U.S. Army War College Guide to Strategy, ed. Joseph R. Cerami and James F. Holcomb, Jr., February 2001, 131, available from http

  7. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  8. U.S. Maritime Strategy In a Post-Cold War World?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    Revolution. By 1785. aii U.S. warships tnat fought against Britain nac oeen cisposea of. 3 4 however. the growth of American glocal trace resuitea in...i2,000 soldiers, sailors and marines at Veracruz. Mexico in a matter of hours.3 6 Within six months, his victorious army 14 was in ,,iexico City, the war

  9. The Office of Technical Services: A New Deal Idea in the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes a key legislative initiative following World War II which sought to assign to the federal government a role in gathering and communicating scientific and technical information to private industry. Creation of the Office of Technical Services and its eventual transformation to the National and Technical Information Service is…

  10. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  11. The San Francisco Peace Treaty: The Cold War and the Peace Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Rachel

    International treaties have played a central role in diplomatic history since the rise of the modern nation state. Since the end of World War II, more treaties have been formed than in the preceding four centuries. The year 2001 marks the 50th anniversary of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. This unit provides students with historical knowledge of…

  12. Cold War and the Politics of Comparative Education: The Case of Divided Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Theodor

    This paper deals with the political role and the political self-definition of researchers in the field of comparative education in East and West Germany in the post World War II period. The study addresses some of the general assumptions made about comparative education bridging the gap between cultures but asserts that none of these assumptions…

  13. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the…

  14. The Quest for Relevant Air Power: Continental European Responses to the Air Power Challenges of the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    objective in eastern Afghanistan in November 2009. The 335th deployed to Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan, from Seymour Johnson AFB, NC. 38 │ POST–COLD WAR...Abolishes Conscription,” Jane’s Defence Weekly 47, no. 21 (26 May 2010): 10. 49. Mattias Robertson , Communications and Public Affairs Directorate, Swedish

  15. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  16. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  17. The Inner Cold War: State Party Control and East German Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    of the Naval Postgraduate School and its impact on this nation. It has been an extremely humbling experience to work with these consummate...total war and the divided character of the international political economy. This process resulted in two ideological poles that dominated, especially...aspiration with repressive policies and practices to enforce social conformity.4 Somewhere in the process , the people were supposed to form some

  18. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  19. Reflections of a Technocrat: Managing Defense, Air, and Space Programs during the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    barbershop when the radio an- nounced that Germany was invading Poland . Suddenly our mili- tary indoctrination didn’t seem quite so abstract. The war became...heavier landing gear (similar to that of the F-111B), the Australian model became the F-111C. By late 1969, after more than a year of delays and now...conference, cosponsored by the AIAA and the Planetary Society in July 1985. McLucas believed that the USA, the USSR, and other interested nations

  20. Are Standing Joint Task Force Headquarters the First Step in Transforming Cold War Formations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    leoorst. 129 Jetfetrson Oavn Suihw ty,lte 1204, ArlingtOn, V 222024302. and t0 the Otfice of Manaqemett and Buidget. PaierwoeK Reduci on PrOlec (0704...Progress." 18. 113 "JFC Forum - The Persian Gulf War. Ten Years After." (Joint Forces Quarterly. Winter 2000-01). 10. 114 James R . Helmly, "Future U.S... R . Stocker. Canadian Jointery, (Joint Forces Quarterly, Winter 95-96), 116. & James R . Heimly. "Future U.S. Military Strategy: The Need for a

  1. The Cold War and Beyond: Chronology of the United States Air Force, 1947-1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Eniwetok Atoll area. 3 April : Paul W. Airey becomes the first chief master sergeant of the U.S. Air Force. 47 8 April: Clove Hitch III, ajoint exercise...Reserve units participated . 20 October: As a consequence of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Arab nations declare an oil embargo that disrupts flying...Monthan AFB. 6-13 July: A C-130 Hercules aircraft airlifts 113 tons of sorghum and vegetable oil to refugees in Africa during the Chadian civil war. 15 July

  2. Cost-Performance Choices in Post-Cold War Weapons Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    accounts and comluent- 7. van Creveld. 320-22. taries. See John T. Correll. -"he Force at War." and 8. Fuller, 17: van Creveld. 21.9-21). James Canaan...Creveld, 67. 70. Air Force Macazine 74. no. 2 (Febmuary 1991): 46- 18. See Edward L. Katzenbach . Jr.. ’The Horse 51. For a summary of the ACEVAL...University more: Johns hlopkins University press. 1977). 369- Pre-,s. 1985). 84-85. 104-6. 70. 28. van Creveld. 365-84. 19. van Creveld, 69. 207. 318

  3. Cold War salons, social science, and the cure for modern society.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2009-06-01

    This essay examines how post-World War II Americans linked their understanding of domestic society and international affairs by using a common lens of psychological and characterological analysis for both. That lens was fashioned by social scientists and developed to study conformity and its opposite, creative and autonomous selfhood. Creativity offered a means to achieve the liberal national society they desired. Social scientists managed their technical definitions of conformity and autonomy as a way of defining reasonable political sentiment. This essay details how, ultimately, the forms of self and sociality they advocated for America were grounded in the kinds of community and interpersonal interaction they valued in their own professional lives.

  4. The War on Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Is Fighting the Good Fight.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).

  5. Spines of Steel: A Case of Surgical Enthusiasm in Cold War America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Just as the prevalence of scoliosis began to decline precipitously after World War II, American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Paul R. Harrington devised a new, invasive surgical system whereby implantable prosthetic metal rods and hooks were used to straighten curved backs. By the 1970s, "Harrington rods" had become the gold standard of surgical scoliosis care in the United States, replacing more conventional methods of exercise, bracing, and casting. This article situates the success of Harrington rods within a much larger and historically longer debate about why, when compared to those in other nations, American surgeons appear to be "more aggressive" and "knife-happy." Using Harrington's papers and correspondence, I argue that patients played a vital role in the rise of spinal surgery. As such, this article examines not only how surgical enthusiasm has been historically measured, defined, and morally evaluated, but also how scoliosis became classified as a debility in need of surgical management.

  6. The Case of Martha Deane: Sexuality and Power at Cold War UCLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a loyalty oath for professors at the University of California was part of the nationwide search for political subversives in all key institutions in the late 1940s and early 1950s. By the early 1950s, the panic over political subversives that led to the imposition of a loyalty oath at the University of California had spilled…

  7. Evolution of CO2 and H2O on Mars: A cold Early History?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The martian climate has long been thought to have evolved substantially through history from a warm and wet period to the current cold and dry conditions on the martian surface. This view has been challenged based primarily on evidence that the early Sun had a substantially reduced luminosity and that a greenhouse atmosphere would be difficult to sustain on Mars for long periods of time. In addition, the evidence for a warm, wet period of martian history is far from conclusive with many of the salient features capable of being explained by an early cold climate. An important test of the warm, wet early Mars hypothesis is the abundance of carbonates in the crust [1]. Recent high precision isotopic measurements of the martian atmosphere and discoveries of carbonates on the martian surface provide new constraints on the evolution of the martian atmosphere. This work seeks to apply these constraints to test the feasibility of the cold early scenario

  8. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  9. Searches for Cold Relics of the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, Laura

    2005-11-01

    Up to 90% of matter in the Universe could be composed of heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they froze-out from the primordial soup. I will review current searches for these hypothetical particles, both via elastic scattering from nuclei in deep underground detectors, and via the observation of their annihilation products in the Sun, galactic halo and galactic center. The emphasis will be on most recent results, and on comparison with reaches of future particle colliders, such as the LHC and ILC.

  10. Cold vs. Hot War: A Model for Building Conceptual Knowledge in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Students often report that social studies is their most boring and least favorite subject. As a child, Woodrow Wilson was bored by history, later describing his early studies as "one damn fact after another." Of course, Wilson went on to become an eminent historian, but only after he learned to reach beyond the "closed catechism" of "questions…

  11. Japan’s Post-Cold War North Korea Policy: Hedging toward Autonomy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Socialist Party (JSP) led by Deputy Prime Minister Kanemaru Shin visited Pyongyang from September 24 through 28, 1990, it was part of a calculated effort...Early Rounds, 1991–1992 When Shin Kanemaru led his delegation into Pyongyang in September 1990 the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) expected...and Korean Unification (Seoul, Korea: Yonsei University Press, 1999). 2. Jung Hyun Shin , Japanese-North Korean Relations: Linkage Politics in the

  12. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests.

  13. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths.

  14. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  15. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-03-29

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian-early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼ 42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous.

  16. Homeland Security Strategy from the Cold War into the Global War on Terrorism: An Analysis of Deterrence, Forward Presence, and Homeland Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    hurricanes, wildfires, and blizzards . The Army also supported the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta and aircraft and victim recovery in the TWA Flight...there has been an explosion of terrorism research in the form of war gaming , conspiracy theorizing, 3 and drawing conclusions from hindsight...Instead of maintaining a large standing force, Truman favored mobilization of reserve forces in the traditional American fashion of “declare and then

  17. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  18. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives.

  19. Early-age cold conditioning of broilers: effects of timing and temperature.

    PubMed

    Shahir, M H; Dilmagani, S; Tzschentke, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early-age cold conditioning (CC) on performance, ascites mortality, thyroid hormones status and immune response (leucocytes count) of broiler chickens. 2. A total of 336 chicks at 2 and 3 d of age were exposed to 20 or 25°C (for 3 or 6 h) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, while a control group was kept under normal temperature conditions (30°C). Thereafter, both control and cold conditioned birds were reared under standard conditions until 42 d of age. 3. The results showed that performance (weight gain and feed efficiency) was improved by CC at the end of the rearing period. Carcase traits (breast, thigh and abdominal fat percentage) were not affected by different treatments. Heart weight was lower in cold conditioned birds accompanied with lower ascites mortality. Total leucocyte count was higher in CC birds. Higher concentrations of thyroxin (T(4)) were found in plasma of treated groups, while triiodothyronine (T(3)) to T(4) ratio was decreased. 4. In conclusion, it seems that early age CC improves performance and reduces ascites mortality of broilers through altered thyroid hormones metabolism and leucocyte function. According to the results, the best timing for CC of broilers was 20°C for 6 h at the age of 2 d, and no significant benefit was observed by repeated CC.

  20. "Early Psychosis" as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term "early psychosis" was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about "early psychosis" under names such as "latent," "masked," "mild," "simple" or "sluggish" schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals "early psychosis" as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry.

  1. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  2. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  3. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  4. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons.

  5. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic.

  6. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  7. An early experiment in national identity cards: the battle over registration in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Rosemary

    2006-04-10

    The current debate on issuing identity cards to the British population was foreshadowed during the First World War, when the National Registration Act of 1915 provided for a register of all men and women between 15 and 65, later used to aid conscription. The National Register was produced by Bernard Mallet, the Registrar General of England and Wales. The information demands of the war also provided an opportunity for Mallet to press forward his pre-war agenda of reforming the system of routine registration of births, marriages and deaths. His desire for reform was shaped by the pressing eugenic questions of the day - infant mortality and national efficiency - and as the war progressed, he developed his ideas to include a permanent universal register of all individuals. This article examines the fate of Mallet's proposals, and shows how lack of political consensus and lack of support, even from colleagues in the General Register Office for Scotland, prevented his proposals coming to fruition.

  8. Adiposity and height of adult Hmong refugees: relationship with war-related early malnutrition and later migration.

    PubMed

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled in French Guiana or the United States following the Second Indochina War. Overall, 30.5% were born in a war zone in Laos, while 38.8% were displaced as infants; these individuals were presumed to have experienced malnutrition in the perinatal and infant periods, respectively. Resettlement in urban areas in the US was utilized as a proxy for greater exposure to excessive energy balance, compared with Hmong who resettled in rural areas in French Guiana. In multiple linear regression models, being displaced in infancy was negatively associated with height after controlling for confounders, while being born in a war zone was associated with higher adiposity and centralized body fat distribution. Resettlement in the US was associated with a higher centralization of subcutaneous fat, but not overall adiposity. These findings may be of interest to the study of the developmental origins of obesity, in a population that has undergone early malnutrition followed by migration and rapid nutritional transition.

  9. Effects of the duration of cold stratification on early life stages of the Mediterranean alpine plant Silene ciliata.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, A; Escudero, A; Lara-Romero, C; Iriondo, J M

    2015-03-01

    Cold stratification provided by snow cover is essential to break seed dormancy in many alpine plant species. The forecast reduction in snow precipitation and snow cover duration in most temperate mountains as a result of global warming could threaten alpine plant populations, especially those at the edge of their species distribution, by altering the dynamics of early life stages. We simulated some effects of a reduction in the snow cover period by manipulating the duration of cold stratification in seeds of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean alpine specialist. Seeds from three populations distributed along an altitudinal gradient were exposed to different periods of cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 months) in the laboratory and then moved to common garden conditions in a greenhouse. The duration of the cold stratification treatment and population origin significantly affected seed emergence percentage, emergence rate and seedling size, but not the number of seedling leaves. The 6-month and 4-month cold stratification treatments produced higher emergence percentages and faster emergence rates than seeds without cold stratification treatment. No significant cold stratification duration x seed population origin interactions were found, thus differential sensitivity to cold stratification along elevation is not supported.

  10. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    PubMed Central

    Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene

  11. Polyethylene glycol reduces early and long-term cold ischemia-reperfusion and renal medulla injury.

    PubMed

    Faure, Jean Pierre; Hauet, Thierry; Han, Zeqiu; Goujon, Jean Michel; Petit, Isabelle; Mauco, Gerard; Eugene, Michel; Carretier, Michel; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2002-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after transplantation is a major cause of delayed graft function, which has a negative impact on early and late graft function and improve acute rejection. We have previously shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and particularly PEG 20M has a protective effect against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in an isolated perfused pig and rat kidney model. We extended those observations to investigate the role of PEG using different doses (30g or 50g/l) added (ICPEG30 or ICPEG50) or not (IC) to a simplified preservation solution to reduce IRI after prolonged cold storage (48-h) of pig kidneys when compared with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions. The study of renal function and medulla injury was performed with biochemical methods and proton NMR spectroscopy. Histological and inflammatory cell studies were performed after reperfusion (30-40 min) and on days 7 and 14 and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a mitochondrial protein involved in cholesterol homeostasis, was also studied. The results demonstrated that ICPEG30 improved renal function and reduced medulla injury. ICPEG30 also improved tubular function and strongly protect mitochondrial integrity. Post-IRI inflammation was strongly reduced in this group, particularly lymphocytes TCD4(+), PBR expression was influenced by IRI in the early period and during the development of chronic dysfunction. This study clearly shows that PEG has a beneficial effect in renal preservation and suggests a role of PBR as a marker IRI and repair processes.

  12. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  13. Adolescents' Views on War and Peace in the Early Phases of the Iraq Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the…

  14. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements.

    PubMed

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-04-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (~20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations.

  15. Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements

    PubMed Central

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Lindner, Iris; Büttner, Andreas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous Proto-Slavic genetic substrate and/or extensive mixing after World War II were suggested to explain homogeneity of contemporary Polish paternal lineages. Alternatively, Polish local populations might have displayed pre-war genetic heterogeneity owing to genetic drift and/or gene flow with neighbouring populations. Although sharp genetic discontinuity along the political border between Poland and Germany indisputably results from war-mediated resettlements and homogenisation, it remained unknown whether Y-chromosomal diversity in ethnically/linguistically defined populations was clinal or discontinuous before the war. In order to answer these questions and elucidate early Slavic migrations, 1156 individuals from several Slavic and German populations were analysed, including Polish pre-war regional populations and an autochthonous Slavic population from Germany. Y chromosomes were assigned to 39 haplogroups and genotyped for 19 STRs. Genetic distances revealed similar degree of differentiation of Slavic-speaking pre-war populations from German populations irrespective of duration and intensity of contacts with German speakers. Admixture estimates showed minor Slavic paternal ancestry (∼20%) in modern eastern Germans and hardly detectable German paternal ancestry in Slavs neighbouring German populations for centuries. BATWING analysis of isolated Slavic populations revealed that their divergence was preceded by rapid demographic growth, undermining theory that Slavic expansion was primarily linguistic rather than population spread. Polish pre-war regional populations showed within-group heterogeneity and lower STR variation within R-M17 subclades compared with modern populations, which might have been homogenised by war resettlements. Our results suggest that genetic studies on early human history in the Vistula and Oder basins should rely on reconstructed pre-war rather than modern populations. PMID:22968131

  16. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  17. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  18. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    In this document, students examine the economic and military concerns that linked the history of the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. Organized into four chapters, the first chapter examines the history of U.S. relations with the Caribbean and Central America from the early 19th century to 1961. The second chapter focuses on the…

  19. Physio-biochemical and proteome analysis of chickpea in early phases of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Heidarvand, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza

    2013-03-15

    Intensive and short-term strategies can aid in more rapid screening with informative and reliable results for long-term investigations under cold stress (CS). The integration of cellular analysis of chickpea during 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h CS supplied us with novel possible responsive components and the possible interactions embedded inside, still remaining a Maze. Seedlings showed a biphasic pattern of responses over time. The transitory phase happened after 8h, when cells are presumably experiencing a new stage of responses and setting the stage for long-term adjustments. Physio-biochemical analysis confirmed the direct effect of fatty acids composition, lipoxygenase activity and antioxidant systems in cell responses under CS. Also, proteome results using MALDI-TOF-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS were able to differentiate changes in early phases of CS. Two-dimensional gel analysis results showed the possible targets of CS as mitochondria, chloroplast, organelle-nucleus communications, storage resources, stress and defense, protein degradation and signal transduction that confirmed the cell intended to re-establish a new homeostasis, in energy and primary metabolites to adapt to long-term CS. Here we propose a time course dynamic assessing multi-dimensional approaches for CS studies as one of the first studies in short-term treatment to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events and touch the cell architecture for a better comprehension of the nature of plant stress response.

  20. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  1. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  2. The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps : Looking at the early stages of star-formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montier, Ludovic

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite has provided an unprecedented view of the submm sky, allowing us to search for the dust emission of Galactic cold sources. Combining Planck-HFI all-sky maps in the high frequency channels with the IRAS map at 100um, we built the Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015), counting 13188 sources distributed over the whole sky, and following mainly the Galactic structures at low and intermediate latitudes. This is the first all-sky catalogue of Galactic cold sources obtained with a single instrument at this resolution and sensitivity, which opens a new window on star-formation processes in our Galaxy.I will briefly describe the colour detection method used to extract the Galactic cold sources, i.e., the Cold Core Colour Detection Tool (CoCoCoDeT, Montier et al. 2010), and its application to the Planck data. I will discuss the statistical distribution of the properties of the PGCC sources (in terms of dust temperature, distance, mass, density and luminosity), which illustrates that the PGCC catalogue spans a large variety of environments and objects, from molecular clouds to cold cores, and covers various stages of evolution. The Planck catalogue is a very powerful tool to study the formation and the evolution of prestellar objects and star-forming regions.I will finally present an overview of the Herschel Key Program Galactic Cold Cores (PI. M.Juvela), which allowed us to follow-up about 350 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps, in various stages of evolution and environments. With this program, the nature and the composition of the 5' Planck sources have been revealed at a sub-arcmin resolution, showing very different configurations, such as starless cold cores or multiple Young Stellar objects still embedded in their cold envelope.

  3. The War in Vietnam: A Story in Photographs. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Linda Darus

    During the Vietnam War, the U.S. military gave the press unprecedented freedom of access to combat zones. This allowed newspaper reporters, photographers, and television crews to document a war involving U.S. sons and daughters on the other side of the world. This willingness to allow war documentation also was extended to the military's own…

  4. The Early Climate History of Mars: "Warm and Wet" or "Cold and Icy"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2013-04-01

    The Amazonian climate (last ~66% of history) was much like today, a cold and dry climate regime, characterized by the latitudinal migration of surface ice in response to variations in spin-axis/orbital parameters. But what characterized the Noachian climate (first ~20% of history)? Some data support a "warm and wet" early Mars, but this evidence has been challenged. New models of early Mars climate (Forget, Wordsworth et al.) find that for atmospheric pressures greater than a few hundred millibars, surface temperatures vary with altitude due to atmosphere-surface thermal coupling: an adiabatic cooling effect (ACE) results in deposition of snow and ice at high altitudes, in contrast to Amazonian conditions. Without other warming mechanisms, no combination of parameters lead to mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) consistent with widespread liquid water anywhere on the planet. The ACE causes southern highland region temperatures to fall significantly below the global average leading to a "Noachian Icy Highlands" scenario: Water is transported to the highlands from low-lying regions due to the ACE and snows out to form an extended H2O ice cap at the southern pole, and altitude-dependent snow and ice deposits down to lower southern latitudes. Could the predictions of this "Noachian Icy Highlands" model be consistent with the many lines of evidence traditionally cited for a "warm, wet" early Mars? Perturbing this predominant Noachian environment with punctuated impacts and volcanism/greenhouse gases would lead to raising of global surface temperatures toward the melting point of water, with the following consequences: 1) ice above the surface ice stability line undergoes rapid altitude/latitude dependent warming during each Mars summer; 2) meltwater runoff from the continuous ice sheet drains and flows downslope to the edge of the ice sheet, where meltwater channels encounter cratered terrain, forming closed-basin and open-basin lakes; 3) seasonal top-down heating and

  5. Reconsidering American Indian historical trauma: lessons from an early Gros Ventre war narrative.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    Professional clinicians and human services providers are increasingly attributing the mental health problems of American Indians (AIs) to historical trauma (HT). As an alternative to established psychiatric disorders, AI HT was formulated to explain enduring mental health disparities as originating in tribal experiences of Euro-American colonization. As a result, AI HT has been described as the collective, cumulative, and intergenerational psychosocial disability resulting from massive group-based oppression, such as forced relocation, political subjugation, cultural domination, and genocide. One objective of the HT construct is to frame AI distress and dysfunction in social and historical terms. Given widespread indigenous experiences of colonization, the debilitating effects of HT are presumed to affect most AI communities today. With this background in mind, I explore AI HT with specific reference to a "war narrative" obtained by an anthropologist in 1901 from an elderly Gros Ventre woman. In this account, Watches All described her participation in a historic intertribal battle, and her subsequent captivity and escape from the enemy during the late 1860s. This historical narrative references many first-hand experiences that would today be identified as traumatogenic. Interestingly, however, this account complicates several assumptions underlying AI HT, leading to vexing questions of whether Watches All's ordeal actually qualifies as an instance of AI HT. No matter how one answers these questions, such ambiguity highlights serious theoretical confusions requiring elaboration and refinement if AI HT is to remain a useful construct in the behavioral health sciences.

  6. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  7. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-08-02

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues.

  8. The evolution of endothermy is explained by thyroid hormone-mediated responses to cold in early vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-05-15

    The evolution of endothermy is one of the most intriguing and consistently debated topics in vertebrate biology, but the proximate mechanisms that mediated its evolution are unknown. Here, we suggest that the function of thyroid hormone in regulating physiological processes in response to cold is key to understanding the evolution of endothermy. We argue that the capacity of early chordates to produce thyroid hormone internally was the first step in this evolutionary process. Selection could then act on the capacity of thyroid hormone to regulate metabolism, muscle force production and cardiac performance to maintain their function against the negative thermodynamic effects of decreasing temperature. Thyroid-mediated cold acclimation would have been the principal selective advantage. The actions of thyroid hormone during cold acclimation in zebrafish are very similar to its role during endothermic thermogenesis. The thyroid-mediated increases in metabolism and locomotor performance in ectotherms eventually resulted in sufficient heat production to affect body temperature. From this point onwards, increased body temperature per se could be of selective advantage and reinforce thyroid-induced increases in physiological rates. Selection for increased body temperature would promote those mechanisms that maximise heat production, such as increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, futile cycling by SERCA, and mitochondrial uncoupling, all of which are regulated by thyroid hormone. The specific end point of this broader evolutionary process would be endothermic thermoregulation. However, considering the evolution of endothermy in isolation is misleading because the selective advantages that drove the evolutionary process were independent from endothermy. In other words, without the selective advantages of thyroid-mediated cold acclimation in fish, there would be no endotherms.

  9. Effects of early feed restriction and cold temperature on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites morbidity in broilers under normal and cold temperature.

    PubMed

    Pan, J Q; Tan, X; Li, J C; Sun, W D; Wang, X L

    2005-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early feed restriction on lipid peroxidation, pulmonary vascular remodelling and ascites incidence in broilers under normal and low ambient temperature. In experiment 1, the restricted birds were fed 8h per day either from 7 to 14 d or from 7 to 21 d, while the controlled birds were fed ad libitum. In experiment 2, the restricted birds were fed 80 or 60% of the previous 24-h feed consumption of full-fed controls for 7 d from 7 to 14 d. On d 14, half of the birds in each treatment both in experiment 1 and experiment 2 were exposed to low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. The incidences of ascites and other disease were recorded to determine ascites morbidity and total mortality. Blood samples were taken on d 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 to measure the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). On d 42, samples were taken to determine the right/total ventricular weight ratio (RV/TV), vessel wall area/vessel total area ratio (WA/TA) and mean media thickness in pulmonary arterioles (mMTPA). Low-temperature treatment increased plasma MDA concentration. When broilers were exposed to a cool environment for 3 weeks, plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity were decreased compared with normal-temperature chicks. RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA on d 42 were increased in birds exposed to cold, consistent with the increased pulmonary hypertension and ascites morbidity. Early feed restriction markedly decreased plasma MDA concentration. The plasma SOD and GSH-Px activity of feed-restricted birds were markedly higher than those fed ad libitum on d 35 and d 42. All early feed restriction treatments reduced ascites morbidity and total mortality. On d 42, the RV/TV, WA/TA and mMTPA of feed-restricted broilers were lower than that of the ad libitum-fed broilers. The results suggested that early feed restriction alleviated the lipid

  10. Effects of Cold Irrigation on Early Results after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhirui; Liu, Daohong; Dong, Jiyuan; Gong, Long; Wang, Yong; Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have indicated that pain peaks at 24 to 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. TKA has been associated with disruption in normal sleep patterns, swelling knee, and significant blood loss. However, a satisfactory regime to resolve these mentioned problems has yet to be found. In this study, a total of 420 patients were randomly allocated into two groups and treated with continuous irrigation of either 4000 mL cold saline with 0.5% epinephrine or normal temperature solution. Clinical outcomes including pain scores at rest during postoperative three days, drainage output, analgesic consumption, decreased hemoglobin, sleep quality, and satisfaction rate were analyzed. Mean scores and postoperative change in scores were calculated. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the treatment group were significantly reduced from 4 hours (P = 0.0016) to 24 hours (P = 0.0004) after TKA. Additional benefits including reduced analgesic consumption, improved satisfaction rate, and sleep quality were observed. In addition, a significant reduction in blood loss reflected by decreased Hb and drainage was found. In this study, irrigation with a cold 0.5% epinephrine solution was a beneficial and cost-effective treatment that decreased acute postoperative VAS pain scores immediately after and 1 day after surgery. Patients reported postoperative improvement in sleep quality and overall satisfaction rate with a decrease in morphine usage. In addition, a reduction of intraoperative blood loss might decrease the blood transfusion rate and related costs. Collectively, irrigation with cold 0.5% epinephrine offers a safe, simple, and effective treatment that might improve recovery and enhance quality of life of patients undergoing TKA. PMID:27310945

  11. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue...

  12. 77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... defining moments of the Cold War. Today, on the 59th anniversary of the Military Armistice Agreement signed at Panmunjom, we honor all who served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute to the brave men...

  13. The interaction between hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1995-01-01

    SO and Sa galaxies have approximately equal masses of H I and X-ray emitting gas and are ideal sites for studying the interaction between hot and cold gas. An X-ray observation of the Sa galaxy NGC 1291 with the ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) shows a striking spatial anticorrelation between hot and cold gas where X-ray emitting material fills the large central black hole in the H I disk. This supports a previous suggestion that hot gas is a bulge phenomenon and neutral hydrogen is a disk phenomenon. The X-ray luminosity (1.5 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s) and radial surface brightness distribution (beta = 0.51) is the same as for elliptical galaxies with optical luminosities and velocity dispersions like that of the bulge of NGC 1291. Modeling of the X-ray spectrum requires a component with a temperature of 0.15 keV, similar to that expected from the velocity dispersion of the stars, and with a hotter component where kT = 1.07 keV. This hotter component is not due to emission from stars and its origin remains unclear. PSPC observations are reported for the SO NGC 4203, where a nuclear point source dominates the emission, preventing a study of the radial distribution of the hot gas relative to the H I.

  14. Back to the Future: How a Look Back at Cold War Naval Doctrine can Inform Operational Planning for U.S.-PRC Maritime Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-28

    War Soviet-to-PLAN influence is the plethora of Russian and Russian-derived equipment operated by the PRC’s armed forces. Due to U.S. and European ...the Tupolev Tu-16 Badger ); and the Shenyang J-11 fighter (a copy of the Sukhoi SU-27 fighter). 22

  15. Evidence for an early pliocene cold event in the southern oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Burckle, L.H.; Mortlock, R.A. ); Rudolph, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Although it is generally agreed that the early Pliocene witnessed the last great climate warming before the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, it is generally not recognized that this time interval also witnessed what appear to be major glaciations in both northern and southern Hemispheres. This describes a study of brief, intense warm events in the early Pliocene as well as evidence for at least one major glaciation during this time interval. 13 refs.

  16. Bob H. Reinhardt: The End of A Global Pox. America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era : The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2015, 268 pp., Hard cover, Illustrated, Figure, Maps, Table, Notes, Bibliography, Index., $39.95.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2017-04-01

    This review examines in detail Bob H. Reinhardt's meticulous analyses of smallpox eradication within the broad context of American liberalism, Cold War politics, and the exercise of technological, medical, and political power on the part of the United States. As a result, his book provides a unique perspective on the eradication of smallpox.

  17. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    atomic bombs, code-named through 1950 as Pincher, Broiler , Grabber, and Sizzle. During 1945-1946, the United States and Britain withdraw their occupation... Digest 53. 5 (May 1970): 163, 171. 250 Termena, Peiffer, and Carlin, Logistics, ca.1981, 212-213. 251 Closeout History Air Force Systems Command 1...Section of the Logistics Planning Division, Plans (T-5) at Wright Field digested German World War II achievements, including German submarine pens, and

  18. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E

    2009-01-22

    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture.

  19. Early Psychosis” as a mirror of biologist controversies in post-war German, Anglo-Saxon, and Soviet Psychiatry†

    PubMed Central

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The English term “early psychosis” was coined in the 1930s to refer to feelings of irritability, loss of concentration, hypochondriac ideas, moodiness, and lassitude that were seen to precede the onset of clear-cut hallucinations and delusions. The history of thinking about “early psychosis” under names such as “latent,” “masked,” “mild,” “simple” or “sluggish” schizophrenia before World War II and afterwards on the different sides of the Wall and the Iron Curtain reveals “early psychosis” as a mirror of quite aged international biologist controversies that are still alive today and to the same extent as they are misunderstood, are influential in their implications in today's psychiatry. PMID:23908638

  20. Mineralogy of Rock Flour in Glaciated Volcanic Terrains: An Analog for a Cold and Icy Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Scudder, N.; Smith, R. J.; Rutledge, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Geomorphological and mineralogical data from early Martian surfaces indicate liquid water was present on ancient Mars. The relative surface temperatures, however, remain a subject of debate. Was early Mars warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of warmth and ice melt? By characterizing the mineralogy and geochemistry of modern icy mafic terrains on Earth, we can search for these characteristics in early Martian terrains to better constrain the early Martian climate. Here, we describe the mineralogy of glacial flour in a modern glaciated volcanic terrain in Oregon, USA. We are particularly interested in secondary phases that form in these environments, and we hypothesize that poorly crystalline phases may preferentially form in these terrains because of the low temperatures and the seasonality of melt water production. A description of the mineralogy of the moraines, the composition of the amorphous materials, and the geochemistry of the glacial melt waters are presented elsewhere. Glacial flour is made up of silt- and clay-sized particles that form from the physical weathering of rock underlying a wet-based glacier as the glacier slides over it. Flour is usually transported from underneath a glacier by melt water streams. The geochemistry of glacial melt water streams has been studied extensively and has been used to infer weathering reactions within glacial systems. However, the mineralogy of these environments, especially on mafic volcanic terrains, is not well studied. Rock flour is a ubiquitous physical weathering product in glaciated terrains and, therefore, affects microbial habitats, stream and lake chemistry, and chemical weathering processes. and by studying the mineralogy of glacial flour, we can better understand geochemical and microbiological processes in subglacial and proglacial terrains.

  1. The extraordinarily strong and cold polar vortex in the early northern winter 2015/2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic polar vortex in the early winter 2015/2016 was the strongest and coldest of the last 68 years. Using global reanalysis data, satellite observations, and mesospheric radar wind measurements over northern Scandinavia we investigate the characteristics of the early stage polar vortex and relate them to previous winters. We found a correlation between the planetary wave (PW) activity and the strength and temperature of the northern polar vortex in the stratosphere and mesosphere. In November/December 2015, a reduced PW generation in the troposphere and a stronger PW filtering in the troposphere and stratosphere, caused by stronger zonal winds in midlatitudes, resulted in a stronger polar vortex. This effect was strengthened by the equatorward shift of PWs due to the strong zonal wind in polar latitudes resulting in a southward shift of the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and hence inducing a decreased deceleration of the polar vortex by PWs.

  2. Cold Lake Blend diluted bitumen toxicity to the early development of Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, Peter V; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-03-20

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit(®)EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity. Apart from nfe2 (an antioxidant transcription factor), there were no statistically significant monotonic exposure-responses of ahr, arnt2, cat, sod, gpx, gst, gsr, g6pdh, p53, and hsp70 transcripts at total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) concentrations bracketing EC50s for embryotoxicity (WAF ≅ 3 μg/L; CEWAF ≅ 0.1 μg/L TPAH). Based on measured TPAH concentrations in exposure test solutions, CLB dilbit was 6-10 fold more toxic to medaka than AWB during chronic exposures. Lack of direct monotonic gene transcription responses to increasing oil concentrations during exposures that were embryotoxic suggests that the capacity of the oxidative stress response is limited in earlier lifestages or that differences exist among species in mechanisms of toxicity. This study provides a comparative framework for identifying suitable biomarkers and toxicity methods for those fish species in sensitive lifestages at highest risk of Canadian oil sands dilbit exposure following a spill in the freshwater environment.

  3. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloupka, Allan B.; Finn, Kevin P.; Parsons, Duane A.

    2012-07-01

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was approximately 18,580 m{sup 2} (200

  4. Long, cold, early r process? Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in He shells revisited.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Haxton, W C; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2011-05-20

    We revisit a ν-driven r-process mechanism in the He shell of a core-collapse supernova, finding that it could succeed in early stars of metallicity Z ≲ 10⁻³ Z(⊙), at relatively low temperatures and neutron densities, producing A ~ 130 and 195 abundance peaks over ~10-20 s. The mechanism is sensitive to the ν emission model and to ν oscillations. We discuss the implications of an r process that could alter interpretations of abundance data from metal-poor stars, and point out the need for further calculations that include effects of the supernova shock.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis and seasonal cold acclimation-associated expression of early light-induced protein genes of Rhododendron catawbiense.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Wei, Hui; Krebs, Stephen L; Arora, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    The early light-induced proteins (ELIPs) are nuclear-encoded, light stress-induced proteins located in thylakoid membranes and related to light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding proteins. Recent evidence from physiological and genetic (mutant) studies supports a photoprotective function for ELIPs, particularly when green tissues are exposed to high light intensities at suboptimal temperatures. Broad-leaved evergreens belonging to genus Rhododendron are often exposed to a combination of low temperatures and high light in their natural habitat as the understory plants in deciduous forests and, therefore, are expected to employ photoprotective strategies during overwintering phase. Here we report analysis and characterization of previously identified ELIP expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from winter-collected Rhododendron catawbiense leaves. 5' or 3' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACEs) coupled with bioinformatic analyses were used to identify seven unique ELIPs from the 40 ESTs and were designated as RcELIP1-RcELIP7. Phylogenetic analysis revealed separate clustering of ELIP homologs from lower plants, monocots and eudicots (including RcELIPs) and further indicated an evolutionary divergence of ELIPs among angiosperms and gymnosperms. To gain insights into the cold acclimation (CA) physiology of rhododendrons, relative and absolute quantitative expression of RcELIPs was examined during seasonal CA of R. catawbiense leaves using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. All seven RcELIPs were distinctly upregulated during the CA. It is postulated that RcELIPs expression constitutes an adaptive response to cold and high light in winter-adapted rhododendron leaves and perhaps plays a key role in the protection of photosynthetic apparatus from these stresses.

  6. The non-uniform early structural response of globular proteins to cold denaturing conditions: A case study with Yfh1

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prathit; Bagchi, Sayan E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in; Sengupta, Neelanjana E-mail: s.bagchi@ncl.res.in

    2014-11-28

    The mechanism of cold denaturation in proteins is often incompletely understood due to limitations in accessing the denatured states at extremely low temperatures. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we have compared early (nanosecond timescale) structural and solvation properties of yeast frataxin (Yfh1) at its temperature of maximum stability, 292 K (T{sub s}), and the experimentally observed temperature of complete unfolding, 268 K (T{sub c}). Within the simulated timescales, discernible “global” level structural loss at T{sub c} is correlated with a distinct increase in surface hydration. However, the hydration and the unfolding events do not occur uniformly over the entire protein surface, but are sensitive to local structural propensity and hydrophobicity. Calculated infrared absorption spectra in the amide-I region of the whole protein show a distinct red shift at T{sub c} in comparison to T{sub s}. Domain specific calculations of IR spectra indicate that the red shift primarily arises from the beta strands. This is commensurate with a marked increase in solvent accessible surface area per residue for the beta-sheets at T{sub c}. Detailed analyses of structure and dynamics of hydration water around the hydrophobic residues of the beta-sheets show a more bulk water like behavior at T{sub c} due to preferential disruption of the hydrophobic effects around these domains. Our results indicate that in this protein, the surface exposed beta-sheet domains are more susceptible to cold denaturing conditions, in qualitative agreement with solution NMR experimental results.

  7. Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailin; Luo, Xianghong; Zhou, Zhaowei; Liu, Juying; Tralau-Stewart, Catherine; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a common finding in kidney grafts with functional impairment. Prolonged hypothermic storage-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with the early onset of CAN. As the noble gas xenon is clinically used as an anesthetic and has renoprotective properties in a rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we studied whether early treatment with xenon could attenuate CAN associated with prolonged hypothermic storage. Exposure to xenon enhanced the expression of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor in human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, which, in turn, increased cell proliferation. Xenon treatment before or after hypothermia-hypoxia decreased cell apoptosis and cell inflammation after reoxygenation. The xenon-induced HK-2 cell proliferation was abolished by blocking the IGF-1 receptor, mTOR, and HIF-1α individually. In the Fischer-to-Lewis rat allogeneic renal transplantation model, xenon exposure of donors before graft retrieval or recipients after engraftment enhanced tubular cell proliferation and decreased tubular cell death and cell inflammation associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with control allografts, xenon treatment significantly suppressed T-cell infiltration and fibrosis, prevented the development of CAN, and improved renal function. Thus, xenon treatment promoted recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduced susceptibility to the subsequent development of CAN in allografts.

  8. G305.136+0.068: A MASSIVE AND DENSE COLD CORE IN AN EARLY STAGE OF EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Contreras, Yanett; Servajean, Elise; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Pineda, Jaime E.

    2015-01-20

    We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, toward the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of 1.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as r {sup –1.8}, and that the turbulent velocity increases toward the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm{sup –2}, a value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high-mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of 17 ± 2 K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 μm and that it is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20'' centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of 66 L {sub ☉}, and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate of ∼1 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high-mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high-mass star has just started.

  9. On the origin of Hawking mini black-holes and the cold early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple argument is outlined leading to the result that the mass of mini black holes exploding today is 10 to the 15th power g. A mathematical model is discussed which indicates that the equation of state is greatly softened in the high-density regime and a phase transition may exist, such that any length (particularly very small sizes) will grow with time irrespective of its relation to the size of the particle horizon. It is shown that the effect of spin-2 mesons with respect to the equation of state is to soften the pressure and make it negative. An analytical expression is given for the probability that any particular region in a hot early universe will evolve into a black hole.

  10. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2010 Thesis Advisor: S . Paul Kapur Second Reader: Douglas Porch THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved...An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent 6. AUTHOR( S ) Quinn J. Rhodes 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  11. Early ischemic lesions following subarachnoid hemorrhage: common cold remedy as precipitating factor?

    PubMed

    Genonceaux, Sandrine; Cosnard, Guy; Van De Wyngaert, Françoise; Hantson, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with tetraplegia contrasting with a relatively preserved consciousness following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multiple ischemic lesions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the absence of vasospasm or signs of increased intracranial pressure. During the weeks before SAH, the patient had repeatedly used a nasal decongestant containing phenylephrine. After coiling of the aneurysm harboured by the right posterior cerebral artery, symptomatic vasospasm developed in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and required aggressive therapy by intra-arterial infusion of milrinone followed by continuous intravenous administration. Follow-up MRI did not reveal new ischemic lesions. Echocardiography had demonstrated the presence of a patent foramen ovale. At 3 months follow-up, a major motor deficit persisted with akinetic mutism. The mechanisms of multiple early infarction following aneurysmal SAH are still debated, as vasospasm is usually not seen on the first imaging. Among precipitating factors of microvascular vasospasm, vasoactive substances like phenylephrine, may play a significant role.

  12. The molecular signal for the adaptation to cold temperature during early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Mathieu; Boussau, Bastien; Charles, Sandrine; Blanquart, Samuel; Gouy, Manolo

    2013-10-23

    Several lines of evidence such as the basal location of thermophilic lineages in large-scale phylogenetic trees and the ancestral sequence reconstruction of single enzymes or large protein concatenations support the conclusion that the ancestors of the bacterial and archaeal domains were thermophilic organisms which were adapted to hot environments during the early stages of the Earth. A parsimonious reasoning would therefore suggest that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) was also thermophilic. Various authors have used branch-wise non-homogeneous evolutionary models that better capture the variation of molecular compositions among lineages to accurately reconstruct the ancestral G + C contents of ribosomal RNAs and the ancestral amino acid composition of highly conserved proteins. They confirmed the thermophilic nature of the ancestors of Bacteria and Archaea but concluded that LUCA, their last common ancestor, was a mesophilic organism having a moderate optimal growth temperature. In this letter, we investigate the unknown nature of the phylogenetic signal that informs ancestral sequence reconstruction to support this non-parsimonious scenario. We find that rate variation across sites of molecular sequences provides information at different time scales by recording the oldest adaptation to temperature in slow-evolving regions and subsequent adaptations in fast-evolving ones.

  13. Arranged Marriages: Relationships Between Regular and Irregular Forces, During the Early American Revolutionary War in Monmouth County, New Jersey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    in past experience with British regulars as well as leading militia forces. Among the rebel officers who considered the militia a capable force were...1981. Greene, Jack P., and J.R. Pole, ed. A Companion to the American Revolution. Malden, MA: Blackwell , 2000. Grenier, John. The First Way of War...Army on Campaign in North America, 1775-1783. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. Stryker, William S. "The New Jersey Volunteers" (Loyalists) in

  14. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being.

  15. VARIATIONS OF MID- AND FAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AMONG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: RELATION TO STELLAR METALLICITY AND COLD DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 {mu}m variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies, cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 {mu}m may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 {mu}m luminosity in elliptical galaxies is due to dust transported from galactic cores by feedback events in (currently IR-quiet) AGNs. Cooler dusty gas naturally accumulates in the cores of elliptical galaxies due to dust-cooled local stellar mass loss and may accrete onto the central black hole, releasing energy. AGN-heated gas can transport dust in cores 5-10 kpc out into the hot gas atmospheres where it radiates extended 70 {mu}m emission but is eventually destroyed by sputtering. This, and some modest star formation, defines a cycle of dust creation and destruction. Elliptical galaxies evidently undergo large transient excursions in the banana plot in times comparable to the sputtering time or AGN duty cycle, 10 Myr. Normally regarded as passive, elliptical galaxies are the most active galaxies in the IR color-color correlation.

  16. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL DILUTION OF THE METAL CONTENT OF HOT GAS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES BY ACCRETED COLD GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2013-03-20

    The measured emission-weighted metal abundance of the hot gas in early-type galaxies has been known to be lower than theoretical expectations for 20 years. In addition, both X-ray luminosity and metal abundance vary significantly among galaxies of similar optical luminosities. This suggests some missing factors in the galaxy evolution process, especially the metal enrichment process. With Chandra and XMM-Newton, we studied 32 early-type galaxies (kT {approx}< 1 keV) covering a span of two orders of L{sub X,gas}/L{sub K} to investigate these missing factors. Contrary to previous studies that X-ray faint galaxies show extremely low Fe abundance ({approx}0.1 Z{sub Sun }), nearly all galaxies in our sample show an Fe abundance at least 0.3 Z{sub Sun }, although the measured Fe abundance difference between X-ray faint and X-ray bright galaxies remains remarkable. We investigated whether this dichotomy of hot gas Fe abundances can be related to the dilution of hot gas by mixing with cold gas. With a subset of 24 galaxies in this sample, we find that there is virtually no correlation between hot gas Fe abundances and their atomic gas content, which disproves the scenario that the low metal abundance of X-ray faint galaxies might be a result of the dilution of the remaining hot gas by pristine atomic gas. In contrast, we demonstrate a negative correlation between the measured hot gas Fe abundance and the ratio of molecular gas mass to hot gas mass, although it is unclear what is responsible for this apparent anti-correlation. We discuss several possibilities including that externally originated molecular gas might be able to dilute the hot gas metal content. Alternatively, the measured hot gas Fe abundance may be underestimated due to more complex temperature and abundance structures and even a two-temperature model might be insufficient to reflect the true value of the emission weighted mean Fe abundance.

  17. Hot and cold gas in early-type galaxies - A comparison of X-ray, HI and far infrared emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the hot and cold phases of the interstellar medium in nearby elliptical and SO galaxies is examined by a comparison of X-ray, HI and 100 micron emission. The data suggest that there is little relationship between the presence and amount of hot and cold gas in these galaxies. The X-ray emission is more closely related to the stellar content of Es than are the HI or infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas originates in mass loss from stars while the cold gas is the remains of the original interstellar medium plus accretion from outside the galaxy.

  18. Reactive oxygen species trigger a regulatory module invovled in the early responses of rice seedlings to cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to low temperature through an intricately coordinated transcriptional network controlled by specific groups of transcription factors. Major regulatory pathways in plants that evolved to withstand freezing by cold acclimation have been elucidated in Arabidopsis. A prominent pathway i...

  19. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  20. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues. Russian Federation: Foreign Intelligence Service Report. A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    properties of fuel, neutron beam and also the skilled personnel and material resources experiments, the improvement of nuclear reactor needed for the...positive development. 600,000 tonnes. There are plants for the manufacture of reactor fuel. In the Area of Chemical and Biological Weapons Nuclear activity...spokesman delivered the following statement in early 1993: "The 3. The 5 megawatt research nuclear reactor in Yongbyon. DPRK has never had any chemical

  1. A History of Intravenous Anesthesia in War (1656-1988).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew; Jagdish, S

    2016-01-01

    The practice of anesthesia in war places significant restraints on the choice of anesthetic technique used; these include, but are not limited to, safety, simplicity, and portability. Ever since intravenous anesthesia became a practical alternative, there have been military doctors who felt that this technique was particularly suited to this environment. The challenge, as in civilian practice, has been to find the appropriate drugs as well as simple and safe delivery systems. The urgency of war has always stimulated innovation in medicine to counteract the ongoing development of weapons of war and their effects on the human body and to achieve improved survival as public expectations rise. This article traces the development of and the use of intravenous anesthesia by military physicians for battle casualties. The story starts long before the era of modern anesthesia, and the discussion concludes in the dog days of the cold war. The rapidly increasing interest in intravenous anesthesia in both civilian and military practice since the early 1990s is left for other authors to examine.

  2. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  3. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  4. Magnetostratigraphic evidence from the Cold Creek bar for onset of ice-age cataclysmic floods in eastern Washington during the early Pleistocene

    SciTech Connect

    Pluhar, Christopher J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Reidel, Steve P.; Coe, Robert S.; Nelson, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides a detailed magnetostratigraphy of sediments composing the Cold Creek cataclysmic flood bar in the Pasco Basin, Washington. Our interpretation suggests onset of Missoula floods or similar events prior to 1.1 myr, later than previously suggested by Bjornstad et al. [Bjornstad B.N., Fecht, K.R., Pluhar, C.J., 2001]. Long history of pre-Wisconsin, Ice Age cataclysmic floods: evidence from southeastern Washington State. [Journal of Geology 109 (6), 695-713]. Nonetheless these data suggest that Channeled Scabland features formed over a much longer timespan than commonly cited, that continental ice sheets of the early Pleistocene reached as far south as those of the late Pleistocene, and that similar physiography existed in eastern Washington and perhaps Montana to both generate and route Missoula-flood-like events. This study adds paleomagnetic polarity results from 213 new samples of silts and sands derived from nine new drill cores penetrating the Cold Creek cataclysmic flood bar to our previous database of 53 samples from four boreholes, resulting in a much more robust and detailed magnetostratigraphy. Rock magnetic studies on these sediments show pure magnetite to be the predominant remanence-carrying magnetic mineral, ruling out widespread remagnetization by secondary mineralization. The magnetostratigraphy at eastern Cold Creek bar is characterized by a normal polarity interval bracketed by reversed polarities. Equating the normal zone with the Jaramillo subchron (0.99-1.07 myr) affords the simplest correlation to the magnetic polarity timescale. Western Cold Creek bar was likely deposited during the Brunhes chron (0-0.78 myr) since it exhibits mainly normal polarities with only two thin reversed-polarity horizons that we interpret as magnetic excursions during the Brunhes.

  5. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  6. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  7. Germ Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kris

    2009-01-01

    It's estimated that at least 22 million school days are lost every year because of colds caught by students and faculty, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There's still no cure for the common cold, but there is a time-honored way to prevent it: handwashing, ideally with good old soap and water. It's still the best…

  8. Fossil gastropods from the Indian Upper Siwaliks and their stable carbon and oxygen isotope values indicate presence of cold climatic conditions in the Early Pleistocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Kotla, Simran

    2016-04-01

    The Early Pleistocene in general is characterized by widespread glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere. Early to Middle Pleistocene freshwater Pinjor Formation (Upper Siwalik) exposed all along the Himalayan Foothills preserves a diverse faunal and floral assemblage. We carried out paleontological (gastropods) and stable isotope (carbon and oxygen isotope) studies of a 6 m thick swamp/pond deposit (that represents ~ 12,000 yrs) of Pinjor Formation, exposed near the Village Nadah, Panchkula (Haryana) and dated to ~ 1.8 Ma (Azzaroli and Napoleon,1982). We have identified four gastropod species in the assemblage, Lymnae sp., Gyraulus sp., Viviparous bengalensis and Hippeutis complantus. The first two are widespread throughout the globe. Lymnae can exist in temperature range of 19 to 24 ° C and occur in Palearctic and Neoartic regions (animalbase.org). Gyraulus occur in Holoarctic region with temperature ranging from 17.8 to 30 ° C (animalbase.org, theaquariumwiki.com), whereas Viviparous bengalensis typically exists in the Oriental region suggesting an overall warm and humid condition (Moore,1997). Hippeutis complantus on the other hand exists in palearctic regions upto 63 ° N (Aplinarska and Cisewka 2006) under cold (6 ° to 23.3 ° C) and dry climatic conditions (Spyra., 2014).The powdered gastropod shell samples were analyzed using Continues Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India. The δ13C values of gastropod shells fall between -2.56‰ and 6.14‰ VPDB and suggest the dominance of C4 vegetation. The δ18O value of gastropod shell fall between -0.64‰ and -7.80‰ VPDB, suggesting fluctuation of climate between warm and cold conditions . Presence of Hippeutis complantus may suggest the extension of palearctic region up to Panchkula (Haryana, India) in the Early Pleistocene which presently lies in the Oriental Province. Therefore, our results indicate that the overall climatic condition

  9. Teaching the Cold War through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the "historical detective work" of oral history helps students break free of their textbooks and become active collectors of information. Provides five recommendations, six teacher guidelines, and seven student guidelines for implementing oral history in the classroom. (CFR)

  10. Nuclear proliferation after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, M.; Litwak, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Today, former Soviet republics threaten to gain control over nuclear weapons sited on their territories, and reports on North Korea, Pakistan, India, and Iraq reveal current or recent weapon development programs. This document offers a timely assessment of the prospects for nuclear nonproliferation.

  11. The Air Force and the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EC-135 Airborne Command Post “Looking Glass” begins operations. April 12, 1961. Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned spaceflight...chance that it might work and that if it did, MAD was out of business. For their part, the Russians took SDI seriously. Yuri Andropov, during his...Communist Party, the protégés of Yuri Andropov, who preceded Chernenko as general secretary. Chernenko had been aligned with Brezhnev, during whose

  12. Cold War rivals find common ground

    SciTech Connect

    Taubes, G.

    1995-04-28

    Nuclear weapons scientists from the United States and the former Soviet Union have been quietly collaborating on a range of research projects. The goal: to keep the lid on the bomb. This article examines the new interactions between the US and the former Soviet Union by discussing the following areas: how the `iron` curtain was bridged; the first interactions between US scientists and individual Russian laboratories in scientific areas; Moving from lab-to-lab collaborations to nuclear related issues, spurred by the interception of smuggled nuclear materials; and the future including the financing.

  13. Post Cold War Nuclear Weapons Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    contrary position are those, like Scott D. Sagan , who believe that more nuclear armed states contribute to instability and a greater potential for...direct conflict with the NPT). According to Sagan and those who agree with him more nuclear armed states will lead to even more proliferation as new...Harvard Magazine, volume 103, issue 1, 34-35. 29 David Cortright, Overcoming Nuclear Dangers, 2. 30 Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of

  14. The Cold War in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Secondary-level history textbooks' treatments of United States-Soviet relations can be biased and misleading. Ideological treatments present the relationship as a struggle between good and evil; "real politik" treatments recognize opposing viewpoints but are usually subordinate interpretations. Neither approach discusses U.S.-Soviet…

  15. The cold war of the social amoebae.

    PubMed

    Shaulsky, Gad; Kessin, Richard H

    2007-08-21

    When confronted with starvation, the amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum initiate a developmental process that begins with cell aggregation and ends with a ball of spores supported on a stalk. Spores live and stalk cells die. Because the multicellular organism is produced by cell aggregation and not by growth and division of a single cell, genetically diverse amoebae may enter an aggregate and, if one lineage has a capacity to avoid the stalk cell fate, it may have a selective advantage. Such cheater mutants have been found among wild isolates and created in laboratory strains. The mutants raise a number of questions--how did such a cooperative system evolve in the face of cheating? What is the basis of self recognition? What genes are involved? How is cheating constrained? This review summarizes the results of studies on the social behavior of Dictyostelium and its relatives, including the familiar asexual developmental cycle and the lesser known, but puzzling, sexual cycle.

  16. East European Security After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Christian National Union (Poland) ZPL League of Poles in Lithuania vi ."• ... almpter One INTRODUCION More than two decades ago, Zbignlew Brzezinski ...which Brzezinski drew inspiration captures even more aptly and poignantly Eastern Europe’s current security dilemma. Eastern Europe today is...new Defense Minister, Admiral Piotr Kolodziejczyk. has close ties to President Walesa and was Defense Minister in the Mazowiecki government (1990

  17. Rutherford's war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  18. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  19. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  20. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  1. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  2. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.

    PubMed

    Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-07

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P.

  3. Young Children and War Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  4. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  5. Early Holocene change in atmospheric circulation in the Northern great plains: An upstream view of the 8.2 ka cold event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elk Lake, in northwestern Minnesota, contains numerous proxy records of climatic and environmental change contained in varved sediments with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. These proxies show that about 8200 calendar years ago (8.2 cal. ka; 7300 radiocarbon years) Elk Lake went from a well-stratified lake that was wind-protected in a boreal forest to a well-mixed lake in open prairie savanna receiving northwesterly wind-blown dust, probably from the dry floor of Lake Agassiz. This change in climate marks the initiation of the widely recognized mid-Holocene "altithermal" in central North America. The coincidence of this change with the so-called 8.2 cal. ka cold event, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic discharge of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, suggests that the two "events" might be related. Our interpretation of the Elk Lake proxy records, and of other records from less accurately dated sites, suggests that change in climate over North America was the result of a fundamental change in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the early Holocene. This change in circulation probably post-dates the final drainage of proglacial lakes along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, and may have produced a minor perturbation in climate over Greenland that resulted in a brief cold pulse detected in ice cores. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered snowfall and soil disturbance influence the early life stage transitions and recruitment of a native and invasive grass in a cold desert.

    PubMed

    Gornish, Elise S; Aanderud, Zachary T; Sheley, Roger L; Rinella, Mathew J; Svejcar, Tony; Englund, Suzanne D; James, Jeremy J

    2015-02-01

    Climate change effects on plants are expected to be primarily mediated through early life stage transitions. Snowfall variability, in particular, may have profound impacts on seedling recruitment, structuring plant populations and communities, especially in mid-latitude systems. These water-limited and frequently invaded environments experience tremendous variation in snowfall, and species in these systems must contend with harsh winter conditions and frequent disturbance. In this study, we examined the mechanisms driving the effects of snowpack depth and soil disturbance on the germination, emergence, and establishment of the native Pseudoroegnaria spicata and the invasive Bromus tectorum, two grass species that are widely distributed across the cold deserts of North America. The absence of snow in winter exposed seeds to an increased frequency and intensity of freeze-thaw cycles and greater fungal pathogen infection. A shallower snowpack promoted the formation of a frozen surface crust, reducing the emergence of both species (more so for P. spicata). Conversely, a deeper snowpack recharged the soil and improved seedling establishment of both species by creating higher and more stable levels of soil moisture availability following spring thaw. Across several snow treatments, experimental disturbance served to decrease the cumulative survival of both species. Furthermore, we observed that, regardless of snowpack treatment, most seed mortality (70-80%) occurred between seed germination and seedling emergence (November-March), suggesting that other wintertime factors or just winter conditions in general limited survival. Our results suggest that snowpack variation and legacy effects of the snowpack influence emergence and establishment but might not facilitate invasion of cold deserts.

  7. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    PubMed Central

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation. PMID:27170996

  8. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadalipour, R; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, R; Riasi, A; Mohammadalipour, M; Nili, N

    2017-02-01

    Intensive selection of broilers for faster growth and better feed efficiency resulted in greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome, which is one of the major causes of mortality and economic loss in broiler industry. Whereas cool temperature is one of the primary triggers for ascites, early feed restriction (FDR) significantly alleviates its incidence and mortality. However, little is known about effects of FDR, cold environmental temperature and their interaction on physiological responses in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old male broilers were divided into two treatment groups of Ad libitum (Ad) and feed restricted (FR) with eight pen replicates each. Chickens in FR group underwent feed access limitation from days 7 to 14 of age. On day 21 half of the birds (four pens) in each group exposed to the cold temperature (CT) and the other half (four pens) continued at normal temperature (NT). Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. At 39 and 46 days of age two chicks with a BW around the pen average were selected from each pen and slaughtered after collecting blood samples. Then, relative weight of internal organs and right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV : TV) ratio were calculated. Compared with NT group, CT birds had higher daily feed intake and FCR (P<0.05) from day 28 to 42. Cumulative ascites mortality in CT chickens was higher (P<0.001) than NT chicks. Within the CT group, ascites mortality in FR chickens was reduced (P<0.001) to 1.25% compared with 8.75% in Ad chicks. Birds in CT group had significantly (P<0.05) thicker right ventricle and greater relative weight of heart, hematocrit and triiodothyronine concentration. However, none of these parameters were affected by FDR. Under cold stress conditions, FDR reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.05). Serum triglyceride

  9. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  10. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  11. From cold to cool in northernmost Norway: Lateglacial and early Holocene multi-proxy environmental and climate reconstructions from Jansvatnet, Hammerfest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Jones, Vivienne J.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Birks, H. John B.; Telford, Richard J.; Juggins, Stephen; Peglar, Sylvia M.

    2012-02-01

    A multi-proxy palaeoecological study of the lateglacial and early Holocene sediments of Jansvatnet, Hammerfest, northernmost Norway (70°39' N) showed that cold and arid conditions prevailed in both the lateglacial interstadial and the Younger Dryas. Terrestrial proxies are macrofossils and pollen. Aquatic proxies are plant and invertebrate macrofossils, pollen, diatoms, and chironomids. Mean July temperatures were reconstructed using pollen and chironomid calibration functions and ecological knowledge of the fossil flora and fauna. Lake-water pH was reconstructed using a diatom pH-calibration function. Above sterile basal deglacial silts, biotic activity was detected around 14600 years ago in the interstadial (chronologically equivalent to the Bølling-Allerød in the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology). Catchment vegetation resembled polar desert and ultra-cold stenothermic chironomids lived in the lake. However, diatom assemblages were diverse and dynamic. In the Younger Dryas stadial, conditions deteriorated. In the early Younger Dryas chironomid-inferred air temperatures (CI-Tjul) fell about 1 °C. Pollen-inferred temperatures (PI-Tjul) did not fall and the terrestrial vegetation hardly changed because of the extreme aridity. The lake water was turbid from suspended clay which diminished aquatic life. Later in the Younger Dryas (ca 12400 cal yr BP) reconstructed mean July temperatures fell by a further 3 °C and were close to the minimum to support life, at around 3-4 °C. However, decreased turbidity allowed moss growth on the lake bottom that provided habitats for invertebrates and diatoms. In the last 200 years of the Younger Dryas temperatures increased by 2-3 °C and terrestrial and aquatic organisms responded quickly. At the start of the Holocene a rapid increase of more than 3 °C in PI-Tjul to 9.5 °C initiated the replacement of sparse arctic tundra by low-arctic dwarf-shrub heath. Simultaneously, a further 2 °C increase in CI-Tjul to 10-11 °C reflected

  12. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  13. Hope, Hostility, and Interest: What Motivated Teachers to Teach about the Soviet Union after World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the cold war was a watershed that separated two epochs: the time of abnormal, although compelled, partnership of two political systems and the period of peaceful coexistence with barely hidden hostility. The peacefulness of the latter, however elusive and vulnerable it was from time to time, has to be credited to the cold war, a…

  14. Spanish-American War to Vietnam: Booklet 4. Critical Thinking in American History. Teacher's Guide, Source Envelope, [and Student Manual].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    These curriculum materials in U.S. history are part of a series designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically. The teacher's guide presents a series of supplementary ready-to-use lesson plans for teaching high school students about the Spanish-American War, the Depression era, the cold war, and post-World War II issues. The…

  15. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  16. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  17. Effects of an early fall cold front on heat, phosphorus, silica, and manganese distributions in the hypolimnion of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Robert E.

    1993-10-01

    I examined the effects of an early fall (8-10 September 1977) cold front on eutrophic Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, during which 'Lake Number' LN (dimensionless) attained a minimum 3 h value of 0.45, and remained below 1.0 for a total of 39 h. The front accelerated heat transport downward through the main thermocline, resulting in hypolimnetic warming; the vertical eddy conductivity Kz increased monotonically with depth from a minimum 0.8 m 2 day -1 at 16 m to 1.9 m 2 day -1 at 21 m. The front also affected significant lateral and vertical redistribution of three passive solute 'tracers': phosphate (P), silicic acid (Si) and soluble reduced manganese (Mn 2+). Lateral concentration gradients along isopycnals predating the storm were erased. For Mn, especially, the vertical redistribution within the hypolimnion agreed with modeled changes based on vertical gradients and the Kz profile. Mn and P behaved quasi-conservatively within the anoxic hypolimnion (no net sources or sinks), but additional supplies of Si appeared in the hypolimnion (8.0 ± 1.5 mg m -3 day -1). This rate over 4 days agreed with the mean rate of hypolimnetic Si accumulation over the 80 day interval preceding 7 September 1977 (8.7 mg m -3 day -1). These results corroborate other environmental evidence that Mn and P both enter Lake Mendota's hypolimnion mainly during the first half of the summer, prior to the onset of bulk hypolimnetic anoxia, whereas Si is released by hypolimnetic sediments continuing into the late summer.

  18. Suicide among war veterans.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  19. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  20. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  1. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  2. Deterrence at the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    by limited use of nuclear weapons. The Behavioral Model of Deterrence Will Predominate Cold War deterrence was built on the rational actor model...of the other, would be so risky that no one—regardless of cultural or behavioral attributes or institutional decision-making processes—would ever con...the Soviet Union developed mutual understanding of the limits of escalation and the “redlines” of crisis behavior and military action, though, as a

  3. Teaching About War and War Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William A.

    The book provides a conceptual framework along with classroom suggestions for secondary social studies teachers dealing with the complex war/peace subjects. The book aims at studying wars as a social phenomenon in a new course, or in combination with interdisciplinary courses. It is divided into four major parts. Part I, Developing an…

  4. The Responses of Arabidopsis Early Light-Induced Protein2 to Ultraviolet B, High Light, and Cold Stress Are Regulated by a Transcriptional Regulatory Unit Composed of Two Elements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hayami, Natsuki; Sakai, Yusaku; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tatsunori; Tokizawa, Mutsutomo; Iuchi, Satoshi; Kurihara, Yukio; Matsui, Minami; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Early Light-Induced Protein (ELIP) is thought to act as a photoprotectant, reducing the damaging effects of high light (HL). Expression of ELIP2 is activated by multiple environmental stresses related to photoinhibition. We have identified putative regulatory elements in an ELIP2 promoter using an octamer-based frequency comparison method, analyzed the role of these elements using synthetic promoters, and revealed a key transcriptional regulatory unit for ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, HL, and cold stress responses. The unit is composed of two elements, designated as Elements A (TACACACC) and B (GGCCACGCCA), and shows functionality only when paired. Our genome-wide correlation analysis between possession of these elements in the promoter region and expression profiles in response to UV-B, HL, and cold suggests that Element B receives and integrates these multiple stress signals. In vitro protein-DNA binding assays revealed that LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a basic domain-Leucine zipper transcription factor, directly binds to Element B. In addition, mutant analysis of HY5 showed partial involvement in the UV-B and HL responses but not in the cold stress response. These results suggest that signals for UV-B, HL, and cold stress join at Element B, which recognizes the signals of multiple transcription factors, including HY5. PMID:26175515

  5. Periods of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Snyder’s Historical Guide to World War Two (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982), p. 736; and the World Almanac of World War II, ed. Brigadier Peter Young...his historic broadcast to the Japanese people telling of Japan’s surrender, is cited as V-J Day in The World Almanac of World War II, p. 353. World

  6. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  7. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  8. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  9. Thinking about Our Future: War, Society, and the Environment. A Series of Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harik, Ramsay M.

    This packet of 11 lesson plans is designed to help high school social studies classes examine socio-political issues facing the post-Cold War world. Though its multi-disciplinary approach touches upon a number of current topics, the packet's particular focus is on the wide-ranging impact of war and militarism on the planet's growing ecological…

  10. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  11. Impact of infectious diseases on war.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2004-06-01

    Wartime epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated the fighting strength of armies, caused the suspension and cancellation of military operations, and brought havoc to the civil populations of belligerent and nonbelligerent states. This article summarizes the principal factors that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases in past wars and reviews the associated demographic losses in military and civil populations. Drawing on the detailed epidemiologic records for the United States Army, case studies of the spread of infectious diseases in relation to military mobilization are presented for the American Civil War, Spanish-American War,and World War I. The article concludes with a brief overview of infectious disease activity in high- and low-intensity conflicts of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

  12. Countering Textbook Distortion: War Atrocities in Asia, 1937-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In the early months of 2005, much of the world celebrated the 60th anniversary of the World War II Allied victory over Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. Around the same time, protests erupted in Asia against a revised Japanese history textbook, "The New History Textbook," which critics said covered up Japanese World War II atrocities.…

  13. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  14. Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2005-03-01

    Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations that supported the claims of Fleischmann and Pons.3. The evolving understanding of cold fusion reaction paths and by-products.4. A look at volumetric power density.5. Brief comparison of the progress in hot fusion research as compared to cold fusion research.New Energy Times, founded in 2000, is an independent communications company which currently specializes in reporting on cold fusion researchootnotetextReferences and copies of the presentation are available at www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htmhttp://www.newenergytimes.com/reports/aps2005.htm. It has no affiliations with any organization, entity or party which invests in these technologies, nor any individual researcher or research facility.

  15. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia.

  16. From Our President. Scuds, Sorties, and Yellow Ribbons: The Costs of War for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Lana

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that early childhood professionals must confront the challenges of alleviating children's fears about the Persian Gulf War. Topics addressed include emotional support for children with parents stationed in the Gulf; effects of the media's war coverage on children; and fiscal and human costs of the war. (BB)

  17. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  18. Russian war surgery in 1812: 200 years since Russia's war triumph.

    PubMed

    Boсkeria, Leo A; Glyantsev, Sergey P; Kolesnikov, Yan G

    2012-01-01

    Specific wounds inflicted on soldiers and officers of the Russian Army by French firearms and cold weapon and wound treatment by Russian surgeons during 1812 Napoleon's invasion (better known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812) are discussed. An inference is made that the then surgical treatment was not only administered at a high level but was also versatile and efficient and thus could make a certain contribution to the victory of the Russian arms.

  19. Concept of Security for Gulf States After Gulf War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    112 27 Ibid page 113 28 Ibid pages 114-115 29 Abdul Munam Al Mashad Towards The ArabicFormula for The National Security Theory Dar Al Mustaqbil...Search For Strategic Stability. England: Mansell Publishing, 1985 Noyes, James H. The Persian Gulf After The Cold War. Westport, CT, 1984 Al Mashad

  20. Naval War College Review. Volume 65, Number 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    operations or to support short, successful operations such as those conducted by ground forces in Grenada , Panama, and the first Lebanon crisis. For...America’s Cold War de facto strategic defense policy. In March 1983, however, President Ronald Reagan asked whether ballistic missiles could be

  1. Science and Public Policy since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Margaret W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: material/personnel shortages and surpluses around 1950; federal aid to nonmilitary research; loyalty oaths and security checks; rise of the behavioral sciences; science education, from the Cold War to creationism; antinuclear protests and the limited test ban treaty, 1954-1963; Sputnik and the space program; and health, safety, and…

  2. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  3. Current Military Needs. War Gaming Department Perspectives, Connections 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-12

    attacks continue  “Fear factor” increases  Globalization  Economy is recovering from energy poverty  BRIC growing slowly  Increasing...recession  Trade blocks have risen  Displacement Challenge Resource shortage  Energy poverty Peer competitor groups Cold War Innovation

  4. Early Mars climate near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary: Independent evidence for cold conditions from basal melting of the south polar ice sheet (Dorsa Argentea Formation) and implications for valley network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    Currently, and throughout much of the Amazonian, the mean annual surface temperatures of Mars are so cold that basal melting does not occur in ice sheets and glaciers and they are cold-based. The documented evidence for extensive and well-developed eskers (sediment-filled former sub-glacial meltwater channels) in the south circumpolar Dorsa Argentea Formation is an indication that basal melting and wet-based glaciation occurred at the South Pole near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. We employ glacial accumulation and ice-flow models to distinguish between basal melting from bottom-up heat sources (elevated geothermal fluxes) and top-down induced basal melting (elevated atmospheric temperatures warming the ice). We show that under mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures (-100 °C) simulated in typical Amazonian climate experiments and typical Noachian-Hesperian geothermal heat fluxes (45-65 mW/m2), south polar ice accumulations remain cold-based. In order to produce significant basal melting with these typical geothermal heat fluxes, the mean annual south polar atmospheric temperatures must be raised from today's temperature at the surface (-100 °C) to the range of -50 to -75 °C. This mean annual polar surface atmospheric temperature range implies lower latitude mean annual temperatures that are likely to be below the melting point of water, and thus does not favor a "warm and wet" early Mars. Seasonal temperatures at lower latitudes, however, could range above the melting point of water, perhaps explaining the concurrent development of valley networks and open basin lakes in these areas. This treatment provides an independent estimate of the polar (and non-polar) surface temperatures near the Noachian-Hesperian boundary of Mars history and implies a cold and relatively dry Mars climate, similar to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, where seasonal melting forms transient streams and permanent ice-covered lakes in an otherwise hyperarid, hypothermal climate.

  5. Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2007-12-01

    As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

  6. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  7. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  8. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  9. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  10. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  11. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  12. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  13. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex.

  14. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  15. The operational status of the Russian space-based early warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Podvig, P.

    1994-08-01

    Early warning against ballistic missile attack has played a very important role in the military doctrines of the United States and Russia. Both countries have deployed systems of early warning satellites that could detect an attack almost immediately after the missiles were launched. These systems were vital for providing a launch on warning capability that was an important building block of their deterrence policies. With the end of the Cold War, the probability of a large-scale nuclear conflict has practically disappeared and the mission of the early warning system has become more diversified. The new missions, such as detection of accidental or unauthorized launches or countering the emerging threat of ballistic missile launches from third-world countries, becoming almost equally important, could require an early warning system of a different kind. This article analyzes the capabilities of the currently deployed Russian space based early warning system and shows that the system could not be modified to be effectively used in the post Cold War environment.

  16. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    PubMed

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  17. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  18. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  19. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  20. "War dysentery" and the limitations of German military hygiene during World War I.

    PubMed

    Linton, Derek S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines major epidemics of bacillary dysentery in the German army as well as among civilians in eastern Europe and in Germany during World War I. These epidemics were all the more surprising in light of prewar advances in understanding the disease and limiting dysentery outbreaks. Three major reasons are adduced for the incapacity of German military hygienists to prevent wartime epidemics. First was the difficulty of bacteriological testing at the front, especially early in the war, with negative consequences for diagnosis, therapy, and disease control. Second was inadequate hygiene including major shortcomings in latrine cleanliness and attempts to grapple with the "fly plague." Third was the lack of a Pasteur-type vaccine until late in the war. Susceptibility to dysentery was also heightened by war-related nutritional deficiencies. Taking off from an article by the English medical historian Roger Cooter, this article shows that the concept of "war dysentery" was socially constructed and served a variety of professional interests but at the same time takes issue with Cooter's arguments against linking "war" and "epidemics" pathogenetically.

  1. What Students Need To Know about America's Wars, Part I: 1622-1919. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On July 26-27, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 37 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching U.S. Military history. Sessions included: (1) The Revolutionary War and Early American Military History (Kyle Zelner); (2) The Mexican-American War (Paul Springer); (3) The Civil War (Mark Grimsley); (4) The Frontier Years…

  2. Firepower in Limited War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    strategists and field commanders was how to translate quickly the huge quantity of war materiel into the most destructive machines of war. Artillery and...Army in Indochina real- ized that its mastery of and ability to conduct European-style machine warfare was its greatest, and perhaps only, military...third bunker this month. There goes another 57 [recoilless rifles], two machine guns, ten grenades and the radio set. Hanoi is going to bitch like hell

  3. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    wartime evolution of literature and the arts as well as popular culture, I have set those subjects aside and instead focused on war’s principal political...over war’s impact on American society. Decades of debate also stretched the antimilitarists’ argument well be- yond the basic proposition that a powerful...Indian raids on the frontier. British assaults on coastal cities, and sporadic fighting wherever it might occur. What is less well known is that about

  4. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  5. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  6. Altered snowfall and soil disturbance influence the early life stage transitions and recruitment of a native and invasive grass in a cold desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change effects on plants are expected to be primarily mediated through early life stage transitions. Snowfall variability, in particular, may have profound impacts on seedling recruitment; structuring plant populations and communities, especially in mid-latitude systems. These water-limi...

  7. The pathogenesis of non-freezing cold nerve injury. Observations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jia, J; Pollock, M

    1997-04-01

    Non-freezing cold nerve injury is uncommon in civilian practice, but may reach epidemic proportions in war zones. Studied since the time of Hippocrates, its aetiology has remained elusive. We sought to replicate experimentally, a peripheral nerve cold temperature gradient, since this has been emphasized in clinical descriptions. Our observations, in the rat, of the vasa nervorum show that cold-induced intravascular aggregation is followed by a 'no-reflow' phenomenon which culminates in endothelial damage and delayed thrombotic occlusion.

  8. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  9. Numerical Prediction of Cold Season Fog Events over Complex Terrain: the Performance of the WRF Model During MATERHORN-Fog and Early Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Chachere, Catherine N.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    A field campaign to study cold season fog in complex terrain was conducted as a component of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program from 07 January to 01 February 2015 in Salt Lake City and Heber City, Utah, United States. To support the field campaign, an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to produce real-time forecasts and model evaluation. This paper summarizes the model performance and preliminary evaluation of the model against the observations. Results indicate that accurately forecasting fog is challenging for the WRF model, which produces large errors in the near-surface variables, such as relative humidity, temperature, and wind fields in the model forecasts. Specifically, compared with observations, the WRF model overpredicted fog events with extended duration in Salt Lake City because it produced higher moisture, lower wind speeds, and colder temperatures near the surface. In contrast, the WRF model missed all fog events in Heber City, as it reproduced lower moisture, higher wind speeds, and warmer temperatures against observations at the near-surface level. The inability of the model to produce proper levels of near-surface atmospheric conditions under fog conditions reflects uncertainties in model physical parameterizations, such as the surface layer, boundary layer, and microphysical schemes.

  10. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  11. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  12. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  13. Late Weichselian deglaciation and early Holocene development of a cold-water coral reef along the Lopphavet shelf (Northern Norway) recorded by benthic foraminifera and ostracoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Claudio; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Gennari, Giordana

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) settlement in northern Norway is strongly related to the outlet-glaciers of the Fennoscandian Ice-sheet, and dating of known CWC structures show clearly post-glacial ages. Two gravity cores (POS391 559/2,277 cm long and POS391 559/3,282 cm long) were recovered on a CWC reef in the area of Lopphavet, northern Norway. Detailed investigations on lithology (sediment structures and composition), micropaleontology (foraminifera and ostracoda) and AMS 14C dating on the epibenthic foraminifera Discanomalina coronata were performed on the two cores. Phosphorus analyses were performed only on core POS391 559/3. Results indicate that the whole core POS391 559/2 is representative of a CWC reef environment. The base of the core is dated at 10,600±120 cal. yr BP, thus representing one of the oldest ages of a Norwegian coral reef. Core POS391 559/3 documents the passage from a proximal glacier environment characterized by fine silty sediments with intercalation of several dropstone layers to a CWC ecosystem. The transition from the glacial to the interglacial stage is dated as old as 10,725±205 cal. yr BP, whereas the base of the core is dated to an age of 15,300±550 cal. yr BP. Diversity of benthic foraminifera is higher within the CWC, especially in the intervals containing coral framework. Five clusters are identified based on the Bray-Curtis Similarity Term Analyses and the interpretation of data shows that they are related to different ecological settings, e.g., fluctuations of the sea-ice cover; influence of the warmer and more saline Atlantic water masses; transitional to a fully interglacial environment; well oxygenated, nutrient-rich and high current setting being conducive to CWC. Ostracod assemblages show that these crustaceans may be also used to characterize sedimentary facies on CWC reefs.

  14. Early turn formation and chain collapse drive fast folding of the major cold shock protein CspA of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vu, Dung M; Brewer, Scott H; Dyer, R Brian

    2012-11-13

    The folding mechanism of the β-sheet protein CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, was previously reported to be a concerted, two-state process. We have reexamined the folding of CspA using multiple spectroscopic probes of the equilibrium transition and laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump) to achieve better time resolution of the kinetics. Equilibrium temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared (1634 cm(-1)) and tryptophan fluorescence measurements reveal probe-dependent thermal transitions with midpoints (T(m)) of 66 ± 1 and 61 ± 1 °C, respectively. Singular-value decomposition analysis with global fitting of the temperature-dependent infrared (IR) difference spectra reveals two spectral components with distinct melting transitions with different midpoints. T-jump relaxation measurements of CspA probed by IR and fluorescence spectroscopy show probe-dependent multiexponential kinetics characteristic of non-two-state folding. The frequency-dependent IR transients all show biphasic relaxation with average time constants of 50 ± 7 and 225 ± 25 μs at a T(f) of 77 °C and almost equal amplitudes. Similar biphasic kinetics are observed using Trp fluorescence of the wild-type protein and the Y42W and T68W mutants, with comparable lifetimes. All of these observations support a model for the folding of CspA through a compact intermediate state. The transient IR and fluorescence spectra are consistent with a diffuse intermediate having β-turns and substantial β-sheet structure. The loop β3-β4 structure is likely not folded in the intermediate state, allowing substantial solvent penetration into the barrel structure.

  15. Early Turn Formation and Chain Collapse Drive Fast Folding of the Major Cold Shock Protein CspA of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Dung M.; Brewer, Scott H.; Dyer, R. Brian

    2012-01-01

    The folding mechanism of the β-sheet protein CspA, the major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli, was previously reported to be a concerted, two-state process. We have reexamined the folding of CspA using multiple spectroscopic probes of the equilibrium transition and laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump) to achieve better time resolution of the kinetics. Equilibrium temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared (1634 cm–1) and tryptophan fluorescence measurements reveal probe-dependent thermal transitions with midpoints (Tm) of 66 ± 1 and 61 ± 1 °C, respectively. Singular-value decomposition analysis with global fitting of the temperature-dependent infrared (IR) difference spectra reveals two spectral components with distinct melting transitions with different midpoints. T-Jump relaxation measurements of CspA probed by IR and fluorescence spectroscopy show probe-dependent multiexponential kinetics characteristic of non-two-state folding. The frequency-dependent IR transients all show biphasic relaxation with average time constants of 50 ± 7 and 225 ± 25 μs at a Tf of 77 °C and almost equal amplitudes. Similar biphasic kinetics are observed using Trp fluorescence of the wild-type protein and the Y42W and T68W mutants, with comparable lifetimes. All of these observations support a model for the folding of CspA through a compact intermediate state. The transient IR and fluorescence spectra are consistent with a diffuse intermediate having β-turns and substantial β-sheet structure. The loop β3–β4 structure is likely not folded in the intermediate state, allowing substantial solvent penetration into the barrel structure. PMID:23098216

  16. Misfortunes of War. Press and Public Reactions to Civilian Deaths in Wartime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Gustavsson (2004), “In 2003 there were 19 major armed con- flicts in 18 locations worldwide, the lowest number for the post–Cold War period with the...November 23, 2005). Dwan, Renata, and Micaela Gustavsson , “Major Armed Conflicts,” SIPRI Yearbook 2004: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security...Council Pre- pares to Debate Gulf,” Associated Press, February 13, 1991. “Gulf War Casualties Continue,” Green Left Weekly Online, undated. Online at

  17. Fighting the Global War on Terror Tolerably: Augmenting the Global Counter Insurgency Strategy with Surrogates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-27

    WWII can not be ignored, it was a relatively short and kinetically decided conflict with conventional theaters and static nation state combatants...than the scope of this paper therefore my basic assumption is that the GWOT is more like the Cold War than WWII ...1955- 1957, (New York: Enigma Books, 2002),17 68 Ian E.W. Beckett, Modern Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies, 165 69 Alistair Horne. “A Savage War

  18. Psychological Resilience: Preparing our Soldiers for War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    provides a historical example of how this affect was achieved. The process of becoming a Spartan began at birth where the newborns were screened and...Mental Health Screening The United States military began psychological screening in the early 20th century. During World War I, the Army Alpha and...institutional review board approved a study to assess the effectiveness of a systematic method of pre-deployment mental health screening to determine whether

  19. After the Cold War: Living with Lower Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    funded retraining to fothersmurgand help the average State to do better, improve their skills, their appeal to employers, andothers, urge ad helth wih...pillar of Japan’s economic development for most of the 20th century. Only with the first oil crisis in 1974, and the following structural shift away...the fiscal crisis was over. tant government programs that are open to anyone Second, under laws Congress passed in 1981, the but provide essential help

  20. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    sculpture, music, dramatics, folk and ballroom dancing , photography and group singing” (Figure 70 and Figure 71).159 Also, female restrooms and “powder...Enlisted Survey of 1964-65).....................................................................95 ERDC/CERL M-06-2 viii Figure 70. Dance at WAC...soda fountain, library, and ping-pong and dance room.”31 29 Commandant, U.S. Marine

  1. Strategic Stability in the Cold War: Lessons for Continuing Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    and constructed huge production facilities for these agents. The Soviets also worked on “genetically altered viruses and germ weapons to devastate...crops and livestock,” including “plant pathogens intended to wipe out the entire American wheat supply.”41 While many unanswered questions remain

  2. The Virginia History Standards and the Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Glenn C.; Rauchway, Eric

    2002-01-01

    President George W. Bush's approach to education policy has earned him cautious plaudits from otherwise hostile critics, who see much to admire in the implementation of standards for education. However useful such standards for testing students' technical skills like arithmetic and reading, they create problems for less-standardized processes like…

  3. Evolution of NATO in the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    digital-internacional. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S. Hernández, 25 Nov. 1996. Internet address: http://www.elpais.es 13 Ministerio de Defensa...Udvalg. Dansk og Europæisk Sikkerhed. Copenhagen, Det Sikkerheds- og Nedrustningspolitiske Udvalg, 1995. “El negocio con España se dispara.” S

  4. The Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and Post Cold War Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    Leadership or Extraordinary Lunacy?" Air University, 2008. Bodman, Samuel, Robert Gates and Condoleeza Rice. "National Security and Nuclear Weapons...nuclearweapons.html. Garden, Timothy. Can Deterrence Last? Edited by David Bolton, Military Power. London: Buchan and Enright , 1984. Gartzke, Erik and Matthew...Kroenig. "A Strategic Approach to Nuclear Proliferation." Journal of Conflict Resolution 53, no. 2 (2009): 151-60. Gates, Robert . "Gates Says U.S. Needs

  5. Transformation of the Soviet space program after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, M.V.

    1994-08-01

    Changes in the management of the space program and the operational status of various systems in the former Soviet Union are examined with particular emphasis on defense-related space systems. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia assumed general responsibility for the entire scope of Soviet space activity. Space program management was re-organized to separate military and civilian activities. Russia is committed to maintaining military space capabilities, however, its top priority is now the conversion of military space technology for civilian uses, including global environmental problems.

  6. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    Ministro de Gobernacion y policia y seguridad publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 16 Freedom House 17 Constitution of Panama, Artículo 305.- La...Ramos Martínez, Licenciado Rogelio, Ministro de Gobernación y Policía y Seguridad Publica , interview by author, 07 Feb 2002 Salvatierra, BG Manuel...medios ordinarios para el mantenimiento de la paz interna, la tranquilidad y la seguridad pública, el Presidente de la República podrá disponer de la

  7. "World-Mindedness": The Lisle Fellowship and the Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in…

  8. Bulgaria’s Quest for Security After the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    supplier of raw materials and markets for Bulgarian manufactured goods, and the shock of the Soviet invasion of Vilnius in January 1991. The result was a...September. But he admitted that the new trade agreement was extremely unfavorable and would result in a "drastic deterioration in trade conditions with the...would be signed when Prime Minister Dimitur Popov visited Moscow."I In the end, Popov’s visit did not result in a treaty, although he had announced

  9. Ukraine as a Post-Cold War Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    RUSSIA Mariupol’ Kramators’k Dnipropetrovs’k Kursk Konotop Kharkiv Berdyans’k Donets’kPervomays’k Uman’ Yevpatoriya Sevastopol’ Odesa CRIMEAN PENINSULA B...Command Odesa Military District 1815Olynyk 8/5/97 1:21 PM Page 88 bombers, transports, strike aircraft, re- connaissance and electronic warfare planes

  10. Sweden After the Cold War: Implications for US Regional Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    31 1. The Principle of argl.nality ................. 33 B. PLANNING SCENARIOS.............................. .36 1.. Evolutionary Change...Dennis M. Drew and Dr. Donald M. Snow emphasize in their book Making Strategy, "...the United States and its allies may have different political... history of emphasizing legal issues to achieve security objectives, particularly in maritime matters, dating back to her days as the dominant Baltic

  11. Optimal control and cold war dynamics between plant and herbivore.

    PubMed

    Low, Candace; Ellner, Stephen P; Holden, Matthew H

    2013-08-01

    Herbivores eat the leaves that a plant needs for photosynthesis. However, the degree of antagonism between plant and herbivore may depend critically on the timing of their interactions and the intrinsic value of a leaf. We present a model that investigates whether and when the timing of plant defense and herbivore feeding activity can be optimized by evolution so that their interactions can move from antagonistic to neutral. We assume that temporal changes in environmental conditions will affect intrinsic leaf value, measured as potential carbon gain. Using optimal-control theory, we model herbivore evolution, first in response to fixed plant strategies and then under coevolutionary dynamics in which the plant also evolves in response to the herbivore. In the latter case, we solve for the evolutionarily stable strategies of plant defense induction and herbivore hatching rate under different ecological conditions. Our results suggest that the optimal strategies for both plant and herbivore are to avoid direct conflict. As long as the plant has the capability for moderately lethal defense, the herbivore will modify its hatching rate to avoid plant defenses, and the plant will never have to use them. Insights from this model offer a possible solution to the paradox of sublethal defenses and provide a mechanism for stable plant-herbivore interactions without the need for natural enemy control.

  12. American Leadership Potential in the Post-Cold War World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    not fully tapped.Ř Economically, it is becoming the latest "Asian Miracle " in the image of Japan, South Korea, Thailand and others. Through the reforms...Union They Meant," (November 6, 1993), pp. 56-57. GOLDSTEIN, Walter, "Europe After Maastricht," Foreign Affairs, (Winter 1992/93), pp. 117-132. HUME

  13. Naval Power and Naval Arms Control During the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    covered In Reports. IDA Papers are reviewed to ensuen that they met the high standards expected of refereed papers in professional Journals or formal...considered to be worthwhile, it could be discussed and implemented 3 through discussions at the Annual Review CSEA , and not require separate

  14. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  15. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  16. Life without war.

    PubMed

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war.

  17. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  18. Civil War vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, F William

    2005-01-01

    As the result of the insistence of the Surgeon General during the United States Civil War, there was extensive documentation of injuries to major blood vessels and their resulting complications. The specific treatment of vascular injuries during the Civil War was ligation of the injured vessel or amputation. This was before there was any knowledge of the cause and prevention of infection. Overall, the results were dismal, with a mortality rate of nearly 60% for the more than 1000 soldiers treated by arterial ligation. The most important contribution of these medical reports was to define how the injuries should be diagnosed and managed. Many of the principles that developed as the result of this post-war review are as valid today as they were then. Unfortunately, it seems that many of these lessons have had to be relearned by the surgeons who have participated in each of our subsequent military conflicts.

  19. [Cholera and war].

    PubMed

    Ganin, V S

    2009-09-01

    During last centures wars were the main account of spread of cholera. It is caused by movement of great mass of troops and peaceful populace, acute fall of living circumstances, decline of sanitarium conditions of population aggregates, difficultness or impossibility of effectuating of contra-epidemic measures. Cholera casualty was multifold bigger, the weapon casualty in fighting armies. The article presents data of cholera epidemics, were in fighting armies of different states. During the XXth century fight casualty began to overpass the disease casualty. It is caused by grand increasing of damage effects of measures of war, organized using of prophylaxis measures and success in treatment of infectious diseases. The article presents data about cholera falling ill during the Great Patriotic War and about system of contro-epidemic barrier on fronts and rear of state.

  20. CIA’s Support to the Nazi War Criminal Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    anxious to explore supposed cabals between American intelligence agencies and such personalities as Josef Mengele , the �Angel of Death� at Auschwitz, and...the United States.� With this statement, the GAO has left room for further speculation about the US Government�s actions during the Cold War. Mengele ...and Waldheim In 1985, the Mengele investigation created a media frenzy as sightings of the German doctor were reported throughout South America

  1. War Termination Criteria: Linking Strategic Policy and Operational Objectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-16

    Military History, 2006), 368-69. 26Andrew F. Krepinevich, The Army and Vietnam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), 197. 14...Soviet Union firmly and resist their attempts to spread communist influence globally and produced the cold war paradigm.37 Furthermore, John Gaddis...strategic objectives are synthesized from several different primary sources. The first source is President Johnson’s address at Johns Hopkins University on

  2. War Sailor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Askevold, F

    One third of the Norwegian sailors in the merchant navy, who survived World War II, are today disabled and on invalid pension. The majority suffer from a syndrome which is very similar to that present in the concentration camp survivors. The syndrome falls into two parts, the one consisting of non-neurotic anxiety repeating the terrors of war time, the other being a brain-organic one. This last part has in a few cases been confirmed by neuroradiology and neuropsychology. This is taken as an indicator that prolonged stress, as constant fear of death, may cause brain damage without physical trauma.

  3. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  4. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries in the Afghan war.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, M K; Curtis, M J; Smith, G S

    1992-01-01

    Among the 1274 patients admitted to a Pakistan border hospital from 1985 to 1987, the distribution and outcome of musculoskeletal war injuries differed from those seen in other conflicts. Serious complications from injuries were found in approximately 50 per cent of patients, of which most were wound infections, chronic osteomyelitis, and restriction of joint motion. Guerrillas in the Afghan war had no access to acute medical treatment in the field. Many patients died before reaching the hospital, as reflected in the low proportion of paraxial injuries; very high complication rates were noted for all injuries. Although some complications, such as soft tissue infection and foreign body retention are not site specific, other complications such as contracture, non-union, loss of range of motion, and chronic osteomyelitis are highly related to the region injured. Early surgical management and evacuation of those with musculoskeletal war injuries can greatly improve the outcome from war trauma and reduce the subsequent disability. However, the increasing use of hand-held anti-aircraft missiles may prevent the rapid evacuation of the wounded in future conflicts, and may make the situation seen in Afghanistan more common.

  6. The Great War: Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  7. Alternatives to War in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  8. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  9. Iowa and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…

  10. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  11. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  12. A Spanish American War Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a database used by honors high school U.S. history students learning about the Spanish-American War. Reports that the students compiled the database. Includes some of the historical background of the war, questions for study, a database key, and a table showing U.S. senators' votes relating to the War. (SG)

  13. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    PubMed

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  14. Air Sanctuaries in Limited War: A Korean War Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    these restrictions, however, FEAF managed to maintain air superiority throughout Korea for the duration of the war. It routinely bombed North Korean air...and National Policy. Vol III, The Korean War, part 2. Washington, Mar 1979. 555p. PERIODICALS Foot, Rosemary. The Sino American Conflict in Korea : The...A07 844 AlR SANCTUARIES IN LIMITED WAR. A KOREAN WAR CASE STWJY i/I (UJ) AIR WAR COLL MAXMd LL AFB AL C M HINKLE MAR 8 AUJ-AWC-86-898

  15. [An activity of forensic services during the Great Patriotic War: events, facts, people].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V; Fokin, A A

    2015-05-01

    This article was prepared for the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Provides information about the historical aspects of the formation of a military forensics in the early years of the war, the creation in 1943 and in the subsequent operation of the war years forensics as an independent service in the system of military medicine.

  16. Memorandum of a Conference with President Eisenhower after Sputnik. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, David

    After World War II ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) emerged as the two dominant countries in the post-war world. An arms race began, and this constant pursuit for respect and supremacy was called the Cold War. On October 4, 1957, the USSR launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile, with the first…

  17. Military Adaptation in War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the rights of Germans who lived in the duchy of Schleswig- Holstein . This conflict certainly looked much more like the European conception of war...hitting more trees and cows than their intended targets. The first raid on the Ruhr on 15 May 1940 killed one dairyman in Cologne and wounded two people in

  18. The Massachusetts Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This article recounts the battle in the "math wars" that took place in Massachusetts, United States in 1999-2000 over the scope, content and teaching of the state's K-12 mathematics curriculum. Harsh controversies arose between the partisans of a "reform-math" movement stressing an undefined "conceptual understanding"…

  19. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  20. Grading the War Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the emotional and psychological complexities of responding to personal narratives when the focus is war. The author teaches at a community college and she always begins her semester with a narrative assignment for the usual reasons: students write better when they write what they know; teachers should scaffold writing…

  1. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  2. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  3. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people…

  4. War. Peace. Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy

    The revised and expanded film guide designed for educators includes annotations of over 200 films, plus a large number of program resources for intelligent film use. Selected from over five hundred films previewed from 1969, up-to-date films were chosen that would help interpret the causes of war, increase awareness of the dehumanizing effects of…

  5. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  6. War, Terrorism, and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…

  7. The Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

  8. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  9. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  10. The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds.

    PubMed

    Rogers, B O; Rhode, M G

    1995-01-01

    During the Civil War, for the first time in medical history, a large number of excellent photographs were taken of many wounded Union and (to a lesser degree) Confederate soldiers by photographers assigned by their doctors or surgeons, or by photographers employed by the Army Medical Museum. The majority of these photographs demonstrating facial, head, and neck wounds have not been published since the Civil War, except for a few minor exceptions [3, 9]. The actual art of printing photographs in medical journals, daily newspapers, and magazines did not even begin until the early 1880s--almost two decades after the Civil War [24]. Any photographs that could be found in certain rare medical and surgical books during and immediately after the War were actually pasted into those books by their printers.

  11. Strong C+ Emission in Galaxies at z ~ 1-2: Evidence for Cold Flow Accretion Powered Star Formation in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Stacey, Gordon J.; Spoon, Henrik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Verma, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    We have recently detected the [C II] 157.7 μm line in eight star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1 to 2 using the redshift (z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS). Our sample targets star formation dominant sources detected in PAH emission. This represents a significant addition to [C II] observations during the epoch of peak star formation. We have augmented this survey with observations of the [O I] 63 μm line and far infrared photometry from the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments as well as Spitzer IRS spectra from the literature showing PAH features. Our sources exhibit above average gas heating efficiency, many with both [O I]/FIR and [C II]/FIR of ~1% or more. The relatively strong [C II] emission is consistent with our sources being dominated by star formation powered photo-dissociation regions, extending to kiloparsec scales. We suggest that the star formation mode in these systems follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law similar to local systems, but at a much higher rate due to molecular gas surface densities 10-100 times that of local star-forming systems. The source of the high molecular gas surface densities may be the infall of neutral gas from the cosmic web. In addition to the high [C II]/FIR values, we also find high [C II]/PAH ratios and, in at least one source, a cool dust temperature. This source, SWIRE 4-5, bears a resemblance in these diagnostics to shocked regions of Stephan's Quintet, suggesting that another mode of [C II] excitation in addition to normal photoelectric heating may be contributing to the observed [C II] line.

  12. STRONG C{sup +} EMISSION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1-2: EVIDENCE FOR COLD FLOW ACCRETION POWERED STAR FORMATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Spoon, Henrik; Stacey, Gordon J.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Verma, Aprajita

    2015-01-20

    We have recently detected the [C II] 157.7 μm line in eight star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1 to 2 using the redshift (z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS). Our sample targets star formation dominant sources detected in PAH emission. This represents a significant addition to [C II] observations during the epoch of peak star formation. We have augmented this survey with observations of the [O I] 63 μm line and far infrared photometry from the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments as well as Spitzer IRS spectra from the literature showing PAH features. Our sources exhibit above average gas heating efficiency, many with both [O I]/FIR and [C II]/FIR of ∼1% or more. The relatively strong [C II] emission is consistent with our sources being dominated by star formation powered photo-dissociation regions, extending to kiloparsec scales. We suggest that the star formation mode in these systems follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law similar to local systems, but at a much higher rate due to molecular gas surface densities 10-100 times that of local star-forming systems. The source of the high molecular gas surface densities may be the infall of neutral gas from the cosmic web. In addition to the high [C II]/FIR values, we also find high [C II]/PAH ratios and, in at least one source, a cool dust temperature. This source, SWIRE 4-5, bears a resemblance in these diagnostics to shocked regions of Stephan's Quintet, suggesting that another mode of [C II] excitation in addition to normal photoelectric heating may be contributing to the observed [C II] line.

  13. Between "Official" and "Unofficial" Temperatures: Introducing a Complication to the Hot and Cold Ethnicity Theory from Odessa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polese, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The end of the cold war prompted most of the former Soviet republics to face ethnic issues that had remained latent or intangible for decades. Whilst some ethnic groups were actively campaigning for their rights, some others seemed uninterested in being represented politically. The recent theory of hot and cold ethnicity has been conceived to…

  14. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  15. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  16. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  17. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  18. Anti-Imperialism during the Philippine-American War: Protesting "Criminal Aggression" and "Benevolent Assimilation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Erin Leigh

    2009-01-01

    At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War of 1898, the United States purchased the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris. For over a decade beginning in early 1899, the United States waged a brutal war to suppress Filipinos seeking an end to colonial rule. My dissertation investigates the anti-imperialist movement in the United States…

  19. "MEJ" and World War II: A Review of "Music Educators Journal", 1940-42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…

  20. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  1. No Place To Be a Child: Growing Up in a War Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; Kostelny, Kathleen; Dubrow, Nancy

    War and violence are part of day-to-day life for many of the world's children. This book explores the lives of the children of Cambodia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and inner-city Chicago. Through research on the psychological and developmental effects of trauma in early life and interviews with children in war zones…

  2. Children's Fears of War and Terrorism: A Resource for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lisa F.; Aldridge, Jerry; Cellitti, Anarella; McCorquodale, Gwenyth

    Noting that children in every corner of the planet are affected by war or the threat of war, this booklet for parents and early childhood educators provides an introduction to children's fears concerning armed conflict and terrorist attacks and offers strategies for helping children work through their fears. The chapters are as follows: (1)…

  3. Experimental Manufacture of Paper for War Maps

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Charles G.; Shaw, Merle B.

    2000-01-01

    Early in World War II, a new map paper was developed that greatly improved the quality and performance of war maps. The National Bureau of Standards cooperated in the development and, subsequently, determined by experimental manufacture how to make the paper from commercially available raw materials. The best results were obtained in experimental manufacture by using fiber furnishes of 100-percent strong bleached sulfate pulps with the addition of melamine-formaldehyde resin to increase the wet strength and titanium dioxide to produce the desired capacity. It was essential that the beating be very carefully controlled to preserve the maximum fiber strength. The most critical requirements from a manufacturing standpoint were very high resistance to tear, high wet tensile strength, high opacity, and good smoothness. A moderate degree of wildness was not objectionable. The data obtained by experiments were applied to initiate the commercial production of the new paper to meet unprecedented tonnage requirements. PMID:27551643

  4. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    menace advancing across the face of the Earth. A few years earlier Senator Joe McCarthy had gone on a crusade ( witch -hunt) to root out communists in...became a popular addictive drug among GIs. Marijuana was used by greater than 50% of U.S. soldiers. U.S. military policy in South Vietnam promoted

  5. The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: From Cold Wars to Holy Wars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores shifts in the nature, volume, trajectory and content of aid to education in the wake of post-9/11 Western preoccupations with the rise of Islamic radicalism. The paper develops a framework for understanding the dynamics of how educational aid appears to be becoming increasingly politicized in strategic conflict and post-conflict…

  6. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    to January, 1891; Francis E. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, from its Organization, September 29,1789, to...54. Telex (U), CINCUSACOM, for CJCS, 302330Z September 1994; Memo, Kenneth H. Bacon , ASD/PA, to CJCS, ca. 24 September 1994, subject: Haiti Updates

  7. The Evolution of the Sonobuoy from World War II to the Cold War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to the official stop work order, the RCA buoys had been cleaned up , repaired, and put on the shelf. Within weeks of the Navy’s request, the...propellers at distances up to three miles, and the radio reception aboard the blimp was satisfactory up to five miles. 11, 12, 13 The first air-droppable...compartment were sealed by adhesive tape and flexible pitch , providing watertight integrity. A hole in the lower disk was sealed with a water soluble

  8. [Health situation of the armies in the Crimean war and a document related to this].

    PubMed

    Dağlar, Oya

    2004-01-01

    Although the Crimean War seems to be a war between the Ottoman and Russian with the support of England an France, in reality, it was a power struggle between the biggest European countries. The cooperation between England - Ottoman Empire and France in the Crimean War meanly determined the result of the war. The Crimean War should not only be evaluated in militarian and political aspect, but also from other perspectives. One of the most important problems for the allied armies in Istanbul and Crimea was related to the health concepts. During the two years long war, problems were the freezing cold and contagious diseases before the Russian soldiers. And thypus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepears the dead of a large number of soldiers. Although the allied armies won the battle but all the sides fighting in the was lost many people due to contagious diseases. According to the resources, the contagious diseases such as, thypus, cholera and malaria led to the deads of more than ten times of the people who were in the battle field. Thats why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and gave importance to the development of military medical services and form this point, the Crimean War became the begining of an important development in military health concept.

  9. War, terrorism, and children.

    PubMed

    DeRanieri, Joseph T; Clements, Paul T; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S

    2004-04-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the best approach, it is important to provide information that is developmentally appropriate. Providing education and guidance can reduce stress and enhance understanding of the chaotic events confronting our nation. It also provides a platform for communication and exploration should additional terrorist attacks or acts of war occur. It is important to examine how to approach children and adolescents to communicate with them about these sensitive issues.

  10. The Effect of War on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  11. Theater Level War Games.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-02

    models, (2) production of an annual catalog of Army Models with a review and analysis section, (3) increased dialogue between Army personnel concerned...catalog of Army Models with a review and analysis section, (3) increased dialogue between Army personnel con- cerned with modelc and the wider...tions that contribute to dialogue in the war gaming community. 4’ 31- -~- ".-.. ~ ~’’-L Purposes and Preliminary Results The purposes of this study were

  12. Fixing the War Powers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    peaceful. Indian tribes in the North and South caused continuous problems for settlers during the first term,261 and the Whiskey Rebellion occurred in...262the second term.. Neither of these situations had significant implications for the war powers. During the Whiskey Rebellion , Congress passed a law...militia. 263 Practices during suppression of the Republic’s first rebellion nominally264 ratify the conceptual model: Congress as the decision-maker and

  13. [From memories about war].

    PubMed

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  14. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    impact on American society. Decades of’ debate also stretched the anti mil itarists’ argzument well be- yond the basic proposition that a powerful...history except b\\ the Confederacy’s economic collapse in the final stages of the Civil War. Although that inflation hurt all Americans on fixed incomes ... on the frontier. British assaults on coastal cities, and sporadic fighting wherever it might occur. What is less well known is that about 20,0X

  15. The Rise of China: Redefining War in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Union] through a game of posturing and economic dominance; it worked. Perhaps the Chinese have learned from our handling of the “Cold War” against the...China is 21 poised to gain the throne without a shot fired, or a significant investment in its military. The historical view of war must change

  16. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  17. Crises in the Southern Caucasus: Cold War, Cold Peace or a New Beginning?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Georgia’s current territory coincides with that of the former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic ( SSR ). Within the Georgian SSR , Abkhazia held the...Prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Georgian SSR termi- nated South Ossetia’s status as an autonomous oblast in 1990. Riots erupted in the... SSR . As a consequence Georgia inherited three poten- tial break-away regions: Adjara1, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Abkhaz and South Ossetian drive for

  18. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  19. Factors Affecting Student Attitudes toward War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews previous research on attitudes toward war. Describes a study of undergraduate student attitudes toward war compared with personality traits. Finds that, although personality traits were only minimally associated with attitudes toward war, men were more prowar then women. (CFR)

  20. Engineering Education after the War. Bulletin, 1921, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Arthur M., Jr.

    1922-01-01

    The period covered by this paper followed the demobilization of that experiment in education under war conditions known as the Students' Army Training Corps. During the early part of 1917 many engineering students withdrew from the school of engineering to enter different branches of the Army and Navy of the United States, and others at this time,…

  1. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  2. Prepare the Army for War. A Historical Overview of the Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1973 - 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    DePuy Hall, 1993 ................................. 96 Chaplains and chaplain assistants conduct medical evacuation training ............ 101 A Drill...Vietnam War reorganization. Skeptics were free with predictions that the new organi- zation would not survive tht test of time, but at the 20-year...significant component of the successful political-military challenge against which communist power shattered and the Cold War ended in the years 1989

  3. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  4. The Old Army in War and Peace: West Pointers and the Civil War Era, 1814-1865

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    War, see Gabor S. Boritt, Why the Confederacy Lost (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 6. On the relationship between military and academic...34 For an early critique of the new military history, see Dennis E. Showalter, "A Modest Plea for Drums and Trumpets," Military Affairs 39, no. 2 (1975

  5. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  6. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  7. Soviet Style in War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    the methods for firing while running’ " 355-and ingenuity in devising procedures for training: I 56 Soviet Style in War The commander of a regiment...under friendly fire... .. " In fact, one of the characteristics of the "Russian method of attacking" was "to break into the positions of the defense...battle. ° For this gain one should use all available detours and instruments, should "utilize," in General Epishev’s words, "all forms and methods of

  8. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  9. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  10. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  11. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  12. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  13. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  14. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  15. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: contributions to World War II.

    PubMed

    Folk, G Edgar

    2010-09-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with either physical fitness of soldiers or the energetic cost of military tasks in extreme heat and cold. New military emergency rations to be manufactured in large quantities were analyzed in the Fatigue Laboratory and then tested in the field. Newly designed cold weather clothing was tested in the cold chamber at -40 degrees F, and desired improvements were made and tested in the field by staff and soldiers in tents and sleeping bags. Electrically heated clothing was designed for high-altitude flight crews and tested both in laboratory chambers and field tests before being issued. This eye witness account of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory during World War II was recorded by Dr. G. Edgar Folk, who is likely the sole surviving member of that famous laboratory.

  16. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  17. Degeneration and the origins of Mexico's war on drugs.

    PubMed

    Campos, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the concept of “degeneration” helped to turn “drugs” into a problem of national importance in Mexico. By invoking this concept, Mexico's sanitary authorities secured provisions in the Constitution of 1917 which specifically authorized a newly constituted Department of Public Sanitation to lead a nation-wide campaign against drug abuse. That Department then inaugurated Mexico's modern war on drugs when, in 1920, it declared a law governing the import and distribution of the opiates, cocaine, and marijuana nationwide. This essay examines the idea of degeneration and how it came to play this crucial role in the foundation of Mexico's modern war on drugs.

  18. The long-term impact of war on health and wellbeing in Northern Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey.

    PubMed

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Korinek, Kim

    2012-06-01

    War is deemed a major threat to public health; yet, the long-term effects of war on individual health have rarely been examined in the context of developing countries. Based on data collected as a pilot follow-up to the Vietnam Longitudinal Survey, this study examines current health profiles of northern Vietnamese war survivors who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and now represent Vietnam's older adult population. To ascertain how war and military service in the early life course may have had long-term impacts on health status of Vietnam's current older adults, we compare multi-dimensional measures of health among veterans and nonveterans, and within these groups, regardless of their military service, between combatants and noncombatants. Multivariate results suggest that despite prolonged exposure to war, veterans and those who served in combat roles are not significantly different from their civilian and noncombatant counterparts on most health outcomes later in life. This is in contrast to American veterans who fought on the opposing side of the war. The near absence of differences in older adult health among northern Vietnamese with varying degrees of war involvement might be explained by the encompassing extent of war; the notion that time heals; and the hardiness and resilience against ill health that are by-products of shared struggle in war and a victorious outcome.

  19. Exercise in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Frostbite and hypothermia are well-documented entities with good prevention strategies and prehospital treatment recommendations that have changed very little with time. A layered approach to clothing is the best way to prevent injury and respond to weather changes. Each athlete, defined as a participant in a cold weather sport or activity, will respond to cold differently depending on anthropometric measurements and underlying medical risk factors. An understanding of wind-chill temperatures, wetness, and the weather forecast allows athletes and event coordinators to properly respond to changing weather conditions. At the first sign of a freezing cold injury, ensure warm, dry clothes and move to a protected environment. Conclusion: Cold injuries can be prevented, and cold weather activities are safe with proper education, preparation, and response to changing weather conditions or injury. PMID:26857732

  20. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  1. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A What's in this ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  2. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) A A A What's in this article? ... or around a person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't ...

  3. Chilling Out With Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your head hurts. You don't have the energy to even get out of bed. And you can't breathe out of your nose. What's wrong? You may have a cold! Having a cold is the #1 reason kids visit the doctor and stay home from school. Kids can get six to ten ...

  4. War Surgery Handbook,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    acidosis and hyperkalemia , severe cardiac arrythmias occur. Battlefield wounds and hemorrhage in a cold environment lead to rapid hypothermia, which may...heat to the core, improving acid/base balance, and improving the hyperkalemia . Treatment of these parameters depends on the level of sophistication at...pyruvate below 320C by the liver is not occurring and severe hyperkalemia from temperature degraded cellular sodium pump increases available potassium

  5. Middle East future line plans muddled following Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that the recent Gulf War has left the middle East in an awkward situation on current and future pipe line projects. Much of Kuwait's production capacity was destroyed and its ability to regain its previous position as an oil producer in the Middle East in the near term is questionable. Iraq's production remains severely curtailed by international agreement. Saudi Arabia and the other Middle Eastern states continue to produce at the higher than normal levels instigated in the early days of the crisis. The continuing efforts to bring the Kuwait oilfields under control, coupled with ongoing excessive production by some Middle eastern countries and the world response to Sadam Hussein's questionable intentions leave the Middle East pipe line construction picture muddled. The war forestalled pipe line projects in Kuwait and Iraq and many of the planned projects now are questionable. In other areas of the Middle East, the war may have firmed tentative plans for pipe line construction.

  6. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  7. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  8. American Women and the Great War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  9. [Nursing figures in the Great War].

    PubMed

    Marc, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The three Red Cross associations worked hard in France before the First World War to prepare nurses to serve during a war. When war broke out, these nurses stepped up to the plate. They supported every phase of the war and demonstrated their high levels of creativity to overcome the difficult conditions related to the fighting.

  10. Breaking New Ground on War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The American Catholic Church, which has historically supported America's involvement in wars through the concept of just wars, has broken new ground with its Pastoral Letter on War, Armaments, and Peace, which challenges the morality of present defense policy and nuclear war. Reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. (IS)

  11. Fine line between peacekeeping and war. Research report, August 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Betancourt, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    The post-Cold War international environment is being shaped by forces of integration and disintegration. The civil war in Somalia is an example of the challenges that will confront the U.S. as it seeks to exercise leadership both unilaterally and in multinational forums. Somalia is the first case after the Cold War in which U.N. forces were committed to enforce peace under Chapter VII of the Charter. However, the transition from a humanitarian assistance and peacekeeping mission to peace enforcement was made abruptly, without the benefit of thoughtful discussion of all of the elements that created the conflict. Consequently, U.S. force was used inappropriately to achieve ill defined objectives, resulting in the loss of American troops and the decision to effect a complete withdrawal from Somalia. There are many excellent lessons to be learned from the U.S.`s involvement in Somalia. Principal among these is that in today`s increasingly anarchic international environment, prudence dictates that the decision to send U.S. forces in harm`s way should be the result of deliberate, thoughtful discussion at the highest level of our government However, to continue to exercise its world leadership role, the U.S. must not let Somalia be the defining experience in the use of force after the Cold War.

  12. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 2, Spring 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    seven years. Crews simply peel the backing off its adhesive surface and slap it on a bulk- head. With this device the British can keep track of where...Maersk’s ships are in real time, all the time. All the company has to do is avoid painting the device, which ad- mittedly is a challenge for seamen. This...Soviet Union and the communist ideology posed a global challenge during the Cold War. Attempts today to paint the terrorist threat as a global threat

  13. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  14. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  15. Women and War

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service. PMID:16637946

  16. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. )

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  17. [Roentgen rays in the Spanish-American War].

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, J

    2006-01-01

    The Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, only 28 months after Roentgen discovered some mysterious rays. It was a war of short duration in which bloody battles with numerous casualties took place in Cuba within a few days a period. In this conflict North American military physicians employed the recently discovered and poorly known rays in the study of gunshot wounds. The early use of x-rays in the first important war after their discovery reveals a great sensitivity and attention of is highest military command and an exemplary preparation of its Medical Camps to use potentially efficient modern means to achieve their goals. The use of x-rays in this brief but key war conclusively demonstrated the usefulness of this technique in the management of war wounds, brought about a revolutionary change in the methods and criteria of diagnosis and treatment, and represented an enormous benefit for this type of patient. The knowledge acquired was applied in medical and surgical environments throughout the world and profoundly transformed healthcare. This rigorous and opportune experience was a transcendental scientific advance in the field of medicine, is a landmark in the history of radiology and deserves to be well known and recognized by all, especially by those who later on made of these rays their specialty.

  18. Literature of War and Peace. Section III: Why War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettendorf, Joline; And Others

    This 13-day curriculum unit is designed for use in English and language arts classrooms, grades 7-12 and junior college. While it is the third section in a series of five on the literature of war and peace, it can be used with or without the other four sections. Each section of the series focuses on a different genre of the literature of war and…

  19. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  20. The Rebirth of Educational Exchange: Anglo-German University Level Youth Exchange Programmes after the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumann, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…

  1. Cold subcutaneous abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Stephens, L.; Kelly, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Cold abscesses are defined as having no associated erythema, heat, or tenderness. They may be present in immunodeficiency disorders, deep mycoses, and other infectious diseases. As there is a dearth information on this subject in the dermatology, surgery, and infectious disease literature, we present a case of cold abscesses secondary to coccidioidomycosis and discuss the possible role of humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, prostaglandins, T cells, and other mediators in cold abscess pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic guidelines for abscesses are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2280425

  2. Miniature cold gas thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzibziak, R. J., Sr.

    1992-07-01

    Cold gas thrusters provide a safe, inexpensive, lightweight and reliable means of propulsive control for small satellites, projectiles and maneuvering control systems. Moog Inc. has designed and developed a family of miniature cold gas thrusters for use on Strategic Defense Iniative flight simulation experiments, sounding rockets, small satellite applications, astronaut control systems, and close proximity maneuvering systems for Space System. Construction features such as coil assembly, core assembly, armature assembly, external housing and valve body are discussed. The design approach, performance characteristics and functional description of cold gas thrusters designed for various applications are presented.

  3. IGERT Implementation and Early Outcomes. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giancola, Jennifer; Chase, Anne; Koepnick, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Responding to changes in the demands on the country's science and engineering research community since the end of the Cold War, the National Science Foundation (NSF) introduced the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) program in 1997 to encourage science and engineering Ph.D. programs to provide their students with…

  4. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  5. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  6. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  7. Cold hardiness in molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Molluscs inhabit all types of environments: seawater, intertidal zone, freshwater and land, and of course may have to deal with subzero temperatures. Ectotherm animals survive cold conditions by avoiding it by extensive supercooling (freezing avoidant species) or by bearing the freezing of their extracellular body fluids (freezing tolerant species). Although some studies on cold hardiness are available for intertidal molluscs, they are scarce for freshwater and terrestrial ones. Molluscs often exhibit intermediary levels of cold hardiness, with a moderate or low ability to supercool and a limited survival to the freezing of their tissues. Several factors could be involved: their dependence on water, their ability to enter dormancy, the probability of inoculative freezing in their environment, etc. Size is an important parameter in the development of cold hardiness abilities: it influences supercooling ability in land snails, which are rather freezing avoidant and survival to ice formation in intertidal organisms, which generally tolerate freezing.

  8. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  9. Coping with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... re hungry. And you might have heard that chicken soup can cure a cold. There's no real ... you have strep throat and need treatment with antibiotics. If your doctor does prescribe antibiotics, be sure ...

  10. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  11. Military Governance and War Termination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments...amount of census data was collected, which served civil administration purposes and provided intelligence for military operations.123 Additionally, in...York: Henry Holt and Company, 2005. Bade , Bruce C. War Termination: Why Don’t We Plan It? Fort McNair: National War College, 1994. Barthlomees, J

  12. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT NUMBER...b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 11 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a Gulf War

  13. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam.

  14. Cold weather injuries in an arctic environment.

    PubMed

    Schissel, D J; Barney, D L; Keller, R

    1998-08-01

    The cases of eight Special Forces soldiers who sustained cold weather-related injuries while conducting winter training as part of Operation Arctic Saber in the Northwest Territories and Arctic Circle are reported. Environmentally related injuries can represent difficult diagnostic and treatment challenges in the field. Moreover, they may compromise the overall mission if they are not identified and treated early. Cold weather injuries can also result in long-term disfigurement and disability that may limit a soldier's future worldwide deployability. Mission requirements, equipment utilization, and environmental exposure place soldiers at particular risk for cold weather-related injuries in such austere settings. Nonetheless, with appropriate education and safety precautions, these potentially life-threatening risks can be greatly minimized.

  15. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  16. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  17. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  18. [New methods of treatment applied in the hospital of Sochi during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, S A

    2013-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 Sochi was turned into the largest hospital base in the south of the USSR. All told, 335 thousand wonded and seriously ill soldiers were treated in the hospitals of Sochi. During the war physicians applied many new, including, early unknown medical methods of treatment. Poor provision with medical equipment, instruments, bandages and medicines was made up for using of local resources. Adoption of new treatment methods based on the use of local medicines allowed the Sochi's physicians to save many lives during the war.

  19. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  20. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  1. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war.

  2. The Search for Space Doctrine’s War-Fighting Icon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    being weaponized or used to support mili- tary operations. Corona , launched in the early 1960s as the United States’ first “spy satellite,” provided...97. 7. Russell F . Weigley, The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy (Bloomington: Indiana University Press...1973), 128. 8. Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 75–76. 9

  3. Isocurvature cold dark matter fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Bond, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    According to Preskill et al. (1983), the axion field represents a particularly attractive candidate for the dark matter in the universe. In many respects it behaves like other forms of cold dark matter, such as massive gravitinos, photinos, and monopoles. It is, however, a pseudo-Goldstone boson of very low mass, and it is only because of rapid coherent oscillations of the field that it can dominate the mass density of the universe. In the present paper it is assumed that the isocurvature mode is dominant. The linear evolution calculations conducted do not depend upon specific details of particle physics. For this reason, the conducted discussion is applicable to any cold dark matter model with isocurvature perturbations. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that scale-invariant isocurvature perturbations do not seem an attractive possibility for the origin of large-scale structure. The findings strengthen the review that primordial adiabatic perturbations were the dominant fluctuations in the early stages of the Big Bang.

  4. ["1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital" during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Abashin, V G

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the documentary information about the founding, the establishment and early years of the 1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital - in the future - Mandryka Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Presented the work of the Hospital during the dificult period of the Civil War, typhus epidemic, famine and devastation. Specified its staffing structure, command, medical and administrative staff, travel and accommodation till the moment of the deployment in the Silver Lane in Moscow.

  5. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  6. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  7. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    geoengineering and nuclear war simulations for different regions in China. Without changes of agricultural technology, we found that in both climate scenarios, the national crop production decreases, but different regions responded differently, indicating that the climate under which agriculture is conducted is a key factor to determine the impacts of geoengineering and nuclear war on agriculture. In southern China, the cooling helps the rice and maize grow. In northern China, the cooling makes the temperatures so cold that it hurts crop productivity, and in western China, the reduction of precipitation causes failed crop growth. To adapt to geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios, we could substitute crops that would grow better in the perturbed climate, increase fertilizer usage, irrigate agricultural land, change planting date, or change to seeds which are tolerant of cooler and drier climates.

  8. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  9. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  10. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  11. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  12. Modern Warfare: NATO’s War amongst the People in Kosovo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Michael A. Felice, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) This monograph explores the application of Rupert Smith’s theory regarding the utility of force and the six characteristics...tensions within NATO and the intricacy of conducting alliance warfare as well as the need to determine NATO’s role in a post-Cold War world. Focusing

  13. Building Leaders and Staffs: Ensuring Mastery of the Non-Major Combat Aspects of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words)TT The leadership development and professional education system since the end of the Cold War has been a key factor...the other areas. The complexity of the current operating environment requires a military leadership that is developed and educated throughout the...ranks that can plan, coordinate and execute effectively in MOOTW. This monograph is an exploration of why changes in leadership development and

  14. Stability Operations: From the Post-Vietnam War Era to Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief,” while counterinsurgency is...establish civil control, restore essential services, support to governance, and support to economic and infrastructure development. 6 U.S. Department of...Peacekeeping Doctrine, and Practice after the Cold War (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004), 88. 14 John D. Waghelstein, “What’s Wrong in Iraq? Or Ruminations of a

  15. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  16. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  17. War injuries of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Korzinek, K

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes experience acquired during the war against Croatia under improvised conditions at the Kutina War Hospital in the immediate vicinity of the first front lines. Over a period of almost 6 months a total of 701 soldiers and civilians, 546 of whom had been wounded by firearm missiles, were treated at the Kutina War Hospital, which has a capacity of 30-40 beds. As many as 87% of the injuries were due to mine, bomb or artillery shell shrapnel. The percentage of gunshot wounds was very low, mainly caused by sniper shots. Most patients (419, or 76.7%) were admitted with injuries to the extremities, including 893 severe soft tissue injuries and 182 fractures (32.3%). Soft tissue injuries were treated by routine procedures of war surgery, associated with ample use of Lavasept, an antiseptic solution (Fresenius, Stans, Switzerland), which has proved to be highly efficacious in preventing and decontaminating infection without disturbance of the wound healing process. Long bone fractures were fixed with the aid of external fixators of various designs, including the CMC external fixator of our own construction. External fixators have once again proved indispensable in the treatment of open fractures sustained in war settings. Amputations were performed in 10.4% of cases, including fingers and toes. Only 8 patients died during or immediately after surgery, corresponding to a very low mortality rate of 1.46%. The main prerequisites for successful treatment are a professional relationship to war surgery and its specific requirements, satisfactory technical equipment, and excellent organization of medical and non-medical services.

  18. Space technologies and the war in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsov, Petar

    The paper presents a description of the application of aerospace technologies during the war in Iraq. The specific instrumentation used by the USA and its allies in the field of communication, navigation, and control of weapons and ammunition to schedule war activities is presented. Conclusions are made on the ever growing application of space technologies in modern wars and their impact on the efficiency of decision-making at war times.

  19. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  20. Glut, war slow Mideast activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    Oilpatch activity in the Middle East has been on the slow side recently, and with a heated-up war between Iran and Iraq throwing off violent sparks around the Arabian Gulf, it's difficult to keep one's mind on business-as-usual. The article deals with the rising cost of insurance for shipping because of the war and the effects on drilling, production and the environment (oil spills). The development and production of offshore oil and gas in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates is also discussed.