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Sample records for early colon carcinogenesis

  1. SND1, a component of RNA-induced silencing complex, is up-regulated in human colon cancers and implicated in early stage colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naoto; Ochiai, Masako; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Sugimura, Takashi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    Colon cancers have been shown to develop after accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations with changes in global gene expression profiles, contributing to the establishment of widely diverse phenotypes. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by small RNA species, such as the small interfering RNA and microRNA and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), is currently drawing major interest with regard to cancer development. SND1, also called Tudor-SN and p100 and recently reported to be a component of RISC, is among the list of highly expressed genes in human colon cancers. In the present study, we showed remarkable up-regulation of SND1 mRNA in human colon cancer tissues, even in early-stage lesions, and also in colon cancer cell lines. When mouse Snd1 was stably overexpressed in IEC6 rat intestinal epithelial cells, contact inhibition was lost and cell growth was promoted, even after the cells became confluent. Intriguingly, IEC6 cells with high levels of Snd1 also showed an altered distribution of E-cadherin from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm, suggesting loss of cellular polarity. Furthermore, the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) protein was coincidentally down-regulated, with no significant changes in the Apc mRNA level. Immunohistochemical analysis using chemically induced colonic lesions developed in rats revealed overexpression of Snd1 not only in colon cancers but also in aberrant crypt foci, putative precancerous lesions of the colon. Up-regulation of SND1 may thus occur at a very early stage in colon carcinogenesis and contribute to the posttranscriptional regulation of key players in colon cancer development, including APC and beta-catenin.

  2. Higher Order Chromatin Modulator Cohesin SA1 Is an Early Biomarker for Colon Carcinogenesis: Race-Specific Implications.

    PubMed

    Wali, Ramesh K; Momi, Navneet; Dela Cruz, Mart; Calderwood, Audrey H; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Almassalha, Luay; Chhaparia, Anuj; Weber, Christopher R; Radosevich, Andrew; Tiwari, Ashish K; Latif, Bilal; Backman, Vadim; Roy, Hemant K

    2016-11-01

    Alterations in high order chromatin, with concomitant modulation in gene expression, are one of the earliest events in the development of colorectal cancer. Cohesins are a family of proteins that modulate high-order chromatin, although the role in colorectal cancer remains incompletely understood. We, therefore, assessed the role of cohesin SA1 in colorectal cancer biology and as a biomarker focusing in particular on the increased incidence/mortality of colorectal cancer among African-Americans. Immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays revealed dramatically decreased SA1 expression in both adenomas (62%; P = 0.001) and adenocarcinomas (75%; P = 0.0001). RT-PCR performed in endoscopically normal rectal biopsies (n = 78) revealed a profound decrease in SA1 expression in adenoma-harboring patients (field carcinogenesis) compared with those who were neoplasia-free (47%; P = 0.03). From a racial perspective, colorectal cancer tissues from Caucasians had 56% higher SA1 expression than in African-Americans. This was mirrored in field carcinogenesis where healthy Caucasians expressed more SA1 at baseline compared with matched African-American subjects (73%; P = 0.003). However, as a biomarker for colorectal cancer risk, the diagnostic performance as assessed by area under ROC curve was greater in African-Americans (AUROC = 0.724) than in Caucasians (AUROC = 0.585). From a biologic perspective, SA1 modulation of high-order chromatin was demonstrated with both biophotonic (nanocytology) and chromatin accessibility [micrococcal nuclease (MNase)] assays in SA1-knockdown HT29 colorectal cancer cells. The functional consequences were underscored by increased proliferation (WST-1; P = 0.0002, colony formation; P = 0.001) in the SA1-knockdown HT29 cells. These results provide the first evidence indicating a tumor suppressor role of SA1 in early colon carcinogenesis and as a risk stratification biomarker giving potential insights into biologic basis of racial disparities in colorectal

  3. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  4. δ- and γ-tocopherols inhibit phIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by protection against early cellular and DNA damages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jayson X; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Wang, Hong; Yu, Siyuan; Chi, Eric; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Yang, Chung S

    2017-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, are a family of fat-soluble compounds that exist in alpha (α-T), beta (β-T), gamma (γ-T), and delta (δ-T) variants. A cancer preventive effect of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies. However, past animal studies and human intervention trials with α-T, the most active vitamin E form, have yielded disappointing results. A possible explanation is that the cancer preventive activity of α-T is weak compared to other tocopherol forms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of δ-T, γ-T, and α-T (0.2% in diet) in a novel colon cancer model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. PhIP/DSS treatments induced multiple polypoid tumors, mainly tubular adenocarcinomas, in the middle to distal colon of the hCYP1A mice after 10 wk. Dietary supplementation with δ-T and γ-T significantly reduced colon tumor formation and suppressed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (i.e., 8-oxo-dG and nitrotyrosine) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3) in tumors and adjacent tissues. By administering δ-T at different time periods, we obtained results suggesting that the inhibitory effect of δ-T against colon carcinogenesis is mainly due to protection against early cellular and DNA damages caused by PhIP. α-T was found to be ineffective in inhibiting colon tumors and less effective in attenuating the molecular changes. Altogether, we demonstrated strong cancer preventive effects of δ-T and γ-T in a physiologically relevant model of human colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. δ- and γ-Tocopherols Inhibit PhIP/DSS-induced Colon Carcinogenesis by Protection against Early Cellular and DNA Damages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jayson X.; Liu, Anna; Lee, Mao-Jung; Wang, Hong; Yu, Siyuan; Chi, Eric; Reuhl, Kenneth; Suh, Nanjoo; Yang, Chung S.

    2017-01-01

    Tocopherols, the major forms of vitamin E, are a family of fat-soluble compounds that exist in alpha (α-T), beta (β-T), gamma (γ-T) and delta (δ-T) variants. A cancer preventive effect of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies. However, past animal studies and human intervention trials with α-T, the most active vitamin E form, have yielded disappointing results. A possible explanation is that the cancer preventive activity of α-T is weak compared to other tocopherol forms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of δ-T, γ-T and α-T (0.2% in diet) in a novel colon cancer model induced by the meat-derived dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice. PhIP/DSS treatments induced multiple polypoid tumors, mainly tubular adenocarcinomas, in the middle to distal colon of the hCYP1A mice after 10 weeks. Dietary supplementation with δ-T and γ-T significantly reduced colon tumor formation and suppressed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (i.e., 8-oxo-dG and nitrotyrosine) as well as pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., NF-κB p65 and p-STAT3) in tumors and adjacent tissues. By administering δ-T at different time periods, we obtained results suggesting that the inhibitory effect of δ-T against colon carcinogenesis is mainly due to protection against early cellular and DNA damages caused by PhIP. α-T was found to be ineffective in inhibiting colon tumors and less effective in attenuating the molecular changes. Altogether, we demonstrated strong cancer preventive effects of δ-T and γ-T in a physiologically relevant model of human colon cancer. PMID:27175800

  6. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Dejea, Christine M.; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T.; Santidrian, Antonio F.; Felding, Brunhilde H.; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A.; Pardoll, Drew M.; White, James R.; Patti, Gary J.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N1, N12-diacetylspermine in both biofilm positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N1, N12-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome, to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression. PMID:25959674

  7. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-02

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multidisciplinary Biomarkers of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the proposed research is to develop novel optical technologies to identify high-risk premalignant changes in the breast ...Our proposed research will first test specific optical parameters in breast cancer cell lines and models of early mammary carcinogenesis, and then...develop methods to test the optical parameters in random periareolar fine needle aspirate (RPFNA) samples from women at high-risk for developing breast

  9. Mouse models for the study of colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Daniel W.; Giardina, Charles; Tanaka, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    The study of experimental colon carcinogenesis in rodents has a long history, dating back almost 80 years. There are many advantages to studying the pathogenesis of carcinogen-induced colon cancer in mouse models, including rapid and reproducible tumor induction and the recapitulation of the adenoma–carcinoma sequence that occurs in humans. The availability of recombinant inbred mouse panels and the existence of transgenic, knock-out and knock-in genetic models further increase the value of these studies. In this review, we discuss the general mechanisms of tumor initiation elicited by commonly used chemical carcinogens and how genetic background influences the extent of disease. We will also describe the general features of lesions formed in response to carcinogen treatment, including the underlying molecular aberrations and how these changes may relate to the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer. PMID:19037092

  10. Celecoxib prevents colitis associated colon carcinogenesis: an upregulation of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Setia, Shruti; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, Sankar N

    2014-12-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis are the critical events transforming a normal cell to a cancerous one wherein the inflammatory microenvironment supports this oncogenic transformation. The process of colon carcinogenesis may be aggravated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis where non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may effectively prevent the cellular and molecular events. Western blots and immunofluorescent analysis of DNA mismatch repair enzymes, cell cycle regulators and pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins were performed in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and 1,2-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Also, apoptotic studies were done in isolated colonocytes using fluorescent staining and in paraffin sections using TUNEL assay. An upregulation of cell cycle regulators: cyclin D1/cdk4 and cyclin E/cdk2 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, along with the suppression of DNA repair enzymes: MLH1 and MSH2; tumour suppressors: p53, p21and Rb and pro-apoptotic proteins: Bax and Bad were observed in the DSS, DMH and DSS+DMH groups. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was also overexpressed in these groups. The ultimate executioner of the apoptotic pathway; caspase-3, was suppressed in these groups. Apoptotic studies in colonocytes and paraffin sections revealed suppressed apoptosis in these groups. These effects were corrected with the administration of a second generation NSAID, celecoxib along with the treatment of DSS and DMH. The chemopreventive action of celecoxib in colitis mediated colon carcinogenesis may include the regulation of DNA mismatch repair enzymes, cell cycle check points, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. The protective role of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Brazilian arnica) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Turatti, Aline; Gouvea, Dayana Rubio; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Diniz, Andrea; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon rectal mucosal epithelial cell proliferation have been shown to be increased in patients with colon cancer and have been largely used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. The groups G1 to G4 were given 4 injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The G2 group received Lychnophora ericoides (LE) extracts for 6 wk. The groups G3 and G4 received LE for 4 wk and 2 wk, respectively, at the postinitiation and initiation phases of colonic carcinogenesis. The group G5 was the control. Forty-two days after the first injections of DMH for the neoplasic induction, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and an attenuation of the increase in cell proliferation induced by DMH in all the LE-treated groups. Thus, we concluded that Lychnophora ericoides extracts were effective against the development of cancer. These data suggest that LE has a protective influence on the process of colon carcinogenesis, suppressing both the initiation and the promotion of colonic carcinogenesis.

  12. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren prevent the early colorectal carcinogenesis in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Zhu, C; Ge, S; Zhang, M; Jiang, L; Cui, J; Ren, F

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (LS) on modulating colonic micro flora structure and influencing host colonic health in a rat model with colorectal precancerous lesions. Male F344 rats were injected with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and treated with LS of two doses (5 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(10) CFU kg(-1) body weight) for 15 weeks. The colonic microflora profiles, luminal metabolites, epithelial proliferation and precancerous lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] were determined. A distinct segregation of colonic microflora structures was observed in LS-treated group. The abundance of one Prevotella-related strain was increased, and the abundance of one Bacillus-related strain was decreased by LS treatment. These changes were accompanied by increased short-chain fatty acid levels and decreased azoreductase activity. LS treatment also reduced the number of ACF by c. 40% and suppressed epithelial proliferation. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren improved the colonic microflora structures and the luminal metabolisms in addition preventing the early colorectal carcinogenesis in DMH-induced rat model. Colonic microflora is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. Modulating the structural shifts of microflora may provide a novel option for preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. This study suggested a potential probiotic-based approach to modulate the intestinal microflora in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pastille, Eva; Frede, Annika; McSorley, Henry J.; Gräb, Jessica; Adamczyk, Alexandra; Hansen, Wiebke; Buer, Jan; Maizels, Rick M.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host’s immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs). This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered. PMID:28938014

  14. Epitalon and colon carcinogenesis in rats: proliferative activity and apoptosis in colon tumors and mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kossoy, George; Zandbank, Judit; Tendler, Eugenie; Anisimov, Vladimir; Khavinson, Vladimir; Popovich, Irina; Zabezhinski, Mark; Zusman, Itshak; Ben-Hur, Herzl

    2003-10-01

    The effect of the synthetic pineal peptide Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) on proliferative activity in colon tumors, and in mucosal epithelial cells adjacent to and located far from tumors was studied in rats. To evaluate the effect of Epitalon on different stages of carcinogenesis, different treatment regimens were used: during the tumor initiation stage, during the tumor-promotion stage, or during the entire process of tumor development. Eighty 2-month-old male LIO rats were exposed weekly to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single dose of 21 mg/kg body weight. Rats were divided into four groups. Control rats (group 1) received saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the entire experiment. Rats in group 2 were treated with Epitalon at a dose of 1 micro g, five times a week, for 6 months, from the first injection of DMH till the end of the experiment. Rats in group 3 were treated with Epitalon after termination of the carcinogen injections. Rats in group 4 were treated with Epitalon only during the period of DMH exposure (for the first 5 weeks of the experiment). DMH induced proliferation of the secretory epithelium, and this phenomenon was accompanied by a decrease in the size of the stromal area and the area of lymph infiltration in colon tumors and in the colon mucosa adjacent to the tumors (group 1). Epitalon attenuated this effect, especially when the treatment was continued throughout the experiment (group 2). It increased the stromal areas, as well as that of lymphoid infiltration in the colon mucosa adjacent to the tumors. The intensity of lymphoid infiltration was activated in both the colon mucosa adjacent to a tumor and in the tumor. Mitotic activity of tumor cells was significantly inhibited by Epitalon when the treatment was given throughout the experiment (group 2). In parallel, a high level of apoptosis was seen in the same group. Thus, the strongest inhibitory effect of Epitalon on carcinogenesis in the colon mucosa was

  15. Activation of NF-κB: bridging the gap between inflammation and cancer in colitis-mediated colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Setia, Shruti; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have shown the anti-neoplastic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis, but how these drugs act in case of inflammation-augmented tumorigenesis is still not clear. The present study therefore designs an animal model of colitis-associated colon cancer where 3% Dextran sufate sodium (DSS) is used to develop ulcerative colitis and DMH treatment leads to colon carcinogenesis as early as in six weeks. Clinical symptoms for ulcerative colitis were studied using Disease Activity Index (DAI) while myeloperoxidase assay marked the neutrophil infiltration in DSS and DMH treated groups. The present results indicated the upregulation of the activity of inflammatory marker enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4 and IFN-γ with the treatment of DSS as well as DMH. The presence of cytokines in the inflammatory milieu might lead to the transformation of cytoplasmic inactive NF-κB (Nuclear Factor κB) to its active nuclear form, thereby leading to tumorigenesis. The administration of celecoxib along with DSS and DMH, revealed its chemopreventive efficacy in colitis as well as colon cancer. The effect of different doses of DMH on mouse colon was also investigated to obtain a minimum dose of DMH which can induce visible lesions in mice colons at a high incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Michael; Ludwig, Diana; Lamberty, Julia; Fischer, Sonja; Schlörmann, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1). Fermentation supernatants (FS) were obtained from raw and roasted (RC1 = 141 °C/25 min, RC2 = 160 °C/15 min and RC3 = 185 °C/21 min) pistachios after in vitro fermentation. FS of pistachios significantly reduced LT97 cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared to the blank control, pistachio FS (2.5%) led to a significant average reduction of H2O2-induced DNA damage (1.5-fold). Levels of CAT mRNA were significantly increased (1.3-fold, on average for 5% FS). Pistachio FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells (up to 2.1-fold) and levels of caspase-3 activities (up to 6.9-fold). The present results confirm a chemopreventive potential of pistachios, which is mediated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and anti-genotoxic effects, as well as induction of CAT. These effects remain mostly unaffected by roasting. PMID:29258268

  17. Molecular mechanism of TGF-β signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis and status of curcumin as chemopreventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ganesan; Sivalingam, Nageswaran

    2014-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the third most common cancer in man, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the second leading cause of mortality in the USA. There are a number of molecular pathways that have been implicated in colon carcinogenesis, including TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) signaling pathway has the potential to regulate various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, extracellular matrix modeling, and immune response. TGF-β signaling pathway acts as a tumor suppressor, but alterations in TGF-β signaling pathway promotes colon cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Here we review the role of TGF-β signaling cascade in colon carcinogenesis and multiple molecular targets of curcumin in colon carcinogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of curcumin on TGF-β signaling pathway-induced colon carcinogenesis may ultimately lead to novel and more effective treatments for colon cancer.

  18. Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations by electron microscopy: probing cellular alterations in early carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Roy, Hemant K.; Taflove, Allen; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Backman, Vadim

    2011-04-01

    Most cancers are curable if they are diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Recent studies suggest that nanoarchitectural changes occur within cells during early carcinogenesis and that such changes precede microscopically evident tissue alterations. It follows that the ability to comprehensively interrogate cell nanoarchitecture (e.g., macromolecular complexes, DNA, RNA, proteins and lipid membranes) could be critical to the diagnosis of early carcinogenesis. We present a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of biological tissues by quantifying their degree of disorder at the nanoscale. Transmission electron microscopy images of human tissues are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. The properties of nanoscale disorder are then studied by statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the spatially localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. Our results show an increase in the disorder of human colonic epithelial cells in subjects harboring early stages of colon neoplasia. Furthermore, our findings strongly suggest that increased nanoscale disorder correlates with the degree of tumorigenicity. Therefore, the IPR technique provides a practicable tool for the detection of nanoarchitectural alterations in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. Potential applications of the technique for early cancer screening and detection are also discussed. Originally submitted for the special focus issue on physical oncology.

  19. Defining the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis using mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Ignatenko, Natalia A.; Gerner, Eugene W.; Besselsen, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Genetics and diet are both considered important risk determinants for colorectal cancer, a leading cause of death in the US and worldwide. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models have made a significant contribution to the characterization of colorectal cancer risk factors. Reliable, reproducible, and clinically relevant animal models help in the identification of the molecular events associated with disease progression and in the development of effictive treatment strategies. This review is focused on the use of mouse models for studying the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis. We describe how the available mouse models of colon cancer such as the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice and knockout genetic models facilitate understanding of the role of polyamines in colon carcinogenesis and help in the development of a rational strategy for colon cancer chemoprevention. PMID:21712957

  20. Ionizing radiation, inflammation, and their interactions in colon carcinogenesis in Mlh1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Takamitsu; Miyoshi-Imamura, Tomoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kito, Seiji; Tokairin, Yutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshimi, Naoki; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-01-01

    Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal cancer; radiation exposure is also known to increase colorectal cancer risk. Here, we studied the effects of radiation exposure on inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis in DNA mismatch repair-proficient and repair-deficient mice. Male and female Mlh1−/− and Mlh1+/+ mice were irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays when aged 2 weeks or 7 weeks and/or were treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days at 10 weeks old to induce mild inflammatory colitis. No colon tumors developed after X-rays and/or DSS treatment in Mlh1+/+ mice. Colon tumors developed after DSS treatment alone in Mlh1−/− mice, and exposure to radiation prior to DSS treatment increased the number of tumors. Histologically, colon tumors in the mice resembled the subtype of well-to-moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human Lynch syndrome. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of both p53 and β-catenin and loss of p21 and adenomatosis polyposis coli proteins were observed at the later stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting a course of molecular pathogenesis distinct from typical sporadic or colitis-associated colon cancer in humans. In conclusion, radiation exposure could further increase the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by inflammation under the conditions of Mlh1 deficiency. PMID:25529563

  1. Ionizing radiation, inflammation, and their interactions in colon carcinogenesis in Mlh1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Takamitsu; Miyoshi-Imamura, Tomoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kito, Seiji; Tokairin, Yutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshimi, Naoki; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-03-01

    Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal cancer; radiation exposure is also known to increase colorectal cancer risk. Here, we studied the effects of radiation exposure on inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis in DNA mismatch repair-proficient and repair-deficient mice. Male and female Mlh1(-/-) and Mlh1(+/+) mice were irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays when aged 2 weeks or 7 weeks and/or were treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days at 10 weeks old to induce mild inflammatory colitis. No colon tumors developed after X-rays and/or DSS treatment in Mlh1(+/+) mice. Colon tumors developed after DSS treatment alone in Mlh1(-/-) mice, and exposure to radiation prior to DSS treatment increased the number of tumors. Histologically, colon tumors in the mice resembled the subtype of well-to-moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human Lynch syndrome. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of both p53 and β-catenin and loss of p21 and adenomatosis polyposis coli proteins were observed at the later stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting a course of molecular pathogenesis distinct from typical sporadic or colitis-associated colon cancer in humans. In conclusion, radiation exposure could further increase the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by inflammation under the conditions of Mlh1 deficiency. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  3. Bovine milk-derived α-lactalbumin inhibits colon inflammation and carcinogenesis in azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Makoto; Takai, Shoko; Hosono, Akira; Seki, Taiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 is expressed early in colon carcinogenesis and plays crucial role in the progress of the disease. Recently, we found that α-lactalbumin had anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2. In experiment 1, we investigated the effects of α-lactalbumin on the colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane (AOM) followed by promotion with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice. Dietary treatment with α-lactalbumin decreased fecal occult blood score at 3 days after DSS intake. α-Lactalbumin also decreased the colon tumor at week 9. In experiment 2, AOM-treated mice were sacrificed at 7 days after DSS intake. The plasma and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in AOM/DSS-treated mice were higher than those in the DSS-treated mice without initiation by AOM. α-Lactalbumin decreased PGE2 in both plasma and colon. These results suggest that α-lactalbumin effectively inhibited colon carcinogenesis, and the inhibition may be due to the decreased PGE2 by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 at cancer promotion stages.

  4. The influence of physical activity in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Andrianopoulos, G; Nelson, R L; Bombeck, C T; Souza, G

    1987-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic findings indicate that relative risk of colon cancer is augmented with increasing proportion of time spent on sedentary occupations, and reduced with occupations requiring high levels of work-related physical activity. Therefore, the influence of exercise on experimental colon carcinogenesis was investigated. Spontaneous running wheel activity was related to incidence of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) colon tumor induction. Colon tumor incidence was significantly reduced in animals that were allowed spontaneous wheel activity throughout the period of DMH tumor induction vs standard housed controls (p less than 0.05), indicating that, in the rat, physical activity protects against colon tumorigenesis. Further comparisons reveal a mild positive association (p = 0.07) between activity and incidence of tumors in the left colon. These results are in accord with epidemiologic findings indicating reduced colon cancer risk with increased physical activity. Possible mechanisms for the protective influence of physical activity on tumorigenesis include reduction in fecal pH, body weight and increased antioxidant enzyme activity. To the extent that epidemiologic associations between colon cancer and activity are inclusive of the multidimensional nature of physical activity, animal models such as that utilized in this experiment can be utilized for investigating the etiologic potential, or strength of association in variables that have been epidemiologically associated with colon cancer risk.

  5. Carborundum, a bulk similar to dietary fibers but chemically inert, does not decrease colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Corpet, D E; Taché, S; Peiffer, G

    1997-03-19

    Dietary fibers might lower the risk of colorectal cancer, maybe because of their bulking effect. We tested the protection afforded by an inert bulk against carcinogenesis. Thirty rats received an azoxymethane injection and were allocated to a control diet, or to a diet supplemented with 10% carborundum. After 100 days the colons were scored for aberrant crypt foci. Compared to controls, the fecal weight was doubled in carborundum-fed rats (P < 0.001), but the aberrant crypt foci multiplicity was not changed (P = 0.92). The results do not support the hypothesis that intestinal dilution by an inert bulk can protect against colon cancer.

  6. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  7. Lack of promotion of colon carcinogenesis by high-oleic safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirabe, K; Higuchi, Y; Yoshida, S

    1997-04-15

    The nonpromoting effect of olive oil on colon carcinogenesis has been attributed to its high oleic acid content, whereas a positive association of monounsaturated fat in beef tallow with colon tumors has been reported. The effect of constituents other than fatty acids could not be neglected in these experiments. In order to minimize the effects of minor constituents in the oils, the authors compared conventional safflower oil with oil from a mutant strain of safflower that is rich in oleic acid. ICR mice were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight every week for 12 weeks) and then were fed either a high-fat diet (23.5% by weight), containing safflower oil (HF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (HF-OA), or a low-fat diet (5% by weight), containing safflower oil (LF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (LF-OA). The test diets were continued until termination of the experiment at 30 weeks after the first administration of DMH. Fatty acid composition of colon phospholipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tumor multiplicity in animals fed the HF-OA diet was indistinguishable from that in animals fed LF-LA or LF-OA. In contrast, animals fed the HF-LA diet had a significantly higher incidence of colon tumors (mostly adenocarcinomas) than the other groups. Fatty acid profiles of colon phospholipids reflected those of the diet. Animals fed a HF-LA diet showed a marked decrease of nervonic acid (C24:1, n-9) in the colon sphingomyelin. These data indicate that oleic acid does not enhance DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice, even when they are fed a high-fat diet.

  8. Curcumin combined with turmerones, essential oil components of turmeric, abolishes inflammation-associated mouse colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Tanaka, Takuji; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), a yellow pigment in turmeric, has marked potential for preventing colon cancer. We recently reported that ar-turmerone (ATM) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) generation in macrophages. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which ATM attenuates NO generation and examined the anti-carcinogenesis activity of turmerones (TUR, a mixture of 5 sesquiterpenes including ATM). Both CUR and ATM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible forms of both nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase (iNOS and COX-2, respectively). A chase experiment using actinomycin D revealed that ATM accelerated the decay of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. ATM prevented LPS-induced translocation of HuR, an AU-rich element-binding protein that determines mRNA stability of certain inflammatory genes. In a colitis model, oral administration of TUR significantly suppressed 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced shortening of the large bowel by 52-58%. We also evaluated the chemopreventive effects of oral feeding of TUR, CUR, and their combinations using a model of dimethylhydradine-initiated and DSS-promoted mouse colon carcinogenesis. At the low dose, TUR markedly suppressed adenoma multiplicity by 73%, while CUR at both doses suppressed adenocarcinoma multiplicity by 63-69%. Interestingly, the combination of CUR and TUR at both low and high doses abolished tumor formation. Collectively, our results led to our hypothesis that TUR is a novel candidate for colon cancer prevention. Furthermore, we consider that its use in combination with CUR may become a powerful method for prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Chemoprevention by Probiotics During 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Walia, Sohini; Kamal, Rozy; Dhawan, D K; Kanwar, S S

    2018-04-01

    Probiotics are believed to have properties that lower the risk of colon cancer. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects are relatively unknown. To assess the impact of probiotics in preventing induction of colon carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into six groups viz., normal control, Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10)-treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-treated, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated, L. plantarum (AdF10) + DMH-treated and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) + DMH-treated. Both the probiotics were supplemented daily at a dose of 2 × 10 10 cells per day. DMH at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered subcutaneously twice a week for the first 4 weeks and then once every week for a duration of 16 weeks. Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase as protein expression of genes involved in apoptosis were assessed during DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. DMH treatment decreased the activity of GSH, GPx, GST, SOD and catalase. However, AdF10 and LGG supplementation to DMH-treated rats significantly increased the activity of these enzymes. Further, DMH treatment revealed alterations in the protein expressions of various genes involved in the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway such as p53, p21, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3, which, however, were shifted towards normal control levels upon simultaneous supplementation with probiotics. The present study suggests that probiotics can provide protection against oxidative stress and apoptotic-related protein disregulation during experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis.

  10. Inhibitory effect of peptide Epitalon on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2002-09-08

    The effect of synthetic pineal peptide Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) on colon carcinogenesis was firstly studied in rats. Eighty 2-month-old outbred male LIO rats were subdivided into four groups and were weekly exposed to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single dose of 21 mg/kg body weight. Additionally, 5 days a week, some of the rats were given subcutaneous injections of saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the whole experiment (group 1, control) or Epitalon at a single dose of 1 microg during the whole experiment (group 2), Epitalon after termination of carcinogen injections (group 3) or during the period of DMH exposure (group 4). Colon carcinomas developed in 90-100% of DMH-treated rats. The number of total colon tumors per rat was 4.1; 2.7; 3.7; 2.9 in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively (the difference in groups 2 and 4 compared with group 1 is significant). In rats from group 2, colon tumors were smaller than in control animals. In group 2, the incidence, as well the multiplicity of tumors in ascending and descending colon, were significantly decreased in comparison with group 1. In group 4, the mean number of tumors per rat was significantly decreased, too. A trend to decrease the number of tumors in the rectum in rats from groups 2, 3 and 4, treated with Epitalon was found. Epitalon inhibited also the development of tumors in jejunum and ileum. Thus, our results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Epitalon on chemically induced bowel carcinogenesis in rats.

  11. Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Parnaud, Géraldine; Peiffer, Ginette; Taché, Sylviane; Corpet, Denis E.

    1998-01-01

    High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased

  12. The effect of rosmarinic acid on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Karthikkumar; Gunasekaran, Sivagami; Jesudoss, Victor Antony Santiago; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2013-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potential of rosmarinic acid (RA) against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced rat colon carcinogenesis by evaluating the effect of RA on tumour formation, antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome P450 content, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase and GST activities. Rats were divided into six groups and fed modified pellet diet for the entire experimental period. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received RA (10 mg/kgb.w.). Groups 3-6 were induced colon cancer by injecting DMH (20 mg/kgb.w.) subcutaneously once a week for the first four weeks (groups 3-6). In addition, RA was administered at the doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kgb.w. to groups 4-6 respectively. DMH treated rats showed large number of colonic tumours; decreased lipid peroxidation; decreased antioxidant status; elevated CYP450 content and PNPH activities; and decreased GST activity in the liver and colon. Supplementation with RA (5 mgkg/b.w.) to DMH treated rats significantly decreased the number of polyps (50%); reversed the markers of oxidative stress (21.0%); antioxidant status (38.55%); CYP450 content (29.41%); and PNPH activities (21.9%). RA at the dose of 5 mg/kgb.w. showed a most pronounced effect and could be used as a possible chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial influence of ellagic acid on biochemical indexes associated with experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Umesalma; Ganapasam, Sudhandiran

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the key biochemical indexes associated with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis and the modulatory efficacy of a dietary polyphenol, ellagic acid (EA). Wistar rats were chosen to study objective, and were divided into 4 groups; Group 1-control rats; Group 2-rats received EA (60 mg/kg body weight/day, orally); rats in Group 3-induced with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously for 15 weeks; DMH-induced Group 4 rats were initiated with EA treatment. We examined key citric acid cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and the activities of respiratory chain enzymes NADH dehydrogenase and Cytochrome-C-oxidase and membrane-bound enzyme profiles (Na +/K + ATPase, Ca 2+ ATPase and Mg 2+ ATPase), activities of lysosomal proteases such as β-D-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase and N-acety-β-D-glucosaminidase and cellular thiols (oxidized glutathione, protein thiols, and total thiols). It was found that administration of DMH to rats decreased both mitochondrial and membrane-bound enzymes activities, increased activities of lysosomal enzymes and further modulates cellular thiols levels. Treatment with EA significantly restored the mitochondrial and ATPases levels and further reduced lysosomal enzymes to near normalcy thereby restoring harmful effects induced by DMH. EA treatment was able to effectively restore the detrimental effects induced by DMH, which proves the chemoprotective function of EA against DMH-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

  14. Sulindac, 3,3'-diindolylmethane and curcumin reduce carcinogenesis in the Pirc rat, an Apc-driven model of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Soares, Paulo Victoria; Luceri, Cristina; Lodovici, Maura; Giannini, Augusto; Caderni, Giovanna

    2015-09-03

    Recently, we showed that Sulindac (SU; 320 ppm) reduces precancerous lesions in the colon of Pirc rats, mutated in the Apc gene. Surprisingly, previous data in Apc-mutated mice showed that SU, with reported efficacy in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), increases colon carcinogenesis. Therefore, we assessed the effect of SU 320 ppm in a long-term carcinogenesis experiment in Pirc rats. Moreover, since side effects of SU hamper its chronic use and a combination of drugs could be more effective and less toxic than single agents, we also studied whether two natural compounds, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM; 250 ppm) and curcumin (CUR; 2000 ppm), with or without lower doses of SU could affect carcinogenesis Pirc rats were fed an AIN76 diet containing SU, DIM and CUR and sacrificed at 8 months of age to measure intestinal tumours. Apoptosis and proliferation in the normal colon mucosa, as well as gene expression profile were studied Colon tumours were significantly reduced by SU 320 ppm (62 % reduction over Controls), by DIM and CUR without or with SU 80 and 160 ppm (50, 53 and 58 % reduction, respectively) but not by SU 80 ppm alone. Total tumours (colon and small intestine) were reduced by SU (80 and 320 ppm) and by DIM and CUR. Apoptosis in the normal mucosa was significantly increased by SU 320 ppm, and slightly increased by DIM and CUR with or without SU. A slight reduction in Survivin-Birc5 expression was observed with all the treatments compared to Controls. Proliferative activity was not varied The results on SU reinforce the validity of Pirc rats to identify chemopreventive products. Moreover, the efficacy of the DIM and CUR combination to lower colon tumours, suggests an alternative strategy to be exploited in patients at risk.

  15. Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mazué, Frédéric; Delmas, Dominique; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Limagne, Emeric; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that a regular and moderate consumption of red wine is correlated with a decreased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and cancer. These health benefits are commonly attributed to high contents of polyphenols, particularly resveratrol, representing important sources of antioxidants. However, resveratrol does not seem to be the only bioactive compound present in the wine which contains numerous other polyphenols. The present study investigates the efficiency of red wine extracts (RWEs), containing different polyphenols, on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis and incidence of ACF were monitored to examine the effects of RWEs. RWEs derived from a long vinification process exhibit superior anti-proliferative activity in colon cancer cells and prevent the appearance of ACF in mice. Interestingly, quercetin and resveratrol, representing two major bio-active polyphenols, exhibit synergistic anti-proliferative effects. These data suggest that the efficacy of RWEs on colon carcinogenesis may depend on the polyphenolic content, synergistic interaction of bio-active polyphenols and modulation of cellular uptake of polyphenols.

  16. Tetrahydrocurcumin is more effective than curcumin in preventing azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Jia-Ching; Yu, Shih-Feng; Badmaev, Vladimir; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2011-12-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a major metabolite of curcumin (CUR), has been demonstrated to be anti-cancerogenic and anti-angiogenic and prevents type II diabetes. In this present study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of dietary administration of CUR and THC in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice. All mice were sacrificed at 6 and 23 wk, and colonic tissue was collected and examined. We found that dietary administration of both CUR and THC could reduce aberrant crypt foci and polyps formation, while THC showed a better inhibitory effect than CUR. At the molecular level, results from Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining showed that dietary CUR and THC exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the levels of inducible NOS and COX-2 through downregulation of ERK1/2 activation. In addition, both dietary CUR and THC significantly decreased AOM-induced Wnt-1 and β-catenin protein expression, as well as the phosphorylation of GSK-3β in colonic tissue. Moreover, dietary feeding with CUR and THC markedly reduced the protein level of connexin-43, an important molecule of gap junctions, indicating that both CUR and THC might interfer with the intercellular communication of crypt cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated for the first time the in vivo chemopreventive efficacy and molecular mechanisms of dietary THC against AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Amelioration of azoxymethane induced-carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Azoxymethane (AOM) is a potent carcinogenic agent commonly used to induce colon cancer in rats; the cytotoxicity of AOM is considered to mediate oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemopreventive effect of three natural extracts [pomegranate peel extract (PomPE), papaya peel extract (PapPE) and seaweed extract (SE)] against AOM-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis in rat colon. Methods Eighty Sprague–Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly divided into 8 groups (10 rats/group). Control group was fed a basal diet; AOM-treated group was fed a basal diet and received AOM intraperitonial injections for two weeks at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight, whereas the other six groups were received oral supplementation of PomPE, PapPE or SE, in the presence or absence of AOM injection. All animals were continuously fed ad-libitum until aged 16 weeks, then all rats were sacrificed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for pathological changes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) development, genotoxicity (induced micronuclei (MN) cells enumeration), and glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Results Our results showed that AOM-induced ACF development and pathological changes in the colonic mucosal tissues, increased bone marrow MN cells and oxidative stress (glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation) in rat colonic cells. The concomitant treatment of AOM with PomPE, PapPE or SE significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effects of AOM. Conclusions The results of this study provide in-vivo evidence that PomPE, PapPE and SE reduced the AOM-induced colon cancer in rats, through their potent anti-oxidant activities. PMID:24533833

  18. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism.

  20. Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Albert-Baskar, Arul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive property of Cynodon dactylon. The antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic potentials of the plant were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NO(-)) and MTT assay on four cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, MCH-7, AGS, A549) and a normal cell line (VERO). In vivo chemopreventive property of the plant extract was studied in DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be antiproliferative and antioxidative at lower concentrations and induced apoptotic cell death in COLO 320 DM cells. Treatment with methanolic extract of C. dactylon increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts in DMH-induced colon of albino rats. The present investigation revealed the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of C. dactylon in COLO 320 DM cells and experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  1. Epigenetic silencing of miR-137 contributes to early colorectal carcinogenesis by impaired Aurora-A inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yao-Wen; Chen, Ying-Jen; Tseng, Joseph T.; Kang, Jui-Wen; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Bo-Wen; Hung, Liang-Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicorRNA-137 is silenced in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Our study showed that the decreased expression of miR-137 is significantly different in various types of polyp which maintain different potentials to lead to CRC development. The expression of miR-137 gradually decreases during the process of colorectal carcinogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicates that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the predisposition of colorectal carcinogenesis. By cell model and xenograft animal model, the enforced expression of miR-137 in colorectal cancer cells can inhibit cell proliferation and tumor formation, induce G2/M arrest, and lead to apoptosis. The expression pattern of miR-137 and Aurora-A or PTGS2 is negatively correlated in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Those effects induced by overexpressed miR-137 can be rescued by the overexpression of Aurora-A. In summary, our study suggests that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the tendency toward to CRC formation through the impaired inhibitory effect of Aurora-A. The investigation of the regulatory mechanism of miR-137-mediated Aurora-A inhibition may shed new light on the early prognosis of cancer therapy for CRC in the future. PMID:27764771

  2. Combination of curcumin and green tea catechins prevents dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Ren, Guijie; Xu, Xia; Yuan, Huiqing; Wang, Zhenzheng; Kang, Ludong; Yu, Wenguang; Tian, Keli

    2010-01-01

    The chemopreventive effects of curcumin and green tea catechins individually and in combination on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis were studied in male Wister rats following 32 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence, number and size of colorectal cancer were measured. Colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were analyzed by methylene blue staining. Proliferation indices and apoptotic indices were determined by PCNA immunostaining and TUNEL assay, respectively. The results showed that dietary curcumin, catechins and combination administration significantly inhibited the total number of ACF per rat. The combination treatment displayed the most potent inhibitory effect, while there was no difference of inhibition between curcumin and catechins-treated groups. The incidence of colorectal cancer in the treated groups was significantly lower than that of positive control group. Compared with the positive control group, the proliferation index was significantly decreased and the apoptotic index was significantly increased in all treatment groups, while the effect of the combination was the greatest among the treated groups. Our findings suggest that the combination of curcumin and catechins may produce a synergistic colon cancer-preventative effect that would be more potent than each of the compounds alone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Fiber Treatment Corrects the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Promotes SCFA Production, and Suppresses Colon Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Engen, Phillip A.; Naqib, Ankur; Shaikh, Maliha; Rossi, Marco; Wilber, Sherry; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies propose a protective role for dietary fiber in colon cancer (CRC). One possible mechanism of fiber is its fermentation property in the gut and ability to change microbiota composition and function. Here, we investigate the role of a dietary fiber mixture in polyposis and elucidate potential mechanisms using TS4Cre × cAPCl°x468 mice. Stool microbiota profiling was performed, while functional prediction was done using PICRUSt. Stool short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites were measured. Histone acetylation and expression of SCFA butyrate receptor were assessed. We found that SCFA-producing bacteria were lower in the polyposis mice, suggesting a decline in the fermentation product of dietary fibers with polyposis. Next, a high fiber diet was given to polyposis mice, which significantly increased SCFA-producing bacteria as well as SCFA levels. This was associated with an increase in SCFA butyrate receptor and a significant decrease in polyposis. In conclusion, we found polyposis to be associated with dysbiotic microbiota characterized by a decline in SCFA-producing bacteria, which was targetable by high fiber treatment, leading to an increase in SCFA levels and amelioration of polyposis. The prebiotic activity of fiber, promoting beneficial bacteria, could be the key mechanism for the protective effects of fiber on colon carcinogenesis. SCFA-promoting fermentable fibers are a promising dietary intervention to prevent CRC. PMID:29462896

  4. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  5. [Changes of expression of miR-155 in colitis-associated colonic carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Han, Wenxiao; Zhao, Xinhua; Wang, Hongying

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the changes of miR-155 and its target genes in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Colitis-associated colon cancer was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice of three different stages during the development of colon cancer were obtained, named AD1, AD2 and AD3, respectively. A control group of mice without any treatment and a DSS only group representing chronic inflammation without cancer were set up as well. Colon tissue was collected and expression of miR-155 in the colon tissues was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. TargetScan and PicTar were used to predict potential target genes of miR-155, which were then preliminarily screened with our gene expression microarray database of AOM-DSS mouse model. Regular PCR was used to confirm the changes of the expression of these potential target genes in AOM-DSS mouse model. Colitis-associated colon cancer was effectively induced by azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium in C57BL/6 mice. Histological examination revealed that the evolution process was sequentially from normal, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, and severe dysplasia to adenocarcinoma in the AOM-DSS mouse model. The level of miR-155 was gradually elevated with the formation of colitis-associated colon cancer. There was no significant difference between the levels of miR-155 expression in the DSS group (0.005 6 ± 0.003 7) and control group (0.012 0 ± 0.005 1) (P > 0.05), but the level of miR-155 in the AD3 group (0.054 4 ± 0.027 0) was significantly higher than that of the DSS group (0.005 6 ± 0.003 7)(P < 0.01). No significant change of miR-155 expression was found in the DSS only group. The relative expression levels of miR-155 in the control group, DSS only group and AD3 group were 0.012 0 ± 0.005 1, 0.005 6 ± 0.003 7, 0.054 4 ± 0.027 0, respectively. Data analysis with the gene expression microarray showed that Tle4, Kcna1, Itk, Bcorl1, Cacna1c, Rspo2 and Foxo3 were

  6. Protein kinase C βII and TGFβRII in ω-3 fatty acid–mediated inhibition of colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicole R.; Weems, Capella; Chen, Lu; Leon, Jessica; Yu, Wangsheng; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jamieson, Lee; Chapkin, Robert S.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Fields, Alan P.

    2002-01-01

    Încreasing evidence demonstrates that protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) promotes colon carcinogenesis. We previously reported that colonic PKCβII is induced during colon carcinogenesis in rodents and humans, and that elevated expression of PKCβII in the colon of transgenic mice enhances colon carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that PKCβII represses transforming growth factor β receptor type II (TGFβRII) expression and reduces sensitivity to TGF-β–mediated growth inhibition in intestinal epithelial cells. Transgenic PKCβII mice exhibit hyperproliferation, enhanced colon carcinogenesis, and marked repression of TGFβRII expression. Chemopreventive dietary ω-3 fatty acids inhibit colonic PKCβII activity in vivo and block PKCβII-mediated hyperproliferation, enhanced carcinogenesis, and repression of TGFβRII expression in the colonic epithelium of transgenic PKCβII mice. These data indicate that dietary ω-3 fatty acids prevent colon cancer, at least in part, through inhibition of colonic PKCβII signaling and restoration of TGF-β responsiveness. PMID:12058013

  7. The AOM/DSS murine model for the study of colon carcinogenesis: From pathways to diagnosis and therapy studies

    PubMed Central

    Robertis, Mariangela De; Massi, Emanuela; Poeta, Maria Luana; Carotti, Simone; Morini, Sergio; Cecchetelli, Loredana; Signori, Emanuela; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in industrialized countries. Although inflammation-linked carcinogenesis is a well accepted concept and is often observed within the gastrointestinal tract, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Inflammation can indeed provide initiating and promoting stimuli and mediators, generating a tumour-prone microenvironment. Many murine models of sporadic and inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis have been developed in the last decade, including chemically induced CRC models, genetically engineered mouse models, and xenoplants. Among the chemically induced CRC models, the combination of a single hit of azoxymethane (AOM) with 1 week exposure to the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in rodents has proven to dramatically shorten the latency time for induction of CRC and to rapidly recapitulate the aberrant crypt foci–adenoma–carcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC. Because of its high reproducibility and potency, as well as the simple and affordable mode of application, the AOM/DSS has become an outstanding model for studying colon carcinogenesis and a powerful platform for chemopreventive intervention studies. In this article we highlight the histopathological and molecular features and describe the principal genetic and epigenetic alterations and inflammatory pathways involved in carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS–treated mice; we also present a general overview of recent experimental applications and preclinical testing of novel therapeutics in the AOM/DSS model. PMID:21483655

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist troglitazone induces colon tumors in normal C57BL/6J mice and enhances colonic carcinogenesis in Apc1638 N/+ Mlh1+/- double mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kan; Fan, Kun-Hua; Lamprecht, Sergio A; Edelmann, Winfried; Kopelovich, Levy; Kucherlapati, Raju; Lipkin, Martin

    2005-09-10

    The role of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in colon tumorigenesis remains controversial. Notwithstanding evidence that PPAR-gamma ligands impede murine colorectal carcinogenesis, PPAR-gamma agonists have been shown to enhance in vivo tumor formation in mouse models of human colon cancer. Our study was designed to determine whether troglitazone (TGZ) induces colonic tumor formation in normal C57BL/6J mice and enhances colorectal carcinogenesis in double mutant Apc1638N/+ Mlh1+/- mice fed a standard AIN-76A diet. We report herein that not only does TGZ enhance carcinogenesis in the large intestine of mutant mice predisposed to intestinal carcinogenesis but TGZ also induces colonic tumors in normal mice without gene targeting or carcinogen administration. This observation indicates that preexisting mutational events are not necessary for induction of colonic tumors by activated PPAR-gamma in vivo. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Understanding Alterations in Cell Nano-architecture during Early Carcinogenesis using Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damania, Dhwanil

    Carcinogenesis is a complex multi-step process which eventually results in a malignant phenotype that often progresses into a fatal metastatic stage. There are several molecular changes (e.g. DNA methylation, activation of proto-oncogenes, loss of tumor-suppressor genes, histone acetylation) that occur in cells prior to the microscopically detectable morphological alterations. Hence, it is intuitive that these molecular changes should impact various biochemical, biophysical and transport processes within the cell and therefore its nanoscale morphology. Furthermore, recent studies have established that apparently `normal' cells (i.e., away from the actual tumor location) undergo similar genetic/epigenetic changes as the actual cancer cells, giving rise to the phenomenon of field carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, traditional microscopy or histopathology cannot resolve structures below 300 nm due to diffraction-limited resolution. Hence, we developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy or optical nanocytology which quantifies the nanoscale refractive-index fluctuations (i.e. mass-density variations such as chromatin compaction) in an optically measured biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). This dissertation proves the nanoscale sensitivity of PWS nanocytology and shows that increase in Ld parallels neoplastic potential of a cell by using standardized cell-lines and animal-models. Based on concept of field carcinogenesis, we employ PWS nanocytology in a multi-center clinical study on approximately 450 patients in four different cancer-types (colon, ovarian, thyroid and lung) and we illustrate that nanoscale disorder increase is a ubiquitous phenomenon across different organs. We further demonstrate the potential of PWS nanocytology in predicting risk for developing future neoplasia. Biologically, we prove that cytoskeletal organization in both nucleus and cytoplasm plays a crucial role in governing L d-differences. Moreover, we

  10. Synthetic triterpenoid induces 15-PGDH expression and suppresses inflammation-driven colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hee; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Robinson, Janet; Fink, Steve; Yan, Min; Sporn, Michael B; Markowitz, Sanford D; Letterio, John J

    2014-06-01

    Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) develops as a result of inflammation-induced epithelial transformation, which occurs in response to inflammatory cytokine-dependent downregulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and subsequent suppression of prostaglandin metabolism. Agents that both enhance 15-PGDH expression and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production may more effectively prevent CAC. Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of small molecules that suppress COX-2 as well as inflammatory cytokine signaling. Here, we found that administration of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) suppresses CAC in mice. In a spontaneous, inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasia model, deletion of Smad4 specifically in T cells led to progressive production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β; as well as activation of STAT1 and STAT3; along with suppression of 15-PGDH expression. Oral administration of CDDO-Me to mice with SMAD4-deficient T cells increased survival and suppressed intestinal epithelial neoplasia by decreasing production of inflammatory mediators and increasing expression of 15-PGDH. Induction of 15-PGDH by CDDO-Me was dose dependent in epithelial cells and was abrogated following treatment with TGF-β signaling inhibitors in vitro. Furthermore, CDDO-Me-dependent 15-PGDH induction was not observed in Smad3-/- mice. Similarly, CDDO-Me suppressed azoxymethane plus dextran sodium sulfate-induced carcinogenesis in wild-type animals, highlighting the potential of small molecules of the triterpenoid family as effective agents for the chemoprevention of CAC in humans.

  11. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by polyethylene glycol: suppression of epithelial proliferation via modulation of SNAIL/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Roy, Hemant K; Kunte, Dhananjay P; Koetsier, Jennifer L; Hart, John; Kim, Young L; Liu, Yang; Bissonnette, Marc; Goldberg, Michael; Backman, Vadim; Wali, Ramesh K

    2006-08-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most potent chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer; however, the mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, we assessed the ability of PEG to target cyclin D1-beta-catenin-mediated hyperproliferation in the azoxymethane-treated rat model and the human colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. Azoxymethane-treated rats were randomized to AIN-76A diet alone or supplemented with 5% PEG-8000. After 30 weeks, animals were euthanized and biopsies of aberrant crypt foci and uninvolved crypts were subjected to immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. PEG markedly suppressed both early and late markers of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis (fractal dimension by 80%, aberrant crypt foci by 64%, and tumors by 74%). In both azoxymethane-treated rats and HT-29 cells treated with 5% PEG-3350 for 24 hours, PEG decreased proliferation (45% and 52%, respectively) and cyclin D1 (78% and 56%, respectively). Because beta-catenin is the major regulator of cyclin D1 in colorectal cancer, we used the T-cell factor (Tcf)-TOPFLASH reporter assay to show that PEG markedly inhibited beta-catenin transcriptional activity. PEG did not alter total beta-catenin expression but rather its nuclear localization, leading us to assess E-cadherin expression (a major determinant of beta-catenin subcellular localization), which was increased by 73% and 71% in the azoxymethane-rat and HT-29 cells, respectively. We therefore investigated the effect of PEG treatment on levels of the negative regulator of E-cadherin, SNAIL, and observed a 50% and 75% decrease, respectively. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, a molecular mechanism through which PEG imparts its antiproliferative and hence profound chemopreventive effect.

  12. δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, inhibit colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Li, Guangxun; Liu, Anna B; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Zhihong; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung; Yang, Chung S

    2012-04-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T, and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, seven weeks old, were given two weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T, or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of cyclin D1 in the colon, preserved the expression of PPAR-γ, and decreased the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane. Supplementation with 0.2% δ-T, γ-T, or α-T increased the respective levels of tocopherols and their side-chain degradation metabolites in the serum and colon tissues. Rather high concentrations of δ-T and γ-T and their metabolites were found in colon tissues. Our study provides the first evidence for the much higher cancer preventive activity of δ-T and γ-T than α-T in a chemically induced colon carcinogenesis model. It further suggests that δ-T is more effective than γ-T. 2012 AACR

  13. δ- and γ-Tocopherols, but not α-Tocopherol, Inhibit Colon Carcinogenesis in Azoxymethane-Treated F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fei; Li, Guangxun; Liu, Anna B; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Zhihong; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung; Yang, Chung S

    2012-01-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, 7 weeks old, were given 2 weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of cyclin D1 in the colon, preserved the expression of PPAR-γ, and decreased the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane. Supplementation with 0.2% δ-T, γ-T or α-T increased the respective levels of tocopherols and their side-chain degradation metabolites in the serum and colon tissues. Rather high concentrations of δ-T and γ-T and their metabolites were found in colon tissues. Our study provides the first evidence for the much higher cancer preventive activity of δ-T and γ-T than α-T in a chemically-induced colon carcinogenesis model. It further suggests that δ-T is more effective than γ-T. PMID:22366914

  14. Dietary tomato and lycopene impact androgen signaling- and carcinogenesis-related gene expression during early TRAMP prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lei; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Erdman, John W.; Moran, Nancy E.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of tomato products containing the carotenoid lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. To identify gene expression patterns associated with early testosterone-driven prostate carcinogenesis, which are impacted by dietary tomato and lycopene, wild type (WT) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice were fed control or tomato- or lycopene-containing diets from 4-10 wk-of-age. Eight-week-old mice underwent sham surgery, castration, or castration followed by testosterone-repletion (2.5 mg/kg/d initiated 1 wk after castration). Ten-wk-old intact TRAMP mice exhibit early multifocal prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Of the 200 prostate cancer-related genes measured by quantitative NanoString®, 189 are detectable, 164 significantly differ by genotype, 179 by testosterone status, and 30 by diet type (P<0.05). In TRAMP, expression of Birc5, Mki67, Aurkb, Ccnb2, Foxm1, and Ccne2 is greater compared to WT and is decreased by castration. In parallel, castration reduces Ki67-positive staining (P<0.0001) compared to intact and testosterone-repleted TRAMP mice. Expression of genes involved in androgen metabolism/signaling pathways are reduced by lycopene feeding (Srd5a1) and by tomato-feeding (Srd5a2, Pxn, and Srebf1). Additionally, tomato-feeding significantly reduced expression of genes associated with stem cell features, Aldh1a and Ly6a, while lycopene-feeding significantly reduced expression of neuroendocrine differentiation-related genes, Ngfr and Syp. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a profile of testosterone-regulated genes associated with early stages of prostate carcinogenesis that are potential mechanistic targets of dietary tomato components. Future studies on androgen signaling/metabolism, stem cell features, and neuroendocrine differentiation pathways may elucidate the mechanisms by which dietary tomato and lycopene impact prostate cancer risk. PMID:25315431

  15. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  16. Fluorescence contrast-enhanced proliferative lesion imaging by enema administration of indocyanine green in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Nobuhiko; Mizutani-Morita, Reiko; Yamashita, Susumu; Nagahara, Rei; Matsumoto, Shinya; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    The fluorescent contrast agent indocyanine green (ICG) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications. We previously reported that cultured human colon tumor cells preferentially take up ICG by endocytic activity in association with disruption of their tight junctions. The present study explored ICG availability in fluorescence imaging of the colon to identify proliferative lesions during colonoscopy. The cellular uptake of ICG in cultured rat colon tumor cells was examined using live-cell imaging. Colon lesions in rats administered an ICG-containing enema were further assessed in rats with azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis, using in vivo endoscopy, ex vivo microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The uptake of ICG by the cultured cells was temperature-dependent. The intracellular retention of the dye in the membrane trafficking system suggested endocytosis as the uptake mechanism. ICG administered via enema accumulated in colon proliferative lesions ranging from tiny aberrant crypt foci to adenomas and localized in proliferating cells. Fluorescence endoscopy detected these ICG-positive colonic proliferative lesions in vivo. The immunoreactivity of the tight-junction molecule occludin was altered in the proliferative lesions, suggesting the disruption of the integrity of tight junctions. These results suggest that fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging following the administration of an ICG-containing enema can enhance the detection of mucosal proliferative lesions of the colon during colonoscopy. The tissue preference of ICG in the rat model evaluated in this study can be attributed to the disruption of tight junctions, which in turn promotes endocytosis by proliferative cells and the cellular uptake of ICG. PMID:29163827

  17. Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Norazalina, S; Norhaizan, M E; Hairuszah, I; Norashareena, M S

    2010-05-01

    This study is carried out to determine the potential of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in the suppression of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 12 rats in each group. The intended rats for cancer treatment received two intraperitoneal injections of AOM in saline (15mg/kg bodyweight) over a 2-week period. The treatments of phytic acid were given in two concentrations: 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis phase via drinking water. The colons of the animals were analyzed for detection and quantification of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) after 8 weeks of treatment. The finding showed treatment with 0.2% (w/v) extract phytic acid (EPA) gave the greatest reduction in the formation of ACF. In addition, phytic acid significantly suppressed the number of ACF in the distal, middle and proximal colon as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). For the histological classification of ACF, treatment with 0.5% (w/v) commercial phytic acid (CPA) had the highest percentage (71%) of non-dysplastic ACF followed by treatment with 0.2% (w/v) EPA (61%). Administration of phytic acid also reduced the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors even though there were no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, this study found the potential value of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in reducing colon cancer risk in rats.

  18. Colon carcinogenesis: influence of Western diet-induced obesity and targeting stem cells using dietary bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kasdagly, Maria; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Reddivari, Lavanya; Veeramachaneni, D N Rao; Vanamala, Jairam

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer strikes more than 1 million people annually and is responsible for more than 500,000 cancer deaths worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of malignancies, including colon cancer are driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to current chemotherapeutic approaches leading to cancer relapse. Wnt signaling plays a critical role in colon stem cell renewal and carcinogenesis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a Wnt target gene, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 B1 (ALDH1B1) are good markers for normal and malignant human colon stem cells. Diet contributes to 20% to 42% of all human cancers and 50% to 90% of colon cancer. Recent evidence shows that the Western diet has a causative link to colon cancer; however, mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. Western diet-induced obesity elevates systemic insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin levels, which could lead to elevated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of CSCs through PI3K/AKT/Wnt pathway. Although conventional chemotherapy targets the PI3K/AKT pathways and can significantly reduce tumor size, it fails to eliminate CSCs and has serious side effects. Dietary bioactive compounds such as grape seed extract, curcumin, lycopene, and resveratrol have promising chemopreventive effects, without serious side effects on various types of cancers due to their direct and indirect actions on CSC self-renewal pathways such as the Wnt pathway. Understanding the role of CSCs in diet-induced colon cancer will aid in development of evidence-based dietary chemopreventive strategies and/or therapeutic agents targeting CSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of neomycin on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Furuya, K; Lowenfels, A

    1984-07-01

    The effect of oral administration of neomycin (100 and 200 micrograms/ml in drinking water) on colon tumors induced by azoxymethane [(AOM); CAS: 25843-45-2] was studied in female F344 rats. Five-week-old rats were fed NIH-07 diet and given daily in drinking water 0, 100, and 200 micrograms neomycin/ml (0, 100, and 200 ppm). At 7 weeks of age, all animals except vehicle-treated groups received weekly sc injections of 8 mg AOM/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The AOM- or vehicle-treated groups were necropsied 30 weeks after the last injection of AOM. The combined incidence of adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The animals in the groups given 100 and 200 micrograms neomycin had a higher incidence of colon adenocarcinomas than did those in the control group. Colonic and cecal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity was significantly lower in the group given 200 micrograms neomycin than it was in the control group. The excretion of fecal cholesterol, total bile acids, and deoxycholic acid was increased significantly in animals given 100 and 200 micrograms neomycin as compared to animals given no neomycin. These results suggest that long-term oral administration of neomycin increases the incidence of colon adenocarcinomas.

  20. Dynamic landscape of pancreatic carcinogenesis reveals early molecular networks of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Bruns, Philipp; Behler, Nora A; Chang, Ligong; Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Cao, Jing; Gewies, Andreas; Ruland, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Sina; Valkovskaya, Nataliya; Jian, Ziying; Regel, Ivonne; Raulefs, Susanne; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Friess, Helmut; Erkan, Mert; Mueller, Nikola S; Roth, Susanne; Hackert, Thilo; Esposito, Irene; Theis, Fabian J; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W

    2018-01-01

    The initial steps of pancreatic regeneration versus carcinogenesis are insufficiently understood. Although a combination of oncogenic Kras and inflammation has been shown to induce malignancy, molecular networks of early carcinogenesis remain poorly defined. We compared early events during inflammation, regeneration and carcinogenesis on histological and transcriptional levels with a high temporal resolution using a well-established mouse model of pancreatitis and of inflammation-accelerated Kras G12D -driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Quantitative expression data were analysed and extensively modelled in silico. We defined three distinctive phases-termed inflammation, regeneration and refinement-following induction of moderate acute pancreatitis in wild-type mice. These corresponded to different waves of proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Pancreas regeneration required a coordinated transition of proliferation between progenitor-like and acinar cells. In mice harbouring an oncogenic Kras mutation and challenged with pancreatitis, there was an extended inflammatory phase and a parallel, continuous proliferation of mesenchymal, progenitor-like and acinar cells. Analysis of high-resolution transcriptional data from wild-type animals revealed that organ regeneration relied on a complex interaction of a gene network that normally governs acinar cell homeostasis, exocrine specification and intercellular signalling. In mice with oncogenic Kras, a specific carcinogenic signature was found, which was preserved in full-blown mouse pancreas cancer. These data define a transcriptional signature of early pancreatic carcinogenesis and a molecular network driving formation of preneoplastic lesions, which allows for more targeted biomarker development in order to detect cancer earlier in patients with pancreatitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P < 0.05; higher GSH/GSSG ratio), which was not observed in irradiated corn oil/cellulose rats. A shift to a more oxidative state (lower GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, P < 0.05) occurred between 6 and 12 h after AOM in the fish oil/pectin irradiated rats. Changes in redox balance likely contributed to lower 8-OHdG levels in colonocytes from rats consuming the fish oil diets. Dietary pectin enhanced (P < 0.04) apoptosis induction 12 h after AOM injection in irradiated rats. Similar to the 8-OHdG results, colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed corn oil vs fish oil diets. In summary, fish oil/pectin diets created a more reduced colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help

  2. Adrenergic factors regulating cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium during carcinogenesis and in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M. F.; Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence exists implicating adrenergic factors in the control of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in both normal and diseased states. In this report, attention is focussed on changes in the amine requirements of proliferating cells during the chemical induction of tumours in the colon of mouse. Cell proliferation rates were measured stathmokinetically. Tumours were induced by s.c. injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Results with a series of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists suggest that there is an alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated excitatory effect in normal colon but an alpha 2 adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory effect in adenoma and carcinoma. Alpha 1 adrenoceptors, on the other hand, have an inhibitory effect in normal crypts and in adenomas, and an excitatory effect in carcinomas. Beta adrenoceptors have an inhibitory effect in the normal and DMH-treated crypt, and in adenomas, but not in carcinomas. In the crypt epithelium of DMH-treated mice, two regions on cell proliferation, with differing regulatory factors, could be identified. In the upper region of the carcinogen-exposed crypt is a zone where cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 2 adrenergic mechanism, thus resembling the basal region of the normal crypt. By contrast, in the basal region of these crypts, cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 1 mechanism, thus resembling a malignant tumour. PMID:4041364

  3. Adrenergic factors regulating cell division in the colonic crypt epithelium during carcinogenesis and in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-01

    Evidence exists implicating adrenergic factors in the control of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in both normal and diseased states. In this report, attention is focussed on changes in the amine requirements of proliferating cells during the chemical induction of tumours in the colon of mouse. Cell proliferation rates were measured stathmokinetically. Tumours were induced by s.c. injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Results with a series of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists suggest that there is an alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated excitatory effect in normal colon but an alpha 2 adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory effect in adenoma and carcinoma. Alpha 1 adrenoceptors, on the other hand, have an inhibitory effect in normal crypts and in adenomas, and an excitatory effect in carcinomas. Beta adrenoceptors have an inhibitory effect in the normal and DMH-treated crypt, and in adenomas, but not in carcinomas. In the crypt epithelium of DMH-treated mice, two regions on cell proliferation, with differing regulatory factors, could be identified. In the upper region of the carcinogen-exposed crypt is a zone where cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 2 adrenergic mechanism, thus resembling the basal region of the normal crypt. By contrast, in the basal region of these crypts, cell proliferation is stimulated by an alpha 1 mechanism, thus resembling a malignant tumour.

  4. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

    SciT

    Heidor, Renato; Advanced Research Center in Food Science and Nutrition; Furtado, Kelly Silva

    2014-04-15

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MDmore » group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model.« less

  5. Epigenome remodelling in breast cancer: insights from an early in vitro model of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Locke, Warwick J; Clark, Susan J

    2012-11-15

    Epigenetic gene regulation has influence over a diverse range of cellular functions, including the maintenance of pluripotency, differentiation, and cellular identity, and is deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Whereas the involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer is well documented, much of the mechanistic detail involved in triggering these changes remains unclear. In the current age of genomics, the development of new sequencing technologies has seen an influx of genomic and epigenomic data and drastic improvements in both resolution and coverage. Studies in cancer cell lines and clinical samples using next-generation sequencing are rapidly delivering spectacular insights into the nature of the cancer genome and epigenome. Despite these improvements in technology, the timing and relationship between genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during the process of carcinogenesis are still unclear. In particular, what changes to the epigenome are playing a driving role during carcinogenesis and what influence the temporal nature of these changes has on cancer progression are not known. Understanding the early epigenetic changes driving breast cancer has the exciting potential to provide a novel set of therapeutic targets or early-disease biomarkers or both. Therefore, it is important to find novel systems that permit the study of initial epigenetic events that potentially occur during the first stages of breast cancer. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) provide an exciting in vitro model of very early breast carcinogenesis. When grown in culture, HMECs are able to temporarily escape senescence and acquire a pre-malignant breast cancer-like phenotype (variant HMECs, or vHMECs). Cultured HMECs are composed mainly of cells from the basal breast epithelial layer. Therefore, vHMECs are considered to represent the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. The transition from HMECs to vHMECs in culture recapitulates the epigenomic

  6. Epigenome remodelling in breast cancer: insights from an early in vitro model of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic gene regulation has influence over a diverse range of cellular functions, including the maintenance of pluripotency, differentiation, and cellular identity, and is deregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Whereas the involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer is well documented, much of the mechanistic detail involved in triggering these changes remains unclear. In the current age of genomics, the development of new sequencing technologies has seen an influx of genomic and epigenomic data and drastic improvements in both resolution and coverage. Studies in cancer cell lines and clinical samples using next-generation sequencing are rapidly delivering spectacular insights into the nature of the cancer genome and epigenome. Despite these improvements in technology, the timing and relationship between genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during the process of carcinogenesis are still unclear. In particular, what changes to the epigenome are playing a driving role during carcinogenesis and what influence the temporal nature of these changes has on cancer progression are not known. Understanding the early epigenetic changes driving breast cancer has the exciting potential to provide a novel set of therapeutic targets or early-disease biomarkers or both. Therefore, it is important to find novel systems that permit the study of initial epigenetic events that potentially occur during the first stages of breast cancer. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) provide an exciting in vitro model of very early breast carcinogenesis. When grown in culture, HMECs are able to temporarily escape senescence and acquire a pre-malignant breast cancer-like phenotype (variant HMECs, or vHMECs). Cultured HMECs are composed mainly of cells from the basal breast epithelial layer. Therefore, vHMECs are considered to represent the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. The transition from HMECs to vHMECs in culture recapitulates the epigenomic

  7. Curcumin ameliorates the tumor-enhancing effects of a high-protein diet in an azoxymethane-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Byun, So-Young; Kim, Dan-Bi; Kim, Eunjung

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that a high-protein diet (HPD) is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the proposed mechanisms is that an HPD increases the delivery of protein to the colon and generates various toxic metabolites that contribute to colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin was shown to exert significant preventive properties against CRC. We therefore hypothesized that curcumin can reverse the tumor-enhancing effects of an HPD. This study examined the effects of curcumin on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal tumors in HPD-fed mice. A total of 30 female Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: those fed a normal diet (20% casein), those fed an HPD (HPD; 50% casein), and those fed an HPD supplemented with curcumin (HPDC; 0.02% curcumin). The mice were subjected to an AOM-dextran sodium sulfate colon carcinogenesis protocol. Mice in the HPDC group exhibited a significant (40%) reduction in colorectal tumor multiplicity when compared with those in the HPD group. The expression of colonic inflammatory proteins (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase), the levels of plasma inflammatory markers (nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α), fecal ammonia, short- and branched-chain fatty acid levels, and the rate of colonocyte proliferation were significantly lower in the HPDC than the HPD group. In conclusion, curcumin inhibited the development of colorectal tumors in an AOM-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis by attenuating colonic inflammation, proliferation, and toxic metabolite production. Curcumin might be useful in the chemoprevention of CRC in individuals consuming an HPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    BOUSSEROUEL, SOUAD; LE GRANDOIS, JULIE; GOSSÉ, FRANCINE; WERNER, DALAL; BARTH, STEPHAN W.; MARCHIONI, ERIC; MARESCAUX, JACQUES; RAUL, FRANCIS

    2013-01-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 μg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 μg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death-receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  9. Potential of Breastmilk Analysis to Inform Early Events in Breast Carcinogenesis: Rationale and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jeanne; Sherman, Mark E.; Browne, Eva P.; Caballero, Ana I.; Punska, Elizabeth C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Yang, Hannah P.; Lee, Maxwell; Yang, Howard; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Arcaro, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes methods related to the study of human breastmilk in etiologic and biomarkers research. Despite the importance of reproductive factors in breast carcinogenesis, factors that act early in life are difficult to study because young women rarely require breast imaging or biopsy, and analysis of critical circulating factors (e.g. hormones) is often complicated by the requirement to accurately account for menstrual cycle date. Accordingly, novel approaches are needed to understand how events such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, weaning, and post-weaning breast remodeling influence breast cancer risk. Analysis of breastmilk offers opportunities to understand mechanisms related to carcinogenesis in the breast, and to identify risk markers that may inform efforts to identify high-risk women early in the carcinogenic process. In addition, analysis of breastmilk could have value in early detection or diagnosis of breast cancer. In this article we describe the potential for using breastmilk to characterize the microenvironment of the lactating breast with the goal of advancing research on risk assessment, prevention, and detection of breast cancer. PMID:27107568

  10. The chemopreventive action of bromelain, from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus L.), on colon carcinogenesis is related to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Fasolino, Ines; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Pace, Simona; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Milic, Natasa; Orlando, Pierangelo; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important health problem across the world. Here, we investigated the possible antiproliferative/proapoptotic effects of bromelain (from the pineapple stem Ananas comosus L., family Bromeliaceae) in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and its potential chemopreventive effect in a murine model of colon cancer. Proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells by the (3) H-thymidine incorporation assay and caspase 3/7 activity measurement, respectively. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and Akt expression were evaluated by Western blot analysis, reactive oxygen species production by a fluorimetric method. In vivo, bromelain was evaluated using the azoxymethane murine model of colon carcinogenesis. Bromelain reduced cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. The effect of bromelain was associated to downregulation of pERK1/2/total, ERK, and pAkt/Akt expression as well as to reduction of reactive oxygen species production. In vivo, bromelain reduced the development of aberrant crypt foci, polyps, and tumors induced by azoxymethane. Bromelain exerts antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in colorectal carcinoma cells and chemopreventive actions in colon carcinogenesis in vivo. Bromelain-containing foods and/or bromelain itself may represent good candidates for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  12. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  13. Leptin induces SIRT1 expression through activation of NF-E2-related factor 2: Implications for obesity-associated colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Na-Young; Lee, Yeon-Hwa; Na, Hye-Kyung; Baek, Jeong-Heum; Surh, Young-Joon

    2018-07-01

    Leptin, a representative adipokine secreted from the white adipose tissue, is considered as a potential linker between obesity and cancer. SIRT1 is an NAD + -dependent histone/protein deacetylase speculated to function as an oncogene. In the present study, we found that leptin signaling-defective ob/ob and db/db mice had lower colonic expression of SIRT1 compared with leptin signaling-intact C57BL/6J mice, implying that leptin signaling is crucial for SIRT1 expression in vivo. Moreover, leptin induced up-regulation of SIRT1 in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells. Leptin stimulated migration and invasion of cultured HCT-116 cells and tumor growth in the xenograft assay, and these effects were abrogated by a SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol, suggesting that SIRT1 plays a role in leptin-induced colon carcinogenesis. Leptin-induced SIRT1 expression was regulated by the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Leptin stimulated nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 as well as its binding to the antioxidant response elements located in the SIRT1 promoter. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 abrogated the leptin-induced SIRT1 expression. Notably, SIRT1 was significantly reduced in colon tissues of Nrf2-null mice, lending further support to Nrf2-dependent SIRT1 expression. Expression of leptin, Nrf2 and SIRT1 was coordinately increased in human colon tumor tissues. In conclusion, leptin might play a role in colon carcinogenesis by inducing Nrf2-dependent SIRT1 overexpression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolome progression during early gut microbial colonization of gnotobiotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Yusufaly, Tahir; Higginbottom, Steven; Snyder, Michael; Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Mias, George I.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome has been implicated directly in host health, especially host metabolic processes and development of immune responses. These are particularly important in infants where the gut first begins being colonized, and such processes may be modeled in mice. In this investigation we follow longitudinally the urine metabolome of ex-germ-free mice, which are colonized with two bacterial species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bifidobacterium longum. High-throughput mass spectrometry profiling of urine samples revealed dynamic changes in the metabolome makeup, associated with the gut bacterial colonization, enabled by our adaptation of non-linear time-series analysis to urine metabolomics data. Results demonstrate both gradual and punctuated changes in metabolite production and that early colonization events profoundly impact the nature of small molecules circulating in the host. The identified small molecules are implicated in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolic processes, and offer insights into the dynamic changes occurring during the colonization process, using high-throughput longitudinal methodology. PMID:26118551

  15. Expression of Abelson Interactor 1 (Abi1) Correlates with Inflammation, KRAS Mutation and Adenomatous Change during Colonic Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinestel, Konrad; Brüderlein, Silke; Steinestel, Julie; Märkl, Bruno; Schwerer, Michael J.; Arndt, Annette; Kraft, Klaus; Pröpper, Christian; Möller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) is an important regulator of actin dynamics during cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, our aim was to investigate the expression of Abi1 in colonic mucosa with and without inflammation, colonic polyps, colorectal carcinomas (CRC) and metastases as well as in CRC cell lines with respect to BRAF/KRAS mutation status and to find out whether introduction of KRAS mutation or stimulation with TNFalpha enhances Abi1 protein expression in CRC cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We immunohistochemically analyzed Abi1 protein expression in 126 tissue specimens from 95 patients and in 5 colorectal carcinoma cell lines with different mutation status by western immunoblotting. We found that Abi1 expression correlated positively with KRAS, but not BRAF mutation status in the examined tissue samples. Furthermore, Abi1 is overexpressed in inflammatory mucosa, sessile serrated polyps and adenomas, tubular adenomas, invasive CRC and CRC metastasis when compared to healthy mucosa and BRAF-mutated as well as KRAS wild-type hyperplastic polyps. Abi1 expression in carcinoma was independent of microsatellite stability of the tumor. Abi1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutation in the analyzed CRC cell lines, and upregulation of Abi1 could be induced by TNFalpha treatment as well as transfection of wild-type CRC cells with mutant KRAS. The overexpression of Abi1 could be abolished by treatment with the PI3K-inhibitor Wortmannin after KRAS transfection. Conclusions/Significance Our results support a role for Abi1 as a downstream target of inflammatory response and adenomatous change as well as oncogenic KRAS mutation via PI3K, but not BRAF activation. Furthermore, they highlight a possible role for Abi1 as a marker for early KRAS mutation in hyperplastic polyps. Since the protein is a key player in actin dynamics, our data encourages further studies concerning the exact role of Abi1 in actin reorganization upon enhanced KRAS/PI3K

  16. Effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manoj, G; Thampi, B S; Leelamma, S; Menon, P V

    2001-01-01

    The effects of fiber isolated from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. The results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. This study suggests that the fibers isolated from coconut or black gram may potentially play a role in preventing the formation of colon tumors induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by reducing the activity of the intestinal as well as fecal beta-glucuronidase.

  17. Vanadium inhibits DNA-protein cross-links and ameliorates surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanna, P Suresh; Saralaya, M G; Samanta, K; Chatterjee, M

    2005-01-01

    The trace mineral vanadium inhibits cancer development in a variety of experimental animal models. The present study was to gain insight into a putative anticancer effect of vanadium in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The in vivo study was intended to clarify the effect of vanadium on DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and biotransformation status during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DMH) induced preneoplastic rat colon carcinogenesis. The comet assay showed statistically higher mean base values of DNA-protein mass (p<0.01) and mean frequencies of tailed cells (p<0.001) in the carcinogen-induced group after treatment with proteinase K. Treatment with vanadium in the form of ammonium monovanadate supplemented ad libitum in drinking water for the entire experimental period caused a significant (p<0.02) reduction (40%) in DNA-protein cross-links in colon cells. Further, the biotransformation status of vanadium was ascertained measuring the drug metabolising enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450). Significantly, there was an increase in glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 levels (p<0.01 and p<0.02, respectively) in rats supplemented with vanadium as compared to their carcinogen controls. As an endpoint marker, we also evaluated the effect of vanadium on surface level changes of aberrant crypt foci induced by 1,2-DMH by scanning electron microscopy. Animals induced with 1,2-DMH and supplemented with vanadium showed a marked improvement in colonic architecture with less number of aberrant crypt foci in contrast to the animals induced with 1,2-DMH alone, thereby exhibiting its anti-carcinogenicity by modulating the markers studied herein.

  18. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Long, Min; Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Jiang, Tao; Wen, Qing; Park, Sophia L; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-05-01

    The progressive nature of colorectal cancer and poor prognosis associated with the metastatic phase of the disease create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. Cumulative evidence suggests that the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defence, represents a promising molecular target for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we have identified cinnamon, the ground bark of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cassia cinnamon) and Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon), as a rich dietary source of the Nrf2 inducer cinnamaldehyde (CA) eliciting the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells, conferring cytoprotection against electrophilic and genotoxic insult. Here, we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying CA-induced Nrf2 activation in colorectal epithelial cells and have examined the chemopreventive potential of CA in a murine colorectal cancer model comparing Nrf2(+/+) with Nrf2(-/-) mice. In HCT116 cells, CA caused a Keap1-C151-dependent increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination with upregulation of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes and elevation of cellular glutathione. After optimizing colorectal Nrf2 activation and target gene expression by dietary CA-supplementation regimens, we demonstrated that CA suppresses AOM/DSS-induced inflammatory colon carcinogenesis with modulation of molecular markers of colorectal carcinogenesis. Dietary suppression of colorectal cancer using CA supplementation was achieved in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice confirming the Nrf2 dependence of CA-induced chemopreventive effects. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of colorectal cancer suppression by dietary CA, an FDA-approved food additive derived from the third most consumed spice in the world. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Microarray Analyses of Genes Differentially Expressed by Diet (Black Beans and Soy Flour) during Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rondini, Elizabeth A; Bennink, Maurice R

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN) diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a). BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1) and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a) genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1) and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a) were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.

  20. Determinants and Duration of Impact of Early Gut Bacterial Colonization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christine Ann

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet. It has been suggested that weaning onto solid diet containing non-digestible carbohydrates and cessation of breastfeeding are key stages in the colonization process. In addition, the microbiome of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and breast milk, alongside vaginal and fecal bacteria, may aid the transfer of maternal bacteria to the infant. However, methodological issues such as contamination during collection and/or analysis should be considered. Key Messages: The factors determining early colonization are becoming more evident. However, longitudinal studies of microbiome maturation into late childhood and adulthood are required. The nutrition and health status of the mother before, during, and after birth may be major factors in the early colonization of the infant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antagonizing pathways leading to differential dynamics in colon carcinogenesis in Shugoshin1 (Sgo1)-haploinsufficient chromosome instability model.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Sanghera, Saira; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Reddy, Arun; Lightfoot, Stan; Dai, Wei; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2016-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer. It is predicted to claim 50,310 lives in 2014. Chromosome Instability (CIN) is observed in 80-90% of colon cancers, and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. However, there are no animal models of CIN that have been validated for studies of colon cancer development or drug testing. In this study, we sought to validate a mitotic error-induced CIN model mouse, the Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient mouse, as a colon cancer study model. Wild-type and Sgo1(-/+) mice were treated with the colonic carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). We tracked colon tumor development 12, 24, and 36 wk after treatment to assess progression of colon tumorigenesis. Initially, more precancerous lesions, Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), developed in Sgo1(-/+) mice. However, the ACF did not develop straightforwardly into larger tumors. At the 36-wk endpoint, the number of gross tumors in Sgo1(-/+) mice was no different from that in wild-type controls. However, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis indicated that fully developed colon tumor in Sgo1(-/+) mice carried 13.75 times more CNV. Immunohistological analyses indicated that Sgo1(-/+) mice differentially expressed IL-6, Bcl2, and p16(INK4A) . We propose that formation of ACF in Sgo1(-/+) mice is facilitated by the IL6-STAT3-SOCS3 oncogenic pathway and by the Bcl2-anti-apoptotic pathway, yet further development of the ACF to tumors is inhibited by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor pathway. Manipulating these pathways would be beneficial for inhibiting development of colon cancer with CIN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chemopreventive effect of different ratios of fish oil and corn oil on prognostic markers, DNA damage and cell cycle in colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarotra, Pooja; Kansal, Shevali; Sandhir, Rajat; Agnihotri, Navneet

    2012-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a protective role in autoimmune disorders, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, whereas corn oil (CO) rich in n-6 PUFAs has a proinflammatory and procarcinogenic effect. A balanced n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in diet rather than absolute intake of either may be responsible for decreasing cancer incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of different ratios of FO and CO on prognostic markers, DNA damage, and cell cycle distribution in colon carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, N,N'-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) treated, FO+CO(1 : 1)+DMH, and FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH. All the groups, except control, received a weekly injection of DMH for 4 weeks. The animals were given modified AIN-76A diets and killed either 48 h later (initiation phase) or kept for 16 weeks (postinitiation phase). The animals treated with DMH in both the phases showed an increase in multiple plaque lesions, total sialic acid, lipid associated sialic acid, DNA damage and cell proliferation. However, levels of p53 in the postinitiation and cyclin D1 in both the phases were significantly elevated. FO+CO(2.5 : 1)+DMH treatment in both the phases led to a decrease in multiple plaque lesions, DNA damage, total sialic acid, lipid associated sialic acid as compared with the DMH treated group. There was a G1 arrest with a decrease in p53 and cyclin D1 levels in FO+CO(2.5 : 1) in both the phases whereas treatment with FO+CO(1 : 1)+DMH led to same results in the postinitiation phase only. This study suggests that FO+CO(2.5 : 1) is more effective in chemoprevention of experimental colon carcinogenesis.

  3. Tissue redox activity as a hallmark of carcinogenesis: from early to terminal stages of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. Two biochemical parameters were analyzed in parallel: tissue total antioxidant capacity (TTAC) and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the early stage of cancer, the brain tissues were characterized by a shorter-lived MRI signal than that from healthy brains (indicating a higher reducing activity for the nitroxide radical), which was accompanied by an enhancement of TTAC and MMP9 plasma levels. In the terminal stage of cancer, tissues in both hemispheres were characterized by a longer-lived MRI signal than in healthy brains (indicating a high-oxidative activity) that was accompanied by a decrease in TTAC and an increase in the MMP2/MMP9 plasma levels. Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). Their oxidative status increased in both stages of cancer. The study shows that tissue redox balance is very sensitive to the progression of cancer and can be used as a diagnostic marker of carcinogenesis. The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Tumor promotion by dietary fat in azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in female F344 rats: influence of amount and source of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S; Maeura, Y

    1984-03-01

    The promoting effect of dietary corn oil (CO), safflower oil (SO), olive oil (OO), coconut oil (CC), and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors was studied in female F344 rats. The animals were fed low-fat diets containing 5% CO, 5% SO, or 5% OO 2 weeks before, during, and 1 week after sc injection of 20 mg AOM/kg body weight. One week after the AOM treatment, groups of animals were transferred to high-fat diets containing 23.52% CO, 23.52% SO, 23.52% OO, and 23.52% CC, or 5.88% CO + 17.64% MCT; the remaining animals were continued on 5% fat diets. All animals were fed these diets until the termination of the experiment. Body weights and intakes of calories, protein, and micronutrients were comparable among the various dietary groups. The incidence of colon tumors was increased in rats fed diets containing high-CO and high-SO compared to those fed low-CO and low-SO diets, whereas the diets containing high OO, CC, or MCT had no promoting effect on colon tumor incidence. There was a significant increase in the excretion of fecal deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and 12-ketolithocholic acid in animals fed the high-CO and high-SO diets and no difference in these secondary bile acids excretion in animals fed the high-OO and high-CC diets compared to those animals fed their respective 5% fat diets. This study thus indicates that not only the amount of dietary fat but also the fatty acid composition (type) of fat are important factors in the determination of the promoting effect in colon carcinogenesis.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 Activates YAP and a Positive-Signaling Loop to Promote Colon Regeneration After Colitis but Also Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Minchul; Park, Young-Soo; Park, Intae; Kim, Tackhoon; Yang, Sung-Yeun; Cho, Charles J; Hwang, DaeHee; Jung, Jin-Hak; Markowitz, Sanford D; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2017-02-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) is mediator of inflammation that regulates tissue regeneration, but its continual activation has been associated with carcinogenesis. Little is known about factors in the PGE 2 signaling pathway that contribute to tumor formation. We investigated whether yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a transcriptional co-activator in the Hippo signaling pathway, mediates PGE 2 function. DLD-1 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines were transfected with vectors expressing transgenes or small hairpin RNAs and incubated with recombinant PGE 2 , with or without pharmacologic inhibitors of signaling proteins, and analyzed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, transcriptional reporter, and proliferation assays. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was given to induce colitis in C57/BL6 (control) mice, as well as in mice with disruption of the hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15 gene (15-PGDH-knockout mice), Yap1 gene (YAP-knockout mice), and double-knockout mice. Some mice also were given indomethacin to block PGE 2 synthesis. 15-PGDH knockout mice were crossed with mice with intestine-specific disruption of the salvador family WW domain containing 1 gene (Sav1), which encodes an activator of Hippo signaling. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of colon biopsy samples from 26 patients with colitis-associated cancer and 51 age-and sex-matched patients with colorectal cancer (without colitis). Incubation of colon cancer cell lines with PGE 2 led to phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element binding protein 1 and increased levels of YAP1 messenger RNA, protein, and YAP1 transcriptional activity. This led to increased transcription of the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene (PTGS2 or cyclooxygenase 2) and prostaglandin E-receptor 4 gene (PTGER4 or EP4). Incubation with PGE 2 promoted proliferation of colon cancer cell lines, but not cells with knockdown of YAP1. Control mice

  6. APIGENIN AND NARINGENIN SUPPRESS COLON CARCINOGENESIS THROUGH THE ABERRANT CRYPT STAGE IN AZOXYMETHANE-TREATED RATS1

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Tety; Vanamala, Jairam; Taddeo, Stella S.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Murphy, Mary E.; Patil, Bhimanagouda S.; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lupton, Joanne R.; Turner, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet abundant in fruits and vegetables may protect against colon cancer. Bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and limonoids, have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-tumorigenic effects in various cancer models. This experiment investigated the effects of four citrus flavonoids and one limonoid mixture at the promotion stage of chemically induced colon cancer in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10 rats/group) were randomly allocated to one of six diets formulated to contain 0.1% apigenin, 0.02% naringenin, 0.1% hesperidin, 0.01% nobiletin, 0.035% limonin glucoside/obacunone glucoside mixture, or a control diet (0% flavonoid/limonoid). Rats received experimental diets for 10 wk and were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) at wk 3 and 4. Excised colons were evaluated for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonocyte proliferation (PCNA assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and expression of iNOS and COX-2 (immunoblotting). When compared to the control diet, apigenin lowered the number of high multiplicity ACF (HMACF > 4 AC/focus) by 57% (P < 0.05), while naringenin lowered both the number of HMACF by 51% (P < 0.05) and the proliferative index by 32% (P < 0.05). Both apigenin and naringenin increased apoptosis of luminal surface colonocytes (78% and 97%, respectively; P < 0.05) when compared to the control diet. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and the limonin glucoside/obacunone glucoside mixture did not affect these variables. The colonic mucosal protein levels of iNOS or COX-2 were not different among the six diet groups. The ability of dietary apigenin and naringenin to reduce HMACF, lower proliferation (naringenin only), and increase apoptosis may contribute toward colon cancer prevention. However, these effects were not due to mitigation of iNOS and COX-2 protein levels at the ACF stage of colon cancer. PMID:20511675

  7. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  8. An apple oligogalactan prevents against inflammation and carcinogenesis by targeting LPS/TLR4/NF-κB pathway in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Li, Yu H; Niu, Yin B; Sun, Yang; Guo, Zhen J; Li, Qian; Li, Chen; Feng, Juan; Cao, Shou S; Mei, Qi B

    2010-10-01

    Evidence strongly supported a link between inflammation and cancer. Patients with colitis have high risk for development of colon cancer. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), partially induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, is a vital molecule in supervising the transformation of colitis to colon cancer. It could be a good strategy to prevent colitis carcinogenesis for targeting LPS/TLR4/NF-κB pathway. In the present study, we obtained an oligogalactan composed of five galacturonic acids from apple pectin and evaluated its protective efficacy on intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The apple oligogalactan (AOG) was highly effective against intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis and decreased the elevated levels of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced by inflammation in vivo in this model system. In vitro studies, AOG alone only slightly increased the levels of protein expression and messenger RNA of TLR4, phosphorylation of IκBα and production of TNF-α in HT-29 cells. However, AOG significantly decreased the elevation of all the biomarkers induced by LPS when it was combined with LPS. The effect of AOG may be related to membrane internalization and redistribution of TLR4 from cell membrane to cytoplasm. AOG is active against inflammation and carcinogenesis through targeting LPS/TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Both AOG and LPS are agonists of TLR4 for sharing the same ligand but AOG has a much lower intrinsic activity than that of LPS. AOG may be useful for treatment of colitis and prevention of carcinogenesis in the clinics.

  9. Neutrophil infiltration is a favorable prognostic factor in early stages of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Maria L; Ling, Agnes; Li, Xingru; Öberg, Åke; Edin, Sofia; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The tumor immune response has been proven critical to prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC), but studies on the prognostic role of neutrophil infiltration have shown contradictory results. The aim of this study was to elucidate the prognostic role of infiltrating neutrophils at different intratumoral subsites and in different molecular subgroups of CRC. The relations between neutrophil infiltration and infiltration of other immune cells (T-cell and macrophage subsets) were also addressed. Expression of the neutrophil marker CD66b was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 448 archival human tumor tissue samples from patients surgically resected for CRC. The infiltration of CD66b-positive cells was semi-quantitatively evaluated along the tumor invasive front, in the tumor center, and within the tumor epithelium (intraepithelial expression). We found that poor infiltration of CD66b-positive cells in the tumor front indicated a worse patient prognosis. The prognostic significance of CD66b infiltration was found to be mainly independent of tumor molecular characteristics and maintained significance in multivariable analysis of stage I-II colon cancers. We further analyzed the prognostic impact of CD66b-positive cells in relation to other immune markers (NOS2, CD163, Tbet, FOXP3, and CD8) and found that neutrophil infiltration, even though strongly correlated to infiltration of other immune cell subsets, had additional prognostic value. In conclusion, we find that low infiltration of neutrophils in the tumor front is an independent prognostic factor for a poorer patient prognosis in early stages of colon cancers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biological role of neutrophils in colorectal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotensin receptor 1 gene activation by the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway is an early event in human colonic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Souazé, Frédérique; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Roullet, Nicolas; Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Gompel, Anne; Bruyneel, Erik; Comperat, Eva; Faux, Maree C; Mareel, Marc; Rostène, William; Fléjou, Jean-François; Gespach, Christian; Forgez, Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Alterations in the Wnt/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) signalling pathway, resulting in beta-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcriptional gene activation, are frequently detected in familial and sporadic colon cancers. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Its proliferative and survival effects are mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor. NT1 receptor is not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells, but is over expressed in a number of cancer cells and tissues suggesting a link to the outgrowth of human colon cancer. Our results demonstrate that the upregulation of NT1 receptor occurring in colon cancer is the result of Wnt/APC signalling pathway activation. We first established the functionality of the Tcf response element within the NT1 receptor promoter. Consequently, we observed the activation of NT1 receptor gene by agents causing beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, as well as a strong decline of endogenous receptor when wt-APC was restored. At the cellular level, the re-establishment of wt-APC phenotype resulted in the impaired functionality of NT1 receptor, like the breakdown in NT-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and the loss of NT pro-invasive effect. We corroborated the Wnt/APC signalling pathway on the NT1 receptor promoter activation with human colon carcinogenesis, and showed that NT1 receptor gene activation was perfectly correlated with nuclear or cytoplasmic beta-catenin localization while NT1 receptor was absent when beta-catenin was localized at the cell-cell junction in early adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and loss of heterozygosity tumours. In this report we establish a novel link in vitro between the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway and NT1 receptor promoter activation.

  11. Mechanisms of colitis-accelerated colon carcinogenesis and its prevention with the combination of aspirin and curcumin: Transcriptomic analysis using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Chengyue; Gaspar, John M; Wang, Rui; Hart, Ronald P; Verzi, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Aspirin (ASA) and curcumin (CUR) are widely investigated chemopreventive candidates for CRC. However, the precise mechanisms of their action and their combinatorial effects have not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of ASA, CUR, and their combination in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced colitis-accelerated colorectal cancer (CAC). We also aimed to characterize the differential gene expression profiles in AOM/DSS-induced tumors as well as in tumors modulated by ASA and CUR using RNA-seq. Diets supplemented with 0.02% ASA, 2% CUR or 0.01% ASA+1% CUR were given to mice from 1week prior to the AOM injection until the experiment was terminated 22weeks after AOM initiation. Our results showed that CUR had a superior inhibitory effect in colon tumorigenesis compared to that of ASA. The combination of ASA and CUR at a lower dose exhibited similar efficacy to that of a higher dose of CUR at 2%. RNA isolated from colonic tissue from the control group and from tumor samples from the experimental groups was subjected to RNA-seq. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that the low-dose combination of ASA and CUR modulated larger gene sets than the single treatment. These differentially expressed genes were situated in several canonical pathways important in the inflammatory network and liver metastasis in CAC. We identified a small subset of genes as potential molecular targets involved in the preventive action of the combination of ASA and CUR. Taken together, the current results provide the first evidence in support of the chemopreventive effect of a low-dose combination of ASA and CUR in CAC. Moreover, the transcriptional profile obtained in our study may provide a framework for identifying the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis process from normal colonic tissue to tumor development as well as the cancer inhibitory effects

  12. Astaxanthin inhibits tumor invasion by decreasing extracellular matrix production and induces apoptosis in experimental rat colon carcinogenesis by modulating the expressions of ERK-2, NFkB and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2011-04-01

    Colon cancer is the third most malignant neoplasm in the world and it remains an important cause of mortality in Asian and Western countries. Astaxanthin (AST), a major component of carotenoids possesses attractive remedial features. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible mechanism of action of astaxanthin against 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were randomized into five groups, group 1 were control rats, group 2 were rats that received AST (15 mg/kg body wt p.o. everyday), rats in group 3 were induced with DMH (40 mg/kg body wt, s.c.), DMH-induced rats in groups 4 and 5 were either pre or post initiated with AST, respectively as in group 2. DMH-induced rats exhibited elevated expressions of Nuclear factor kappa B-p65 (NF-κB-p65), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Matrixmetallo proteinases (MMP) 2/9, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) as confirmed by immunofluorescence. Further, Westernblot analysis of MMPs-2/9, ERK-2 and Protein kinase B (Akt) revealed increased expressions of these proteins in DMH-induced groups of rats. AST-treatment decreased the expressions of all these vital proteins, involved in colon carcinogenesis. The ability of AST to induce apoptosis in the colon of DMH-induced rats was confirmed by Annexin-V/PI staining in a confocal microscopy, DNA fragmentation analysis and expression of caspase-3 by Western blotting. In conclusion, astaxanthin exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis in DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by modulating the expressions of NFkB, COX-2, MMPs-2/9, Akt and ERK-2.

  13. An epitope localized in c-Src negative regulatory domain is a potential marker in early stage of colonic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Kawakatsu, H; Fujita, M; Yano, J; Owada, M K

    1998-02-01

    In previous work, we established a new monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the active form of c-Src tyrosine kinase (Kawakatsu et al, 1996). To determine whether c-Src is active in colorectal tumorigenesis, we examined the expression of an active form of c-Src in human normal mucosa, hyperplastic polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. The tissue distribution of the active form of c-Src was studied by immunohistochemistry using this antibody, termed Clone 28. Among 66 cases of adenoma tested, 61 (92%) showed positive staining (adenoma with mild atypia, 3 of 3; adenoma with moderate atypia, 38 of 42; adenoma with severe atypia, 20 of 21). In contrast to the frequent and intense staining in adenomas, adenocarcinoma showed weak staining with less frequency in 4 of 16 (25%) cases. The number of specimens with positive staining in well- and moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas was limited to an early stage. The active form of c-Src mainly localized to the nuclear membrane and the perinuclear region. These results provide the first direct evidence that the activation of c-Src appears to be an early event in colonic carcinogenesis in situ. The findings of the present study thus allow us to propose a molecular mechanism involving c-Src activation in the process of malignant transformation of the human colonic neoplastic cells.

  14. Dose response study of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil on mammary and colon carcinogenesis pretreated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing Lei; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Kumiko; Iwata, Toshio; Kasai, Masaaki; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hirose, Masao; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-07-10

    To clarify the chemopreventive effects of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on mammary and colon carcinogenesis, 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received diet containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, or 2% CFA-S subsequent to five times subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. and a single 50 mg/kg b.w. intragastric application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) during the first 11 days. The experiment was terminated at week 36. Numbers of mammary tumors, colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and proliferative indices of mammary tumors, and colon epithelium were analyzed. The 1% dose was found to be optimal for suppression of carcinogenesis in both target organs, a good correlation being noted with between data for cell proliferation. These results suggest that a diet containing appropriate levels of CFA-S may be useful for prevention of mammary and colon cancer.

  15. Olive oil prevents benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis through altered B(a)P metabolism and decreased oxidative damage in ApcMin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Leah D.; Amoah, Priscilla; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Washington, Mary K.; Adunyah, Samuel E.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2015-01-01

    Colon cancer ranks third in cancer related mortalities in the United States. Many studies have investigated factors that contribute to colon cancer in which dietary and environmental factors have been shown to play an integral role in the etiology of this disease. Specifically, human dietary intake of environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generated interest in looking at how it exerts its effects in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preventative effects of olive oil on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis in adult ApcMin mice. Mice were assigned to a control (n =8) or treatment group (n =8) consisting of 25, 50 and 100 μg B(a)P/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in tricaprylin [B(a)P-only group] or olive oil daily via oral gavage for sixty days. Our studies showed that ApcMin mice exposed to B(a)P developed a significantly higher number (p< 0.05) of larger dysplastic adenomas compared to those exposed to B(a)P + olive oil. Treatment of mice with B(a)P and olive oil significantly altered (p< 0.05) the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes in both the colon and liver tissues. However, only GST activity was significantly higher (p< 0.05) in the liver of mice treated with 50 and 100 μg B(a)P/kg bw + olive oil. Lastly, olive oil promoted rapid detoxification of B(a)P by decreasing its organic metabolite concentrations and also decreasing the extent of DNA damage to colon and liver tissues (p< 0.05). These results suggest that olive oil has a protective effect against B(a)P-induced colon tumors. PMID:26878781

  16. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading ... to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. ...

  17. Associations of dietary fat with risk of early neoplasia in the proximal colon in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mo, Allen; Wu, Rong; Grady, James P; Hanley, Matthew P; Toro, Margaret; Swede, Helen; Devers, Thomas J; Hartman, Terryl J; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2018-07-01

    Excess dietary fat consumption is strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, but less is known about its role in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis, particularly within the proximal colon. In the following case-control study, we evaluated the relationship between the intake of dietary fats and the frequency of early proximal neoplasia [aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or polyps], detectable by high-definition colonoscopy with contrast dye-spray. Average-risk screening individuals underwent a high-definition colonoscopy procedure as part of larger ongoing clinical study of precancerous lesions in the proximal colon. Dietary fat intake was assessed using the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire, which estimates average dietary intake based on 70 food items. The diets of individuals with no endoscopically identifiable lesions (n = 36) were compared to those with either ACF or polyps detected in the proximal colon. In multivariate analysis, high dietary intake of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and intake of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with neoplastic lesions in the proximal colon. When comparing ACF and polyp groups separately, a positive association was observed for both proximal polyps (OR 2.28; CI 1.16-7.09) and ACF (OR 2.86; CI 1.16-7.09) for total PUFA intake. Furthermore, the prevalence of proximal ACF was increased with higher intake of omega-6 (OR 3.54; CI 1.32-9.47) and omega-3 fatty acids (OR 2.29; CI 1.02-5.13), although there was no discernible difference in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. These results suggest that dietary PUFAs may be positively associated with risk of early neoplasia in the proximal colon. This study provides further evidence that dietary PUFA composition may play an important role in altering the microenvironment within the human colon.

  18. Stokes shift spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of epithelial precancers in DMBA treated mouse skin carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Prakasarao, Aruna

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we aim to characterize the tissue transformation in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin tumor model using stokes shift spectroscopy (SSS) technique for early detection of the neoplastic changes. Stokes shift (SS) spectra measured by scanning both excitation and emission wavelength simultaneously with a fixed wavelength of interval (Δλ=20 nm) in vivo from 33 DMBA treated animals and 6 control animals. The SS spectra of normal (n=6), hyperplasia (n=10), dysplasia (n=10), and WDSCC (n=13) of mice skin shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, and 386 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. From the observed spectral differences and the ratio variables that resulted in better classification between groups, it is concluded that tryptophan, collagen, and NADH are the key fluorophores that undergo changes during tissue transformation process and hence they can be targeted as tumor markers for early neoplastic changes.

  19. Oncogenic Smad3 signaling induced by chronic inflammation is an early event in ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Murata, Miki; Seki, Toshihito; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Iwao, Yasushi; Hibi, Toshifumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-03-01

    Both chronic inflammation and somatic mutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and cancer. On the other hand, both tumor suppression and oncogenesis can result from transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) and Ras-associated kinases differentially phosphorylate a mediator, Smad3, to become C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C), linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L), and both C-terminally and linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L/C). The pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) pathway transmits a cytostatic TGF-β signal, while pSmad3L and pSmad3L/C promote cell proliferation by upregulating c-Myc oncoprotein. The purpose of this study was to clarify the alteration of Smad3 signaling during UC-associated carcinogenesis. By immunostaining and immunofluorescence, we compared pSmad3C-, pSmad3L-, and pSmad3L/C-mediated signaling in colorectal specimens representing colitis, dysplasia, or cancer from eight UC patients with signaling in normal colonic crypts. We also investigated p53 expression and mutations of p53 and K-ras genes. We further sought functional meaning of the phosphorylated Smad3-mediated signaling in vitro. As enterocytes in normal crypts migrated upward toward the lumen, cytostatic pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) tended to increase, while pSmad3L/c-Myc shown by progenitor cells gradually decreased. Colitis specimens showed prominence of pSmad3L/C/c-Myc, mediated by TGF-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in all enterocyte nuclei throughout entire crypts. In proportion with increases in frequency of p53 and K-ras mutations during progression from dysplasia to cancer, the oncogenic pSmad3L/c-Myc pathway came to be dominant with suppression of the pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) pathway. Oncogenic Smad3 signaling, altered by chronic inflammation and eventually somatic mutations, promotes UC-associated neoplastic progression by upregulating growth-related protein. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis

  20. Estrogen and Cytochrome P450 1B1 Contribute to Both Early- and Late-Stage Head and Neck Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shatalova, Ekaterina G.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.P.; Devarajan, Karthik; Cukierman, Edna; Clapper, Margie L.

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common type of cancer in the U.S. The goal of this study was to evaluate the contribution of estrogens to the development of HNSCCs. Various cell lines derived from early- and late-stage head and neck lesions were used to: characterize the expression of estrogen synthesis and metabolism genes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP)1B1, examine the effect of estrogen on gene expression and evaluate the role of CYP1B1 and/or estrogen in cell motility, proliferation and apoptosis. Estrogen metabolism genes (CYP1B1, CYP1A1, catechol-o-methyltransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, and glutathione-S-transferase P1) and estrogen receptor (ER)β were expressed in cell lines derived from both premalignant (MSK-Leuk1) and malignant (HNSCC) lesions. Exposure to estrogen induced CYP1B1 2.3 to 3.6 fold relative to vehicle-treated controls (P=0.0004) in MSK-Leuk1 cells but not in HNSCC cells. CYP1B1 knockdown by shRNA reduced the migration and proliferation of MSK-Leuk1 cells by 57% and 45%, respectively. Exposure of MSK-Leuk1 cells to estrogen inhibited apoptosis by 26%, while supplementation with the antiestrogen fulvestrant restored estrogen-dependent apoptosis. Representation of the estrogen pathway in human head and neck tissues from 128 patients was examined using tissue microarrays. The majority of the samples exhibited immunohistochemical staining for ERβ (91.9%), CYP1B1 (99.4%) and 17β-estradiol (88.4%). CYP1B1 and ERβ were elevated in HNSCCs relative to normal epithelium (P=0.024 and 0.008, respectively). These data provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying head and neck carcinogenesis and facilitate the identification new targets for chemopreventive intervention. PMID:21205741

  1. Mode of Birth Influences Preterm Infant Intestinal Colonization with Bacteroides Over the Early Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; LaPlante, Rose D.; Shan, Gururaj; Kumar, Deepak Vijaya; Gregas, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal colonization during infancy is important to short and long term health outcomes. Bacteroides, an early member of the intestinal microbiome, are necessary for breaking down complex molecules within the intestine and function to assist the body’s immune system in fighting against potentially harmful pathogens. Little is known about the colonization pattern of Bacteroides in preterm infants during the early neonatal period. Purpose This study measured Bacteroides colonization during the early neonatal period in a population of preterm infants based on clinical factors including mode of birth, antibiotics, and nutrition. Methods Bacterial DNA was isolated from 144 fecal samples from 29 preterm infants and analyzed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analyses included liner mixed models to determine which clinical factors affect Bacteroides colonization of the infant gut. Results We found that infants born via vaginal canal had a higher rate of increase in Bacteroides than infants born via Cesarean section (p<.001). We did not find significant associations between antibiotic administration and differences in nutritional exposures with Bacteroides colonization. Implications for Practice These findings highlight the significant influence of mode of birth on Bacteroides colonization. While mode of birth is not always modifiable, these study findings may help develop interventions for preterm infants born via Cesarean section aimed at overcoming delayed Bacteroides colonization. Implications for Research Greater study of the intestinal microbiome and the clinical factors relevant to the preterm infant is needed so that interventions may be developed and tested, resulting in optimal microbial and immune health. PMID:26551793

  2. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting < 0.4% of the area) lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  3. Alpha-Tocopherol prevents esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating PPARγ-Akt signaling pathway at the early stage of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiannan; Lu, Ping; Feng, Yongquan; Geng, Xue; Zhang, Lishi; Jia, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) emphasizes the urgent need to better understand the carcinogenesis and develop prevention strategies. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of using Vitamin E (tocopherols) for cancer chemoprevention, but the preventive activity of α-Tocopherol against ESCC remains to be elucidated. Our data showed that early-stage supplementation with α-Tocopherol significantly prevented esophageal carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) in ESCC rat model. In the Het-1A cell model, α-Tocopherol markedly suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle G2-phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Gene microarray and proteins array analysis indicated that Akt signaling was a potential target for α-Tocopherol. We further demonstrated that α-Tocopherol increased the expression of PPARγ and its downstream tumor suppressor PTEN. Knockdown of PPARγ activated Akt signaling transduction, whereas this process was attenuated by the presence of α-Tocopherol and PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. In contrast, the effect of α-Tocopherol on Akt inhibition was not observed in established tumors, neither in cancerous cell lines which constitutively expressed higher levels of PPARγ. These results were closely correlated with the ineffectiveness of α-Tocopherol in the late stage of ESCC carcinogenesis. Taken together, our study suggested that α-Tocopherol may serve as a PPARγ agonist for the chemoprevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:29221176

  4. Distinct Transcriptional Changes and Epithelial-stromal Interactions are Altered in Early Stage Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Allen; Jackson, Stephen; Varma, Kamini; Carpino, Alan; Giardina, Charles; Devers, Thomas J.; Rosenberg, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    While the progression of mutated colonic cells is dependent upon interactions between the initiated epithelium and surrounding stroma, the nature of these interactions is poorly understood. Here the development of an ultra-sensitive laser-capture microdissection (LCM)/RNA-seq approach for studying the epithelial and stromal compartments of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) is described. ACF are the earliest identifiable pre-neoplastic lesion found within the human colon and are detected using high-definition endoscopy with contrast dye-spray. The current analysis focused on the epithelium of ACF with somatic mutations to either KRAS, BRAF, or APC, with expression patterns compared to normal mucosa from each patient. By comparing gene expression patterns between groups, an increase in a number of pro-inflammatory NF-κB target genes were identified that were specific to ACF epithelium, including TIMP1, RELA and RELB. Distinct transcriptional changes associated with each somatic mutation were observed and a subset display a BRAFV600E-mediated senescence-associated transcriptome characterized by increased expression of CDKN2A. Finally, LCM-captured ACF-associated stroma was found to be transcriptionally distinct from normal stroma, with an up-regulation of genes related to immune cell infiltration and fibroblast activation. Immunofluorescence confirmed increased CD3+ T cells within the stromal microenvironment of ACF and an abundance of activated fibroblasts. Collectively, these results provide new insight into the cellular interplay that occurs at the earliest stages of colonic neoplasia, highlighting the important role of NF-kB, activated stromal fibroblasts and lymphocyte infiltration. Implications Fibroblasts and immune cells in the stromal microenvironment play an important role during the earliest stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:27353028

  5. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. PMID:27899502

  6. Deficient expression of DNA repair enzymes in early progression to sporadic colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancers often arise within an area of cells (e.g. an epithelial patch) that is predisposed to the development of cancer, i.e. a "field of cancerization" or "field defect." Sporadic colon cancer is characterized by an elevated mutation rate and genomic instability. If a field defect were deficient in DNA repair, DNA damages would tend to escape repair and give rise to carcinogenic mutations. Purpose To determine whether reduced expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf (pairing partner of Ercc1) are early steps in progression to colon cancer. Results Tissue biopsies were taken during colonoscopies of 77 patients at 4 different risk levels for colon cancer, including 19 patients who had never had colonic neoplasia (who served as controls). In addition, 158 tissue samples were taken from tissues near or within colon cancers removed by resection and 16 tissue samples were taken near tubulovillous adenomas (TVAs) removed by resection. 568 triplicate tissue sections (a total of 1,704 tissue sections) from these tissue samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for 4 DNA repair proteins. Substantially reduced protein expression of Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf occurred in field defects of up to 10 cm longitudinally distant from colon cancers or TVAs and within colon cancers. Expression of another DNA repair protein, Ku86, was infrequently reduced in these areas. When Pms2, Ercc1 or Xpf were reduced in protein expression, then either one or both of the other two proteins most often had reduced protein expression as well. The mean inner colon circumferences, from 32 resections, of the ascending, transverse and descending/sigmoid areas were measured as 6.6 cm, 5.8 cm and 6.3 cm, respectively. When combined with other measurements in the literature, this indicates the approximate mean number of colonic crypts in humans is 10 million. Conclusions The substantial deficiencies in protein expression of DNA repair proteins Pms2, Ercc1 and Xpf in about 1 million

  7. Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization: A randomized trial from Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Byberg, Stine; Hervig Jacobsen, Lars; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Martins, Cesario; Aaby, Peter; Skov Jensen, Jørgen; Stabell Benn, Christine; Whittle, Hilton

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection. Objective We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. Method The study was conducted in 2013–2014 in Guinea-Bissau. Pneumococcal vaccine was not part of the vaccination program. Infants aged 18 weeks were block-randomized 2:1 to early or no early MV; at age 9 months, all children were offered MV as per current policy. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at baseline, age 6.5 months, and age 9 months. Pneumococcal density was determined by q-PCR. Prevalence ratios of pneumococcal colonization and recent antibiotic treatment (yes/no) by age 6.5 months (PR6.5) and age 9 months (PR9) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates while the pneumococcal geometric mean ratio (GMR6.5 and GMR9) was obtained using OLS regression. Results Analyses included 512 children; 346 early MV-children and 166 controls. At enrolment, the pneumococcal colonization prevalence was 80% (411/512). Comparing early MV-children with controls, the PR6.5 was 1.02 (95%CI = 0.94–1.10), and the PR9 was 1.04 (0.96–1.12). The GMR6.5 was 1.02 (0.55–1.89), and the GMR9 was 0.69 (0.39–1.21). Early MV-children tended to be less frequently treated with antibiotics prior to follow up (PR6.5 0.60 (0.34–1.05) and PR9 0.87 (0.50–1.53)). Antibiotic treatment was associated with considerably lower colonization rates, PR6.5 0.85 (0.71–1.01) and PR9 0.66 (0.52–0.84), as well as lower pneumococcal density, GMR6.5 0.32 (0.12–0.86) and GMR9 0.52 (0.18–1.52). Conclusion Early MV at age 18 weeks had no measurable effect on pneumococcal colonization prevalence or density. Higher consumption of

  8. Multifaceted Role of IRAK-M in the Promotion of Colon Carcinogenesis via Barrier Dysfunction and STAT3 Oncoprotein Stabilization in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Brendan J

    2016-05-09

    Dysregulated interactions between the host immune system and gut microbiota can underpin inflammation, leading to colorectal cancer (CRC). In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kesselring et al. reveal a bimodal role of the TLR/IL-1R-signaling negative regulator, IRAK-M, in promoting tumoral microbial colonization and STAT3 oncoprotein stabilization during CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteers (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  10. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications. PMID:18932273

  11. Alterations in biomechanical properties and microstructure of colon wall in early-stage experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaohui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Lin, Sisi; Cheng, Yu; Tong, Jianhua; Li, Yongyu

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of early-stage dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis on the biomechanical properties and microstructure of colon walls. In the present study, colitis was induced in 8-week-old mice by the oral administration of DSS, and then 10 control and 10 experimental colitis samples were harvested. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to measure the ultimate tensile strength and ultimate stretches of colon tissues. In addition, histological investigations were performed to characterize changes in the microstructure of the colon wall following treatment. The results revealed that the ultimate tensile stresses were 232±33 and 183±25 kPa for the control and DSS groups, respectively (P=0.001). Ultimate stretches at rupture for the control and DSS groups were 1.43±0.04 and 1.51±0.06, respectively (P=0.006). However, there was no statistically significant difference in tissue stiffness between the two groups. Histological analysis demonstrated high numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrated into the stroma in the DSS group, leading to significant submucosa edema. Hyperplasia was also identified in the DSS-treated submucosa, causing a disorganized microstructure within the colon wall. Furthermore, a large number of collagen fibers in the DSS-treated muscular layer were disrupted, and fiber bundles were thinner when compared with the control group. In conclusion, early-stage experimental colitis alters the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the colon walls, further contributing to tissue remodeling in the pathological process.

  12. Evaluation of an in vitro faecal degradation method for early assessment of the impact of colonic degradation on colonic absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Tannergren, Christer; Borde, Anders; Boreström, Cecilia; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro method to investigate bacterial-mediated luminal degradation of drugs in colon in humans. This would be a valuable tool for the assessment of drug candidates during early drug development, especially for compounds intended to be developed as oral extended release formulations. Freshly prepared faecal homogenate from healthy human volunteers (n=3-18), dog (n=6) and rat (colon and caecal content, n=3) was homogenised with 3.8 parts (w/w) physiological saline under anaerobical conditions. Four model compounds (almokalant, budesonide, ximelagatran and metoprolol) were then incubated (n=3-18) separately in the human faecal homogenate for up to 120min at 37°C. In addition, ximelagatran was also incubated in the faecal or colonic content from dog and rat. The mean (±SD) in vitro half-life for almokalant, budesonide and ximelagatran was 39±1, 68±21 and 26±12min, respectively, in the human faecal homogenate. Metoprolol was found to be stable in the in vitro model. The in vitro degradation data was then compared to literature data on fraction absorbed after direct colon administration in humans. The percentage of drug remaining after 60min of in vitro incubation correlated (R(2)=0.90) with the fraction absorbed from colon in humans. The mean in vitro half-life of ximelagatran was similar in human faeces (26±12min) and rat colon content (34±31min), but significantly (p<0.05) longer in rat caecum content (50±11min) and dog faeces (126±17min). The in vitro method is in vivo relevant both qualitatively as all the model drugs that undergoes colonic degradation in vivo was rapidly degraded in the faecal homogenates as well as quantitatively since a correlation was established between percentage degraded in vitro at 60min and fraction absorbed in the colon for the model drugs, which have no other absorption limiting properties. Also, the method is easy to use from a technical point of view, which suggests

  13. Limited Colonization Undermined by Inadequate Early Immune Responses Defines the Dynamics of Decidual Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Tagliani, Elisa; Manandhar, Priyanka; Erlebacher, Adrian; Bakardjiev, Anna I

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne systemic disease in pregnant women, which can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo A high inoculum was necessary to infect both human and mouse deciduas, and the data support the existence of a barrier to initial colonization of the murine decidua. If successful, however, colonization in both species was followed by significant bacterial expansion associated with an inability of the decidua to mount appropriate innate cellular immune responses. The innate immune deficits included the failure of bacterial foci to attract macrophages and NK cells, cell types known to be important for early defenses against L. monocytogenes in the spleen, as well as a decrease in the tissue density of inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes in vivo These results suggest that the infectivity of the decidua is not the result of an enhanced recruitment of L. monocytogenes to the gestational uterus but rather is due to compromised local innate cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    PubMed

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  15. OC28 - Effect of mode of delivery on early oral colonization and childhood dental caries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Antão, Celeste; Teixeira, Cristina; Gomes, Maria José

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Multidisciplinary team working. Oral colonization starts at birth by vertical transmission. To determine whether mode of delivery influences the oral colonization of infants and contributes to the risk of childhood dental caries. A systematic review was conducted in the electronic database Web of Science for articles published from January 1995 to December 2015 by using a set of keywords. From 2,644 citations identified through electronic search, ten studies met the inclusion criteria. According to the studies mode of delivery influences oral microbial density, oral microbial profile and the timing of oral colonization by cariogenic microbiota. However, there are no consistent results concerning either the prevalence of children harboring cariogenic microbiota or the prevalence of early childhood caries by mode of delivery. Mode of delivery influences early oral colonization. However, it seems that other determinants rather than mode of delivery could be major contributors to the development of early childhood caries.

  16. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods.

  17. The Osteogenic Niche Promotes Early-Stage Bone Colonization of Disseminated Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Yu, Cuijuan; Gao, Xia; Welte, Thomas; Muscarella, Aaron M.; Tian, Lin; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Zhen; Du, Shiyu; Tao, Jianning; Lee, Brendan; Westbrook, Thomas F.; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Jin, Xin; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Osborne, C. Kent; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer bone micrometastases can remain asymptomatic for years before progressing into overt lesions. The biology of this process, including the microenvironment niche and supporting pathways, is unclear. We find that bone micrometastases predominantly reside in a niche that exhibits features of osteogenesis. Niche interactions are mediated by heterotypic adherens junctions (hAJs) involving cancer-derived E-cadherin and osteogenic N-cadherin, the disruption of which abolishes niche-conferred advantages. We further elucidate that hAJ activates the mTOR pathway in cancer cells, which drives the progression from single cells to micrometastases. Human datasets analyses support the roles of AJ and the mTOR pathway in bone colonization. Our study illuminates the initiation of bone colonization, and provides potential therapeutic targets to block progression toward osteolytic metastases. Significance In advanced stages, breast cancer bone metastases are driven by paracrine crosstalk among cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, which constitute a vicious osteolytic cycle. Current therapies targeting this process limit tumor progression, but do not improve patient survival. On the other hand, bone micrometastases may remain indolent for years before activating the vicious cycle, providing a therapeutic opportunity to prevent macrometastases. Here, we show that bone colonization is initiated in a microenvironment niche exhibiting active osteogenesis. Cancer and osteogenic cells form heterotypic adherens junctions, which enhance mTOR activity and drive early-stage bone colonization prior to osteolysis. These results reveal a strong connection between osteogenesis and micrometastasis and suggest potential therapeutic targets to prevent bone macrometastases. PMID:25600338

  18. CBP and Extracellular Matrix-Induced Apoptosis in p53(-) HMECs: A Model of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    LAMA3A promoter activity. Early and late passage HMEC-E6 and passage-matched HMEC- LXSN controls were transiently transfected with a CAT reporter...CBP protein expression resulted in decreased LAMA3A promoter activity. LAMA3A- CAT reporter activity was compared in early passage HMEC-LXSN and HMEC...AF279435 was amplified with PCR primers, sense 5-AAG CTT AAG TTT TCC CAT CCG CAA C-3 and antisense 5-TCT AGA GCT GAC CGC CTC ACT GC-3. The PCR

  19. Promoting effects of potassium dibasic phosphate on early-stage renal carcinogenesis in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Hiasa, Y; Konishi, N; Nakaoka, S; Nakamura, T; Nishii, K; Ohshima, M

    1992-07-01

    The effects of potassium dibasic phosphate (PDP), potassium aluminum sulfate (PAS) and copper sulfate (CS) on early-stage renal carcinogenesis were investigated in unilaterally nephrectomized male Wistar rats after N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine (EHEN) administration. After feeding 1,000 ppm EHEN, or basal diet for 2 weeks and removal of the left kidney at week 3, male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 20 rats each. These groups received the following dietary treatments: 50,000 ppm PDP, 50,000 ppm PAS, 5,000 ppm CS or basal diet, respectively, for 18 weeks from weeks 3 to 20. The average numbers of adenomatous hyperplasias counted as preneoplastic lesions in the EHEN with 50,000 ppm PDP group were significantly higher than in the EHEN alone group or the EHEN followed by 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS group. The treatment with 50,000 ppm PDP induced renal calcification and promoted the development of preneoplastic lesions in unilaterally nephrectomized rats treated with EHEN, but that with 50,000 ppm PAS or 5,000 ppm CS did not.

  20. Small bait traps as accurate predictors of dipteran early colonizers in forensic studies

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G.; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases. PMID:25373224

  1. Protein and glycomic plasma markers for early detection of adenoma and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rho, Jung-Hyun; Ladd, Jon J; Li, Christopher I; Potter, John D; Zhang, Yuzheng; Shelley, David; Shibata, David; Coppola, Domenico; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Toyoda, Hidenori; Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Brenner, Dean E; Hanash, Samir M; Lampe, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    To discover and confirm blood-based colon cancer early-detection markers. We created a high-density antibody microarray to detect differences in protein levels in plasma from individuals diagnosed with colon cancer <3 years after blood was drawn (ie, prediagnostic) and cancer-free, matched controls. Potential markers were tested on plasma samples from people diagnosed with adenoma or cancer, compared with controls. Components of an optimal 5-marker panel were tested via immunoblotting using a third sample set, Luminex assay in a large fourth sample set and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays. In the prediagnostic samples, we found 78 significantly (t-test) increased proteins, 32 of which were confirmed in the diagnostic samples. From these 32, optimal 4-marker panels of BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 4 (BAG4), interleukin-6 receptor subunit beta (IL6ST), von Willebrand factor (VWF) and CD44 or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were established. Each panel member and the panels also showed increases in the diagnostic adenoma and cancer samples in independent third and fourth sample sets via immunoblot and Luminex, respectively. IHC results showed increased levels of BAG4, IL6ST and CD44 in adenoma and cancer tissues. Inclusion of EGFR and CD44 sialyl Lewis-A and Lewis-X content increased the panel performance. The protein/glycoprotein panel was statistically significantly higher in colon cancer samples, characterised by a range of area under the curves from 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.98) to 0.86 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.88), for the larger second and fourth sets, respectively. A panel including BAG4, IL6ST, VWF, EGFR and CD44 protein/glycomics performed well for detection of early stages of colon cancer and should be further examined in larger studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Effective chemotherapy of heterogeneous and drug-resistant early colon cancers by intermittent dose schedules: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, David E; Vedula, Sudeepti; Obaniyi, James

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy is limited by intra-tumor heterogeneity, the emergence of spontaneous and induced drug-resistant mutant subclones, and the maximum dose to which normal tissues can be exposed without adverse side effects. The goal of this project was to determine if intermittent schedules of the maximum dose that allows colon crypt maintenance could overcome these limitations, specifically by eliminating mixtures of drug-resistant mutants from heterogeneous early colon adenomas while maintaining colon crypt function. A computer model of cell dynamics in human colon crypts was calibrated with measurements of human biopsy specimens. The model allowed simulation of continuous and intermittent dose schedules of a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug, as well as the drug's effect on the elimination of mutant cells and the maintenance of crypt function. Colon crypts can tolerate a tenfold greater intermittent dose than constant dose. This allows elimination of a mixture of relatively drug-sensitive and drug-resistant mutant subclones from heterogeneous colon crypts. Mutants can be eliminated whether they arise spontaneously or are induced by the cytotoxic drug. An intermittent dose, at the maximum that allows colon crypt maintenance, can be effective in eliminating a heterogeneous mixture of mutant subclones before they fill the crypt and form an adenoma.

  3. Optical redox ratio differentiates early tissue transformations in DMBA-induced hamster oral carcinogenesis based on autofluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethupathi, R.; Gurushankar, K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2016-11-01

    Fluorescence intensity measurements have the potential to facilitate the diagnoses of many pathological conditions. The changes in fluorescence intensity may be influenced by factors such as tissue architectures, endogenous fluorophores, cellular metabolism and light penetration depth in tissue. Two of the most diagnostically important endogenous fluorophores are reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which can be used to monitor dramatic metabolic changes in cells and tissues. The goal of this study is to investigate changes in the endogenous fluorophore emission and to quantify metabolic changes in the redox state of various tissue transformation conditions with respect to control tissues in dimethyl benz[a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster oral carcinogenesis for measuring emission spectrum at 320 nm excitation. In the present study, collagen, NADH and FAD emission of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC) showed decreased intensity at ~385 nm, ~450 nm and ~520 nm compared to hyperplasia, dysplasia and control tissues. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio is observed in WDSCC tissues, which indicates an increased metabolic activity compared to the control tissues. Moreover, the principal component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) algorithm together with the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method yield an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 77.7% and a specificity of 88.8% in the classification of control, hyperplasia, dysplasia and WDSCC tissues, respectively. The results from this study demonstrated that fluorescence-based tissue analysis combined with PC-LDA has tremendous potential for the effective discrimination of control from neoplastic tissues; furthermore it also detects early neoplastic changes prior to definite morphologic alteration.

  4. In vivo SPECT imaging with 111In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) to detect early pancreatic cancer in a hamster pancreatic carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Takuya; Mutoh, Michihiro; Imai, Toshio; Tsuda, Keisuke; Kimura, Sadaaki; Umeda, Izumi O; Fujii, Hirofumi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2012-05-01

    Early detection of pancreatic cancer is key to overcoming its poor prognosis. α(v)β(3)-integrin is often overexpressed in pancreatic tumor cells, whereas it is scarcely expressed in normal pancreatic cells. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of SPECT imaging with (111)In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacylododecane-N,N',N″,N'''-tetraacetic acid-cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Lys) [(111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK)], an imaging probe of α(v)β(3)-integrin, for the early detection of pancreatic cancer in a hamster pancreatic carcinogenesis model. Hamsters were subcutaneously injected with the pancreatic duct carcinogen N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine to induce pancreatic cancer. N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-treated hamsters underwent in vivo SPECT with (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK). After imaging, the tumor-to-normal pancreatic tissue radioactivity ratios in excised pancreatic samples were measured with autoradiography (ARG) and compared with the immunopathologic findings for α(v)β(3)-integrin. In a mouse model in which inflammation was induced with turpentine, the uptake of (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) in inflammatory regions was evaluated with ARG and compared with that of (18)F-FDG. (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) was clearly visualized in pancreatic cancer lesions as small as 3 mm in diameter. ARG analysis revealed high tumor-to-normal pancreatic tissue radioactivity ratios (4.6 ± 1.0 [mean ± SD] in adenocarcinoma and 3.3 ± 1.4 in atypical hyperplasia). The uptake of (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) strongly correlated with α(v)β(3)-integrin expression. In the inflammatory model, inflammation-to-muscle ratios for (18)F-FDG and (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) were 8.37 ± 4.37 and 1.98 ± 0.60, respectively. These results imply that (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) has a lower rate of false-positive tumor detection than (18)F-FDG. Our findings suggest that SPECT with (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) has great potential for the early and accurate detection of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciT

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  6. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciT

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantlymore » more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  7. Early colonization of thermal niches in a silica-depositing hot spring in central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Lau, C Y; Aitchison, J C; Pointing, S B

    2008-03-01

    Thermophilic microbial mats dominated by the anoxygenic phototroph Roseiflexus castenholzii commonly develop around sinter-depositing geysers in the Daggyai Tso geothermal field of central Tibet. In this study we used morphological and molecular genetic techniques to reveal a diverse pioneer biofilm community including both archaea and bacteria involved in early colonization of such thermal niches at temperatures ranging from 46 to 77 degrees C. Sinter precipitation and biomineralization were evident at all locations, but the latter was selective between taxa and most evident on filamentous cells. Evidence for possible indirect biosignatures from biofilms overwhelmed by sinter deposition was found. Succession to a mature community appeared to relate to the growth rate for key taxa outpacing that of silicification within an optimum temperature range of 54-61 degrees C. The thin surface layer of silicification-resistant cyanobacteria that developed on the surface of mature mats may play a role in preventing biomineralization of the susceptible R. castenholzii beneath within these communities.

  8. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    DOE PAGES

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel; ...

    2015-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  9. Longitudinal investigation of nasopharyngeal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in early infancy: The PATCH birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Shih, H-J; Liao, S-L; Hua, M-C; Huang, S-H; Yao, T-C; Lai, S-H; Huang, T-S; Yeh, K-W; Chen, L-C; Su, K-W; Lim, W-H; Chang, Y-J; Chiang, C-H; Huang, S-Y; Huang, J-L

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the long-term Staphylococcus aureus colonization patterns and strain relatedness, and the association between maternal and infant colonization in infancy. A birth cohort study was conducted from January 2012 to November 2014. Nasopharyngeal swabs for S. aureus detection were collected from infants at the age of 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months and from mothers when their children were 1-month-old. In total, 254 samples were collected at each planned visit during the first 12-month study. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization decreased in the first year of life, ranging from 61.0% (155/254) at the age of 1 month to 12.2% (31/254) at 12 months. Persistent colonization, defined as a positive culture on four or five occasions, was detected in only 13.8% (35/254) of carriers. Most of the persistent carriers were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) only, and among persistent MRSA carriers, 61.1% (11/18) had indistinguishable genotypes. Of the mothers with MRSA colonization, 77.1% (27/35) had infants who were concomitantly colonized at the age of 1 month; 70.4% (19/27) of the infant-mother paired isolates belonged to indistinguishable or related subtypes, which suggests that surrounding carriers, probably their mothers, may be the possible source for MRSA acquisition in early infancy. Staphylococcus aureus colonization including MRSA was commonly observed in our cohort. Strains of persistent MRSA among infant-mother pairs were usually of indistinguishable genotypes. Therefore, horizontal spread within households is possibly an important factor related to infant MRSA colonization. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of early preoperative 5-fluorouracil on the integrity of colonic anastomoses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozel, Leyla; Ozel, M Sefa; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Kara, Melih; Ozkan, Kemal Sırrı; Tellioglu, Gurkan; Krand, Osman; Koyuturk, Meral; Berber, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of chemotherapy on wound healing by giving early preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to rats with colonic anastomoses. METHODS: Sixty Albino-Wistar male rats (median weight, 235 g) were used in this study. The rats were fed with standard laboratory food and given tap water ad libitum. The animals were divided into three groups: Group 1: Control group (chemotherapy was not administered), Group 2: Intraperitoneally (IP) administered 5-FU group (chemotherapy was administered IP to animals at a dose of 20 mg/kg daily during the 5 d preceeding surgery), Group 3: Intravenously (IV) administered 5-FU group. Chemotherapy was administered via the penil vein, using the same dosing scheme and duration as the second group. After a 3-d rest to minimize the side effects of chemotherapy, both groups underwent surgery. One centimeter of colon was resected 2 cm proximally from the peritoneal reflection, then sutured intermittently and subsequently end-to-end anastomosed. In each group, half the animals were given anaesthesia on the 3rd postoperative (PO) day and the other half on the 7th PO day, for in vivo analytic procedures. The abdominal incisions in the rats were dissected, all the new and old anastomotic segments were clearly seen and bursting pressures of each anastomotic segment, tissue hydroxyproline levels and DNA content were determined to assess the histologic tissue repair process. RESULTS: When the IV group was compared with the IP group, bursting pressures of the anastomotic segments on the 3rd and 7th PO days, were found to be significantly decreased, hydroxyproline levels at the anastomotic segment on the 7th PO day were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this study, we conclude that early preoperative 5-FU, administered IV, negatively affects wound healing. However, IP administered 5-FU does not negatively affect wound healing. PMID:19725150

  11. Recurrence of Early Stage Colon Cancer Predicted by Expression Pattern of Circulating microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Shivapurkar, Narayan; Weiner, Louis M.; Marshall, John L.; Madhavan, Subha; Deslattes Mays, Anne; Juhl, Hartmut; Wellstein, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Systemic treatment of patients with early-stage cancers attempts to eradicate occult metastatic disease to prevent recurrence and increased morbidity. However, prediction of recurrence from an analysis of the primary tumor is limited because disseminated cancer cells only represent a small subset of the primary lesion. Here we analyze the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs) in serum obtained pre-surgically from patients with early stage colorectal cancers. Groups of five patients with and without disease recurrence were used to identify an informative panel of circulating miRs using quantitative PCR of genome-wide miR expression as well as a set of published candidate miRs. A panel of six informative miRs (miR-15a, mir-103, miR-148a, miR-320a, miR-451, miR-596) was derived from this analysis and evaluated in a separate validation set of thirty patients. Hierarchical clustering of the expression levels of these six circulating miRs and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the risk of disease recurrence of early stage colon cancer can be predicted by this panel of miRs that are measurable in the circulation at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.0026; Hazard Ratio 5.4; 95% CI of 1.9 to 15). PMID:24400111

  12. Malrotation with transverse colon volvulus in early pregnancy: a rare cause for acute intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Digvijoy; Parameshwaran, Rajesh; Dani, Tushar; Shetty, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a relatively uncommon cause of large bowel obstruction, accounting for 10% of colonic obstructions. Volvulus of the transverse colon is quite rare, accounting for only 4–11% of all reported cases. We report an unusual case of documented volvulus of the transverse colon in a pregnant woman with intestinal malrotation and concomitant acute intestinal obstruction by congenital bands and adhesions. PMID:23964051

  13. Subgingival Microbiome Colonization and Cytokine Production during Early Dental Implant Healing.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Paul G; Kok, Car Reen; Gomes-Neto, João C; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Schmid, Marian J; Hutkins, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal development of the peri-implant subgingival microbiome and cytokine production as a new sulcus forms after dental implant placement. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to evaluate simultaneous longitudinal changes in the oral microbiome and cytokine production in the developing peri-implant sulcus compared to control natural teeth. Four and 12 weeks after implant placement and abutment connection, a dental implant and a natural tooth were sampled in 25 patients for subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF [around teeth] and peri-implant crevicular fluid [PICF] around implants). DNA from plaque samples was extracted and sequenced using Illumina-based 16S rRNA sequencing. GCF and PICF samples were analyzed using a customized Milliplex human cytokine and chemokine magnetic bead panel. Beta diversity analysis revealed that natural teeth and implants had similar subgingival microbiomes, while teeth had greater alpha diversity than implants. At the genus level, however, few differences were noted between teeth and dental implants over 12 weeks. Specifically, Actinomyces and Selenomonas were significantly elevated around teeth versus dental implants at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks, while Corynebacterium and Campylobacter were significantly elevated only at 4 weeks around teeth. The only difference between PICF and GCF biomarkers was significantly elevated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels around teeth versus dental implants at the 4-week visit. The subgingival microbiome and cytokine production were similar between teeth and implants during early healing, suggesting that these profiles are driven by the patient following dental implant placement and are not determined by anatomical niche. IMPORTANCE Dental implants are a common treatment option offered to patients for tooth replacement. However, little is known regarding initial colonization of the subgingival microbiome and

  14. Early colonization of functional groups of microbes in the infant gut.

    PubMed

    Pham, Van T; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian P; Chassard, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The colonization of the infant gut is crucial for early life development. Although the composition and diversity of the infant gut microbiota (GM) has been well described at a taxonomic level, functional aspects of this ecosystem remain unexplored. In the infant gut, lactate is produced by a number of bacteria and plays an important role in the trophic chain of the fermentation process. However, little is known about the lactate-utilizing bacteria (LUB) community in infants and their impact on gut health. By combining culture-based and molecular methods, we intensively studied LUB in fecal samples of 40 healthy infants on both taxonomic and functional levels. We demonstrated metabolic cross-feeding of lactate and identified keystone species specified for lactate utilization. The interactions of such species and their metabolic outcome could have direct impacts on infant health, either beneficial (production of short chain fatty acids) or detrimental (accumulation of hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide). We identified mode of delivery as a strong determinant for lactate-producing and -utilizing bacteria levels. These findings present the early establishment of GM with a novel perspective and emphasize the importance of lactate utilization in infancy. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Solid Waste Processing: An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergic, technocentric approach estimate that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems. Hence, any early missions will require the presence of a closed life support system where all wastes, both solids and liquids, will need to be recycled or where all consumables will need to be supplied. The economics of both are often a matter of speculation and conjecture, but some attempt is made here to evaluate the choice. If a choice is made to completely resupply and eject the waste mass, a number of unknown issues are at hand. On the other hand, processing of the wastes, will enable predictability and reliability of the ecosystem. Solid wastes though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes contains more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Further, if left unprocessed they present a serious risk to human health. This paper presents the use of well established technology in processing solid wastes, ensuring that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.

  16. Association Between Early Childhood Caries and Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes From Mothers.

    PubMed

    Childers, Noel K; Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R; Wiener, Howard W; Ghazal, Tariq S; Ruby, John D; Moser, Stephen A

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus mutans genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Sixty-nine infants (each approximately one year old) had periodic oral examinations (dmfs) and microbial samples collected from dental plaque, saliva, and other oral surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. S mutans isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of S mutans in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Twenty-seven S mutans genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT match (n equals 40) or no-match (n equals 29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36 months (approximately four years old), the estimated dmfs in the match group was 2.61 times that of the no-match group (P=.014). Colonization of children with Streptococcus mutans genotypes that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with early childhood caries. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of S mutans in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the S mutans. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health.

  17. Maternal Antibiotic-Induced Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Colonic Permeability and Inducible Heat Shock Proteins, and Digesta Concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase and TLR-Stimulants in Swine Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  18. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In

  19. β-HPV Infection Correlates with Early Stages of Carcinogenesis in Skin Tumors and Patient-Derived Xenografts from a Kidney Transplant Recipient Cohort.

    PubMed

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Calati, Federica; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Savoia, Paola; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Patel, Girish K; Gariglio, Marisa

    2018-01-01

    Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years). These infected tissues displayed intraepidermal hyperplasia and increased expression of the ΔNp63 protein, which extended into the upper epithelial layers. In addition, using a xenograft model system in nude mice displaying a humanized stromal bed in the site of grafting, we successfully engrafted three AKs, two of which were derived from the aforementioned KTRs and displayed β-HPV infection in the original tumor. Of note, one AK-derived xenograft, along with its ensuing lymph node metastasis, was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the latter, both β-HPV infection and ΔNp63 expression were no longer detectable. Although the overall success rate of engrafting was very low, the results of this study show for the first time that β-HPV + and ΔNp63 + intraepidermal hyperplasia can indeed progress to an aggressive SCC able to metastasize. Consistent with a series of reports attributing a causative role of β-HPV at early stages of skin carcinogenesis through ΔNp63 induction and increased keratinocytes stemness, here we provide in vivo evidence that

  20. β-HPV Infection Correlates with Early Stages of Carcinogenesis in Skin Tumors and Patient-Derived Xenografts from a Kidney Transplant Recipient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Calati, Federica; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Savoia, Paola; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Patel, Girish K.; Gariglio, Marisa

    2018-01-01

    Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years). These infected tissues displayed intraepidermal hyperplasia and increased expression of the ΔNp63 protein, which extended into the upper epithelial layers. In addition, using a xenograft model system in nude mice displaying a humanized stromal bed in the site of grafting, we successfully engrafted three AKs, two of which were derived from the aforementioned KTRs and displayed β-HPV infection in the original tumor. Of note, one AK-derived xenograft, along with its ensuing lymph node metastasis, was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the latter, both β-HPV infection and ΔNp63 expression were no longer detectable. Although the overall success rate of engrafting was very low, the results of this study show for the first time that β-HPV+ and ΔNp63+ intraepidermal hyperplasia can indeed progress to an aggressive SCC able to metastasize. Consistent with a series of reports attributing a causative role of β-HPV at early stages of skin carcinogenesis through ΔNp63 induction and increased keratinocytes stemness, here we provide in vivo evidence that

  1. Association of Colonization with Streptococcus mutans Genotypes from Mothers and Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Noel K.; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Cutter, Gary R.; Wiener, Howard W.; Ghazal, Tariq S.; Ruby, John D.; Moser, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated Streptococcus mutans (Sm) genotypes (GT) between mother and child (M-C) in a high caries risk cohort to explore the association with early childhood caries (ECC). Methods Sixty-nine infants (~1 year-old) had periodic oral examination (dmfs) and collection of microbial samples from dental plaque, saliva and oral other surfaces. Their mothers had an examination and plaque collected. Sm isolates were genotyped using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (rep-PCR). Statistical analyses were conducted for associations of Sm in M-C dyads with caries outcomes. Results Twenty-seven Sm genotypes (GT) from 3,414 isolates were identified. M-C were categorized as GT Match (N=40) or no-Match (N=29). When modeling the severity of ECC at 36-months (~4 years old), the estimated dmfs in the Match group was 2.61 times that in the no-Match group (P=.014). Conclusions Colonization of children with Sm GT that matched with mothers was shown to be highly associated with ECC. Although the data suggest vertical transmission of Sm in 40 of 69 children that shared GT with their mother, it is possible that other individuals transmitted the Sm. Nonetheless, these findings support the importance of the mother's oral microbial status as a contributing influence to their children's oral health. PMID:28390463

  2. Management of early colonic neoplasia: where are we now and where are we heading?

    PubMed

    Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    There have been considerable advances in the endoscopic treatment of colorectal neoplasia. The development of endoscopic submucosal dissection and full thickness resection techniques is changing the way benign disease and early cancers are managed. This article reviews the evidence behind these new techniques and discusses where this field is likely to move in the future. Areas covered: A PubMed literature review of resection techniques for colonic neoplasia was performed. The clinical and cost effectiveness of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is examined. The development of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and knife assisted resection is described and issues around training reviewed. Efficacy is compared to both EMR and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. The future is considered, including full thickness resection techniques and robotic endoscopy. Expert commentary: The perceived barriers to ESD are falling, and views that such techniques are only possible in Japan are disappearing. The key barriers to uptake will be training, and the development of educational programmes should be seen as a priority. The debate between TEMS and ESD will continue, but ESD is more flexible and cheaper. This will become less significant as the number of endoscopists trained in ESD grows and some TEMS surgeons may shift across towards ESD.

  3. Inflammatory and redox reactions in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guina, Tina; Biasi, Fiorella; Calfapietra, Simone; Nano, Mario; Poli, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that there is a relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. The constant colonic inflammation typical of inflammatory bowel diseases is now considered a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. The inflammatory network of signaling molecules is also required during the late phases of carcinogenesis, to enable cancer cells to survive and to metastasize. Oxidative reactions are an integral part of the inflammatory response, and are generally associated with CRC development. However, when the malignant phenotype is acquired, increased oxidative status induces antioxidant defenses in cancer cells, favoring their aggressiveness. This contradictory behavior of cancer cells toward redox status is of great significance for potential anticancer therapies. This paper summarizes the essential background information relating to the molecules involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation during carcinogenesis. Understanding more of their function in CRC stages might provide the foundation for future developments in CRC treatment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Newly defined aberrant crypt foci as a marker for dysplasia in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Masako; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Izumiya, Masashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Dysplasia represents a preneoplastic status in multistep colon carcinogenesis. Whereas laborious preparation of thin sections is required for its diagnosis, we here show that newly defined aberrant crypt foci (ACF) simply mark the majority of the dysplasia on the whole colon. Specifically, decoloring of the azoxymethane-treated rat colon after scoring classical ACF (cACF) resulted in visualization of a subset of aberrant crypts that remained densely stained. They were morphologically classified into three subtypes, of which two with compressed luminal openings proved highly correlated with dysplasia. Accordingly, we designated those foci harboring either of the two crypt subtypes as dysplasia-associated ACF (dACF). By serially applying different detection methods for known preneoplastic lesions to the same colon, we showed that most dACF had already been identified as cACF, and a few newly identified dACF contained an entire population of more advanced lesions, such as flat ACF and mucin-depleted foci. Consequently, integrative scoring of cACF and dACF enabled capture of all early lesions of the colon. Furthermore, 94% of the dACF showed dysplasia and 90% of the dysplastic lesions proved to be dACF. Thus, dACF is a promising marker for dysplasia, likely facilitating precise identification of the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24827115

  5. Palaeoenvironmental and coastal changes within the context of early Phoenician colonization in the southern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Marzoli, Dirce; Moret, Pierre; Brill, Dominik; León Martín, César; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, new chronological data resulted in a re-evaluation of the timing of initial Phoenician colonization in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Against this background, follow-up archaeological studies aimed at improving our understanding of the early contact with the local indigenous population, trading patterns, and knowledge exchange during the time of the first Phoenician colonial settlements. Separated by a distance of only 40 km, and situated in the northwest and northeast of the Strait of Gibraltar (Andalusia, Spain) and thus in a strategically important - yet understudied - area, two of the most important Late Bronze/Early Iron Age settlements in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, La Silla del Papa (Cádiz) and Los Castillejos de Alcorrín (Málaga), have been subject to archaeological investigations during the recent past. Previous geoscientific studies carried out in the lower Río Guadiaro valley and in the direct vicinity of the Phoenician settlement Montilla some 10 km southwest of Alcorrín during the mid-eighties lacked detail, particularly in terms of chronological resolution. Thus, ongoing geoarchaeological research embedded in a German-French DFG-funded interdisciplinary project ("Archeostraits") aims at (i) deciphering palaeoenvironmental and coastal changes in the surroundings of the two mentioned settlements throughout the mid- to late Holocene; (ii) constraining palaeoenvironmental conditions during early Phoenician colonization; and (iii) better understanding human-environment interactions during the Iron Age. This study presents first data collected within the framework of the "Archeostraits" project in the surroundings of both the Atlantic (La Silla del Papa) and Mediterranean (Los Castillejos de Alcorrín) areas of research during two field campaigns in 2015. Research permits were granted by the Consejería de Cultura, Junta de Andalucía. The preliminary interpretation of coring transects along the lower Río Guadiaro (M

  6. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Progress in the early diagnosis of cancer of the colon and rectum].

    PubMed

    Canessa, N; Roset, J; Boffi, A; Ferrara, J B; Galano, A; Albertengo, J C

    1978-09-01

    Our experience with the air contrast examination in the cancer of colon and rectum diagnoses is showed. The colaboration among radiologist, endoscopist, pathologist and surgeon is important. In the large bowel tumors diagnosis, the radiologic and endoscopic prodedures should be evaluated together. The double colonic contrast has showed in our experience, better results than with the barium enema. Over 31 patients with both studies, we obtained 13 false negatives (with barium enema, doing then the double colonic contrast became positive 12 (92.4%).

  8. The Aegean in the Early 7th Millennium BC: Maritime Networks and Colonization.

    PubMed

    Horejs, B; Milić, B; Ostmann, F; Thanheiser, U; Weninger, B; Galik, A

    link this background of newcomers to the western edge of Anatolia with new excavation results from Çukuriçi Höyük, which we have analysed in terms of subsistence strategies, materiality, technology and symbolism. Additionally, further detailed studies of nutrition and obsidian procurement shed light on the distinct maritime affinity of the early settlers in our case study, something that, in our view, can hardly be attributed to inland farming societies. We propose a maritime colonization in the 7th millennium via routes from the eastern Mediterranean to the eastern Aegean, based on previously developed sea networks. The pronounced maritime affinity of these farming and herding societies allows us to identify traces of earlier PPN concepts still embedded in the social-cultural memories of the newcomers and incorporated in a new local and regional Neolithic identity.

  9. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    PubMed

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J.; Lee, Anne CC; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Tan, Jingwen; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early-onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection (excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections) in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies of maternal infection, vertical transmission, and neonatal infection published from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2013. Studies were included that reported effect measures on the risk of neonatal infection among newborns exposed to maternal infection. Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool data and calculate the odds ratio estimates of risk of infection. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies (8.4%) were from high neonatal mortality settings. Considerable heterogeneity existed between studies given the various definitions of laboratory-confirmed and clinical signs of infection, as well as for colonization and risk factors. The odds ratio for neonatal lab-confirmed infection among newborns of mothers with lab-confirmed infection was 6.6 (95% CI 3.9–11.2). Newborns of mothers with colonization had a 9.4 (95% CI 3.1–28.5) times higher odds of lab-confirmed infection than newborns of non-colonized mothers. Newborns of mothers with risk factors for infection (defined as prelabour rupture of membranes [PROM], preterm <37 weeks PROM, and prolonged ROM) had a 2.3 (95% CI 1.0–5.4) times higher odds of infection than newborns of mothers without risk factors. Conclusions Neonatal infection in the first week of life is associated with maternal infection and colonization. High-quality studies, particularly from settings with high

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Serial Prediagnostic Serum Samples for Early Detection of Colon Cancer in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Shao, Stephanie; Neely, Benjamin A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Eckhaus, Janet; Bourgeois, Jolie; Brooks, Jasmin; Jones, Elizabeth E; Drake, Richard R; Zhu, Kangmin

    2017-05-01

    Background: Serum proteomic biomarkers offer a promising approach for early detection of cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify proteomic profiles that could distinguish colon cancer cases from controls using serial prediagnostic serum samples. Methods: This was a nested case-control study of active duty military members. Cases consisted of 264 patients diagnosed with colon cancer between 2001 and 2009. Controls were matched to cases on age, gender, race, serum sample count, and collection date. We identified peaks that discriminated cases from controls using random forest data analysis with a 2/3 training and 1/3 validation dataset. We then included epidemiologic data to see whether further improvement of model performance was obtainable. Proteins that corresponded to discriminatory peaks were identified. Results: Peaks with m/z values of 3,119.32, 2,886.67, 2,939.23, and 5,078.81 were found to discriminate cases from controls with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 67% in the year before diagnosis. When smoking status was included, sensitivity increased to 76% while histories of other cancer and tonsillectomy raised specificity to 76%. Peaks at 2,886.67 and 3,119.32 m/z were identified as histone acetyltransferases while 2,939.24 m/z was a transporting ATPase subunit. Conclusions: Proteomic profiles in the year before cancer diagnosis have the potential to discriminate colon cancer patients from controls, and the addition of epidemiologic information may increase the sensitivity and specificity of discrimination. Impact: Our findings indicate the potential value of using serum prediagnostic proteomic biomarkers in combination with epidemiologic data for early detection of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 711-8. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research.

  13. Early diagnosis of fungal infections in lung transplant recipients, colonization versus invasive disease?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sabina; Husain, Shahid

    2018-05-21

    The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains challenging in solid organ transplants in general, and in lung transplant recipients, in particular, because of colonization. Lung transplant recipients may be over treated with antifungal drugs because of the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. A review of the new developments of diagnostic tools and whether this help distinguishing colonization from invasive disease is presented. Efforts are being made to develop new tools that will allow us to identify which patients will develop IPA, and those who will be able to control the disease.

  14. The early effect of dextran sodium sulfate administration on carbachol-induced short-circuit current in distal and proximal colon during colitis development.

    PubMed

    Hock, M; Soták, M; Kment, M; Pácha, J

    2011-01-01

    Increased colonic Cl(-) secretion was supposed to be a causative factor of diarrhea in inflammatory bowel diseases. Surprisingly, hyporesponsiveness to Cl(-) secretagogues was later described in inflamed colon. Our aim was to evaluate changes in secretory responses to cholinergic agonist carbachol in distal and proximal colon during colitis development, regarding secretory activity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and prostaglandins. Increased responsiveness to carbachol was observed in both distal and proximal colon after 3 days of 2 % dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) administration. It was measured in the presence of mucosal Ba(2+) to emphasize Cl(-) secretion. The described increase was abolished by combined inhibitory effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and indomethacin. Indomethacin also significantly reduced TTX-sensitive current. On the 7th day of colitis development responsiveness to carbachol decreased in distal colon (compared to untreated mice), but did not change in proximal colon. TTX-sensitive current did not change during colitis development, but indomethacin-sensitive current was significantly increased the 7th day. Decreased and deformed current responses to serosal Ba(2+) were observed during colitis induction, but only in proximal colon. We conclude that besides inhibitory effect of DSS on distal colon responsiveness, there is an early stimulatory effect that manifests in both distal and proximal colon.

  15. Trajectory of early tidal marsh restoration: elevation, sedimentation and colonization of breached salt ponds in the northern San Francisco Bay

    Brand, L. Arriana; Smith, Lacy M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Taylor, Karen; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Spenst, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration projects that cover large areas are critical for maintaining target species, yet few large sites have been studied and their restoration trajectories remain uncertain. A tidal marsh restoration project in the northern San Francisco Bay consisting of three breached salt ponds (≥300 ha each; 1175 ha total) is one of the largest on the west coast of North America. These diked sites were subsided and required extensive sedimentation for vegetation colonization, yet it was unclear whether they would accrete sediment and vegetate within a reasonable timeframe. We conducted bathymetric surveys to map substrate elevations using digital elevation models and surveyed colonizing Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The average elevation of Pond 3 was 0.96 ± 0.19 m (mean ± SD; meters NAVD88) in 2005. In 2008–2009, average pond elevations were 1.05 ± 0.25 m in Pond 3, 0.81 ± 0.26 m in Pond 4, and 0.84 ± 0.24 m in Pond 5 (means ± SD; meters NAVD88). The largest site (Pond 3; 508 ha) accreted 9.5 ± 0.2 cm (mean ± SD) over 4 years, but accretion varied spatially and ranged from sediment loss in borrow ditches and adjacent to an unplanned, early breach to sediment gains up to 33 cm in more sheltered regions. The mean elevation of colonizing S. foliosa varied by pond (F = 71.20, df = 84, P S. foliosa. Our results suggest that sedimentation to elevations that enable vegetation colonization is feasible in large sites with sufficient sediment loads although may occur more slowly compared with smaller sites.

  16. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but also

  17. Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but

  18. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Carini, Francesco; Mazzola, Margherita; Rappa, Francesca; Jurjus, Abdo; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Al Kattar, Sahar; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Damiani, Provvidenza; Leone, Angelo; Tomasello, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Clostridium septicum Gas Gangrene in Colon Cancer: Importance of Early Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Sowmya; Shah, Sweta; Pabbathi, Smitha

    2015-01-01

    The Clostridia species are responsible for some of the deadliest diseases including gas gangrene, tetanus, and botulism. Clostridium septicum is a rare subgroup known to cause atraumatic myonecrosis and is associated with colonic malignancy or immunosuppression. It is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus found in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to direct, spontaneous infections of the bowel and peritoneal cavity. The anaerobic glycolysis of the tumor produces an acidic, hypoxic environment favoring germination of clostridial spores. Tumor-induced mucosal ulceration allows for translocation of sporulated bacteria from the bowel into the bloodstream, leading to fulminant sepsis. C. septicum bacteremia can have a variable presentation and is associated with greater than 60% mortality rate. The majority of deaths occur within the first 24 hours if diagnosis and appropriate treatment measures are not promptly started. We report a case of abdominal myonecrosis in a patient with newly diagnosed colon cancer. The aim of this study is to stress the importance of maintaining a high suspicion of C. septicum infection in patients with underlying colonic malignancy.

  20. Proteomic analysis of the nuclear matrix in the early stages of rat liver carcinogenesis: Identification of differentially expressed and MAR-binding proteins

    SciT

    Barboro, Paola; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Repaci, Erica

    Tumor progression is characterized by definite changes in the protein composition of the nuclear matrix (NM). The interactions of chromatin with the NM occur via specific DNA sequences called MARs (matrix attachment regions). In the present study, we applied a proteomic approach along with a Southwestern assay to detect both differentially expressed and MAR-binding NM proteins, in persistent hepatocyte nodules (PHN) in respect with normal hepatocytes (NH). In PHN, the NM undergoes changes both in morphology and in protein composition. We detected over 500 protein spots in each two dimensional map and 44 spots were identified. Twenty-three proteins were differentiallymore » expressed; among these, 15 spots were under-expressed and 8 spots were over-expressed in PHN compared to NH. These changes were synchronous with several modifications in both NM morphology and the ability of NM proteins to bind nuclear RNA and/or DNA containing MARs sequences. In PHN, we observed a general decrease in the expression of the basic proteins that bound nuclear RNA and the over-expression of two species of Mw 135 kDa and 81 kDa and pI 6.7-7.0 and 6.2-7.4, respectively, which exclusively bind to MARs. These results suggest that the deregulated expression of these species might be related to large-scale chromatin reorganization observed in the process of carcinogenesis by modulating the interaction between MARs and the scaffold structure.« less

  1. Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Winnard, Paul T; Dasari, Sidarth; Kominsky, Scott L; Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Raman, Venu; Barman, Ishan

    2018-01-21

    Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones - significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer.

  2. An Antimethanogenic Nutritional Intervention in Early Life of Ruminants Modifies Ruminal Colonization by Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Abecia, Leticia; Waddams, Kate E.; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A. Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Newbold, C. Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study whether feeding a methanogen inhibitor from birth of goat kids and their does has an impact on the archaeal population colonizing the rumen and to what extent the impact persists later in life. Sixteen goats giving birth to two kids were used. Eight does were treated (D+) with bromochloromethane after giving birth and over 2 months. The other 8 goats were not treated (D−). One kid per doe in both groups was treated with bromochloromethane (k+) for 3 months while the other was untreated (k−), resulting in four experimental groups: D+/k+, D+/k−, D−/k+, and D−/k−. Rumen samples were collected from kids at weaning and 1 and 4 months after (3 and 6 months after birth) and from does at the end of the treating period (2 months). Pyrosequencing analyses showed a modified archaeal community composition colonizing the rumen of kids, although such effect did not persist entirely 4 months after; however, some less abundant groups remained different in treated and control animals. The different response on the archaeal community composition observed between offspring and adult goats suggests that the competition occurring in the developing rumen to occupy different niches offer potential for intervention. PMID:24803846

  3. Short curcumin treatment modulates oxidative stress, arginase activity, aberrant crypt foci, and TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-colon carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bounaama, Abdelkader; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Laroche-Clary, Audrey; Le Morvan, Valérie; Robert, Jacques

    2012-12-16

    This study investigated the effect of short curcumin treatment, a natural antioxidant on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice. The incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was 100%, with 54 ± 6 per colon, 10 weeks after the first DMH injection and reached 67 ± 12 per colon after 12 weeks. A high level of undifferentiated goblet cells and a weak apoptotic activity were shown in dysplastic ACF. The morphological alterations of colonic mucosa were associated to severe oxidative stress ratio with 43% increase in malondialdehyde vs. 36% decrease in GSH. DMH also increased inducible nitric synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts (250%), nitrites level (240%) and arginase activity (296%), leading to nitrosative stress and cell proliferation. Curcumin treatment, starting at week 10 post-DMH injection for 14 days, reduced the number of ACF (40%), iNOS expression (25%) and arginase activity (73%), and improved redox status by approximately 46%, compared to DMH-treated mice. Moreover, curcumin induced apoptosis of dysplastic ACF cells without restoring goblet cells differentiation. Interestingly, curcumin induced a parallel increase in TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts (42% and 26%, respectively). In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin was driven by the reduction of arginase activity and nitrosative stress. The up regulation of TGF-β1 and HES-1 expression by curcumin suggests for the first time, a potential interplay between these signalling pathways in the chemoprotective mechanism of curcumin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer in patient characteristics, cancer morphology and histology.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Toru; Kato, Jun; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hisayuki; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the clinical and biological differences between right- and left-sided colon cancers have been widely debated. However, close analyses of these clinical differences, based on large-scale studies, have been scarcely reported. A total of 3552 consecutive Japanese colorectal cancer cases were examined and the clinical differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer cases were investigated. The proportion of right-sided colon cancer was relatively high in patients aged less than 40 years (33%) and more than 80 years (43%). The proportion of right-sided colon cancer in patients aged 40-59 years was relatively low (male 22% and female 29%). In male patients the proportion increased in the 70-79 years age group (30%), while in female patients the proportion increased in the 60-69 years age group (39%). Right-sided colon cancer was more likely to be detected at an advanced stage (T1 stage; left 22%, right 15%) (P < 0.01) with severe symptoms. Polypoid-type early cancer was dominant in the left colon (left 59%; right 40%) (P < 0.01), while the proportion of flat-type early cancer in the right colon was significantly higher than that in the left colon (left 25%; right 44%) (P < 0.01). Specific age distribution of right-sided colon cancer was observed and the difference between male and female patients was highlighted. Other clinical features also differed between right- and left-sided colon cancer, suggesting that different mechanisms may be at work during right and left colon carcinogenesis.

  5. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  6. Early microbial colonization of cystic fibrosis patients identified by neonatal screening, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Souza, Helena A P H M; Nogueira, Keite S; Matos, Adriana P; Vieira, Ricardo P; Riedi, Carlos A; Rosário, Nelson A; Telles, Flávio Q; Costa, Libera M Dalla

    2006-01-01

    To assess bacterial colonization prospectively in patients with cystic fibrosis identified by neonatal screening. To assess susceptibility to antimicrobials and to perform the molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from the oropharynx of patients during the study. Twenty-five cystic fibrosis patients receiving regular treatment at the Cystic Fibrosis Outpatient Clinic of Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil, were included in the study. All patients were identified by trypsin-like immunoreactivity and their diagnosis was confirmed by two or more sweat tests. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected and cultured according to routine methods; bacterial colonies were phenotypically identified and their susceptibility to antimicrobials was tested. S. aureus isolates were submitted to molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Out of 234 oropharyngeal swabs, S. aureus was the most frequently isolated strain (76% of patients, 42% of swabs), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36% of patients, 16% of swabs) and Haemophilus spp. (76% of patients; 19% of swabs). Seventy-three isolates were obtained from 19 patients colonized with S. aureus, of which 18 were oxacillin-resistant (24.6%), isolated from two patients, with the same electrophoretic profiles as that of the Brazilian clone. The remaining oxacillin-sensitive isolates were distributed into 18 electrophoretic profiles. There was higher prevalence of S. aureus, with earlier isolation than other pathogens. Multi-sensitive isolates were distributed into different clones, characterizing non-transmissibility among community-acquired strains. The isolated oxacillin-resistant S. aureus showed identical electrophoretic profiles, probably acquired in hospital. P. aeruginosa was not so frequent in the studied population.

  7. [Apoptosis and uterine cervical carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Lin, H; Song, H

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the possible role of apoptosis in the development of uterine cervical carcinoma. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 190 patients [41 patients with severe dysplasia (SD); 37 with carcinoma in situ(CIS); 31 with microinvasive carcinoma (MIC), 40 with fran invasive large cell non-keratinizing epidermoid carcinoma (IC)], and 41 samples from normal cervical squamous epithelium (NE) were studied. The number of apoptotic cells was assessed in situ by the TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. PCNA, p53 and bcl-2 were demonstrated immunohistochemically. (1) In NE, TUNEL-positive cells were found in the superficial layer and PCNA-positive cells were confined in the lamina profunda, while in cervical neoplasia these cells were irregulasly scattered throughout the cervical lesions. (2) The TUNEL staining index decreased while PCNA increased with progression of the neoplasm, showing a significant negative correlation between apoptosis and proliferation. (3) In patients with SD and CIS who had overexpression of p53 and bcl-2 proteins, the cells positively stained by TUNEL were significantly less in number than in these with negative p53 and bcl-2 expression. No such observation for PCNA expression. These results suggest that apoptosis is associated with the early process of cervical carcinogenesis and apoptosis is closely correlated with overexpression of p53 and bcl-2 proteins.

  8. Colonization potential to reconstitute a microbe community in patients detected early after fecal microbe transplant for recurrent C. difficile.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjit; Maynard, Craig L; Eipers, Peter; Goldsmith, Kelly T; Ptacek, Travis; Grubbs, J Aaron; Dixon, Paula; Howard, Donna; Crossman, David K; Crowley, Michael R; Benjamin, William H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Weaver, Casey T; Rodriguez, J Martin; Morrow, Casey D

    2016-01-13

    Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) are an effective treatment for patients with gut microbe dysbiosis suffering from recurrent C. difficile infections. To further understand how FMT reconstitutes the patient's gut commensal microbiota, we have analyzed the colonization potential of the donor, recipient and recipient post transplant fecal samples using transplantation in gnotobiotic mice. A total of nine samples from three human donors, recipient's pre and post FMT were transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. Microbiome analysis of three donor fecal samples revealed the presence of a high relative abundance of commensal microbes from the family Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae that were almost absent in the three recipient pre FMT fecal samples (<0.01%). The microbe composition in gnotobiotic mice transplanted with the donor fecal samples was similar to the human samples. The recipient samples contained Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Enterococcaceae in relative abundance of 43, 11, 8%, respectively. However, gnotobiotic mice transplanted with the recipient fecal samples had an average relative abundance of unclassified Clostridiales of 55%, approximately 7000 times the abundance in the recipient fecal samples prior to transplant. Microbiome analysis of fecal samples from the three patients early (2-4 weeks) after FMT revealed a microbe composition with the relative abundance of both Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae that was approximately 7% of that of the donor. In contrast, gnotobioitc mice transplanted with the fecal samples obtained from the three at early times post FMT revealed increases in the relative abundance of Bacteriodaceae and Lachnospiraceae microbe compositions to levels similar to the donor fecal samples. Furthermore, the unclassified Clostridiales in the recipient samples post FMT was reduced to an average of 10%. We have used transplantation into gnotobiotic mice to evaluate the colonization potential of microbiota in FMT patients early

  9. Ghrelin administration suppresses inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Makiko; Kanemaru, Ai; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Haruyama, Yukihiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that stimulates the release of pituitary growth hormone. Because of its orexigenic effects, ghrelin is being developed as a therapeutic option for postoperative support and treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome of cancer patients. However, ghrelin has a multiplicity of physiological functions, and it also affects cell proliferation. Therefore, the effects of ghrelin administration on carcinogenesis and cancer progression in patients susceptible to cancer should be clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of ghrelin on cancer promotion in vivo using murine intestinal carcinogenesis models. Intestinal tumorigenesis was examined to determine the effects of either exogenous ghrelin administration or ghrelin deficiency following deletion of the Ghrl gene. Two murine intestinal tumorigenesis models were used. The first was the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis model and the second was the ApcMin/+ genetic cancer susceptibility model. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, administration of ghrelin significantly suppressed tumor formation in the colon. In contrast, ghrelin administration did not affect the number of intestinal tumors formed in ApcMin/+ mice. The absence of endogenous ghrelin did not affect the incidence of intestinal tumors in either AOM/DSS-treated mice or ApcMin/+ mice, though tumor size tended to be larger in Ghrl−/− colons in the AOM/DSS model. No tumor-promoting effect was observed by ghrelin administration in either tumorigenesis model. In summary, this study provides in vivo experimental evidence for the usefulness of ghrelin administration in the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis and may suggest its safety in patients under colitis-associated cancer susceptibility conditions. PMID:26094822

  10. Uneven colonization of the lymphoid periphery by T cells that undergo early TCR{alpha} rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Deborah W; Fink, Pamela J

    2009-04-01

    A sparse population of thymocytes undergoes TCRalpha gene rearrangement early in development, before the double-positive stage. The potential of these cells to contribute to the peripheral T cell pool is unknown. To examine the peripheral T cell compartment expressing a repertoire biased to early TCR gene rearrangements, we developed a mouse model in which TCRalpha rearrangements are restricted to the double-negative stage of thymocyte development. These mice carry floxed RAG2 alleles and a Cre transgene driven by the CD4 promoter. As expected, conventional T cell development is compromised in such Cre(+) RAG2(fl/fl) mice, and the TCRalphabeta(+) T cells that develop are limited in their TCRalpha repertoire, preferentially using early rearranging Valpha genes. In the gut, the Thy-1(+)TCRalphabeta(+) intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) compartment is surprisingly intact, whereas the Thy-1(-)TCRalphabeta(+) subset is almost completely absent. Thus, T cells expressing a TCRalpha repertoire that is the product of early gene rearrangements can preferentially populate distinct IEL compartments. Despite this capacity, Cre(+) RAG2(fl/fl) T cell progenitors cannot compete with wild-type T cell progenitors in mixed bone marrow chimeras, suggesting that in normal mice, there is only a small contribution to the peripheral T cell pool by cells that have undergone early TCRalpha rearrangements. In the absence of wild-type competitors, aggressive homeostatic proliferation in the IEL compartment can promote a relatively normal Thy-1(+) TCRalphabeta(+) T cell pool from the limited population derived from Cre(+) RAG2(fl/fl) progenitors.

  11. Uneven colonization of the lymphoid periphery by T cells that undergo early TCRα rearrangements1

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Deborah W.; Fink, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    A sparse population of thymocytes undergoes TCRα gene rearrangement early in development, before the double positive stage. The potential of these cells to contribute to the peripheral T cell pool is unknown. To examine the peripheral T cell compartment expressing a repertoire biased to early TCR gene rearrangements, we developed a mouse model in which TCRα rearrangements are restricted to the double negative stage of thymocyte development. These mice carry floxed RAG2 alleles and a Cre transgene driven by the CD4 promoter. As expected, conventional T cell development is compromised in such Cre(+) RAG2fl/fl mice, and the TCRαβ+ T cells that develop are limited in their TCRα repertoire, preferentially utilizing early-rearranging Vα genes. In the gut, the Thy-1+TCRαβ+ intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) compartment is surprisingly intact, while the Thy-1−TCRαβ+ subset is almost completely absent. Thus, T cells expressing a TCRα repertoire that is the product of early gene rearrangements can preferentially populate distinct IEL compartments. Despite this capacity, Cre(+) RAG2fl/fl T cell progenitors cannot compete with wild-type (WT) T cell progenitors in mixed bone marrow chimeras, suggesting that in normal mice, there is only a small contribution to the peripheral T cell pool by cells that have undergone early TCRα rearrangements. In the absence of WT competitors, aggressive homeostatic proliferation in the IEL compartment can promote a relatively normal Thy-1+ TCRαβ+ T cell pool from the limited population derived from Cre(+) RAG2fl/fl progenitors. PMID:19299725

  12. Protective mechanisms of dietary fibers in nutritional carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Weisburger, J H; Reddy, B S; Rose, D P; Cohen, L A; Kendall, M E; Wynder, E L

    1993-01-01

    Fibers in foods are complex carbohydrates. There are several types of fiber, but, for the purpose of mechanistic insight into their mode of protective action in carcinogenesis, classification into two broad types, soluble and insoluble fibers, is warranted. Soluble fibers are present in fruits, vegetables, and certain grains like oats. This type of fiber undergoes metabolism in the small intestine and especially in the large intestine through bacterial enzymes, converting it to products that increase stool size only moderately. But, they have appreciable effects in modifying the metabolism of colon carcinogens like azoxymethane to yield detoxified products and, thus, reducing colon carcinogenesis. In contrast, insoluble fibers present in sizeable amounts in bran cereals, like wheat or rice, are not significantly metabolized by enzymes in the intestinal flora. Such fibers increase stool size substantially through several mechanisms, including higher water retention. The larger bulk dilutes carcinogens, especially tumor promoters such as secondary bile acids, resulting in lower risk of colon cancer in animals and in humans. Evidence in animal models and in humans also indicates that fiber may lower the risk of breast cancer, possibly via an endocrine mechanism. Based on these concepts, increased intake of total fiber, but especially of wheat bran cereal fiber, to yield a daily stool in adults of about 200 grams can significantly reduce the risk of colon cancer and, to a lesser but definite extent, of breast cancer. Thus, adequate fiber intake from cereals, fruits, and vegetables can help prevent important types of human cancer.

  13. Somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations are early events in sporadic endometrial and colorectal carcinogenesis, determining driver mutational landscape, clonal neoantigen burden and immune response.

    PubMed

    Temko, Daniel; Van Gool, Inge C; Rayner, Emily; Glaire, Mark; Makino, Seiko; Brown, Matthew; Chegwidden, Laura; Palles, Claire; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Beggs, Andrew; Stathopoulou, Chaido; Mason, John; Baker, Ann-Marie; Williams, Marc; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Rei, Margarida; Taylor, Jenny C; Schuh, Anna; Ahmed, Ahmed; Amant, Frédéric; Lambrechts, Diether; Smit, Vincent Thbm; Bosse, Tjalling; Graham, Trevor A; Church, David N; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-03-31

    Genomic instability, which is a hallmark of cancer, is generally thought to occur in the middle to late stages of tumourigenesis, following the acquisition of permissive molecular aberrations such as TP53 mutation or whole genome doubling. Tumours with somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations are notable for their extreme genomic instability (their mutation burden is among the highest in human cancer), distinct mutational signature, lymphocytic infiltrate, and excellent prognosis. To what extent these characteristics are determined by the timing of POLE mutations in oncogenesis is unknown. Here, we have shown that pathogenic POLE mutations are detectable in non-malignant precursors of endometrial and colorectal cancer. Using genome and exome sequencing, we found that multiple driver mutations in POLE-mutant cancers show the characteristic POLE mutational signature, including those in genes conventionally regarded as initiators of tumourigenesis. In POLE-mutant cancers, the proportion of monoclonal predicted neoantigens was similar to that in other cancers, but the absolute number was much greater. We also found that the prominent CD8 + T-cell infiltrate present in POLE-mutant cancers was evident in their precursor lesions. Collectively, these data indicate that somatic POLE mutations are early, quite possibly initiating, events in the endometrial and colorectal cancers in which they occur. The resulting early onset of genomic instability may account for the striking immune response and excellent prognosis of these tumours, as well as their early presentation. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Up-regulation of p53 and mitochondrial signaling pathway in apoptosis by a combination of COX-2 inhibitor, Celecoxib and Dolastatin 15, a marine mollusk linear peptide in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Rana, Chandan; Sanyal, Sankar N

    2013-11-01

    Programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, is an active process occurring in eukaryotic cells and it depends on various sets of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer can be achieved by inducing apoptosis using synthetic compound, Celecoxib and natural peptide, Dolastatin 15 in an effective manner. But the apoptotic signaling by these two drugs remain unclear. The present study was thus focused on the role of Bcl2 family of proteins and their interplay with p53 in rats during the chemoprevention by these two drugs. After treatment for 6 wk with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), animals showed a marked occurrence of multiple plaque lesions. However, a simultaneous treatment with Celecoxib and Dolastatin 15 decreases such number to a significant level. DMH treatment also decreases the number of apoptotic cells in the colonic enterocytes which were corrected to the normal level by Celecoxib and Dolastatin 15. An increased expression of Bcl2 while other proteins like Bax, Apaf-1, cyt c, and caspases in the apoptotic pathway, and the tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and p21 get down-regulated after DMH treatment which were reverted back to normal with Celecoxib and Dolastatin 15. Also, cells having high mitochondrial membrane potential had been seen to increase to significant levels which were reduced after the administration of these anti-inflammatory drugs. In silico molecular docking studies also showed that Dolastatin 15 and Celecoxib may bind to the active site pocket of Bcl2 , thus revealing the direct target of Dolastatin 15 and Celecoxib apart from binding to COX-2. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Physical activity communication between oncology providers and patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Deal, Allison M; Williams, Grant R; Guerard, Emily J; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-02-01

    National guidelines recommend that patients with a cancer diagnosis engage in regular physical activity to reduce cancer-related fatigue, maintain quality of life and physical function, and improve overall prognosis and survival. This study investigates oncology provider communications about physical activity during routine clinic visits with patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer. This study used a retrospective chart review for documentation of inquiries or recommendations pertaining to physical activity in clinician notes and after-visit patient summaries. In a 1-month period, 55 oncology providers had 361 encounters (clinic visits) with early-stage cancer patients. Thirty-five percent of these encounters included a provider communication about "physical activity," "exercise," or "activity." Encounters with a medical oncologist resulted in a physical activity communication 55% of the time, whereas encounters with other clinician specialties did so 20% of the time (P < .0001). The likelihood of a physical activity communication increased with patient age (P < .001). When the encounter was with a patient who was being seen for surveillance, chemotherapy, or endocrine treatment, the rate of physical activity communications was significantly higher (46%, 37%, and 58%, respectively) than the rate when the visit was during radiation treatment or surgery (6% and 19%, respectively; P < .0001). This study shows that it is feasible for oncology providers to have physical activity communications during routine clinic visits; however, the frequency of physical activity communications varies among providers. Interventions are needed to remind and encourage all oncology providers to encourage their patients with early-stage cancer to be physically active. . © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Genetic differentiation of the house mouse around the Mediterranean basin: matrilineal footprints of early and late colonization

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, François; Orth, Annie; Cucchi, Thomas; Rajabi-Maham, Hassan; Catalan, Josette; Boursot, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Britton-Davidian, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The molecular signatures of the recent expansion of the western house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, around the Mediterranean basin are investigated through the study of mitochondrial D-loop polymorphism on a 1313 individual dataset. When reducing the complexity of the matrilineal network to a series of haplogroups (HGs), our main results indicate that: (i) several HGs are recognized which seem to have almost simultaneously diverged from each other, confirming a recent expansion for the whole subspecies; (ii) some HGs are geographically delimited while others are widespread, indicative of multiple introductions or secondary exchanges; (iii) mice from the western and the eastern coasts of Africa harbour largely different sets of HGs; and (iv) HGs from the two shores of the Mediterranean are more similar in the west than in the east. This pattern is in keeping with the two-step westward expansion proposed by zooarchaeological data, an early one coincident with the Neolithic progression and limited to the eastern Mediterranean and a later one, particularly evident in the western Mediterranean, related to the generalization of maritime trade during the first millennium BC and onwards. The dispersal of mice along with humans, which continues until today, has for instance left complex footprints on the long ago colonized Cyprus or more simple ones on the much more recently populated Canary Islands. PMID:20880891

  17. Early Upper Paleolithic colonization across Europe: Time and mode of the Gravettian diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Cascalheira, João; Gonçalves, Célia

    2017-01-01

    This study presents new models on the origin, speed and mode of the wave-of-advance leading to the definitive occupation of Europe’s outskirts by Anatomically Modern Humans, during the Gravettian, between c. 37 and 30 ka ago. These models provide the estimation for possible demic dispersal routes for AMH at a stable spread rate of c. 0.7 km/year, with the likely origin in Central Europe at the site of Geissenklosterle in Germany and reaching all areas of the European landscape. The results imply that: 1. The arrival of the Gravettian populations into the far eastern European plains and to southern Iberia found regions with very low human occupation or even devoid of hominins; 2. Human demography was likely lower than previous estimates for the Upper Paleolithic; 3. The likely early AMH paths across Europe followed the European central plains and the Mediterranean coast to reach to the ends of the Italian and Iberian peninsulas. PMID:28542642

  18. Early outcomes of colon laparoscopic resection in the elderly patients compared with the younger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to define any benefits in terms of early outcome for laparoscopic colectomy in patients over 75 years old (OP) compared with the outcomes of a younger populations (YP). Methods Forty elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer between 2007-2011 were studied, the patients are divided for gender, age, year of surgery, site of cancer, and comorbidity on admission and compared with 40 younger patients. Results and discussion Mean (standard deviation) age was 81.3 in OP and 68.3 YP Conversion rate was the same between the two groups. There was no difference in operative mean time . The overall mortality rate was 0% percent. The surgical morbidity rate was the same but there was an increased in cardiologic e bronchopneumonia complications in older population. Patients treated with laparoscopic approach had a faster recovery of bowel function and a significant reduction of the mean length of hospital stay not age related. Laparoscopy allowed a better preservation of postoperative independence status. Conclusions Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer in elderly patients is safe and beneficial including preservation of postoperative independence and a reduction of length of hospital stay. PMID:23173882

  19. E-cadherin Mediates the Preventive Effect of Vitamin D3 in Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; He, Longmei; Luan, Zijian; Lv, Hong; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhou, Weixun; Yu, Songlin; Tan, Bei; Wang, Hongying; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D3 is beneficial in ameliorating or preventing inflammation and carcinogenesis. Here, we evaluated if vitamin D3 has a preventive effect on colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Administration of azoxymethane (AOM), followed with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), was used to simulate colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. The supplement of vitamin D3 at different dosages (15, 30, 60 IU·g·w), started before AOM or immediately after DSS treatment (post 60), was sustained to the end of the experiment. Dietary vitamin D3 significantly reduced the number of tumors and tumor burden in a dose-dependent manner. Of note, vitamin D3 in high doses showed significant preventive effects on carcinogenesis regardless of administration before or after AOM-DSS treatment. Cell proliferation decreased in vitamin D3 groups compared with the control group after inhibition of expression of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 in the colon. In vitro, vitamin D3 reduced the transcriptional activity and nuclear level of β-catenin, and it also increased E-cadherin expression and its binding affinity for β-catenin. Moreover, repression of E-cadherin was rescued by supplemental vitamin D3 in mouse colons. Taken together, our results indicate that vitamin D3 effectively suppressed colonic carcinogenesis in the AOM-DSS mouse model. Our findings further suggest that upregulation of E-cadherin contributes to the preventive effect of vitamin D3 on β-catenin activity.

  20. Effect of Sodium Arsenite on Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Mónica A; Molinari, Beatriz L

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic is carcinogenic in human beings, and environmental exposure to arsenic is a public health issue that affects large populations worldwide. Thus, studies are needed to determine the mode of action of arsenic and prevent harmful effects arising from arsenic intake. The present study assessed the influence of sodium arsenite (As(3+)) on potentially carcinogenic processes that are either pre-existing or concomitant with chronic intake of water containing As(3+). Experiments using SenCar mice were designed to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of As(3+) (2, 20, or 200 mg of As(3+)/L) in drinking water that overlapped to varying degrees with a 2-stage carcinogenesis protocol carried out over 9 months. The results showed a time-dependent pattern. During early stages of carcinogenesis (6-12 weeks), animals exposed to As(3+) and the carcinogenesis protocol showed increased numbers of tumors compared to control animals. During late carcinogenesis (16-30 weeks), the number of tumors stabilized to below control values, but the tumors showed increased malignancy. These findings indicate that the outcomes of the 2-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol are modified by the presence of arsenite in drinking water, which increases the rate of carcinoma development. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  1. Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization-abandonment events by male Kirtland's Warblers in an early succession habitat

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; John R. Probst

    2010-01-01

    Habitat colonization and abandonment affects the distribution of a species in space and time, ultimately influencing the duration of time habitat is used and the total area of habitat occupied in any given year. Both aspects have important implications to long-term conservation planning. The importance of patch isolation and area to colonization-extinction events is...

  2. Genetic-deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 Downstream Prostacyclin Synthase Suppresses Inflammatory Reactions but Facilitates Carcinogenesis, unlike Deletion of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuka; Kamiyama, Shuhei; Kamiyama, Azusa; Matsumoto, Konomi; Akatsu, Moe; Nakatani, Yoshihito; Kuwata, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Yokoyama, Chieko; Hara, Shuntaro

    2015-11-27

    Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) are prostaglandin (PG) terminal synthases that function downstream of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the PGI2 and PGE2 biosynthetic pathways, respectively. mPGES-1 has been shown to be involved in various COX-2-related diseases such as inflammatory diseases and cancers, but it is not yet known how PGIS is involved in these COX-2-related diseases. Here, to clarify the pathophysiological role of PGIS, we investigated the phenotypes of PGIS and mPGES-1 individual knockout (KO) or double KO (DKO) mice. The results indicate that a thioglycollate-induced exudation of leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity was suppressed by the genetic-deletion of PGIS. In the PGIS KO mice, lipopolysaccharide-primed pain nociception (as assessed by the acetic acid-induced writhing reaction) was also reduced. Both of these reactions were suppressed more effectively in the PGIS/mPGES-1 DKO mice than in the PGIS KO mice. On the other hand, unlike mPGES-1 deficiency (which suppressed azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis), PGIS deficiency up-regulated both aberrant crypt foci formation at the early stage of carcinogenesis and polyp formation at the late stage. These results indicate that PGIS and mPGES-1 cooperatively exacerbate inflammatory reactions but have opposing effects on carcinogenesis, and that PGIS-derived PGI2 has anti-carcinogenic effects.

  3. In vivo whole animal body imaging reveals colonization of Chlamydia muridarum to the lower genital tract at early stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rishein; Wali, Shradha; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M N; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-10-01

    The leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection is Chlamydia trachomatis. The aim of this study is to investigate the early events in colonization of this bacterium within the murine genital tract. An in vivo animal body imaging technology was used to track fluorophore labeled C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs) inoculated intravaginally in C57BL/6 mice during the first 24 h of infection. Ascension of viable EBs was observed (1) to be localized to the lower regions of the murine genital tract within the first 24 h post challenge and (2) was dose independent during this early exposure period. Molecular detection revealed enhanced bacterial load in lower regions of the genital tract with increasing bacterial load in the upper region beginning 12 h post inoculation. This study provides additional insight into chlamydial colonization in the murine genital tract during the first 12-24 h following inoculation.

  4. Germline TP53 Mutations in Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer in the Colon Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Yurgelun, Matthew B.; Masciari, Serena; Joshi, Victoria A.; Mercado, Rowena C.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Haile, Robert W.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Syngal, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Li-Fraumeni syndrome, usually characterized by germline TP53 mutations, is associated with markedly elevated lifetime risks of multiple cancers, and has been linked to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE To examine the frequency of germline TP53 alterations in patients with early-onset colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a multicenter cross-sectional cohort study of individuals recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) from 1998 through 2007 (genetic testing data updated as of January 2015). Both population-based and clinic-based patients in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were recruited to the CCFR. Demographic information, clinical history, and family history data were obtained at enrollment. Biospecimens were collected from consenting probands and families, including microsatellite instability and DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry results. A total of a 510 individuals diagnosed as having colorectal cancer at age 40 years or younger and lacking a known hereditary cancer syndrome were identified from the CCFR as being potentially eligible. Fifty-three participants were excluded owing to subsequent identification of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (n = 47) or biallelic MUTYH mutations (n = 6). INTERVENTIONS Germline sequencing of the TP53 gene was performed. Identified TP53 alterations were assessed for pathogenicity using literature and international mutation database searches and in silico prediction models. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Frequency of nonsynonymous germline TP53 alterations. RESULTS Among 457 eligible participants (314, population-based; 143, clinic-based; median age at diagnosis, 36 years [range, 15–40 years]), 6 (1.3%; 95%CI, 0.5%–2.8%) carried germline missense TP53 alterations, none of whom met clinical criteria for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Four of the identified TP53 alterations have been previously described in the literature

  5. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    PubMed Central

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  6. A survey of physician receptivity to molecular diagnostic testing and readiness to act on results for early-stage colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald E; Wolf, Thomas; Shwae, Phillip; Hegarty, Sarah; Peiper, Stephen C; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-10-03

    We sought to assess physician interest in molecular prognosic testing for patients with early stage colon cancer, and identify factors associated with the likelihood of test adoption. We identified physicians who care for patients with early-stage (pN0) colon cancer patients, mailed them a survey, and analyzed survey responses to assess clinician receptivity to the use of a new molecular test (GUCY2C) that identifies patients at risk for recurrence, and clinician readiness to act on abnormal test results. Of 104 eligible potential respondents, 41 completed and returned the survey. Among responding physicians, 56 % were receptive to using the new prognostic test. Multivariable analyses showed that physicians in academic medical centers were significantly more receptive to molecular test use than those in non-academic settings. Forty-one percent of respondents were ready to act on abnormal molecular test results. Physicians who viewed current staging methods as inaccurate and were confident in their capacity to incorporate molecular testing in practice were more likely to say they would act on abnormal test results. Physician receptivity to molecular diagnostic testing for early-stage colon cancer patients is likely to be influenced by practice setting and perceptions related to delivering quality care to patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01972737.

  7. Multidisciplinary Biomarkers of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    cDNA prepared. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was then performed on the cDNA. All qRT-PCR reactions were performed in triplicate. ESR1 ...in Figure 4, all ER(+) cells express ESR1 at high levels (at least 4 fold higher than ER(-) cell lines). A Pearson correlation coefficient was...calculated to determine the linear relationship between the optical redox ratio and ESR1 expression levels and found to be significant (p = 0.0024, r

  8. Multidisciplinary Biomarkers of Early Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    and breast cancer cells based on a single post- reatment measurement. Ratiometric methods have been used previously for ALA tudies in oral , bladder...6714, 6882–6888 2007. 14. E. Uzgiris, A. Sood, K. Bove, B. Grimmond, D. Lee, and S. Lomnes, “A multimodal contrast agent for preoperative MR...and R. A. Steiner, “Pho- todynamic detection of diseased axillary sentinel lymph node after oral application of aminolevulinic acid in patients with

  9. Proteome Analysis Identifies the Dpr Protein of Streptococcus mutans as an Important Factor in the Presence of Early Streptococcal Colonizers of Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Niki, Mamiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yasunaga, Ai; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Oral streptococci are primary colonizers of tooth surfaces and Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of dental caries in humans. A number of proteins are involved in the formation of monospecies biofilms by S. mutans. This study analyzed the protein expression profiles of S. mutans biofilms formed in the presence or absence of S. gordonii, a pioneer colonizer of the tooth surface, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After identifying S. mutans proteins by Mass spectrometric analysis, their expression in the presence of S. gordonii was analyzed. S. mutans was inoculated with or without S. gordonii DL1. The two species were compartmentalized using 0.2-μl Anopore membranes. The biofilms on polystyrene plates were harvested, and the solubilized proteins were separated by 2-DE. When S. mutans biofilms were formed in the presence of S. gordonii, the peroxide resistance protein Dpr of the former showed 4.3-fold increased expression compared to biofilms that developed in the absence of the pioneer colonizer. In addition, we performed a competition assay using S. mutans antioxidant protein mutants together with S. gordonii and other initial colonizers. Growth of the dpr-knockout S. mutans mutant was significantly inhibited by S. gordonii, as well as by S. sanguinis. Furthermore, a cell viability assay revealed that the viability of the dpr-defective mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the wild-type strain when co-cultured with S. gordonii. Therefore, these results suggest that Dpr might be one of the essential proteins for S. mutans survival on teeth in the presence of early colonizing oral streptococci. PMID:25816242

  10. Effect of vitamin C on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated early colon cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on inflammation, tumor development, and dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated early colon cancer mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with AOM [10 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] and given two 7-d cycles of 2% DSS drinking water with a 14 d inter-cycle interval. Vitamin C (60 mg/kg b.w. and 120 mg/kg b.w.) was supplemented by gavage for 5 weeks starting 2 d after the AOM injection. RESULTS The vitamin C treatment suppressed inflammatory morbidity, as reflected by disease activity index (DAI) in recovery phase and inhibited shortening of the colon, and reduced histological damage. In addition, vitamin C supplementation suppressed mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and reduced expression of the proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, compared to observations of AOM/DSS animals. Although the microbial composition did not differ significantly between the groups, administration of vitamin C improved the level of inflammation-related Lactococcus and JQ084893 to control levels. CONCLUSION Vitamin C treatment provided moderate suppression of inflammation, proliferation, and certain inflammation-related dysbiosis in a murine model of colitis associated-early colon cancer. These findings support that vitamin C supplementation can benefit colonic health. Long-term clinical studies with various doses of vitamin C are warranted. PMID:29629026

  11. Effect of vitamin C on azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis-associated early colon cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee-Jin; Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Eunju; Shin, Jae-Ho; Seok, Pu Reum; Woo, Moon Jea; Kim, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C on inflammation, tumor development, and dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation-associated early colon cancer mouse model. Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with AOM [10 mg/kg body weight (b.w)] and given two 7-d cycles of 2% DSS drinking water with a 14 d inter-cycle interval. Vitamin C (60 mg/kg b.w. and 120 mg/kg b.w.) was supplemented by gavage for 5 weeks starting 2 d after the AOM injection. The vitamin C treatment suppressed inflammatory morbidity, as reflected by disease activity index (DAI) in recovery phase and inhibited shortening of the colon, and reduced histological damage. In addition, vitamin C supplementation suppressed mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, including cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β , and IL-6 , and reduced expression of the proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, compared to observations of AOM/DSS animals. Although the microbial composition did not differ significantly between the groups, administration of vitamin C improved the level of inflammation-related Lactococcus and JQ084893 to control levels. Vitamin C treatment provided moderate suppression of inflammation, proliferation, and certain inflammation-related dysbiosis in a murine model of colitis associated-early colon cancer. These findings support that vitamin C supplementation can benefit colonic health. Long-term clinical studies with various doses of vitamin C are warranted.

  12. Early diagnosis of candidemia in intensive care unit patients with sepsis: a prospective comparison of (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay, Candida score, and colonization index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The culture-independent serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG) detection test may allow early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, but its clinical usefulness needs to be firmly established. A prospective single-center observational study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of BG assay, Candida score (CS), and colonization index in intensive care unit (ICU) patients at risk for Candida sepsis. Methods Of 377 patients, consecutively admitted to ICU for sepsis, 95 patients having an ICU stay of more than five days were studied. Blood specimens for fungal culture and BG measurement were obtained at the onset of clinical sepsis. For CS and colonization index calculations, surveillance cultures for Candida growth, and/or clinical data were recorded. Results Sixteen (16.8%) patients were diagnosed with proven invasive fungal infection, 14 with candidiasis (13 candidemia and 1 mediastinitis) and 2 with pulmonary aspergillosis or fusariosis. Of 14 invasive Candida-infection patients, 13 had a serum sample positive for BG, 10 had a CS value ≥3, and 7 a colonization index ≥0.5. In the 12 candidemic patients, a positive BG result was obtained 24 to 72 hrs before a culture-documented diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. The positive and negative predictive values for the BG assay were higher than those of CS and colonization index (72.2% versus 57.1% and 27.3%; and 98.7% versus 97.2% and 91.7%, respectively). Conclusions A single-point BG assay based on a blood sample drawn at the sepsis onset, alone or in combination withCS, may guide the decision to start antifungal therapy early in patients at risk for Candida infection. PMID:22018278

  13. Early gut colonization by Bifidobacterium breve and B. catenulatum differentially modulates eczema risk in children at high risk of developing allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Intan H; Boyle, Robert J; Licciardi, Paul V; Oppedisano, Frances; Lahtinen, Sampo; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Tang, Mimi L K

    2016-12-01

    An altered compositional signature and reduced diversity of early gut microbiota are linked to development of allergic disease. We investigated the relationship between dominant Bifidobacterium species during the early post-natal period and subsequent development of allergic disease in the first year of life. Faecal samples were collected at age 1 week, 1 month and 3 months from 117 infants at high risk of allergic disease. Bifidobacterium species were analysed by quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Infants were examined at 3, 6 and 12 months, and skin prick test was performed at 12 months. Eczema was diagnosed according to the UK Working Party criteria. The presence of B. catenulatum at 3 months was associated with a higher risk of developing eczema (OR adj = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.56-13.05, p adj = 0.005). Infants colonized with B. breve at 1 week (OR adj = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.95, p adj = 0.04) and 3 months (OR adj = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.44, p adj = 0.00001) had a reduced risk of developing eczema. Furthermore, the presence of B. breve at 3 months was associated with a lower risk of atopic sensitization at 12 months (OR adj = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15-0.98, p adj = 0.05). B. breve colonization patterns were influenced by maternal allergic status, household pets and number of siblings. Temporal variations in Bifidobacterium colonization patterns early in life are associated with later development of eczema and/or atopic sensitization in infants at high risk of allergic disease. Modulation of the early microbiota may provide a means to prevent eczema in high-risk infants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cellular and Molecular effects of Vitamin D on Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, JoEllen

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest that the incidence and severity of many types of cancer inversely correlates with indices of vitamin D status. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in epithelial cells at risk for carcinogenesis including those resident in skin, breast, prostate and colon, providing a direct molecular link by which vitamin D status impacts on carcinogenesis. Consistent with this concept, activation of VDR by its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) triggers comprehensive genomic changes in epithelial cells that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, resistance to cellular stresses and protection of the genome. Many epithelial cells also express the vitamin D metabolizing enzyme CYP27B1 which enables autocrine generation of 1,25D from the circulating vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D), critically linking overall vitamin D status with cellular anti-tumor actions. Furthermore, pre-clinical studies in animal models has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with vitamin D or chronic treatment with VDR agonists decreases tumor development in skin, colon, prostate and breast. Conversely, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, increases oxidative DNA damage, and enhances susceptibility to carcinogenesis in these tissues. Because VDR expression is retained in many human tumors, vitamin D status may be an important modulator of cancer progression in persons living with cancer. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the molecular actions of the VDR and the human requirement for vitamin D in relation to cancer development and progression. PMID:22085499

  15. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-07-28

    In carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas

  16. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  17. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

  18. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  19. [Relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of benthic macroinvertebrates during early frost period in a headwater stream in the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Hai Jun; Li, Ling; Nan, Xiao Fei; Zhang, Zhen Xing; Li, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Annually, about 70% of the streams in the Changbai Mountains are frosted during November to April, with manifest seasonal freeze-thaw characters. By using monoculture and mixing leaf litters of Tilia amurensis, Acer mono and Quecus mongolica, this research attempted to disentangle the relationship between leaf litter decomposition and colonization of macroinvertebrates in the stream during early frost period. A 35-day investigation was carried out in a headwater stream of the Changbai Mountains. Nylon bags with two hole sizes (5 mm and 0.3 mm) were used to examine decomposition of the litters. The results showed that the mass losses were significantly different among the three kinds of leaf litters in monoculture, whose decomposition rates descended as A. mono, T. amurensis, and Q. mongolica, however, there existed no significant difference among the litter mixing. Mass losses in both mesh bags all showed little difference, except T. amurensis and the mixed litters. Litter mixing effects occurred in the coarse mesh bags with A. mono and Q. mongolica, but no mixture effects for others. Community structures of the macroinvertebrates colonizing in the litter bags differed with each other, but shredders' density had no significant difference among the three litters, and the mixing effects on shredders were poor. Our results implied that microbes play the major decomposers of leaf litters, and macroinvertebrates contribute little to the decomposition in the early frost period. Despite shredder's density is lower, they determine the mixing effects of litters. Macroinvertebrates are selective to food and habitats, however, due to the short term colonizing, and the influence of leaf litters on shredders is still unsure. Our results might contribute to understanding the cold season ecological processes and related management issues of headwater stream ecosystem.

  20. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future.

  1. Keratinocyte p38δ loss inhibits Ras-induced tumor formation, while systemic p38δ loss enhances skin inflammation in the early phase of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Alexi; Koppel, Aaron C; Anders, Joanna; Cataisson, Christophe; Yuspa, Stuart H; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    p38δ expression and/or activity are increased in human cutaneous malignancies, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and head and neck SCC, but the role of p38δ in cutaneous carcinogenesis has not been well-defined. We have reported that mice with germline loss of p38δ exhibited a reduced susceptibility to skin tumor development compared with wild-type mice in the two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) chemical skin carcinogenesis model. Here, we report that p38δ gene ablation inhibited the growth of tumors generated from v-ras(Ha) -transformed keratinocytes in skin orthografts to nude mice, indicating that keratinocyte-intrinsic p38δ is required for Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of v-ras(Ha) -transformed p38δ-null keratinocytes revealed transcriptional changes associated with cellular responses linked to tumor suppression, such as reduced proliferation and increased differentiation, cell adhesion, and cell communications. Notably, a short-term DMBA/TPA challenge, modeling the initial stages of chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment, elicited an enhanced inflammation in p38δ-null skin compared with skin of wild-type mice, as assessed by measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα. Additionally, p38δ-null skin and p38δ-null keratinocytes exhibited increased p38α activation and signaling in response to acute inflammatory challenges, suggesting a role for p38α in stimulating the elevated inflammatory response in p38δ-null skin during the initial phases of the DMBA/TPA treatment compared with similarly treated p38δ(+/+) skin. Altogether, our results indicate that p38δ signaling regulates skin carcinogenesis not only by keratinocyte cell-autonomous mechanisms, but also by influencing the interaction between between the epithelial compartment of the developing skin tumor and its stromal microenvironment. © 2015 Wiley

  2. Information dynamics in carcinogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Robert A; Frieden, B Roy

    2004-12-21

    cells are minimum information systems. EPI theory also predicts that the estimated age of a clinically observed tumor is subject to a root-mean square error of about 30%. This is due to information loss and tissue disorganization and probably manifests as a randomly variable lag phase in the growth pattern that has been observed experimentally. This difference between tumor size and age may impose a fundamental limit on the efficacy of screening based on early detection of small tumors. Independent of the EPI analysis, Monte Carlo methods are applied to predict statistical tumor growth due to perturbed information flow from the environment into transformed cells. A "simplest" Monte Carlo model is suggested by the findings in the EPI approach that tumor growth arises out of a minimally complex mechanism. The outputs of large numbers of simulations show that (a) about 40% of the populations do not survive the first two-generations due to mutations in critical gene segments; but (b) those that do survive will experience power law growth identical to the predicted rate obtained from the independent EPI approach. The agreement between these two very different approaches to the problem strongly supports the idea that tumor cells regress to a state of minimum information during carcinogenesis, and that information dynamics are integrally related to tumor development and growth.

  3. Exhaustive physical exercise increases the number of colonic preneoplastic lesions in untrained rats treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2004-12-08

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) have been used for early detection of factors that influence colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. It has been observed that exhaustive exercise increases free radical DNA oxidative damage and depresses immune function, events also related to the increased risk for cancer development. Fifteen days after a single exhaustive swimming bout in untrained rats treated with a colon carcinogen, we observed a statistically significant increased number of ACF when compared to the non-exercised group. Thus, we concluded that exhaustive exercise increased the susceptibility for colon cancer in rats. From our finding and literature data, we hypothesize that, similarly to the suggested relationship between exercise and infections, exercise could be protective against cancer or it could increase the risk for this disease depending on its type, dose and duration.

  4. Dipterans Associated with a Decomposing Animal Carcass in a Rainforest Fragment in Brazil: Notes on the Early Arrival and Colonization by Necrophagous Species

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Simao D.; Cruz, Tadeu M.; Salgado, Roberta L.; Thyssen, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first checklist of forensically-important dipteran species in a rainforest environment in Northeastern Brazil, a region exposed to high rates of homicides. Using a decomposing pig, Sus scrofa L. (Artiodactyla: Suidae), carcass as a model, adult flies were collected immediately after death and in the early stages of carcass decomposition. To confirm actual colonization of the carcass, insects that completed their larval development on the resource were also collected and reared until adult stage. A diverse assemblage of dipterans composed of at least 28 species from seven families with necrophagous habits was observed within minutes after death. Besides Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, species from forensically-important families such as Phoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Fanniidae were also registered. Eleven species were shown to complete their development on the carcass. The majority of individuals emerged from larvae collected at the dry stage of decomposition. Hemilucilia segmentaria Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae), H. semidiaphana (Rondani), and Ophyra chalcogaster (Wiedemann) (Muscidae) were the dominant species among the colonizers, which supports their importance as forensic evidence in Brazil. PMID:24787899

  5. Different Roles of 8‐Hydroxyguanine Formation and 2‐Thiobarbituric Acid‐reacting Substance Generation in the Early Phase of Liver Carcinogenesis Induced by a Choline‐deficient, l‐Amino Acid‐defined Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Dai; Mizumoto, Yasushi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Andoh, Nobuaki; Horiguchi, Kohsuke; Shiraiwa, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Eisaku; Endoh, Takehiro; Shimoji, Naoshi; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Denda, Ayumi

    1994-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the roles of hepatocellular oxidative damage to DNA and constituents other than DNA in rat liver carcinogenesis caused by a choline‐deficient, l‐amino acid‐defined (CDAA) diet by examining the effects of the antioxidant N, N′‐diphenyl‐p‐phenylenediamine (DPPD). The parameters used for cellular oxidative damage were the level of 8‐hydroxyguanine (8‐OHGua) for DNA and that of 2‐thiobarbituric acid‐reacting substance (TBARS) for constituents other than DNA. A total of 40 male Fischer 344 rats, 6 weeks old, were fed the CDAA diet for 12 weeks with or without DPPD (0.05, 0.10 or 0.20%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 0.25%). In the livers of the rats, the numbers and sizes of glutathione S‐transferasc (EC 2.5.1.18) placental form (GSTP)‐ and/or γ‐glutamyltransferase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2)‐positive lesions and levels of 8‐OHGua and TBARS were determined. The GSTP‐positive lesions of 0.08 mm2 or larger were all stained positively for GGT as well in cross‐sectional area, whereas the smaller lesions were generally negative for GGT. DPPD and BHT reduced the size of the GSTP‐positive lesions without affecting their total numbers. At the same time, they reduced TBARS generation without affecting 8‐OHGua formation in DNA. The present results indicate that oxidative DNA damage (represented by 8‐OHGua formation) and damage to constituents other than DNA (represented by TBARS generation) may play different roles in rat liver carcinogenesis caused by the CDAA diet; the former appears to be involved in the induction of phenotypically altered hepatocyte populations while the latter may be related to the growth of such populations. PMID:8014108

  6. Avenanthramides inhibit proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines in vitro

    High intake of whole grain food is associated with reduced risk of colon cancer, but the mechanism underlying this protection has yet to be elucidated. Chronic inflammation and associated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the colon epithelium are causally related to epithelial carcinogenesis, p...

  7. DNA repair pathways and mitochondrial DNA mutations in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniela; Navaglia, Filippo; Fogar, Paola; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Greco, Eliana; Schiavon, Stefania; Fasolo, Michela; Stranges, Alessia; Falda, Alessandra; Padoan, Andrea; Fadi, Elisa; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Plebani, Mario

    2007-05-01

    This work focuses on the main DNA repair pathways, highlighting their role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mutations being described in several tumor types, including those of the gastrointestinal tract. The mismatch repair (MMR) system is inherently altered in patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, and plays a role in carcinogenesis in a subset of sporadic colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers. Alterations in homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) also contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer. Gene polymorphisms of some X-ray cross-complementing (XRCCs), cofactor proteins involved in the base excision repair pathway, have been investigated in relation to gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Yet only one polymorphism, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, appears to be involved in smoking-related cancers and in early onset pancreatic cancer. Although evidence in the literature indicates that mtDNA somatic mutations play a role in gastric and colorectal carcinogenesis, no sound conclusions have yet been drawn regarding this issue in pancreatic cancer, although an mtDNA variant at 16519 is believed to worsen the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients, possibly because it is involved in altering cellular metabolism.

  8. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Tamara R.; Clarke, Megan A.; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), human leukocyte antigen A and B (HLA-A and HLA-B)-A/B, and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 (TP53) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 (RB1) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:28771191

  9. Somatic Host Cell Alterations in HPV Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Tamara R; Clarke, Megan A; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-08-03

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections cause cancers in different organ sites, most commonly cervical and head and neck cancers. While carcinogenesis is initiated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, increasing evidence shows the importance of specific somatic events in host cells for malignant transformation. HPV-driven cancers share characteristic somatic changes, including apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-driven mutations and genomic instability leading to copy number variations and large chromosomal rearrangements. HPV-associated cancers have recurrent somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ( PIK3CA ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), human leukocyte antigen A and B ( HLA-A and HLA-B ) -A/B , and the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, and rarely have mutations in the tumor protein p53 ( TP53 ) and RB transcriptional corepressor 1 ( RB1 ) tumor suppressor genes. There are some variations by tumor site, such as NOTCH1 mutations which are primarily found in head and neck cancers. Understanding the somatic events following HPV infection and persistence can aid the development of early detection biomarkers, particularly when mutations in precancers are characterized. Somatic mutations may also influence prognosis and treatment decisions.

  10. Free radicals in chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Clemens, M R

    1991-12-15

    During the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of cancer-causing agents, mechanisms of cancer formation and the behavior of cancer cells. Cancer is characterized primarily by an increase in the number of abnormal cells derived from a given normal tissue, invasion of adjacent tissues by these abnormal cells, and lymphatic or blood-borne spread of malignant cells to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites (metastasis). It has been estimated that about 75-80% of all human cancers are environmentally induced, 30-40% of them by diet. Only a small minority, possibly no more than 2% of all cases, result purely from inherent genetic changes. Several lines of evidence confirm that the fundamental molecular event or events that cause a cell to become malignant occur at the level of the DNA and a variety of studies indicate that the critical molecular event in chemical carcinogenesis is the interaction of the chemical agent with DNA. The demonstration that DNA isolated from tumor cells can transfect normal cells and render them neoplastic provides direct proof that an alteration of the DNA is responsible for cancer. The transforming genes, or oncogenes, have been identified by restriction endonuclease mapping. One of the characteristics of tumor cells generated by transformation with viruses, chemicals, or radiation is their reduced requirement for serum growth factors. A critical significance of electrophilic metabolites of carcinogenes in chemical carcinogenesis has been demonstrated. A number of "proximate" and "ultimate" metabolites, especially those of aromatic amines, were described. The "ultimate" forms of carcinogens actually interact with cellular constituents to cause neoplastic transformation and are the final metabolic products in most pathways. Recent evidence indicates that free radical derivatives of chemical carcinogens may be produced both metabolically and nonenzymatically during their metabolism. Free radicals carry no

  11. Chemoprevention of heterocyclic amine-induced carcinogenesis by phenolic compounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirose, M; Takahashi, S; Ogawa, K; Futakuchi, M; Shirai, T; Shibutani, M; Uneyama, C; Toyoda, K; Iwata, H

    1999-09-01

    Chemopreventive effects of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants on heterocyclic amine (HCA)-induced rat carcinogenesis and mechanisms of inhibition were assessed. In a medium-term liver bioassay, combined treatment with 0.03% 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and synthetic antioxidants such as 1-O-hexyl-2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone (HTHQ), BHA, BHT, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate, each at a dose of 0.25%, and troglitazone at doses 0.5 and 0.1%, potently inhibited development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci as compared with MeIQx alone values. Of these antioxidants, HTHQ showed the greatest activity. Green tea catechins tended to inhibit GST-P positive foci development, while quercetin, rutin, curcumin, daidzin, ferulic acid and genistin all exerted significant enhancing effects. HTHQ also inhibited 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced colon carcinogenesis in a two stage colon carcinogenesis model using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) as an initiator. Immunohistochemically detected PhIP-DNA adduct positive nuclei in the colon induced by continuous oral treatment with 0.02% PhIP for 2 weeks decreased by the combined treatment with 0.5 or 0.125% HTHQ. Methoxyresorfin O-demethylase activity in rat liver microsomes in vitro was clearly inhibited by the addition of HTHQ, BHA, BHT, TBHQ or propyl gallate, with particularly strong inhibition being observed in HTHQ. However, the CYP1A2 level in rat liver increased after oral treatment with HTHQ for 2 weeks. These results indicate that synthetic antioxidants, HTHQ in particular, is a very strong chemopreventor of HCA-induced carcinogenesis. It is suggested that depression of metabolic activation rather than antioxidant activity is responsible for the observed effect. However, other mechanisms, including the effects on phase II enzymes cannot be ruled out.

  12. Spartina alterniflora genotype influences facilitation and suppression of high marsh species colonizing an early successional salt marsh

    Proffitt, C.E.; Chiasson, R.L.; Owens, A.B.; Edwards, K.R.; Travis, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    1. Genetically based phenotypic and ecotypic variation in a dominant plant species can influence ecological functions and patterns of recruitment by other species in plant communities. However, the nature and degree of importance of genotypic differences is poorly understood in most systems. 2. The dominant salt marsh species, Spartina alterniflora, is known to induce facultative and competitive effects in different plant species, and the outcomes of interactions can be affected by nutrients and flooding stress. Clonal genotypes, which maintained their different plant architecture phenotypes throughout 31 months of a field experiment, underwent considerable genet-specific senescence in their centres over the last 12 months. 3. Different clonal genotypes and different locations (robust edges vs. senescent centres) permitted significantly different levels of light penetration of the canopy (14.8-77.6%), thus establishing spatial heterogeneity for this important environmental factor. 4. S. alterniflora clonal genotype influenced the degree of suppression of the previously dominant Salicornia bigelovii as well as facilitation of recruitment and growth by other plant species. Aster subulatus and Atriplex, patula performed better in Spartina clone centres, and experienced reduced growth in Salicornia-dominated areas. 5. Four other high marsh species (Borrichia frutescens, Aster tenuifolius, Iva frutescens and Limonium carolinianum) colonized only into Spartina clones but not into the Salicornia-dominated area. 6. These results suggest that differences in clone size, centre senescence, stem density, height, total stem length and biomass in different genotypes of a dominant marsh plant species can influence recruitment and growth of other plant species. The spatial pattern of habitat heterogeneity is, at least in part, dependent on the genotypic diversity, and possibly the genetic diversity, of such foundation species. 7. We hypothesize that as genotypic diversity

  13. Sex Differences in Early Postnatal Microglial Colonization of the Developing Rat Hippocampus Following a Single-Day Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, M J; Boschen, K E; Roth, T L; Klintsova, A Y

    2018-06-01

    Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures. The current study uses a single day binge alcohol exposure model (postnatal day [PD] 4) to examine sex differences in the neuroimmune response in the developing rat hippocampus on PD5 and 8. The neuroimmune response was evaluated through measurement of microglial number and cytokine gene expression at both time points. Male pups had higher microglial number compared to females in many hippocampal subregions on PD5, but this difference disappeared by PD8, unless exposed to alcohol. Expression of pro-inflammatory marker CD11b was higher on PD5 in alcohol-exposed (AE) females compared to AE males. After alcohol exposure, C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) was significantly increased in female AE pups on PD5 and PD8. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also upregulated by AE in males on PD8. The results demonstrate a clear difference between the male and female neuroimmune response to an AE challenge, which also occurs in a time-dependent manner. These findings are significant as they add to our knowledge of specific sex-dependent effects of alcohol exposure on microglia within the developing brain.

  14. Proteomics Indicators of the Rapidly Shifting Physiology from Whole Mountain Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Adults during Early Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A.; Bonnett, Tiffany R.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P. W.

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction. PMID:25360753

  15. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  16. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K.; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  17. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:26579381

  18. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  19. Combinatorial prevention of carcinogenic risk in a model for familial colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Telang, Nitin; Katdare, Meena

    2007-04-01

    Germ line mutations in the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, predispose for the clinical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome, a high risk precursor for early onset colon cancer. Similar mutations in the murine homolog of the APC gene, however, produce adenomas predominantly in the small intestine, rather than in the colon. The objectives of the present study were: i) to develop a preclinical cell culture model for human FAP syndrome and ii) to validate this model as a rapid mechanism-based approach for evaluation of the preventive efficacy of combinations of synthetic pharmacological agents or naturally-occurring phytochemicals, for the risk of colon carcinogenesis. The clonally selected 850Min COL-Cl1 cell line derived from histologically normal colon of ApcMin/+ mouse exhibited aberrant proliferation (64.7% decrease in population doubling time, 820% increase in saturation density, and 81.4% decrease in spontaneous apoptosis), relative to that observed in the colon epithelial cell line C57 COL established from Apc [+/+] C57BL/6J mouse. In addition, unlike the Apc [+/+] C57 COL cells, the Apc mutant cells exhibited enhanced risk for spontaneous carcinogenic transformation as evidenced by 100% increase in anchorage-independent colony formation (C57 COL: 0/12; 850Min COL-Cl1: 12/12, mean colony number 23.6+/-2.7). Treatment of Apc mutant cells with low dose combination of select mechanistically distinct synthetic chemopreventive agents such as celecoxib (CLX) + difluoro methylornithine (DFMO), or naturally-occurring epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) + curcumin (CUR) produced 160-400% and 220-430% decrease in the viable cell number respectively, relative to these agents used independently. Furthermore, relative to independent agents, CLX+DFMO and EGCG+CUR combinations produced 31.5-82.1% and 45.9-105.4% greater reduction in the number of anchorage-independent colonies. Thus, aberrant proliferation and increased risk for carcinogenesis in

  20. Characteristics of right-sided colonic neoplasia and colonoscopy barriers limiting their early detection and prognosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Elsome, Rory; Amlani, Bharat

    2018-06-05

    Colonoscopy provides less protection from colorectal cancer in the right colon than the left. Areas covered: This review examines patient outcomes and colonoscopy success rates to identify factors that limit the protective effect of colonoscopy in the right colon. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for literature from 2000 onwards, on the long-term outcomes and differences in screening practice between the right and left colon. In total, 12 systematic reviews (including nine meta-analyses) and 44 primary data records were included. Differences in patient outcomes and colonoscopy practice were identified between the right and left colon, suggesting that several factors, many of which disproportionally affect the right colon, impact lesion detection rates. Shorter withdrawal times reduce detection rates, while longer times significantly increase detection; mostly of adenomas in the right colon. Colonoscope attachments often only show a significant improvement in detection rates in the right colon, suggesting detection is more challenging due to visibility of the right colonic mucosa. Higher bowel cleansing grades significantly improve detection rates in the right colon compared to the left. Expert commentary: These findings confirm the need for continued improvement of colonoscopy effectiveness, and obligatory quality assessment, overall and especially in the right colon.

  1. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation, and the offspring were observed for up to two years. The doses used in all these studies were well tolerated by both the dam and offspring. In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood. Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct. In addition, prenatal arsenic plus postnatal exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in C3H mice produces excess lung tumors in both sexes and liver tumors in females. Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct. Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes. Overall this model has provided convincing evidence that arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice with the ability to target tissues of potential human relevance, such as the urinary bladder, lung and liver. Transplacental carcinogenesis clearly occurs with other agents in humans and

  2. Caspase 3 promotes genetic instability and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinjian; He, Yujun; Li, Fang; Huang, Qian; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Hall, Russell P; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Apoptosis is typically considered an anti-oncogenic process since caspase activation can promote the elimination of genetically unstable or damaged cells. We report that a central effector of apoptosis, caspase 3, facilitates, rather than suppresses, chemical and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis. We found that a significant fraction of mammalian cells treated with ionizing radiation can survive, despite caspase 3 activation. Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase 3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. In addition, chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase 3. Furthermore, attenuation of Endo G activity significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying Endo G as a downstream effector of caspase 3 in this pathway. Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase 3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage. PMID:25866249

  3. Colonic cancer--hypotheses of causation, dietary prophylaxis, and future research.

    PubMed

    Walker, A R; Burkitt, D P

    1976-10-01

    Colonic cancer is rare in primitive populations. In western populations it was uncommon in the past, but now accounts for about 3% of all deaths. The cause almost certainly lies with dietary changes. Probably, alterations in bowel milieu interieur, from interaction between metabolites and microbacteria, promote carcinogenesis. Changes in intakes of protein, fat, sugar, refined cereal products, and crude fiber have been advanced as predisposing or causative factors. Evidence suggests that (i) fall in fiber intake, but (ii) rise in fat intake, in their ability to increase fecal concentrations of bile acids and sterols (possible precursors of carcinogens) are most likely to be culpable. As preventive measures, a significant rise in fiber intake is practicable only from regular bran ingestion. A major reduction in fat intake is grossly unlikely. Even were rigorous dietary changes implemented, an early fall in colonic cancer incidence is highly improbable due to the long-term character of the disease. Future research must include characterization of the diet, metabolism, and disease pattern of segments of western populations who have low colonic cancer mortality rates; also, elucidation of the bearing of various intakes of different food components on the biochemistry and microbiology of the feces.

  4. Effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken and salmon on intestinal carcinogenesis in A/J Min/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Steppeler, Christina; Sødring, Marianne; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Kirkhus, Bente; Oostindjer, Marije; Alvseike, Ole; Gangsei, Lars Erik; Hovland, Ellen-Margrethe; Pierre, Fabrice; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified red meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A). In mechanistic studies exploring the link between intake of red meat and CRC, heme iron, the pigment of red meat, is proposed to play a central role as a catalyzer of luminal lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. In the present work, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse was used to investigate the effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken, or salmon (40% muscle food (dry weight) and 60% powder diet) on Apc-driven intestinal carcinogenesis, from week 3-13 of age. Muscle food diets did not differentially affect carcinogenesis in the colon (flat ACF and tumors). In the small intestine, salmon intake resulted in a lower tumor size and load than did meat from terrestrial animals (beef, pork or chicken), while no differences were observed between the effects of white meat (chicken) and red meat (pork and beef). Additional results indicated that intestinal carcinogenesis was not related to dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, intestinal formation of lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), or cytotoxic effects of fecal water on Apc-/+ cells. Notably, the amount of heme reaching the colon appeared to be relatively low in this study. The greatest tumor load was induced by the reference diet RM1, underlining the importance of the basic diets in experimental CRC. The present study in A/J Min/+ mice does not support the hypothesis of a role of red meat in intestinal carcinogenesis.

  5. The impact of bacterial colonization on graft success after total pancreatectomy with autologous islet transplantation: considerations for early definitive surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Jolissaint, Joshua S; Langman, Linda W; DeBolt, Claire L; Tatum, Jacob A; Martin, Allison N; Wang, Andrew Y; Strand, Daniel S; Zaydfudim, Victor M; Adams, Reid B; Brayman, Kenneth L

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether bacterial contamination of islets affects graft success after total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). Factors associated with insulin independence after TPIAT are inconclusive. Although bacterial contamination does not preclude transplantation, the impact of bacterial contamination on graft success is unknown. Patients who received TPIAT at the University of Virginia between January 2007 and January 2016 were reviewed. Patient charts were reviewed for bacterial contamination and patients were prospectively contacted to assess rates of insulin independence. There was no significant difference in demographic or perioperative data between patients who achieved insulin independence and those who did not. However, six of 27 patients analyzed (22.2%) grew bacterial contaminants from culture of the final islet preparations. These patients had significantly lower islet yield and C-peptide at most recent follow-up (P<.05), and none of these patients achieved insulin independence. Islet transplant solutions are often culture positive, likely secondary to preprocurement pancreatic manipulation and introduction of enteric flora. Although autotransplantation of culture-positive islets is safe, it is associated with higher rates of graft failure and poor islet yield. Consideration should be given to identify patients who may develop refractory chronic pancreatitis and offer early operative management to prevent bacterial colonization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Provider-Based Research Networks May Improve Early Access to Innovative Colon Cancer Treatment for African Americans Treated in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Dolly C.; Chang, YunKyung; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Sanoff, Hanna; Stitzenberg, Karyn; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Background African Americans (AA) with colon cancer (CC) experience worse outcomes than Caucasian Americans (CA) partly due to differential treatment. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP), a provider-based research network (PBRN), adopts and diffuses innovative CC treatments quickly. We hypothesized that CCOP participation would lessen racial differences in receipt of oxaliplatin, innovative CC treatment, for patients with stage III CC in the community. Methods Using SEER-Medicare data, we performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of AA and CA individuals ≥66years diagnosed with stage III CC from 2003-2005. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate odds of receiving an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. Predicted probabilities of oxaliplatin receipt for race-CCOP combinations were calculated. The absolute difference in oxaliplatin receipt between races was estimated using interaction contrast ratio (ICR). Results Of 2,971 included individuals, 36% received oxaliplatin, 29.5% were CCOP-affiliated, and 7.6% were AA. In multivariate analysis, early diffusion of oxaliplatin was not associated with race or CCOP participation. The probability of receiving oxaliplatin for CCOP AAs (0.46) almost doubled that of non-CCOP AAs (0.25,p<0.05). For CAs the probabilities of receiving oxaliplatin did not differ by CCOP participation. For oxaliplatin receipt, the joint effects assessment suggested a greater benefit of CCOP participation among AAs (ICR=1.7). Conclusions Among older stage III CC patients there is a differential impact of race on oxaliplatin receipt depending on CCOP participation. AAs treated by CCOPs were more likely to receive oxaliplatin than AAs treated elsewhere. PBRNs may facilitate early access to innovative treatment for AAs with stage III CC. PMID:25209056

  7. A Systems Approach to Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatky, Lynn

    Understanding carcinogenesis risk is complicated by a number of factors, among these the lack of a common platform to integrate and analyze the available data, and the inherently systemsbiologic nature of the problem. We have investigated mechanistic approaches to radiogenic risk estimation that draw on unifying biological principles and incorporate data from multiscale sources. The resultant modeling takes into account that carcinogenesis is a multi-scale phenomenon, critically influenced by determinants not only at the molecular level, but at the cell and tissue-levels as well. To account for cell-level carcinogenesis progression as influenced by inter-tissue signaling, we have developed a dynamic carrying capacity construct that couples the growth of a tumor with the degree of induced vascularization. We have also characterized the molecular responses to radiation incorporating tissue-level angiogenesis implications, and have found striking radiation-quality-dependent responses. The molecular-level events of initiation and promotion are considered in our Two-Stage Logistic model, while incorporating in a rudimentary way the larger-scale growth-limiting role of cell-cell interactions. These and other recent studies undertaken to elaborate radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed, in pursuit of a more complete paradigm for understanding radiation induction of cancer and the consequent risk.

  8. Smad2/3 linker phosphorylation is a possible marker of cancer stem cells and correlates with carcinogenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Fukui, Toshiro; Kishimoto, Masanobu; Miyamoto, Sachi; Takahashi, Yu; Takeo, Masahiro; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Yutaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial cells affected by somatic mutations undergo transition from a tumour-suppressive to a carcinogenic Smad pathway during sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, and the specific linker threonine phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in colon epithelial cells indicates stem-like cells. This study extends previous observations to a model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. After Crl:CD-1 mice received an administration of azoxymethane [AOM], the mice were given dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] for 7 days. AOM/DSS-treated mice [AOM/DSS mice] were killed at 10 or 20 weeks. After macroscopic observations, a histopathological analysis was conducted. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method [pSmad3C-Ser, pSmad3L-Ser, c-Myc] and immunofluorescent methods [Ki67, β-catenin, CDK4, cyclin D1, Sox9, pSmad2/3L-Thr]. The colons from AOM/DSS mice were shorter than those from control mice. The number of colon tumours at Week 20 was higher than at Week 10. The inflammation scores for AOM/DSS mice were greater than those for control mice. Immunostaining-positive cells (staining by Ki67, β-catenin [nuclear and cytoplasmic], cyclin D1, and Sox9) were diffusely distributed in colon tumours. The percentage of pSmad3L-Ser-positive cells in colon tumours was higher than in sites of pre-neoplastic colitis, and that in sites of pre-neoplastic colitis was higher than in control mice. pSmad2/3L-Thr-positive cells were sparsely detected around crypt bases in non-neoplastic colon epithelia and at the tops of tumours, and immunohistochemical co-localisation of pSmad2/3L-Thr with Ki67 was not observed. Immunohistochemical co-localisation of pSmad2/3L-Thr with β-catenin and CDK4 was observed. pSmad3L-Ser signalling is an early event in colitis-associated colorectal cancer, and pSmad2/3L-Thr immunostaining-positive cells might be cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University

  9. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  10. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  11. Host Species Barriers to Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Replication and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Henny; De las Heras, Marcelo; Murgia, Claudio; Huang, Robert; Centorame, Patrizia; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Di Gialleonardo, Luigina; Spencer, Thomas E.; Griffiths, David J.; Palmarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors governing host species barriers to virus transmission has added significantly to our appreciation of virus pathogenesis. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a transmissible lung cancer of sheep that has rarely been found in goats. In this study, in order to further clarify the pathogenesis of OPA, we investigated whether goats are resistant to JSRV replication and carcinogenesis. We found that JSRV induces lung tumors in goats with macroscopic and histopathological features that dramatically differ from those in sheep. However, the origins of the tumor cells in the two species are identical. Interestingly, in experimentally infected lambs and goat kids, we revealed major differences in the number of virus-infected cells at early stages of infection. These differences were not related to the number of available target cells for virus infection and cell transformation or the presence of a host-specific immune response toward JSRV. Indeed, we also found that goats possess transcriptionally active endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) that likely influence the host immune response toward the exogenous JSRV. Overall, these results suggest that goat cells, or at least those cells targeted for viral carcinogenesis, are not permissive to virus replication but can be transformed by JSRV. PMID:23903827

  12. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colon-rectal-cancer.html Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance. ...

  13. Early tumor growth in metastatic organs influenced by the microenvironment is an important factor which provides organ specificity of colon cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Y; Ogata, Y; Shirouzu, K

    2000-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that liver metastases in nude mice and lung metastases in nude rats occurred specifically, when KM12SM human colon carcinoma cells were inoculated orthotopically into the cecal wall of nude mice and rats. To clarify the relationship between the tumor growth potential in the metastatic organs and the metastatic organ preference in these two metastatic models, we have evaluated the in vitro cell growth activities affected by the organ conditioned medium (CM) from the liver and lung, and the in vivo growth activities of the ectopic implanted tumors in the liver and lung. The tumorigenicity of the ectopic implanted tumors was 100% in mouse liver, 33% in rat liver, 50% in mouse lung, and 75% in rat lung. The crude liver CM of the animals showed inhibitory activities for KM12SM cell growth in a dosage-dependent manner, and the crude lung CM stimulated KM12SM cell growth. The liver CM of nude mice inhibited the KM12SM cell growth more strongly compared with the CM of nude rats, and the lung CM of nude rats was more strongly stimulated compared with the CM of nude mice. The liver CM of nude mice had non-heparin binding factors, which stimulated or inhibited KM12SM cell growth, in a molecular weight range of 50 to 100 kDa. By contrast, the liver CM of nude rats showed no growth stimulating activity for KM12SM cells. These results suggest that the metastatic organ specificity of KM12SM cells may depend on the early tumor growth influenced by the microenvironment in metastatic organs.

  14. Doxycycline Promotes Carcinogenesis & Metastasis via Chronic Inflammatory Pathway: An In Vivo Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Neha; Dhawan, Devinder K.; Bhatia, Alka; Mahmood, Akhtar; Mahmood, Safrun

    2016-01-01

    Background Doxycycline (DOX) exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pro-apoptotic activity and is being tested in clinical trials as a chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers, including colon cancer. Materials & Methods In the current study, the chemotherapeutic activity of doxycycline was tested in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis, induced by colon specific cancer promoter, 1,2, dimethylhydrazine (DMH) as well as study the effect of DOX-alone on a separate group of rats. Results Doxycycline administration in DMH-treated rats (DMH-DOX) unexpectedly increased tumor multiplicity, stimulated progression of colonic tumor growth from adenomas to carcinomas and revealed metastasis in small intestine as determined by macroscopic and histopathological analysis. DOX-alone treatment showed markedly enhanced chronic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia, which was dependent upon the dose of doxycycline administered. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of inflammation and anti-apoptotic action of DOX by deregulation of various biomarkers. Conclusion These results suggest that doxycycline caused chronic inflammation in colon, small intestine injury, enhanced the efficacy of DMH in tumor progression and provided a mechanistic link between doxycycline-induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. Ongoing studies thus may need to focus on the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline action, which lead to its inflammatory and tumorigenic effects. PMID:26998758

  15. Analysis of cell cycle-related proteins in gastric intramucosal differentiated-type cancers based on mucin phenotypes: a novel hypothesis of early gastric carcinogenesis based on mucin phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of cell cycle regulators are common features in human cancers, and several of these factors are associated with the early development of gastric cancers. However, recent studies have shown that gastric cancer tumorigenesis was characterized by mucin expression. Thus, expression patterns of cell cycle-related proteins were investigated in the early phase of differentiated-type gastric cancers to ascertain any mechanistic relationships with mucin phenotypes. Methods Immunostaining for Cyclins D1, A, E, and p21, p27, p53 and β-catenin was used to examine impairments of the cell cycle in 190 gastric intramucosal differentiated-type cancers. Mucin phenotypes were determined by the expressions of MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2 and CD10. A Ki-67 positive rate (PR) was also examined. Results Overexpressions of p53, cyclin D1 and cyclin A were significantly more frequent in a gastric phenotype than an intestinal phenotype. Cyclin A was overexpressed in a mixed phenotype compared with an intestinal phenotype, while p27 overexpression was more frequent in an intestinal phenotype than in a mixed phenotype. Reduction of p21 was a common feature of the gastric intramucosal differentiated-type cancers examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that the levels of some cell cycle regulators appear to be associated with mucin phenotypes of early gastric differentiated-type cancers. PMID:20525401

  16. Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries. PMID:19332896

  17. Chronic exposure to combined carcinogens enhances breast cell carcinogenesis with mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

  18. Chronic Exposure to Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis with Mesenchymal and Stem-Like Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Lenora Ann; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by PhIP in both non-cancerous and cancerous breast cells. Co-exposure was more potent than sequential exposure to combined NNK and B[a]P followed by PhIP in inducing carcinogenesis. Initiation of carcinogenesis was measured by transient endpoints induced in a single exposure, while progression of carcinogenesis was measured by acquisition of constitutive endpoints in cumulative exposures. Transient endpoints included DNA damage, Ras-Erk-Nox pathway activation, reactive oxygen species elevation, and increased cellular proliferation. Constitutive endpoints included various cancer-associated properties and signaling modulators, as well as enrichment of cancer stem-like cell population and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program. Using transient and constitutive endpoints as targets, we detected that a combination of the green tea catechins ECG and EGCG, at non-cytotoxic levels, was more effective than individual agents in intervention of cellular carcinogenesis induced by combined NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP. Thus, use of combined ECG and EGCG should be seriously considered for early intervention of breast cell carcinogenesis associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens. PMID:25372613

  19. Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase may contribute to orodigestive carcinogenesis through immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Mikko T; Listyarifah, Dyah; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Grenier, Daniel; Nordström, Dan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Hernandez, Marcela; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Tervahartiala, Taina; Ainola, Mari; Sorsa, Timo

    2018-02-06

    Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss. The anaerobic spirochete Td is an invasive bacteria due to its major virulence factor chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Here we aimed to investigate the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) in major orodigestive tumours and to elucidate potential mechanisms for Td to contribute to carcinogenesis. The presence of Td-CTLP within orodigestive tumour tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry. Oral, tonsillar, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, alongside gastric, pancreatic, and colon adenocarcinomas were stained with a Td-CTLP-specific antibody. Gingival tissue from periodontitis patients served as positive controls. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot were used to analyse the immumodulatory activity of Td-CTLP in vitro. Td-CTLP was present in majority of orodigestive tumour samples. Td-CTLP was found to convert pro MMP-8 and -9 into their active forms. In addition, Td-CTLP was able to degrade the proteinase inhibitors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and α-1-antichymotrypsin, as well as complement C1q. Because of its presence within tumours and regulatory activity on proteins critical for the regulation of tumour microenvironment and inflammation, the Td-CTLP may contribute to orodigestive carcinogenesis.

  20. The pharmacogenetics of chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Idle, J R; Armstrong, M; Boddy, A V; Boustead, C; Cholerton, S; Cooper, J; Daly, A K; Ellis, J; Gregory, W; Hadidi, H

    1992-12-01

    The human body is endowed with a large number of xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzymes, a significant proportion of which are polymorphic and thus render one individual at greater or lesser risk than another of chemically-induced disease. All examples of genetic polymorphism of chemical metabolizing enzymes have been reviewed in relation to their potential to activate and detoxicate procarcinogens and promutagens. Many examples are cited whereby phenotype can act as a carcinogenic risk factor. With the availability of a large amount of DNA sequence data for chemical metabolizing enzymes there has emerged a number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies aimed at discerning one metabolic phenotype or another. This is seen as a very positive and democratic scientific development, widening the franchise for studies of disease risk. Nevertheless, it is argued that, at these early stages with many laboratory-based scientists scarcely familiar with epidemiological study design, a cautious approach should obtain when interpreting single studies.

  1. Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization-abandonment events by male Kirtland’s Warblers in an early succession habitat

    Donner, Deahn M.; Ribic, Christine; Probst, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat colonization and abandonment affects the distribution of a species in space and time, ultimately influencing the duration of time habitat is used and the total area of habitat occupied in any given year. Both aspects have important implications to long-term conservation planning. The importance of patch isolation and area to colonization–extinction events is well studied, but little information exists on how changing regional landscape structure and population dynamics influences the variability in the timing of patch colonization and abandonment events. We used 26 years of Kirtland’s Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) population data taken during a habitat restoration program (1979–2004) across its historical breeding range to examine the influence of patch attributes and temporal large-scale processes, specifically the rate of habitat turnover and fraction of occupied patches, on the year-to-year timing of patch colonization and abandonment since patch origin. We found the timing of patch colonization and abandonment was influenced by patch and large-scale regional factors. In this system, larger patches were typically colonized earlier (i.e., at a younger age) and abandoned later than smaller patches. Isolated patches (i.e., patches farther from another occupied patch) were generally colonized later and abandoned earlier. Patch habitat type affected colonization and abandonment; colonization occurred at similar patch ages between plantation and wildfire areas (9 and 8.5 years, respectively), but plantations were abandoned at earlier ages (13.9 years) than wildfire areas (16.4 years) resulting in shorter use. As the fraction of occupied patches increased, patches were colonized and abandoned at earlier ages. Patches were abandoned at older ages when the influx of new habitat patches was at low and high rates. Our results provide empirical support for the temporal influence of patch dynamics (i.e., patch destruction, creation, and succession) on

  2. Progesterone Signaling Inhibits Cervical Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young A; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical cancer, yet other nonviral cofactors are also required for the disease. The uterine cervix is a hormone-responsive tissue, and female hormones have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. A transgenic mouse model expressing human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 and/or E7 has proven useful to study a mechanism of hormone actions in the context of this common malignancy. Estrogen and estrogen receptor α are required for the development of cervical cancer in this mouse model. Estrogen receptor α is known to up-regulate expression of the progesterone receptor, which, on activation by its ligands, either promotes or inhibits carcinogenesis, depending on the tissue context. Here, we report that progesterone receptor inhibits cervical and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner. We also report that synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate promotes regression of cancers and precancerous lesions in the female lower reproductive tracts (ie, cervix and vagina) in the human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that progesterone signaling is inhibitory for cervical carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24012679

  3. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by retinoids. [Review

    SciT

    Nettesheim, P.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in the search for retinoids with anticarcinogenic activity is reviewed. There are many studies to be found in the literature which show no substantial effect of retinoids on carcinogenesis or tumor growth. Some of these negative findings may be related to the carcinogen dose used, the type of retinoid used, the dose, dose schedule or mode of administration of the retinoid. Others may indicate that the particular type of tumor or tumor system is, indeed, refractory to retinoids in general or to those retinoids that were tested. A great gap still exists in our knowledgemore » concerning the pharmake-kinetics of most retinoids their availability to various normal and cancerous tissues, and the role and existence of transport and binding proteins. There are studies which indicate that under certain conditions, particularly conditions of topical application, some retinoids may even enhance carcinogenesis. It seems, however, indisputable by now that some retinoids are effective inhibitors of carcinogenesis in some organ systems and can even inhibit the growth of some established tumors. While the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are presently not understood, it does seem clear that they are not mediated via the cytotoxic mechanisms typical of chemotherapeutic agents. The hope that retinoids might become an effective tool to halt the progression of some neoplastic diseases, seems to be justified.« less

  4. The COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide suppresses superoxide and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and stimulates apoptosis in mucosa during early colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, D; Jaeg, J P; Deloly, A; Corpet, D E; Cadet, J; Petit, C R

    2000-05-01

    As we have shown previously [Tardieu,D., Jaeg,J.P., Cadet,J., Embvani,E., Corpet,D.E. and Petit,C. (1998) Cancer Lett, 134, 1-5], a 48-h treatment of 6% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water led to a reproducible 2-fold increase of the mutagenic oxidative lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) in colonic mucosa DNA of rats in vivo. The aim of this study was to test the effect of nimesulide, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, on the DSS-induced 8-oxodGuo increase. We show that nimesulide when administered orally, simultaneously with DSS at 5 mg/kg/day, not only totally prevents 8-oxodGuo formation but also suppresses the 5-fold increase of superoxide induced by DSS in the colonic mucosa. This was measured by in vivo formazan blue precipitation (P < 0.01 in the Wilcoxon test). Moreover, nimesulide enhances apoptosis by approximately 30% as compared with the already high level induced by DSS treatment (P < 0.01). It is suggested that the significant increase in mutagenic oxidative DNA damage, produced by mild acute colonic inflammation, could be important in the initiation of colon cancer in both animals and man. These effects may explain at least partly the well-documented protective action towards colon cancer by preferential COX-2 inhibitors, either xenobiotics such as nimesulide or natural nutrients.

  5. Tea Polysaccharide Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice by Inhibiting the Proliferation and Invasion of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Qiao; Li, Hai-Shan; Shen, Ming-Yue; Hu, Jie-Lun; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-01-01

    The imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis can lead to tumor progression, causing oncogenic transformation, abnormal cell proliferation and cell apoptosis suppression. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is the major bioactive component in green tea, it has showed antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. In this study, the chemoprophylaxis effects of TPS on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis, especially the cell apoptosis activation and inhibition effects on cell proliferation and invasion were analyzed. The azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) was used to induce the colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Results showed that the tumor incidence was reduced in TPS-treated AOM/DSS mice compared to AOM/DSS mice. TUNEL staining and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining showed that the TPS treatment increased significantly the cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation among AOM/DSS mice. Furthermore, TPS reduced the expression levels of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. In addition, in vitro studies showed that TPS, suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells. Overall, our findings demonstrated that TPS could be a potential agent in the treatment and/or prevention of colon tumor, which promoted the apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation and invasion of the mouse colon cancer cells via arresting cell cycle progression. PMID:29419740

  6. Palytoxin: exploiting a novel skin tumor promoter to explore signal transduction and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin is a novel skin tumor promoter, which has been used to help probe the role of different types of signaling mechanisms in carcinogenesis. The multistage mouse skin model indicates that tumor promotion is an early, prolonged, and reversible phase of carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor promotion is therefore important for developing strategies to prevent and treat cancer. Naturally occurring tumor promoters that bind to specific cellular receptors have proven to be useful tools for investigating important biochemical events in multistage carcinogenesis. For example, the identification of protein kinase C as the receptor for the prototypical skin tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (also called phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) provided key evidence that tumor promotion involves the aberrant modulation of signaling cascades that govern cell fate and function. The subsequent discovery that palytoxin, a marine toxin isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), is a potent skin tumor promoter yet does not activate protein kinase C indicated that investigating palytoxin action could help reveal new aspects of tumor promotion. Interestingly, the putative receptor for palytoxin is the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. This review focuses on palytoxin-stimulated signaling and how palytoxin has been used to investigate alternate biochemical mechanisms by which important targets in carcinogenesis can be modulated.

  7. Palytoxin: Exploiting a novel skin tumor promoter to explore signal transduction and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2006-01-01

    Palytoxin is a novel skin tumor promoter, which has been used to help probe the role of different types of signaling mechanisms in carcinogenesis. The multi-stage mouse skin model indicates that tumor promotion is an early, prolonged, and reversible phase of carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor promotion is therefore important for developing strategies to prevent and treat cancer. Naturally occurring tumor promoters that bind to specific cellular receptors have proven to be useful tools for investigating important biochemical events in multi-stage carcinogenesis. For example, the identification of protein kinase C as the receptor for the prototypical skin tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (also called phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or PMA) provided key evidence that tumor promotion involves the aberrant modulation of signaling cascades that govern cell fate and function. The subsequent discovery that palytoxin, a marine toxin isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), is a potent skin tumor promoter yet does not activate protein kinase C indicated that investigating palytoxin action could help reveal new aspects of tumor promotion. Interestingly, the putative receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. This review focuses on palytoxin-stimulated signaling, and how palytoxin has been used to investigate alternate biochemical mechanisms by which important targets in carcinogenesis can be modulated. PMID:16855216

  8. Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Modeling of Colon Cancer Organoids Reveals that Multimodal Control of Stem Cell Self-Renewal is a Critical Determinant of Size and Shape in Early Stages of Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaming; Konstorum, Anna; Lowengrub, John S

    2018-05-01

    We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal. We demonstrate that SCs play a central role in normal and cancer colon organoids. Spatial patterning of the SC self-renewal promoter gives rise to SC clusters, which mimic stem cell niches, around the organoid surface, and drive the development of invasive fingers. We also study the effects of externally applied signaling factors. Applying bone morphogenic proteins, which inhibit SC and CP self-renewal, reduces invasiveness and organoid size. Applying hepatocyte growth factor, which enhances SC self-renewal, produces larger sizes and enhances finger development at low concentrations but suppresses fingers at high concentrations. These results are consistent with recent experiments on colon organoids. Because many cancers are hierarchically organized and are subject to feedback regulation similar to that in normal tissues, our results suggest that in cancer, control of cancer stem cell self-renewal should influence the size and shape in similar ways, thereby opening the door to novel therapies.

  9. Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Modeling of Colon Cancer Organoids Reveals that Multimodal Control of Stem Cell Self-Renewal is a Critical Determinant of Size and Shape in Early Stages of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huaming; Konstorum, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal. We demonstrate that SCs play a central role in normal and cancer colon organoids. Spatial patterning of the SC self-renewal promoter gives rise to SC clusters, which mimic stem cell niches, around the organoid surface, and drive the development of invasive fingers. We also study the effects of externally applied signaling factors. Applying bone morphogenic proteins, which inhibit SC and CP self-renewal, reduces invasiveness and organoid size. Applying hepatocyte growth factor, which enhances SC self-renewal, produces larger sizes and enhances finger development at low concentrations but suppresses fingers at high concentrations. These results are consistent with recent experiments on colon organoids. Because many cancers are hierarchically organized and are subject to feedback regulation similar to that in normal tissues, our results suggest that in cancer, control of cancer stem cell self-renewal should influence the size and shape in similar ways, thereby opening the door to novel therapies. PMID:28681151

  10. Absorption and distribution of lycopene in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Oshima, S; Inakuma, T; Narisawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Colonic absorption and distribution of lycopene, which inhibited rat colon carcinogenesis in our previous studies, were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three groups of six rats each with or without a single-barreled colostomy at the mid colon were given a single intragastric or intracolonic dose of 0.2 mL of corn oil containing 12 mg of lycopene. Twenty-four hours later, all rats were sacrificed and the blood and some tissues were collected. The contents of lycopene in the samples were assayed by HPLC. Lycopene was detected in an appreciable amount in the liver, but only in trace amount in the serum of all rats treated with an intracolonic dose of lycopene and in rats with an intragastric dose. After an intragastric lycopene treatment, lycopene was detected in the mucosa of the proximal colon and of the distal colon of the colostomized rats, whose distal colon had been excluded from the fecal stream. A large amount of lycopene was recovered in the feces. None was detected in any sample from the control rats treated with an intragastric or intracolonic dose of plain corn oil. The results suggest that lycopene is absorbed from the colon and also from the small intestine. It might be concluded that both ways of absorption contribute to a comparative amount of lycopene accumulation in the colon mucosa after ingestion of this carotenoid.

  11. Application of evolutionary games to modeling carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Swierniak, Andrzej; Krzeslak, Michal

    2013-06-01

    We review a quite large volume of literature concerning mathematical modelling of processes related to carcinogenesis and the growth of cancer cell populations based on the theory of evolutionary games. This review, although partly idiosyncratic, covers such major areas of cancer-related phenomena as production of cytotoxins, avoidance of apoptosis, production of growth factors, motility and invasion, and intra- and extracellular signaling. We discuss the results of other authors and append to them some additional results of our own simulations dealing with the possible dynamics and/or spatial distribution of the processes discussed.

  12. Chemical carcinogenesis: Too many rodent carcinogens

    SciT

    Ames, B.N.; Gold, L.S.

    1990-10-01

    The administration of chemicals at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in standard animal cancer tests is postulated to increase cell division (mitogenesis), which in turn increases rates of mutagenesis and thus carcinogenesis. The animal data are consistent with this mechanism, because a high proportion{endash}about half{endash}of all chemicals tested (whether natural or synthetic) are indeed rodent carcinogens. The authors conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures, where cell killing does not occur, the hazards to humans of rodent carcinogens may be much lower than is commonly assumed.

  13. Colon cancer-associated B2 Escherichia coli colonize gut mucosa and promote cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Raisch, Jennifer; Buc, Emmanuel; Bonnet, Mathilde; Sauvanet, Pierre; Vazeille, Emilie; de Vallée, Amélie; Déchelotte, Pierre; Darcha, Claude; Pezet, Denis; Bonnet, Richard; Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To provide further insight into the characterization of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from the colonic mucosa of cancer patients. METHODS: Phylogroups and the presence of cyclomodulin-encoding genes of mucosa-associated E. coli from colon cancer and diverticulosis specimens were determined by PCR. Adhesion and invasion experiments were performed with I-407 intestinal epithelial cells using gentamicin protection assay. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) expression in T84 intestinal epithelial cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by Western Blot. Gut colonization, inflammation and pro-carcinogenic potential were assessed in a chronic infection model using CEABAC10 transgenic mice. Cell proliferation was analyzed by real-time mRNA quantification of PCNA and immunohistochemistry staining of Ki67. RESULTS: Analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli from colon cancer and diverticulosis specimens showed that whatever the origin of the E. coli strains, 86% of cyclomodulin-positive E. coli belonged to B2 phylogroup and most harbored polyketide synthase (pks) island, which encodes colibactin, and/or cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf) genes. In vitro assays using I-407 intestinal epithelial cells revealed that mucosa-associated B2 E. coli strains were poorly adherent and invasive. However, mucosa-associated B2 E. coli similarly to Crohn’s disease-associated E. coli are able to induce CEACAM6 expression in T84 intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, in vivo experiments using a chronic infection model of CEACAM6 expressing mice showed that B2 E. coli strain 11G5 isolated from colon cancer is able to highly persist in the gut, and to induce colon inflammation, epithelial damages and cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these data bring new insights into the ability of E. coli isolated from patients with colon cancer to establish persistent colonization, exacerbate inflammation and

  14. Comparative DNA adduct formation and induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice exposed to 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and azoxymethane

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangyub; Guo, Jingshu; O’Sullivan, M. Gerald; Gallaher, Daniel D.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that environmental factors, including diet and cigarette smoke, are involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Carcinogenic nitroso compounds (NOC), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are present in tobacco and processed red meat, and NOC have been implicated in colon cancer. Azoxymethane (AOM), commonly used for experimental colon carcinogenesis, is an isomer of NDMA, and it produces the same DNA adducts as does NDMA. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and high-temperature cooking of meats are also associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer. The most abundant carcinogenic HAA formed in tobacco smoke is 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), whereas 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) is the most potent carcinogenic HAA formed during the cooking of meat and fish. However, the comparative tumor-initiating potential of AαC, MeIQ, and AOM is unknown. In this report, we evaluate the formation of DNA adducts as a measure of genotoxicity, and the induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and dysplastic ACF, as an early measure of carcinogenic potency of these compounds in the colon of male A/J mice. Both AαC and AOM induced a greater number of DNA adducts than MeIQ in the liver and colon. AOM induced a greater number of ACF and dysplastic ACF than either AαC or MeIQ. Conversely, based on adduct levels, MeIQ-DNA adducts were more potent than AαC- and AOM-DNA adducts at inducing ACF. Long-term feeding studies are required to relate levels of DNA adducts, induction of ACF, and colon cancer by these colon genotoxicants. PMID:26734915

  15. Effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken and salmon on intestinal carcinogenesis in A/J Min/+ mice

    PubMed Central

    Sødring, Marianne; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Kirkhus, Bente; Oostindjer, Marije; Alvseike, Ole; Gangsei, Lars Erik; Hovland, Ellen-Margrethe; Pierre, Fabrice; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A). In mechanistic studies exploring the link between intake of red meat and CRC, heme iron, the pigment of red meat, is proposed to play a central role as a catalyzer of luminal lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity. In the present work, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse was used to investigate the effects of dietary beef, pork, chicken, or salmon (40% muscle food (dry weight) and 60% powder diet) on Apc-driven intestinal carcinogenesis, from week 3–13 of age. Muscle food diets did not differentially affect carcinogenesis in the colon (flat ACF and tumors). In the small intestine, salmon intake resulted in a lower tumor size and load than did meat from terrestrial animals (beef, pork or chicken), while no differences were observed between the effects of white meat (chicken) and red meat (pork and beef). Additional results indicated that intestinal carcinogenesis was not related to dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, intestinal formation of lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), or cytotoxic effects of fecal water on Apc-/+ cells. Notably, the amount of heme reaching the colon appeared to be relatively low in this study. The greatest tumor load was induced by the reference diet RM1, underlining the importance of the basic diets in experimental CRC. The present study in A/J Min/+ mice does not support the hypothesis of a role of red meat in intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:28426718

  16. Curcumin: the spicy modulator of breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Banik, Urmila; Parasuraman, Subramani; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2017-07-19

    Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose. This review primarily underscores the modulatory effect of curcumin on the cancer hallmarks. The focus is its anticancer effect in the complex pathways of breast carcinogenesis. Curcumin modulates breast carcinogenesis through its effect on cell cycle and proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, cancer spread and angiogenesis. Largely the NFkB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK and JAK/STAT are the key signaling pathways involved. The review also highlights the curcumin mediated modulation of tumor microenvironment, cancer immunity, breast cancer stem cells and cancer related miRNAs. Using curcumin as a therapeutic and preventive agent in breast cancer is perplexed by its diverse biological activity, much of which remains inexplicable. The information reviewed here should point toward potential scope of future curcumin research in breast cancer.

  17. Oncogenomic disruptions in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kevin W.; Stewart, Greg L.; Dummer, Trevor J.B.; Lam, Wan L.; Martinez, Victor D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and has been associated with many adverse health effects, including cancer in several organs. There is accumulating evidence that arsenic biotransformation, a step in the elimination of arsenic from the human body, can induce changes at a genetic and epigenetic level, leading to carcinogenesis. At the genetic level, arsenic interferes with key cellular processes such as DNA damage-repair and chromosomal structure, leading to genomic instability. At the epigenetic level, arsenic places a high demand on the cellular methyl pool, leading to global hypomethylation and hypermethylation of specific gene promoters. These arsenic-associated DNA alterations result in the deregulation of both oncogenic and tumour-suppressive genes. Furthermore, recent reports have implicated aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs and the consequential disruption of signaling pathways in the context of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. This article provides an overview of the oncogenomic anomalies associated with arsenic exposure and conveys the importance of non-coding RNAs in the arsenic-induced carcinogenic process. PMID:28179585

  18. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically induced multistep skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F; Detmar, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A pilot study to assess near infrared laparoscopy with indocyanine green (ICG) for intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping in early colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Currie, A C; Brigic, A; Thomas-Gibson, S; Suzuki, N; Moorghen, M; Jenkins, J T; Faiz, O D; Kennedy, R H

    2017-11-01

    Previous attempts at sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in colon cancer have been compromised by ineffective tracers and the inclusion of advanced disease. This study evaluated the feasibility of fluorescence detection of SLNs with indocyanine green (ICG) for lymphatic mapping in T1/T2 clinically staged colonic malignancy. Consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 stage colon cancer underwent endoscopic peritumoral submucosal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) for fluorescence detection of SLN using a near-infrared (NIR) camera. All patients underwent laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision surgery. Detection rate and sensitivity of the NIR-ICG technique were the study endpoints. Thirty patients mean age = 68 years [range = 38-80], mean BMI = 26.2 (IQR = 24.7-28.6) were studied. Mesocolic sentinel nodes (median = 3/patient) were detected by fluorescence within the standard resection field in 27/30 patients. Overall, ten patients had lymph node metastases, with one of these patients having a failed SLN procedure. Of the 27 patients with completed SLN mapping, nine patients had histologically positive lymph nodes containing malignancy. 3/9 had positive SLNs with 6 false negatives. In five of these false negative patients, tumours were larger than 35 mm with four also being T3/T4. ICG mapping with NIR fluorescence allowed mesenteric detection of SLNs in clinical T1/T2 stage colonic cancer. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: ID: NCT01662752. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-specific function of α5β1 integrin in microglial migration during early colonization of the developing mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Sophie Marie-Thérèse; Swinnen, Nina; Kessels, Sofie; Arnauts, Kaline; Smolders, Silke; Le Bras, Barbara; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2017-07-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, take part in brain development and homeostasis. They derive from primitive myeloid progenitors that originate in the yolk sac and colonize the brain mainly through intensive migration. During development, microglial migration speed declines which suggests that their interaction with the microenvironment changes. However, the matrix-cell interactions allowing dispersion within the parenchyma are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to better characterize the migration behavior and to assess the role of matrix-integrin interactions during microglial migration in the embryonic brain ex vivo. We focused on microglia-fibronectin interactions mediated through the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin because in vitro work indirectly suggested a role for this ligand-receptor pair. Using 2-photon time-lapse microscopy on acute ex vivo embryonic brain slices, we found that migration occurs in a saltatory pattern and is developmentally regulated. Most importantly, there is an age-specific function of the α5β1 integrin during microglial cortex colonization. At embryonic day (E) 13.5, α5β1 facilitates migration while from E15.5, it inhibits migration. These results indicate a developmentally regulated function of α5β1 integrin in microglial migration during colonization of the embryonic brain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interaction between APC and Fen1 during breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Satya; Jaiswal, Aruna S.; Law, Brian K.; Mohammed, Kamal A.; Sharma, Arun K.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA base excision repair (BER) contributes to malignant transformation. However, inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity plays a key role in modifying breast cancer risk. We review here emerging evidence that two proteins involved in BER – adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) – promote the development of breast cancer through novel mechanisms. APC and Fen1 expression and interaction is increased in breast tumors versus normal cells, APC interacts with and blocks Fen1 activity in Pol-β-directed LP-BER, and abrogation of LP-BER is linked with cigarette smoke condensate-induced transformation of normal breast epithelial cells. Carcinogens increase expression of APC and Fen1 in spontaneously immortalized human breast epithelial cells, human colon cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Since APC and Fen1 are tumor suppressors, an increase in their levels could protect against carcinogenesis; however, this does not seem to be the case. Elevated Fen1 levels in breast and lung cancer cells may reflect the enhanced proliferation of cancer cells or increased DNA damage in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor functions of APC and Fen1 is due to their interaction, which may act as a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. The increased interaction of APC and Fen1 may occur due to polypmorphic and/or mutational variation in these genes. Screening of APC and Fen1 polymorphic and/or mutational variations and APC/Fen1 interaction may permit assessment of individual DNA repair capability and the risk for breast cancer development. Such individuals might lower their breast cancer risk by reducing exposure to carcinogens. Stratifying individuals according to susceptibility would greatly assist epidemiologic studies of the impact of suspected environmental carcinogens. Additionally, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of APC and Fen1 may provide the basis for developing new

  2. Interaction between APC and Fen1 during breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Satya; Jaiswal, Aruna S; Law, Brian K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sharma, Arun K; Hromas, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant DNA base excision repair (BER) contributes to malignant transformation. However, inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity plays a key role in modifying breast cancer risk. We review here emerging evidence that two proteins involved in BER - adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) - promote the development of breast cancer through novel mechanisms. APC and Fen1 expression and interaction is increased in breast tumors versus normal cells, APC interacts with and blocks Fen1 activity in Pol-β-directed LP-BER, and abrogation of LP-BER is linked with cigarette smoke condensate-induced transformation of normal breast epithelial cells. Carcinogens increase expression of APC and Fen1 in spontaneously immortalized human breast epithelial cells, human colon cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Since APC and Fen1 are tumor suppressors, an increase in their levels could protect against carcinogenesis; however, this does not seem to be the case. Elevated Fen1 levels in breast and lung cancer cells may reflect the enhanced proliferation of cancer cells or increased DNA damage in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor functions of APC and Fen1 is due to their interaction, which may act as a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. The increased interaction of APC and Fen1 may occur due to polypmorphic and/or mutational variation in these genes. Screening of APC and Fen1 polymorphic and/or mutational variations and APC/Fen1 interaction may permit assessment of individual DNA repair capability and the risk for breast cancer development. Such individuals might lower their breast cancer risk by reducing exposure to carcinogens. Stratifying individuals according to susceptibility would greatly assist epidemiologic studies of the impact of suspected environmental carcinogens. Additionally, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of APC and Fen1 may provide the basis for developing new and

  3. THE REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS) THEORY OF ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At this time, there is not a scientific consensus on the mechanisms/modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis. Proposed mechanisms/modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis include but are not limited to clastogenic effects, mutation, oxidative stress (via ROS and other chemic...

  4. THE REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS) THEORY OF ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Arsenic is a human carcinogen in skin, lung, liver, urinary bladder
    and kidney. At this time, there is not a scientific consensus on the
    mechanisms/modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis. Proposed
    mechanisms/modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesi...

  5. Initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis and immunological competence.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G L; Stenbäck, F; Ryan, W L

    1975-10-01

    The immune competence of mice during initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis was determined by skin allograft rejection and lymphocyte mitogenesis. The carcinogen 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene inhibited the cellular immune competence of mice while lymphocytes from croton oil treated mice had enhanced PWM response. Chlorphenesin, a stimulator of cellular immunity, was found to inhibit tumorigenesis in initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis when injected during promotion.

  6. Label-free Raman spectroscopy provides early determination and precise localization of breast cancer-colonized bone alterations† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02905e

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Winnard Jr, Paul T.; Dasari, Sidarth; Kominsky, Scott L.; Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi

    2017-01-01

    Breast neoplasms frequently colonize bone and induce development of osteolytic bone lesions by disrupting the homeostasis of the bone microenvironment. This degenerative process can lead to bone pain and pathological bone fracture, a major cause of cancer morbidity and diminished quality of life, which is exacerbated by our limited ability to monitor early metastatic disease in bone and assess fracture risk. Spurred by its label-free, real-time nature and its exquisite molecular specificity, we employed spontaneous Raman spectroscopy to assess and quantify early metastasis driven biochemical alterations to bone composition. As early as two weeks after intracardiac inoculations of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in NOD-SCID mice, Raman spectroscopic measurements in the femur and spine revealed consistent changes in carbonate substitution, overall mineralization as well as crystallinity increase in tumor-bearing bones when compared with their normal counterparts. Our observations reveal the possibility of early stage detection of biochemical changes in the tumor-bearing bones – significantly before morphological variations are captured through radiographic diagnosis. This study paves the way for a better molecular understanding of altered bone remodeling in such metastatic niches, and for further clinical studies with the goal of establishing a non-invasive tool for early metastasis detection and prediction of pathological fracture risk in breast cancer. PMID:29629144

  7. Phospholipase Cϵ Activates Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling by Causing Cytoplasmic Localization of Ribosomal S6 Kinase and Facilitating Its Phosphorylation of Inhibitor κB in Colon Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masahiro; Edamatsu, Hironori; Li, Mingzhen; Emi, Aki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kataoka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase Cϵ (PLCϵ), an effector of Ras and Rap small GTPases, plays a crucial role in inflammation by augmenting proinflammatory cytokine expression. This proinflammatory function of PLCϵ is implicated in its facilitative role in tumor promotion and progression during skin and colorectal carcinogenesis, although their direct link remains to be established. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying these functions of PLCϵ remains unknown except that PKD works downstream of PLCϵ. Here we show by employing the colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, where ApcMin/+ mice are administered with dextran sulfate sodium, that PLCϵ knock-out alleviates the colitis and suppresses the following tumorigenesis concomitant with marked attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human colon epithelial Caco2 cells, TNF-α induces sustained expression of proinflammatory molecules and sustained activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and PKD, the late phases of which are suppressed by not only siRNA-mediated PLCϵ knockdown but also treatment with a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor antagonist. Also, LPA stimulation induces these events in an early time course, suggesting that LPA mediates TNF-α signaling in an autocrine manner. Moreover, PLCϵ knockdown results in inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB by ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) but not by IκB kinases. Subcellular fractionation suggests that enhanced phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, PEA15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), downstream of the PLCϵ-PKD axis causes sustained cytoplasmic localization of phosphorylated RSK, thereby facilitating IκB phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. These results suggest the crucial role of the TNF-α-LPA-LPA receptor-PLCϵ-PKD-PEA15-RSK-IκB-NF-κB pathway in facilitating inflammation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis in the colon. PMID:27053111

  8. In utero and lactational exposure of DEHP increases the susceptibility of prostate carcinogenesis in male offspring through PSCA hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xiu; Wu, Jianhui; Song, Qi; Sun, Zuyue; Zhang, Yunhui

    2018-04-22

    As an ubiquitous environmental endocrine disruptor, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to interfere with the development of reproductive organs and induce pathological changes in prostate. Our previous finding showed that in utero and lactational (IUL) DEHP exposure could disrupt the balance of testosterone and estrogen and increase the susceptibility of prostate carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the early-life specific epigenetic modifications could mediate the effect of DEHP exposure on prostate carcinogenesis in rodents, for epigenetic modifications play important roles in regulating prostate carcinogenesis. The pregnant rats were treated with corn oil (negative control) or DEHP at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg BW/day from GD7 to PND21. On PND21, the expression and DNA methylation change of six prostate carcinogenesis-related genes (ESR2/GSTP1/NKX3.1/PSCA/PTGS2/Rassf1a) were assessed through SYBR-Green real-time PCR combined with pyrosequencing assay in F1 male offspring. On PND196, the relationship b(STP1, PSCA and PTGS2 in a dose-dependent manner, which were positively correlated with PIN scores, Gleason scores, serum PSA concentrations and negatively correlated with prostate/body weight ratio on PND196. Meanwhile, 1 mg/kg BW/day DEHP markedly reduced DNA methylation level of PSCA in all studied CpG sites. Significant inverse correlations between methylation levels of the promoter CpG site and PSCA mRNA expression were observed. These results indicated that transcriptional changes of GSTP1, PSCA and PTGS2 induced by DEHP exposure might be contribute to the increasing susceptibility of prostate carcinogenesis in late life. Moreover, hypomethylation of PSCA could mediate the effect of DEHP on prostate carcinogenesis in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sox9 expression in carcinogenesis and its clinical significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Hajime; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Kitasato, Amane; Adachi, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Hirabaru, Masataka; Hirayama, Takanori; Kuroshima, Naoki; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kinoshita, Naoe; Sano, Kazunori; Nishida, Noriyuki; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-12-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas develop through a multi-step carcinogenesis. Precancerous lesions are defined as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex determining region Y-box9 (Sox9) is required for the normal differentiation of the biliary tract. To evaluate the Sox9 expression in carcinogenesis and its correlation with clinicopathological features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Sox9 expression in normal epithelium, biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were investigated immunohistochemically using 43 specimens of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Sox9 expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was compared with the clinicopathological features. The molecular effects of Sox9 were investigated by gene transfection to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Sox9 expression was decreased from the normal epithelium to the biliary intraepithelial neoplasia in a stepwise fashion. In 51.2% (22/43) of the patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Sox9 expression was positive, and Sox9 expression was significantly associated with the biliary infiltration (P=0.034) and poor overall survival (P=0.039). Upregulation of Sox9 promoted the cell migration and invasion, and decreased the E-cadherin expression and increased the vimentin and α-SMA expression in cell lines. Decreased Sox9 expression may be related to the early stage of the carcinogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Sox9 overexpression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is related to biliary infiltration and poorer prognosis, and it promotes cell migration and invasion, via the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic inflammation-associated genomic instability paves the way for human esophageal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dongping; Lei, Zhijin; Chen, Donglin; Xu, Zexin; Su, Min

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cancer development, whereas the link between chronic inflammation and esophageal carcinogenesis is still obscure heretofore. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and DNA damage, as well as the possible role of DNA damage in esophageal carcinogenic process. Endoscopic esophageal biopsies from 109 individuals from Chaoshan littoral, a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), were examined to evaluate the association between chronic inflammation and histological severity, while additional 204 esophageal non-tumor samples from patients with ESCC were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the oxidative DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly positive correlation was observed between degree of chronic inflammation and esophageal precursor lesions (rs = 0.37, P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that oxidative DNA damage level was positively correlated with the degree of chronic inflammation (rs = 0.21, P < 0.05). Moreover, the level of oxidative DNA damage positively correlated with histological severity (rs = 0.49, P < 0.01). We found that the extent of DSBs was progressively increased with inflammation degree (P < 0.01) and the progression of precancerous lesions (P < 0.001). Collectively, these findings provide evidence linking chronic inflammation-associated genomic instability with esophageal carcinogenesis and suggest possibilities for early detection and intervention of esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:27028857

  11. Chronic inflammation-associated genomic instability paves the way for human esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Runhua; Zhang, Chong; Zheng, Jiaxuan; Tian, Dongping; Lei, Zhijin; Chen, Donglin; Xu, Zexin; Su, Min

    2016-04-26

    Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cancer development, whereas the link between chronic inflammation and esophageal carcinogenesis is still obscure heretofore. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and DNA damage, as well as the possible role of DNA damage in esophageal carcinogenic process. Endoscopic esophageal biopsies from 109 individuals from Chaoshan littoral, a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), were examined to evaluate the association between chronic inflammation and histological severity, while additional 204 esophageal non-tumor samples from patients with ESCC were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the oxidative DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly positive correlation was observed between degree of chronic inflammation and esophageal precursor lesions (rs = 0.37, P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that oxidative DNA damage level was positively correlated with the degree of chronic inflammation (rs = 0.21, P < 0.05). Moreover, the level of oxidative DNA damage positively correlated with histological severity (rs = 0.49, P < 0.01). We found that the extent of DSBs was progressively increased with inflammation degree (P < 0.01) and the progression of precancerous lesions (P < 0.001). Collectively, these findings provide evidence linking chronic inflammation-associated genomic instability with esophageal carcinogenesis and suggest possibilities for early detection and intervention of esophageal carcinogenesis.

  12. Enhancement factor in low-coherence enhanced backscattering and its applications for characterizing experimental skin carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Xu, Zhengbin; Song, Qinghai; Konger, Raymond L.; Kim, Young L.

    2010-05-01

    We experimentally study potential mechanisms by which the enhancement factor in low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) can probe subtle variations in radial intensity distribution in weakly scattering media. We use enhanced backscattering of light by implementing either (1) low spatial coherence illumination or (2) multiple spatially independent detections using a microlens array under spatially coherent illumination. We show that the enhancement factor in these configurations is a measure of the integrated intensity within the localized coherence or detection area, which can exhibit strong dependence on small perturbations in scattering properties. To further evaluate the utility of the LEBS enhancement factor, we use a well-established animal model of cutaneous two-stage chemical carcinogenesis. In this pilot study, we demonstrate that the LEBS enhancement factor can be substantially altered at a stage of preneoplasia. Our animal result supports the idea that early carcinogenesis can cause subtle alterations in the scattering properties that can be captured by the LEBS enhancement factor. Thus, the LEBS enhancement factor has the potential as an easily measurable biomarker in skin carcinogenesis.

  13. Standard Specimen Reference Set: Colon — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Network, Great Lakes-New England Clinical, Epidemiological and Validation Center (GLNE CVC) announces the availability of serum, plasma and urine samples for the early detection for colon cancer and validation studies.

  14. Epigenetic targeting of the Nanog pathway and signaling networks during chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis has long been synonymous with genotoxicity, which entails DNA damage, genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. The present study investigates a paradigm-shifting model in which epigenetic changes are key contributors to chemical carcinogenesis. Using genome-wide microarray-based analysis followed by conventional validation assays, we have progressively chronicled changes in the epigenetic landscape, as reflected in the patterns of DNA methylation, in the target organ of tumorigenesis in mice treated in vivo with a prototype chemical carcinogen (benzo[a]pyrene). Here, we demonstrate characteristic CpG island gain/loss of methylation and demethylation of repetitive DNA elements in carcinogen-treated mice, dependent on tumor progression. Alterations of the DNA methylome are accompanied by silencing of major DNA methyltransferases. Members of the Nanog pathway that establishes and maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and possibly triggers uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic cells are preferential targets of aberrant DNA methylation and concomitant gene dysregulation during chemical carcinogenesis. Several components of the MEK/ERK, JAK/STAT3, PI3K/AKT, WNT/β- catenin and Shh signaling cascades, which are known to modulate Nanog expression, also show concurrent changes in the patterns of DNA methylation and gene expression. Our data support an epigenetic model of chemical carcinogenesis and suggest that surveillance of the epigenetic landscape, particularly at the loci and in the pathways identified in this study, may have utility for early detection and monitoring of the progression of malignancy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Molecular subtypes in stage II-III colon cancer defined by genomic instability: early recurrence-risk associated with a high copy-number variation and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A.

    PubMed

    Berg, Marianne; Nordgaard, Oddmund; Kørner, Hartwig; Oltedal, Satu; Smaaland, Rune; Søreide, Jon Arne; Søreide, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by genomic instability that may be related to early death and recurrence in colon cancer. We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by instability at microsatellites (MSI), changes in methylation patterns (CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP) or copy number variation (CNV) in 8 genes. Stage II-III colon cancers (n = 64) were investigated by methylation-specific multiplex ligated probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Correlation of CNV, CIMP and MSI, with mutations in KRAS and BRAFV600E were assessed for overlap in molecular subtypes and early recurrence risk by uni- and multivariate regression. The CIMP phenotype occurred in 34% (22/64) and MSI in 27% (16/60) of the tumors, with noted CIMP/MSI overlap. Among the molecular subtypes, a high CNV phenotype had an associated odds ratio (OR) for recurrence of 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.3; P = 0.026). Losses of CACNA1G (OR of 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.0; P = 0.001), IGF2 (OR of 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-15.8; P = 0.007), CDKN2A (p16) (OR of 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6; P = 0.024), and RUNX3 (OR of 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.7; P = 0.002) were associated with early recurrence, while MSI, CIMP, KRAS or BRAF V600E mutations were not. The CNV was significantly higher in deceased patients (CNV in 6 of 8) compared to survivors (CNV in 3 of 8). Only stage and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A were significant in the multivariable risk-model for early recurrence. A high copy number variation phenotype is a strong predictor of early recurrence and death, and may indicate a dose-dependent relationship between genetic instability and outcome. Loss of tumor suppressors RUNX3 and CDKN2A were related to recurrence-risk and warrants further investigation.

  16. Isolation of a Novel Human Gene, MARKL1, Homologous to MARK3 and Its Involvement in Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tatsushi; Satoh, Seiji; Okabe, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Osamu; Ono, Kenji; Kihara, Chikashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Nakamura, Yusuke; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway is known to play a crucial role in carcinogenesis of various human organs including the colon, liver, prostate, and endometrium. To investigate the mechanisms underlying hepatocellular carcinogenesis, we attempted to identify genes regulated by β-catenin/Tcf complex in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, in which an activated form of β-catenin is expressed. By means of cDNA microarray, we isolated a novel human gene, termed MARKL1 (MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase-like 1), whose expression was downregulated in response to decreased Tcf/LEF1 activity. The transcript expressed in liver consisted of 3529 nucleotides that contained an open reading frame of 2256 nucleotides, encoding 752 amino acids homologous to human MARK3 (MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3). Expression levels of MARKL1 were markedly elevated in eight of nine HCCs in which nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was observed, which may suggest that MARKL1 plays some role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. PMID:11326310

  17. Residual-QSAR. Implications for genotoxic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Both main types of carcinogenesis, genotoxic and epigenetic, were examined in the context of non-congenericity and similarity, respectively, for the structure of ligand molecules, emphasizing the role of quantitative structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) studies in accordance with OECD (Organization for Economic and Cooperation Development) regulations. The main purpose of this report involves electrophilic theory and the need for meaningful physicochemical parameters to describe genotoxicity by a general mechanism. Residual-QSAR Method The double or looping multiple linear correlation was examined by comparing the direct and residual structural information against the observed activity. A self-consistent equation of observed-computed activity was assumed to give maximum correlation efficiency for those situations in which the direct correlations gave non-significant statistical information. Alternatively, it was also suited to describe slow and apparently non-noticeable cancer phenomenology, with special application to non-congeneric molecules involved in genotoxic carcinogenesis. Application and Discussions The QSAR principles were systematically applied to a given pool of molecules with genotoxic activity in rats to elucidate their carcinogenic mechanisms. Once defined, the endpoint associated with ligand-DNA interaction was used to select variables that retained the main Hansch physicochemical parameters of hydrophobicity, polarizability and stericity, computed by the custom PM3 semiempirical quantum method. The trial and test sets of working molecules were established by implementing the normal Gaussian principle of activities that applies when the applicability domain is not restrained to the congeneric compounds, as in the present study. The application of the residual, self-consistent QSAR method and the factor (or average) method yielded results characterized by extremely high and low correlations, respectively, with the latter resembling

  18. The Dose Response Relationship for Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Eric

    2008-03-01

    Recent surveys show that the collective population radiation dose from medical procedures in the U.S. has increased by 750% in the past two decades. It would be impossible to imagine the practice of medicine today without diagnostic and therapeutic radiology, but nevertheless the widespread and rapidly increasing use of a modality which is a known human carcinogen is a cause for concern. To assess the magnitude of the problem it is necessary to establish the shape of the dose response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis. Information on radiation carcinogenesis comes from the A-bomb survivors, from occupationally exposed individuals and from radiotherapy patients. The A-bomb survivor data indicates a linear relationship between dose and the risk of solid cancers up to a dose of about 2.5 Sv. The lowest dose at which there is a significant excess cancer risk is debatable, but it would appear to be between 40 and 100 mSv. Data from the occupation exposure of nuclear workers shows an excess cancer risk at an average dose of 19.4 mSv. At the other end of the dose scale, data on second cancers in radiotherapy patients indicates that cancer risk does not continue to rise as a linear function of dose, but tends towards a plateau of 40 to 60 Gy, delivered in a fractionated regime. These data can be used to estimate the impact of diagnostic radiology at the low dose end of the dose response relationship, and the impact of new radiotherapy modalities at the high end of the dose response relationship. In the case of diagnostic radiology about 90% of the collective population dose comes from procedures (principally CT scans) which involve doses at which there is credible evidence of an excess cancer incidence. While the risk to the individual is small and justified in a symptomatic patient, the same is not true of some screening procedures is asymptomatic individuals, and in any case the huge number of procedures must add up to a potential public health problem. In the

  19. Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Adhip P N; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Nautiyal, Jyoti; Patel, Bhaumik B; Patel, Vaishali; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Elliott, Althea A; Levi, Edi; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal cancer, are associated with activation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, inhibition of these signaling pathways with noncytotoxic natural products represents a logical preventive and/or therapeutic approach for colon cancer. Curcumin and resveratrol, both of which inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis, were selected to examine whether combining them would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. Indeed, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.

  20. Glucose Intolerance, Plasma Insulin Levels, and Colon Adenomas in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Suminori; Abe, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Shimazaki, Kae; Hatano, Ben; Hamada, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia may be related to colon carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus is related to increased risk of colon cancer. We examined cross‐sectionally the relation of fasting plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance status to colon adenomas. In a consecutive series of 951 men undergoing total colonoscopy for a health examination at the Japan Self Defense Forces Fukuoka Hospital from April 1998 to August 1999, we identified 233 cases of colon adenomas and 497 controls with normal colonoscopy. Glucose tolerance status was determined by a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test, and subjects were classified as normal, unpaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non‐insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Plasma insulin levels were measured after subjects had fasted overnight. Logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance was used to control for age and obesity. While plasma insulin levels were unrelated to colon adenomas, NIDDM was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon adenomas. There was no association between IGT and colon adenomas. NIDDM was more strongly associated with proximal colon adenomas. The findings suggest that long‐term hyperinsulinemic status associated with NIDDM may increase the risk of colon adenomas, and subsequently of colon cancer. PMID:11509114

  1. An Evaluation of Transplacental Carcinogenesis for Human ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Risk assessments take into account the sensitivity of the postnatal period to carcinogens through the application of age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) (Barton et al. 2005). The prenatal period is also recognized to be sensitive but is typically not included into risk assessments (NRC, 2009). An analysis by California OEHHA (2008) contrasted prenatal, postnatal and adult sensitivity to 23 different carcinogens across 37 studies. That analysis found a wide range of transplacental sensitivity with some agents nearly 100 fold more potent in utero than in adults while others had an in utero/adult ratio adult only exposure). Five carcinogens had more modest ratios to adult potency in both pre- and postnatal testing (vinyl chloride, ethylnitroso biuret, 3-methylcholanthrene, urethane, diethylnitrosamine, 3-10 fold). Only one chemical showed a pre- vs postnatal divergence (butylnitrosourea, prenataladult). Based upon this limited set of genotoxic carcinogens, it appears that the prenatal period often has a sensitivity that approximates what has been found for postnatal, and the maternal system does not offer substantial protection against transplacental carcinogenesis in most cases. This suggests that the system of ADAFs developed for postnatal exposure may be considered for prenatal exposures as well. An alternative approach may be to calculate cancer risk for the period of pregnancy rather than blend this risk into the calculation of lifetime risk. This

  2. Chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shozo; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P.; Adamson, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    This review covers chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates performed by the National Cancer Institute, USA, to provide hitherto unavailable information on their susceptibility to compounds producing carcinogenic effects in rodents. From autopsy records of 401 breeders and untreated controls, incidences of spontaneous malignant tumors were found to be relatively low in cynomolgus (1.9%) and rhesus monkeys (3.8%), but higher in African green monkeys (8%). Various chemical compounds, and in particular 6 antineoplastic agents, 13 food-related compounds including additives and contaminants, 1 pesticide, 5 N-nitroso compounds, 3 heterocyclic amines, and 7 “classical” rodent carcinogens, were tested during the 34 years period, generally at doses 10∼40 times the estimated human exposure. Results were inconclusive in many cases but unequivocal carcinogenicity was demonstrated for IQ, procarbazine, methylnitrosourea and diethylnitrosamine. Furthermore, negative findings for saccharine and cyclamate were in line with results in other species. Thus susceptibility to carcinogens is at least partly shared by nonhuman primates and rodents. PMID:18941297

  3. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysbiosis of the microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Goh, Khean-Lee; Fock, Kwong Ming; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kaakoush, Nadeem O

    2017-11-21

    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.

  5. [Role of cosmetics in environmental carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Riboulet-Delmas, G

    1983-09-01

    Cosmetics, which have been used for millenaries, have undergone a dramatic development since the last war. Conjointly with this development, cosmetology has entered a new, scientific, phase. A few facts will enable us to define the role of carcinogens in environmental carcinogenesis: first, by trying to determine what protection is given to the consumer against the carcinogenic risk; then, by delineating the protection provided by sunscreen agents against skin carcinomas induced by sun. Protection provided to consumers: physicochemical characteristics; Ames test for screening; animal experimentation; epidemiological studies; follow-up of products. Prevention of UV-dependent skin cancer; induction of skin tumors by sun; prevention. Individual factors which modulate these risks: Two examples: permeability of the psoriatic skin; morphotypes and sun. Given the present state of our knowledge, it seems inconceivable to achieve stricter scientific standards before marketing a product. One step is, and always will be, lacking for the evaluation of the noxiousness of a substance, i.e. its large scale, longterm evaluation in man, with allowances for biologic inequalities. This underscores the value of producer's daily vigilance, a vigilance which in fact concerns both the producer and the consumer.

  6. Luciferase-tagged wild-type and tropism-deficient mouse cytomegaloviruses reveal early dynamics of host colonization following peripheral challenge.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen; Oliveira, Martha; Macdonald, Kate; Yunis, Joseph; Mach, Michael; Bruce, Kimberley; Stevenson, Philip; Cardin, Rhonda; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish persistent, systemic infections and cause disease by maternal-foetal transfer, suggesting that their dissemination is a key target for antiviral intervention. Late clinical presentation has meant that human CMV (HCMV) dissemination is not well understood. Murine CMV (MCMV) provides a tractable model. Whole mouse imaging of virus-expressed luciferase has proved a useful way to track systemic infections. MCMV, in which the abundant lytic gene M78 was luciferase-tagged via a self-cleaving peptide (M78-LUC), allowed serial, unbiased imaging of systemic and peripheral infection without significant virus attenuation. Ex vivo luciferase imaging showed greater sensitivity than plaque assay, and revealed both well-known infection sites (the lungs, lymph nodes, salivary glands, liver, spleen and pancreas) and less explored sites (the bone marrow and upper respiratory tract). We applied luciferase imaging to tracking MCMV lacking M33, a chemokine receptor conserved in HCMV and a proposed anti-viral drug target. M33-deficient M78-LUC colonized normally in peripheral sites and local draining lymph nodes but spread poorly to the salivary gland, suggesting a defect in vascular transport consistent with properties of a chemokine receptor.

  7. Lack of chemoprevention of dietary Agaricus blazei against rat colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, L; Barbisan, L F; Rodrigues, M A M

    2008-06-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei (Ab) has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including cancer. No information is available on its possible protective effects on the development of colon cancer. The potential blocking effect of Ab intake on the initiation stage of colon carcinogenesis was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. Male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg bw, twice a week), during 2 weeks to induce ACF. The diet containing Ab at 5% was given 2 weeks before and during carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this edible mushroom on DMH-induced ACF. All groups were killed at the end of the fourth week. The colons were analyzed for ACF formation in 1% methylene blue whole-mount preparations and for cell proliferation in histological sections immunohistochemically stained for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). All DMH-treated rats developed ACF mainly in the middle and distal colon. Agaricus blazei intake at 5% did not alter the number of ACF induced by DMH or the PCNA indices in the colonic mucosa. Thus, the results of the present study did not confirm a chemopreventive activity of Ab on the initiation stage of rat colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  9. Purple rice extract supplemented diet reduces DMH- induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon by inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Summart, Ratasark; Chewonarin, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Purple rice has become a natural product of interest which is widely used for health promotion. This study investigated the preventive effect of purple rice extract (PRE) mixed diet on DMH initiation of colon carcinogenesis. Rats were fed with PRE mixed diet one week before injection of DMH (40 mg/kg of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). They were killed 12 hrs after a second DMH injection to measure the level of O6-methylguanine and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities. In rats that received PRE, guanine methylation was reduced in the colonic mucosa, but not in the liver, whereas PRE did not affect xenobiotic conjugation, with reference to glutathione-S-transferase or UDP-glucuronyl transferase. After 5 weeks, rats that received PRE with DMH injection had fewer ACF in the colon than those treated with DMH alone. Interestingly, a PRE mixed diet inhibited the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase in rat feces, a critical enzyme for free methylazoxymethanol (MAM) release in the rat colon. These results indicated that purple rice extract inhibited β-glucuronidase activity in the colonic lumen, causing a reduction of MAM-induced colonic mucosa DNA methylation, leaded to decelerated formation of aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. The supplemented purple rice extract might thus prevent colon carcinogenesis by the alteration of the colonic environment, and thus could be further developed for neutraceutical products for colon cancer prevention.

  10. Carcinogenesis of urethane: simulation versus experiment.

    PubMed

    Lajovic, Andrej; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter; Bren, Urban

    2015-04-20

    The carcinogenesis of urethane (ethyl carbamate), a byproduct of fermentation that is consistently found in various food products, was investigated with a combination of kinetic experiments and quantum chemical calculations. The main objective of the study was to find ΔG(⧧), the activation free energy for the rate-limiting step of the SN2 reaction among the ultimate carcinogen of urethane, vinyl carbamate epoxide (VCE), and different nucleobases of the DNA. In the experimental part, the second-order reaction rate constants for the formation of the main 7-(2-oxoethyl)guanine adduct in aqueous solutions of deoxyguanosine and in DNA were determined. A series of ab initio, density functional theory (DFT), and semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) calculations was then performed to determine the activation barriers for the reaction between VCE and nucleobases methylguanine, methyladenine, and methylcytosine. Effects of hydration were incorporated with the use of the solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevine dipoles model of Florian and Warshel. The computational results for the main adduct were found to be in good agreement with the experiment, thus presenting strong evidence for the validity of the proposed SN2 mechanism. This allowed us to predict the activation barriers of reactions leading to side products for which kinetic experiments have not yet been performed. Our calculations have shown that the main 7-(2-oxoethyl)deoxyguanosine adduct indeed forms preferentially because the emergence of other adducts either proceeds across a significantly higher activation barrier or the geometry of the reaction requires the Watson-Crick pairs of the DNA to be broken. The computational study also considered the questions of stereoselectivity, the ease of the elimination of the leaving group, and the relative contributions of the two possible reaction paths for the formation of the 1,N(2)-ethenodeoxyguanosine adduct.

  11. Studies on promoting action in skin carcinogenesis

    SciT

    Saffiotti, U.; Shubik, P.

    1963-01-01

    A number of substances were tested for carcinogenic promoting activity in Swiss mice by applying them twice weekly to the clipped dorsal skin, beginning 1 wk after a single application of 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA; 1 to 1.5% in mineral oil). Tests with silver nitrate (10% aqueous), iodoacetic acid (0.9% in acetone, fumaric acid (1% in acetone), ethylphenylpropiolate (5% in acetone), trihydroxymethylanthraquinone. (Emodin; 0.5% in acetone), oleic alcohol, monostearin (5% in acetone) and sorbitan monolaurate were essentially negative; when a single application of croton oil (5% in mineral oil) was interspersed between the carcinogen and silver nitrate, 6/20 mice developed 14more » benign tumors and 1 carcinoma. N-Dodecane showed moderate promoting activity (26 tumors, with 2 carcinomas, in 12/30 mice). Tests of several petroleum fractions showed high initial promoting activity (404 tumors, with 31 carcinomas, in 36/50 mice), but the activity disappeared on storage; while there was no carcinogenic activity in mice, in New Zealand albino rabbits the petroleum fractions alone produced considerable numbers of tumors. One application of DMBA, however, did increase tumor incidence and shorten the latent period. The hexane-eluted fraction of a methanolic extract of croton seeds (which had little vesicant activity), had all the promoting activity of the original croton oil; this could be demonstrated with uethan (20 mg/day ip for 5 days) as the initiator as well as with DMBA. In conclusion, the authors distinguish sharply between the promoting activity of compounds such as croton oil, which lead mostly to benign tumors (many of which regress spontaneously), and the additive effects of carcinogenic substances which may have a stimulatory effect on the second stage of carcinogenesis; for this additive carcinogenic effect, they suggest the term developing action. Other studies on croton oil are also reviewed.« less

  12. Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 B.C. near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eva; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gamba, Cristina; Prats, Eva; Cuesta, Pedro; Anfruns, Josep; Molist, Miquel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization.

  13. Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Eva; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gamba, Cristina; Prats, Eva; Cuesta, Pedro; Anfruns, Josep; Molist, Miquel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization. PMID:24901650

  14. Pulses and carcinogenesis: potential for the prevention of colon, breast and other cancers.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of pulses as components of healthy diets is encouraged because it is believed that this is likely to help in reducing the risk of common non-communicable diseases, including cancers. However, the evidence base for the role of pulses in prevention of cancers is unconvincing because of the difficulties, using conventional epidemiological tools, in ascertaining the quantitative contribution made by pulses to cancer risk. Advances in understanding of the biological basis of cancer and of the mechanisms of action of cancer-preventing compounds offer new insights into the role of food-derived substances and of diet-gene interactions in modulating cancer risk. Pulses contain a rich variety of compounds which, if consumed in sufficient quantities, may help to reduce tumour risk.

  15. Differences in proximal (cardia) versus distal (antral) gastric carcinogenesis via retinoblastoma pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gulmann, Christian; Hegarty, Helen; Grace, Antoinette; Leader, Mary; Patchett, Stephen; Kay, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Disruption of cell cycle regulation is a critical event in carcinogenesis, and alteration of the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumour suppressor pathway is frequent. The aim of this study was to compare alterations in this pathway in proximal and distal gastric carcinogenesis in an effort to explain the observed striking epidemiological differences. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate expression of p16 and pRb in the following groups of both proximal (cardia) and distal (antral) tissue samples: (a) biopsies showing normal mucosa, (b) biopsies showing intestinal metaplasia and, (c) gastric cancer resection specimens including uninvolved mucosa and tumour. RESULTS: In the antrum there were highly significant trends for increased p16 expression with concomitant (and in the group of carcinomas inversely proportional) decreased pRb expression from normal mucosa to intestinal metaplasia to uninvolved mucosa (from cancer resections) to carcinoma. In the cardia, there were no differences in p16 expression between the various types of tissue samples whereas pRb expression was higher in normal mucosa compared with intestinal metaplasia and tissue from cancer resections. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the pRb pathway appear to play a more significant role in distal gastric carcinogenesis. It may be an early event in the former location since the trend towards p16 overexpression with concomitant pRb underexpression was seen as early as between normal mucosa and intestinal metaplasia. Importantly, the marked differences in expression of pRb and p16 between the cardia and antrum strongly support the hypothesis that tumours of the two locations are genetically different which may account for some of the observed epidemiological differences. PMID:14695761

  16. Adhesion and Early Colonization of S. Mutans on Lithium Disilicate Reinforced Glass-Ceramics, Monolithic Zirconia and Dual Cure Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Viitaniemi, L; Abdulmajeed, A; Sulaiman, T; Söderling, E; Närhi, T

    2017-12-01

    Monolithic zirconia and glass ceramics are increasingly used in implant crowns. Limited data is available on bacterial adhesion and early biofilm formation on these materials. Four different materials were investigated: (1) Lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDS), (2) Fully stabilized zirconia (FSZ), (3) Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), and (4) Dual curing cement (DCC). The materials' surfaces were characterized with spinning disc confocal microscopy and by water contact angle and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. For the adhesion tests the materials were rolled in suspensions of Streptococcus mutans. Early biofilm formation was studied on the materials and allowing the biofilms to form for 24 h. S. mutans cell counts were determined by plate culturing. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests (p⟨0.05) were used for statistical evaluation. The LDS surfaces were clearly hydrophilic with the highest SFE value (p⟨0.001). For S. mutans adhesion, the ranking of the materials from lowest to highest was: LDS = FSZ ⟨ DCC ⟨ PSZ (p⟨0.05). No significant differences among the materials were noticed in biofilm formation. LDS has lower S.mutans adhesion than other materials examined in this study, but the difference was not reflected in early biofilm formation. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. Splitting a colon geometry with multiplanar clipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, David K.; Vining, David J.; Ge, Yaorong; Stelts, David R.

    1998-06-01

    Virtual colonoscopy, a recent three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique, has provided radiologists with a unique diagnostic tool. Using this technique, a radiologist can examine the internal morphology of a patient's colon by navigating through a surface-rendered model that is constructed from helical computed tomography image data. Virtual colonoscopy can be used to detect early forms of colon cancer in a way that is less invasive and expensive compared to conventional endoscopy. However, the common approach of 'flying' through the colon lumen to visually search for polyps is tedious and time-consuming, especially when a radiologist loses his or her orientation within the colon. Furthermore, a radiologist's field of view is often limited by the 3D camera position located inside the colon lumen. We have developed a new technique, called multi-planar geometry clipping, that addresses these problems. Our algorithm divides a complex colon anatomy into several smaller segments, and then splits each of these segments in half for display on a static medium. Multi-planar geometry clipping eliminates virtual colonoscopy's dependence upon expensive, real-time graphics workstations by enabling radiologists to globally inspect the entire internal surface of the colon from a single viewpoint.

  18. Three molecular pathways model colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahadova, Aysel; Gallon, Richard; Gebert, Johannes; Ballhausen, Alexej; Endris, Volker; Kirchner, Martina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Burn, John; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Bläker, Hendrik; Kloor, Matthias

    2018-07-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency has long been regarded as a secondary event in the pathogenesis of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the discovery of MMR-deficient crypt foci in the normal mucosa. We aimed to reconstruct colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome by collecting molecular and histology evidence from Lynch syndrome adenomas and carcinomas. We determined the frequency of MMR deficiency in adenomas from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers by immunohistochemistry and by systematic literature analysis. To trace back the pathways of pathogenesis, histological growth patterns and mutational signatures were analyzed in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Literature and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated MMR deficiency in 491 (76.7%) out of 640 adenomas (95% CI: 73.3% to 79.8%) from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Histologically normal MMR-deficient crypts were found directly adjacent to dysplastic adenoma tissue, proving their role as tumor precursors in Lynch syndrome. Accordingly, mutation signature analysis in Lynch colorectal cancers revealed that KRAS and APC mutations commonly occur after the onset of MMR deficiency. Tumors lacking evidence of polypous growth frequently presented with CTNNB1 and TP53 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers can develop through three pathways, with MMR deficiency commonly representing an early and possibly initiating event. This underlines that targeting MMR-deficient cells by chemoprevention or vaccines against MMR deficiency-induced frameshift peptide neoantigens holds promise for tumor prevention in Lynch syndrome. © 2018 UICC.

  19. Metastasis to the breast from colonic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Kyoung Tae; Oh, Boyoung; Sung, Sun Hee; Lee, Ryung-Ah; Chung, Soon Sup; Moon, Byung In

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman was referred to a breast surgeon with a breast mass discovered incidentally during follow-up study after colon cancer surgery. Invasive adenocarcinoma was revealed on core needle biopsy. Wide excision of the breast including the tumor was performed. On standard histological examination the tumor showed features of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemistry study revealed positive results for cytokeratin (CK)20 and CDX2, but negative for CK7. These are typical characteristics for colon cancer. Considering her history of subtotal colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer, it is presumable that the mass in the breast was of colonic origin, and it was an extremely rare case of metastasis to the breast from primary colorectal neoplasm. Although the instance is rare, clinicians should keep the possibility of breast metastasis from colorectal cancer in mind for early and correct diagnosis. PMID:22319737

  20. Early and Partial Reduction in CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer Induces CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation Inhibiting Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Olguín, Jonadab E.; Medina-Andrade, Itzel; Molina, Emmanuel; Vázquez, Armando; Pacheco-Fernández, Thalia; Saavedra, Rafael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Arias-Romero, Luis E.; Gutierrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; León-Cabrera, Sonia A.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. A tumor-promoting function for Treg cells has been suggested in CRC, but the kinetics of Treg cells during CRC development are poorly known. Therefore, using a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate, we observed the dynamic and differential kinetics of Treg cells in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) as CAC progresses, highlighting a significant reduction in Treg cells in blood and spleen during early CAC development, whereas increasing percentages of Treg cells were detected in late stages in MLNs. Interestingly, when Treg cells were decreased, Tact cells were increased and vice versa. Treg cells from late stages of CAC displayed an activated phenotype by expressing PD1, CD127 and Tim-3, suggesting an increased suppressive capacity. Suppression assays showed that T-CD4+ and T-CD8+ cells were suppressed more efficiently by MLN Treg cells from CAC animals. Finally, an antibody-mediated reduction in Treg cells during early CAC development resulted in a better prognostic value, because animals showed a reduction in tumor progression associated with an increased percentage of activated CD4+CD25+Foxp3- and CD8+CD25+ T cells in MLNs, suggesting that Treg cells suppress T cell activation at early steps during CAC development. PMID:29344269

  1. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  2. Conditional knockout of the leptin receptor in the colonic epithelium revealed the local effects of leptin receptor signaling in the progression of colonic tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Takuma; Endo, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Maeda, Shin; Wada, Koichiro; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Atsushi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    Leptin, secreted by the adipose tissue and known to be related to obesity, is considered to be involved in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. However, the exact role of leptin in colorectal carcinogenesis is still unclear, as several controversial reports have been published on the various systemic effects of leptin. The aim of this study was to clarify the local and precise roles of leptin receptor (LEPR)-mediated signaling in colonic carcinogenesis using intestinal epithelium-specific LEPRb conditional knockout (cKO) mice. We produced and used colonic epithelium-specific LEPRb cKO mice to investigate the carcinogen-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in the colon, using their littermates as control. There were no differences in the body weight or systemic condition between the control and cKO mice. The tumor sizes and number of large-sized tumors were significantly lower in the cKO mice as compared with those in the control mice. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the proliferative activity of the normal colonic epithelial cells or ACF formation between the control and cKO mice. In the control mice, marked increase of the LEPRb expression level was observed in the colonic tumors as compared with that in the normal epithelium; furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) was activated in the tumor cells. These findings suggest that STAT3 is one of the important molecules downstream of LEPRb, and LEPRb/STAT3 signaling controls tumor cell proliferation. We demonstrated the importance of local/regional LEPR-mediated signaling in colorectal carcinogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Influence of aging in the modulation of epigenetic biomarkers of carcinogenesis after exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Fougère, Bertrand; Landkocz, Yann; Lepers, Capucine; Martin, Perrine J; Armand, Lucie; Grossin, Nicolas; Verdin, Anthony; Boulanger, Eric; Gosset, Pierre; Sichel, François; Shirali, Pirouz; Billet, Sylvain

    2018-05-31

    Classified as carcinogenic to humans by the IARC in 2013, fine air particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) can be inhaled and retained into the lung or reach the systemic circulation. This can cause or exacerbate numerous pathologies to which the elderly are often more sensitive. In order to estimate the influence of age on the development of early cellular epigenetic alterations involved in carcinogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells sampled from 90 patients from three age classes (25-30, 50-55 and 75-80 years old) were ex vivo exposed to urban PM 2.5 . Particles exposure led to variations in telomerase activity and telomeres length in all age groups without any influence of age. Conversely, P16 INK4A gene expression increased significantly with age after exposure to PM 2.5 . Age could enhance MGMT gene expression after exposure to particles, by decreasing the level of promoter methylation in the oldest people. Hence, our results demonstrated several tendencies in cells modification depending on age, even if all epigenetic assays were carried out after a limited exposure time allowing only one or two cell cycles. Since lung cancer symptoms appear only at an advanced stage, our results underline the needs for further investigation on the studied biomarkers for early diagnosis of carcinogenesis to improve survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kruzliak, Peter; Kumari, Archana

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are pre-neoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents and in humans at high risk for colon cancer. The present study was carried out to divulge the protective potential of the probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 alone or in combination with piroxicam (PXC) on the development of early biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having 24 animals. The rats were fed with buffalo milk or probiotic supplement (20 grams) alone or as an adjunct with PXC in addition to a basal diet ad libitum for 32 weeks. Group I was offered buffalo milk (BM) and served as the control group. Group II was administered DMH along with BM and served as the DMH-control group; group III was administered BM-DMH-PXC, in which besides administering BM-DMH, PXC was also offered. Group IV was offered probiotic LaBb Dahi and DMH, and group V was offered both probiotic LaBb Dahi and PXC along with DMH. The rats were euthanized at the 8(th), 16(th), and 32(nd) week of the experiment and examined for development of ACF, aberrant crypts per ACF (AC/ACF), mucin-depleted foci (MDF), large MDF, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index. Administration of DMH in rats induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF and MDF) and increased the PCNA index in colorectal tissue. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the number of ACF, AC/ACF, MDF, large MDF, and PCNA labeling index were observed in the probiotic LaBb Dahi group compared with the DMH control group. Feeding rats with LaBb Dahi or treatment with PXC diminished the initiation and progression of DMH-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and the PCNA index, and treatment with

  5. A new kink in an old theory of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Richmond T; Prehn, Liisa M

    2013-02-18

    According to Berenblum's two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is often a long lag phase. We propose that this lag is caused by the delay in the formation of a new and rare tumor-specific antigen, which induces an immune response that stimulates tumor growth. Such tumor-specific antigens could arise as a result of a mutator-like phenotype, which is supposedly present in the benign initial stage of carcinogenesis. According to this hypothesis, the first stage lesion provides a weakly mutagenic environment conducive to the formation of the new antigen(s). If no such new antigens appear so there is no consequent immune response, it is argued that carcinogenesis would seldom if ever ensue.

  6. A new kink in an old theory of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    According to Berenblum’s two-stage hypothesis, the first stage in carcinogenesis is the production of benign premalignant lesions. Between this initiation stage and the formation of a malignant tumor there is often a long lag phase. We propose that this lag is caused by the delay in the formation of a new and rare tumor-specific antigen, which induces an immune response that stimulates tumor growth. Such tumor-specific antigens could arise as a result of a mutator-like phenotype, which is supposedly present in the benign initial stage of carcinogenesis. According to this hypothesis, the first stage lesion provides a weakly mutagenic environment conducive to the formation of the new antigen(s). If no such new antigens appear so there is no consequent immune response, it is argued that carcinogenesis would seldom if ever ensue. PMID:23414486

  7. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical. Better understanding of the mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis can assist in the development of novel biomarkers for early detection and strategies for disease prevention. Toward this goal, several animal models for carcinogenesis in the oral cavity have been developed. Among these are xenograft, and transgenic animal models, and others employing the synthetic carcinogens such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in hamster cheek pouch and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide in rats and mice. Additional animal models employing environmental carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine have been reported. Each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. Models that (1) utilize environmental carcinogens, (2) reflect tumor heterogeneity, and (3) accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes involved in the initiation and progression of oral cancer in humans could provide a realistic platform. To achieve this goal, we introduced a novel nonsurgical mouse model to study oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent, and its diol epoxide metabolite (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene [(±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE]. On the basis of a detailed comparison of oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P with that induced by the other above-mentioned oral carcinogens with respect to dose, duration, species and

  8. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  9. Oncogenetic tree model of somatic mutations and DNA methylation in colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Carol; Boucher, Kenneth M; Samowitz, Wade S; Wolff, Roger K; Albertsen, Hans; Curtin, Karen; Caan, Bette J; Slattery, Martha L

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of somatic alterations in colon cancer has evolved from a concept of a series of events taking place in a single sequence to a recognition of multiple pathways. An oncogenetic tree is a model intended to describe the pathways and sequence of somatic alterations in carcinogenesis without assuming that tumors will fall in mutually exclusive categories. We applied this model to data on colon tumor somatic alterations. An oncogenetic tree model was built using data on mutations of TP53, KRAS2, APC, and BRAF genes, methylation at CpG sites of MLH1 and TP16 genes, methylation in tumor (MINT) markers, and microsatellite instability (MSI) for 971 colon tumors from a population-based series. Oncogenetic tree analysis resulted in a reproducible tree with three branches. The model represents methylation of MINT markers as initiating a branch and predisposing to MSI, methylation of MHL1 and TP16, and BRAF mutation. APC mutation is the first alteration in an independent branch and is followed by TP53 mutation. KRAS2 mutation was placed a third independent branch, implying that it neither depends on, nor predisposes to, the other alterations. Individual tumors were observed to have alteration patterns representing every combination of one, two, or all three branches. The oncogenetic tree model assumptions are appropriate for the observed heterogeneity of colon tumors, and the model produces a useful visual schematic of the sequence of events in pathways of colon carcinogenesis.

  10. Fecundity of trees and the colonization-competition hypothesis

    James S. Clark; Shannon LaDeau; Ines Ibanez

    2004-01-01

    Colonization-competition trade-offs represent a stabilizing mechanism that is thought to maintain diversity of forest trees. If so, then early-successional species should benefit from high capacity to colonize new sites, and late-successional species should be good competitors. Tests of this hypothesis in forests have been precluded by an inability to estimate...

  11. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. THE ROLE OF PROTEIN BINDING OF TRIVALENT ARSENICALS IN ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS AND TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three of the most plausible biological theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are protein binding, oxidative stress and altered DNA methylation. This review presents the role of trivalent arsenicals binding to proteins in arsenic carcinogenesis. Using vacuum filtration based receptor...

  13. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  14. Wnt5a is associated with cigarette smoke-related lung carcinogenesis via protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis.

  15. Nano-architectural Alterations in Mucus Layer Fecal Colonocytes in Field Carcinogenesis: Potential for Screening

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Hemant K.; Damania, Dhwanil P.; DelaCruz, Mart; Kunte, Dhananjay P.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Crawford, Susan E.; Tiwari, Ashish K.; Wali, Ramesh K.; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Current fecal tests (occult blood, methylation, DNA mutations) target minute amounts of tumor products among a large amount of fecal material and thus have suboptimal performance. Our group has focused on exploiting field carcinogenesis as a modality to amplify the neoplastic signal. Specifically, we have demonstrated that endoscopically normal rectal brushings have striking nano-architectural alterations which are detectable utilizing a novel optical technique, partial wave spectroscopic microscopy (PWS). We therefore wished to translate this approach to a fecal assay. We examined mucus layer fecal colonocytes (MLFCs) at preneoplastic and neoplastic time-points (confirmed with rat colonoscopy) in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model and conducted PWS analysis to derive the nano-architectural parameter, disorder strength (Ld). We confirmed these results with studies in a genetic model (the Pirc rat). We demonstrated that MLFC appeared microscopically normal, consistent with field carcinogenesis. Ld was elevated at an early time point (5 weeks post-AOM injection, effect size = 0.40, p value = 0.024) and plateaued prior to adenoma formation (10 weeks post-AOM, effect size =0.66, p=0.001), with no dramatic increase once tumors developed. We replicated these data in the pre-neoplastic Pirc rat with an effect size in the MLFC that replicated the rectal brushings (increase versus age-matched controls of 62 versus 74%, respectively). We provide the first demonstration of a biophotonics approach to fecal assay. Furthermore, targeting the nano-architectural changes of field carcinogenesis rather than the detection of tumor products may provide a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23983085

  16. Inhibition of beta-catenin and KRAS expressions by Piper betle in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer of male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Esa, Faezah; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the chemopreventive effect of Piper betle (PB) on preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci [ACF]) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats and its effect on colorectal cancer biomarkers (beta-catenin, KRAS, p53 and p21). A total of 32 male Fischer 344 rats were divided into phase 1 and phase 2 groups (8 and 24 weeks of AOM administration, respectively). Each phase was divided into 4 groups: control or normal saline (NS) (1 mL/kg), AOM (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks), PB (75 mg/kg body weight) and AOM + PB. PB was force-fed to rats a week after the second dose of AOM and NS. The colon was cut open longitudinally for methylene blue and immunohistochemistry staining. AOM administration showed formation of ACF at 8 and 24 weeks. PB, however, did not reduce ACF formation at either week, but it managed to reduce beta-catenin expression and KRAS found highly expressed in the AOM group of phase 1 rats. No immunoreactivities of p53 and p21 were detected in phase 2 rats, but instead inflammatory cells were visible in between the lesions. PB may act as a potential chemopreventive agent in the early stage of colon carcinogenesis by suppressing the expressions of beta-catenin and KRAS.

  17. Dietary Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Protects Mice from Colitis Associated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Dey, Moul

    2017-09-06

    We have previously reported alleviation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis signs in phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)-treated mice. Here we investigated chemoprotective activities of PEITC in mice with Azoxymethane-DSS induced colitis associated colon carcinogenesis. We also examined the molecular mediators associated with the PEITC effects using relevant cell lines. A 0.12% PEITC-enriched mouse-diet reduced mucosal and submucosal inflammation as well as glandular atypia by 12% and the frequency of adenocarcinoma by 17% with a concomitant improvement in overall disease activity indices compared to the diseased control group. Lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro up-regulation of key mediators of inflammation, immune response, apoptosis, and cell proliferation were attenuated by 10 μM PEITC. Three of these mediators showed concentration-dependent reduction in respective mRNAs. Furthermore, PEITC inhibited Nuclear factor kappa B1 (NFκB1) proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. The NFκB1 mRNA expression inversely correlated ( r = −0.940, p = 0.013) with tri-methylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 near its promoter region in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that PEITC may slow down the development of colon carcinogenesis in an inflammatory intestinal setting which is potentially associated with epigenetic modulation of NFκB1 signaling.

  18. Correlation between the methylation of APC gene promoter and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Cai-Hua

    2017-08-01

    The present study was planned to explore the correlation between the methylation of APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues of 60 colon cancer patients (who received surgical operation in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014) were collected. SW1116 cells in human colon cancer tissues were selected for culturing. 5-aza-2c-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) was utilized as an inhibitor of the methylation for APC gene. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was utilized for detection of APC methylation in SW1116 cells. The MTT and Transwell assays were performed to detect the effect of the methylation of APC gene on the proliferation and invasive abilities of SW1116 cells. The correlation between the methylation of APC gene and pathological parameters of colon cancer patients was analyzed. MSP results revealed that 41 cases (68.33%) showed methylation of APC gene in colon cancer tissues. No methylation of APC gene was found in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. 5-aza-dC was able to inhibit the methylation of APC gene in SW1116 cells. APC gene methylation was correlated with tumor size, differentiation degree, lymph node metastasis and Dukes staging. In conclusion, the levels of the methylation of APC in colon cancer tissues and SW1116 cells are relatively high. The methylation of APC promoted the proliferation and invasion abilities of SW1116 cells. Furthermore, methylation is correlated with a variety of clinicopathological features of colon cancer patients.

  19. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases after ...

  20. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A POSSIBLE MODE OF ACTION FOR ARSENIC CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, but few theories have a substantial mass of supporting data. Three stronger theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are production of chromosomal abnormalities, promotion of carcinogenesis and oxidati...

  2. STUDIES INTO THE MECHANISMS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE INDUCED THYROID CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies into the Mechanisms of Potassium Bromate Induced Thyroid Carcinogenesis.

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) occurs in finished drinking water as a by-product of the ozonation disinfection process and has been found to induce thyroid follicular cell tumors in the rat after ...

  3. Estrogen-Mediated Breast Carcinogenesis: The Role of Sulfation Pharmacogenetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IMay 2000 Annual (1 May 99 - 30 Apr 00) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen-Mediated Breast...Carcinogenesis: The Role of DAMD17-99-1-9281 Sulfation Pharmacogenetics 6 . AUTHOR(S) Araba Adjei, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES... 5 B O D Y

  4. Carcinogenesis explained within the context of a theory of organisms.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    For a century, the somatic mutation theory (SMT) has been the prevalent theory to explain carcinogenesis. According to the SMT, cancer is a cellular problem, and thus, the level of organization where it should be studied is the cellular level. Additionally, the SMT proposes that cancer is a problem of the control of cell proliferation and assumes that proliferative quiescence is the default state of cells in metazoa. In 1999, a competing theory, the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), was proposed. In contraposition to the SMT, the TOFT posits that cancer is a tissue-based disease whereby carcinogens (directly) and mutations in the germ-line (indirectly) alter the normal interactions between the diverse components of an organ, such as the stroma and its adjacent epithelium. The TOFT explicitly acknowledges that the default state of all cells is proliferation with variation and motility. When taking into consideration the principle of organization, we posit that carcinogenesis can be explained as a relational problem whereby release of the constraints created by cell interactions and the physical forces generated by cellular agency lead cells within a tissue to regain their default state of proliferation with variation and motility. Within this perspective, what matters both in morphogenesis and carcinogenesis is not only molecules, but also biophysical forces generated by cells and tissues. Herein, we describe how the principles for a theory of organisms apply to the TOFT and thus to the study of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards a systemic paradigm in carcinogenesis: linking epigenetics and genetics.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Ernesto; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    For at least 30 years cancer has been defined as a genetic disease and explained by the so-called somatic mutation theory (SMT), which has dominated the carcinogenesis field. Criticism of the SMT has recently greatly increased, although still not enough to force all SMT supporters to recognize its limits. Various researchers point out that cancer appears to be a complex process concerning a whole tissue; and that genomic mutations, although variably deleterious and unpredictably important in determining the establishment of the neoplastic phenotype, are not the primary origin for a malignant neoplasia. We attempt to describe the inadequacies of the SMT and demonstrate that epigenetics is a more logical cause of carcinogenesis. Many previous models of carcinogenesis fall into two classes: (i) in which some biological changes inside cells alone lead to malignancy; and (ii) requiring changes in stroma/extracellular matrix. We try to make clear that in the (ii) model genomic instability is induced by persistent signals coming from the microenvironment, provoking epigenetic and genetic modifications in tissue stem cells that can lead to cancer. In this perspective, stochastic mutations of DNA are a critical by-product rather then the primary cause of cancer. Indirect support for such model of carcinogenesis comes from the in vitro and vivo experiments showing apparent 'reversion' of cancer phenotypes obtained via physiological factors of cellular differentiation (cytokines and other signaling molecules) or drugs, even if the key mutations are not 'reversed'.

  6. PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CARCINOGENESIS: ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is a systemic foliar fungicide with a broad range of activity. Rodents fed with propiconazole at high dose resulted in diminished body weight, increased liver weight of adults and pups, and eventually liver carcinogenesis. In order to unravel the toxic processes inv...

  7. Diet-related DNA adduct formation in relation to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-08-01

    The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated diet-related DNA adduct formation. This review summarizes work on known or suspected dietary carcinogens and the role of DNA adduct formation in hypothesized carcinogenesis pathways. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Heme-Induced Biomarkers Associated with Red Meat Promotion of colon Cancer Are Not Modulated by the Intake of Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme/alcenal, heterocyclic amines or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, salivary nitrite did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. The rat model could thus be relevant to study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis in spite of the lack of nitrite recycling in rat’s saliva. PMID:23441609

  9. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  10. Colonic casts: unexpected complications of colonic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Mantas, D; Damaskos, C; Bamias, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Extensive colonic ischaemia can result in passage of a colonic 'cast' (CC) through the rectum. Case Study We report a 69-year-old male who initially underwent surgery to remove a sessile polyp. On postoperative day (POD)15, he was febrile, suffering from diarrhoea, and was treated conservatively. On POD18, the patient returned to our hospital with a CC that presented after defaecation. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a CC extending from the descending colon to the anal orifice with presentation of air between the affected colonic wall and the CC. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged on POD20 without complications having passed the CC (≈80cm) completely and becoming afebrile. Conclusions In most cases, the cause of CC passage is surgery for colorectal cancer or repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. A mild-to-severe presentation is dependent upon the bowel-wall layers affected by ischaemia and which therefore are included in the CC.

  11. Clock gene Per2 as a controller of liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mteyrek, Ali; Filipski, Elisabeth; Guettier, Catherine; Okyar, Alper; Lévi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Environmental disruption of molecular clocks promoted liver carcinogenesis and accelerated cancer progression in rodents. We investigated the specific role of clock gene Period 2 (Per2) for liver carcinogenesis and clock-controlled cellular proliferation, genomic instability and inflammation. We assessed liver histopathology, and determined molecular and physiology circadian patterns in mice on chronic diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure according to constitutive Per2 mutation. First, we found that Per2m/m liver displayed profound alterations in proliferation gene expression, including c-Myc derepression, phase-advanced Wee1, and arrhythmic Ccnb1 and K-ras mRNA expressions, as well as deregulated inflammation, through arrhythmic liver IL-6 protein concentration, in the absence of any DEN exposure. These changes could then make Per2m/m mice more prone to subsequently develop liver cancers on DEN. Indeed, primary liver cancers were nearly fourfold as frequent in Per2m/m mice as compared to wild-type (WT), 4 months after DEN exposure. The liver molecular clock was severely disrupted throughout the whole carcinogenesis process, including the initiation stage, i.e. within the initial 17 days on DEN. Per2m/m further exhibited increased c-Myc and Ccnb1 mean 24h expressions, lack of P53 response, and arrhythmic ATM, Wee1 and Ccnb1 expressions. DEN-induced tumor related inflammation was further promoted through increased protein concentrations of liver IL-6 and TNF-α as compared to WT during carcinogenesis initiation. Per2 mutation severely deregulated liver gene or protein expressions related to three cancer hallmarks, including uncontrolled proliferation, genomic instability, and tumor promoting inflammation, and accelerated liver carcinogenesis several-fold. Clock gene Per2 acted here as a liver tumor suppressor from initiation to progression. PMID:27494874

  12. Mechanisms and Chemoprevention of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302...disease is important for the development of strategies for its early diagnosis and prevention, which could improve patient survival and quality of life. We...of lesion were then subjected to further processing in preparation for genomic analysis. In order to better preserve the quality of RNA, ethanol-fixed

  13. Role of Lipotropes in Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    preneoplastic hepatocyte nodules and a 51% incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (19). To date, the exact mechanism responsible for the effects of lipotrope...rats fed choline deficient diets exhibit an altered liver response to DL-ethionine which leads to an early and enhanced induction of hepatocellular ... carcinoma (37). In addition to the promoting action of lipotropes on chemically induced carcinomas, dietary deficiencies of choline and methionine have

  14. Cell cycle gene expression networks discovered using systems biology: Significance in carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, RE; Ghule, PN; Stein, JL; Stein, GS

    2015-01-01

    The early stages of carcinogenesis are linked to defects in the cell cycle. A series of cell cycle checkpoints are involved in this process. The G1/S checkpoint that serves to integrate the control of cell proliferation and differentiation is linked to carcinogenesis and the mitotic spindle checkpoint with the development of chromosomal instability. This paper presents the outcome of systems biology studies designed to evaluate if networks of covariate cell cycle gene transcripts exist in proliferative mammalian tissues including mice, rats and humans. The GeneNetwork website that contains numerous gene expression datasets from different species, sexes and tissues represents the foundational resource for these studies (www.genenetwork.org). In addition, WebGestalt, a gene ontology tool, facilitated the identification of expression networks of genes that co-vary with key cell cycle targets, especially Cdc20 and Plk1 (www.bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/webgestalt). Cell cycle expression networks of such covariate mRNAs exist in multiple proliferative tissues including liver, lung, pituitary, adipose and lymphoid tissues among others but not in brain or retina that have low proliferative potential. Sixty-three covariate cell cycle gene transcripts (mRNAs) compose the average cell cycle network with p = e−13 to e−36. Cell cycle expression networks show species, sex and tissue variability and they are enriched in mRNA transcripts associated with mitosis many of which are associated with chromosomal instability. PMID:25808367

  15. Promoter hypermethylation and downregulation of the FAS gene may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manoochehri, Mehdi; Borhani, Nasim; Karbasi, Ashraf; Koochaki, Ameneh; Kazemi, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been investigated in carcinogenesis and as biomarker for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to define the methylation status in the regulatory elements of two proapoptotic genes, Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX). DNA methylation analysis was performed in tumor and adjacent normal tissue using Hpa II/ Msp I restriction digestion and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results observed downregulation of the FAS and BAX genes in the CRC tissues compared with the adjacent normal samples. Furthermore, demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment followed by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR were performed on the HT-29 cell line to measure BAX and FAS mRNA expression following demethylation. The 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment resulted in significant FAS gene upregulation in the HT-29 cell line, but no significant difference in BAX expression. Furthermore, analysis of CpG islands in the FAS gene promoter revealed that the FAS promoter was significantly hypermethylated in 53.3% of tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal samples. Taken together, the results indicate that decreased expression of the FAS gene due to hypermethylation of its promoter may lead to apoptotic resistance, and acts as an important step during colorectal carcinogenesis.

  16. Regulation and disregulation of mammalian nucleotide excision repair: A pathway to nongermline breast carcinogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Latimer, Jean J.; Majekwana, Vongai J.; Pabon-Padin, Yashira R.; ...

    2014-12-19

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is important as a modulator of disease, especially in constitutive deficiencies, such as the cancer predisposition syndrome Xeroderma pigmentosum. We have found profound variation of NER capacity among normal individuals, between cell-types and during carcinogenesis. NER is a repair system for many types of DNA damage, and therefore many types of genotoxic carcinogenic exposures, including ultraviolet light, products of organic combustion, metals, oxidative stress, etc. Since NER is intimately related to cellular metabolism, requiring components of both the DNA replicative and transcription machinery, it has a narrow range of functional viability. Thus, genes in the NERmore » pathway are expressed at the low levels manifested by, for example, nuclear transcription factors. Since NER activity and gene expression vary by cell-type, it is inherently epigenetically regulated. Furthermore, this epigenetic regulation is disregulated during sporadic breast carcinogenesis. Loss of NER is one basis of genomic instability, a required element in cellular transformation, and one that potentially modulates response to therapy. In this article, we demonstrate differences in NER capacity in eight adult mouse tissues, and place this result into the context of our previous work on mouse extraembryonic tissues, normal human tissues and sporadic early stage human breast cancer.« less

  17. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis: Current knowledge and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sokic-Milutinovic, Aleksandra; Alempijevic, Tamara; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The outcome of the infection depends on environmental factors and bacterial and host characteristics. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage, but the exact point of no return has not been identified. Therefore, two main therapeutic strategies could reduce gastric cancer incidence: (1) eradication of the already present infection; and (2) immunization (prior to or during the course of the infection). The success of a gastric cancer prevention strategy depends on timing because the prevention strategy must be introduced before the point of no return in gastric carcinogenesis. Although the exact point of no return has not been identified, infection should be eradicated before severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa develops. Eradication therapy rates remain suboptimal due to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient noncompliance. Vaccination against H. pylori would reduce the cost of eradication therapies and lower gastric cancer incidence. A vaccine against H. pylori is still a research challenge. An effective vaccine should have an adequate route of delivery, appropriate bacterial antigens and effective and safe adjuvants. Future research should focus on the development of rescue eradication therapy protocols until an efficacious vaccine against the bacterium becomes available. PMID:26556993

  18. Promoter hypermethylation and downregulation of the FAS gene may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    MANOOCHEHRI, MEHDI; BORHANI, NASIM; KARBASI, ASHRAF; KOOCHAKI, AMENEH; KAZEMI, BAHRAM

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been investigated in carcinogenesis and as biomarker for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to define the methylation status in the regulatory elements of two proapoptotic genes, Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX). DNA methylation analysis was performed in tumor and adjacent normal tissue using HpaII/MspI restriction digestion and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results observed downregulation of the FAS and BAX genes in the CRC tissues compared with the adjacent normal samples. Furthermore, demethylation using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment followed by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR were performed on the HT-29 cell line to measure BAX and FAS mRNA expression following demethylation. The 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment resulted in significant FAS gene upregulation in the HT-29 cell line, but no significant difference in BAX expression. Furthermore, analysis of CpG islands in the FAS gene promoter revealed that the FAS promoter was significantly hypermethylated in 53.3% of tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal samples. Taken together, the results indicate that decreased expression of the FAS gene due to hypermethylation of its promoter may lead to apoptotic resistance, and acts as an important step during colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:27347139

  19. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  20. Novel application of proton pump inhibitor for the prevention of colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis beyond acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Hong, Kyung Sook; Chung, Jun Won; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2010-08-01

    Colitis-associated cancers arise in the setting of chronic inflammation wherein an "inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma" sequence prevails. Based on our previous findings in which the proton pump inhibitor could impose significant levels of anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and selective apoptosis induction beyond gastric acid suppression, we investigated whether omeprazole could prevent the development of colitis-associated cancer in a mouse model induced by repeated bouts of colitis. Omeprazole, 10 mg/kg, was given i.p. all through the experimental periods for colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Molecular changes regarding inflammation and carcinogenesis were compared between control groups and colitis-associated cancer groups treated with omeprazole in addition to chemopreventive outcome. Nine of 12 (75.0%) mice in the control group developed multiple colorectal tumors, whereas tumors were noted in only 3 of 12 (25.0%) mice treated with daily injections of omeprazole. The cancer-preventive results of omeprazole treatment was based on significant decreases in the levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and interleukin-6 accompanied with attenuated expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-11, and MT1-MMMP were significantly decreased in mice treated with omeprazole in accordance with significant decreases in the number of beta-catenin-accumulated crypts. A significant induction of apoptosis was observed in tumor tissue treated with omeprazole. Omeprazole could block the trophic effect of gastrin in colon epithelial cells. The significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antimutagenic activities of omeprazole played a cancer-preventive role against colitis-induced carcinogenesis, and our novel in vivo evidence is suggestive of chemopreventive action independent of gastric acid suppression. 2010 AACR.

  1. Rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuko; Furukawa, Fumio; Suguro, Mayuko; Ito, Hikaru; Imai, Norio; Nabae, Kyoko; Toda, Yosuke; Inatomi, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Satomi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The modifying potential of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract (ABFE) on tumor development was investigated in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay. Male 6-week-old F344 rats were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), N-butyl-N-(hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN), and diisopropanolnitrosamine (DHPN) for initiation (DMBDD treatment). After a 1-week withdrawal period, the animals received distilled water (vehicle control) or ABFE A, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) at 0.8 mg/kg, ABFE B (GABA level of 3.0mg/kg) or ABFE C (GABA level of 12.0mg/kg) by gavage for 24 weeks. There were no effects of ABFE on survival rate, general condition, body weight, food and water consumption, and organ weights. The multiplicity of large intestinal nodules, smaller than 2mm was significantly increased in the ABFE C group with DMBDD treatment. However, there were no significantly inter-group differences in incidences of hyperplastic or neoplastic lesions in colon or other organs, or in immunohistochemically identified preneoplastic lesions in the liver. In conclusion, A. blazei Murrill fruit-body extract, even at a GABA level up to 12 mg/kg, did not exert modifying potential in the present medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay in male F344 rats (DMBDD method). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Coelho, Debora Lucciola; De Lima, David Correa Alves; Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates. PMID:26688708

  3. [Chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    de Los Santos-Munive, Victoria; Alonso-Avelino, Juan Angel

    2013-01-01

    In order to spot common chromosomal imbalances in early and late lesions of cervical cancer that might be used as progression biomarkers, we made a search of literature in PubMed from 1996 to 2011. The medical subject headings employed were chromosomal alterations, loss of heterozygosis, cervical cancer, cervical tumorigenesis, chromosomal aberrations, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The common chromosomal imbalances were gains in 8q24 (77.7 %), 20q13 (66.9 %), 3q26 (47.1 %), Xp22 (43.8 %), and 5p15 (60 %), principally. On the other hand, integration of the high-risk human papillomavirus genome into the host chromosome has been associated with the development of neoplasia, but the chromosomal imbalances seem to precede and promote such integration. Chromosomal imbalances in 8q24, 20q13, 3q21-26 and 5p15-Xp22, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization assay or comparative genomic hybridization assay for early detection of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus, are promising markers of cervical cancer progression.

  4. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the rectum. The colon absorbs water from liquid stool that is delivered to it from the small ... and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical ...

  5. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P < 0.01 for linear trend). The associations with other carotenoids were unremarkable. The major dietary sources of lutein in subjects with colon cancer and in control subjects were spinach, broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  6. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85-99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar.

  7. Similarities in the Age-Specific Incidence of Colon and Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma for women aged 85–99, acquired from SEER and the US Census, is consistent with this prediction. We conclude that the age specific data for testicular cancers and colon cancers is similar, suggesting that the underlying process leading to the development of these two forms of cancer may be similar. PMID:23840520

  8. Early Prediction of Cancer Progression by Depth-Resolved Nanoscale Mapping of Nuclear Architecture from Unstained Tissue Specimens.

    PubMed

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V; LaFace, Justin; Leibowitz, Brian; Yu, Jian; Brand, Randall E; Hartman, Douglas J; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Early cancer detection currently relies on screening the entire at-risk population, as with colonoscopy and mammography. Therefore, frequent, invasive surveillance of patients at risk for developing cancer carries financial, physical, and emotional burdens because clinicians lack tools to accurately predict which patients will actually progress into malignancy. Here, we present a new method to predict cancer progression risk via nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of unstained tissue sections based on the intrinsic density alteration of nuclear structure rather than the amount of stain uptake. We demonstrate that nanoNAM detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis who did and did not develop colon cancer up to 13 years after their initial colonoscopy. NanoNAM of the initial biopsies correctly classified 12 of 15 patients who eventually developed colon cancer and 15 of 18 who did not, with an overall accuracy of 85%. Taken together, our findings demonstrate great potential for nanoNAM in predicting cancer progression risk and suggest that further validation in a multicenter study with larger cohorts may eventually advance this method to become a routine clinical test. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis in Apc-mutant mice by limonin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satomi; Miyamoto, Shingo; Fujii, Gen; Nakanishi, Ruri; Onuma, Wakana; Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Yano, Tomohiro; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2015-07-01

    Limonoids in citrus fruits are known to possess multiple biological functions, such as anti-proliferative functions in human cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of limonin on intestinal polyp development in Apc-mutant Min mice. Five-week-old female Min mice were fed a basal diet or a diet containing 250 or 500 ppm limonin for 8 weeks. The total number of polyps in mice treated with 500 ppm limonin decreased to 74% of the untreated control value. Neoplastic cell proliferation in the polyp parts was assessed by counting PCNA positive cells, and a tendency of reduction was obtained by limonin treatment. Moreover, expression levels of c-Myc and MCP-1 mRNA in the polyp part were reduced by administration of limonin. We finally confirmed the effects of limonin on β-catenin signaling, and found limonin significantly inhibited T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor-dependent transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner in the Caco-2 human colon cancer cell line. Our results suggest that limonin might be a candidate chemopreventive agent against intestinal carcinogenesis.

  10. The role of interindividual variation in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lai, C; Shields, P G

    1999-02-01

    The process of chemical carcinogenesis is a complex multistage process initiated by DNA damage in growth control genes. Carcinogens enter the body from a variety of sources, but most require metabolic activation before they can damage DNA. There are multiple protective processes that include detoxification and conjugation, DNA repair and programmed cell death. Most of these functions exhibit wide interindividual variation in the population and thus are thought to affect cancer risk. The role of gene-environment interactions is being explored, and current data indicate that genetic susceptibilities can modify carcinogen exposures from the diet and tobacco smoking, although much more data exist for the latter. This review addresses the relationships of human carcinogenesis to these interindividual differences of phase I, phase II and DNA repair enzymes.

  11. TRIM Family Proteins: Roles in Autophagy, Immunity, and Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2017-04-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins, most of which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activities, have various functions in cellular processes including intracellular signaling, development, apoptosis, protein quality control, innate immunity, autophagy, and carcinogenesis. The ubiquitin system is one of the systems for post-translational modifications, which play crucial roles not only as markers for degradation of target proteins by the proteasome but also as regulators of protein-protein interactions and of the activation of enzymes. Accumulating evidence has shown that TRIM family proteins have unique, important roles and that their dysregulation causes several diseases classified as cancer, immunological disease, or developmental disorders. In this review we focus on recent emerging topics on TRIM proteins in the regulation of autophagy, innate immunity, and carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of E6 Spliced Isoforms (E6*) in Human Papillomavirus-Induced Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Olmedo-Nieva, Leslie; Muñoz-Bello, J. Omar; Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Persistent infections with High Risk Human Papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the main cause of cervical cancer development. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HR-HPVs are derived from a polycistronic pre-mRNA transcribed from an HPV early promoter. Through alternative splicing, this pre-mRNA produces a variety of E6 spliced transcripts termed E6*. In pre-malignant lesions and HPV-related cancers, different E6/E6* transcriptional patterns have been found, although they have not been clearly associated to cancer development. Moreover, there is a controversy about the participation of E6* proteins in cancer progression. This review addresses the regulation of E6 splicing and the different functions that have been found for E6* proteins, as well as their possible role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:29346309

  13. Evolution of the operative management of colon trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2017-01-01

    For any trauma surgeon, colon wounds remain a relatively common, yet sometimes challenging, clinical problem. Evolution in operative technique and improvements in antimicrobial therapy during the past two centuries have brought remarkable improvements in both morbidity and mortality after injury to the colon. Much of the early progress in management and patient survival after colon trauma evolved from wartime experience. Multiple evidence-based studies during the last several decades have allowed for more aggressive management, with most wounds undergoing primary repair or resection and anastomosis with an acceptably low suture line failure rate. Despite the abundance of quality evidence regarding management of colon trauma obtained from both military and civilian experience, there remains some debate among institutions regarding management of specific injuries. This is especially true with respect to destructive wounds, injuries to the left colon, blunt colon trauma and those wounds requiring colonic discontinuity during an abbreviated laparotomy. Some programs have developed data-driven protocols that have simplified management of destructive colon wounds, clearly identifying those high-risk patients who should undergo diversion, regardless of mechanism or anatomic location. This update will describe the progression in the approach to colon injuries through history while providing a current review of the literature regarding management of the more controversial wounds.

  14. Evolution of the operative management of colon trauma.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2017-01-01

    For any trauma surgeon, colon wounds remain a relatively common, yet sometimes challenging, clinical problem. Evolution in operative technique and improvements in antimicrobial therapy during the past two centuries have brought remarkable improvements in both morbidity and mortality after injury to the colon. Much of the early progress in management and patient survival after colon trauma evolved from wartime experience. Multiple evidence-based studies during the last several decades have allowed for more aggressive management, with most wounds undergoing primary repair or resection and anastomosis with an acceptably low suture line failure rate. Despite the abundance of quality evidence regarding management of colon trauma obtained from both military and civilian experience, there remains some debate among institutions regarding management of specific injuries. This is especially true with respect to destructive wounds, injuries to the left colon, blunt colon trauma and those wounds requiring colonic discontinuity during an abbreviated laparotomy. Some programs have developed data-driven protocols that have simplified management of destructive colon wounds, clearly identifying those high-risk patients who should undergo diversion, regardless of mechanism or anatomic location. This update will describe the progression in the approach to colon injuries through history while providing a current review of the literature regarding management of the more controversial wounds.

  15. Estrogen-Mediated Breast Carcinogenesis: The Role of Sulfation Pharmacogenetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Final (1 May 99 - 30 Apr 02) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Estrogen-Mediated Breast Carcinogenesis: The DAMD17-99-1-9281 Role of Sulfation...Pharmacogenetics 6 . AUTHOR(S) Araba Adjei, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Mayo...4 IN TR O D U CTIO N ................................................................................................... 5 B O D Y

  16. Potential involvement of leptin in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Jie; Yuan, Shu-Lan; Lu, Qing; Lu, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Wen-Dong

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of leptin in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to elucidate the etiology, carcinogenesis and progress of HCC. Expressions of Ob gene product, leptin and its receptor, Ob-R were investigated in 36 cases of HCC specimens and corresponding adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues with immunohistochemical staining. The effect of leptin on proliferation of Chang liver cell line and liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 was studied with cell proliferation assay (MTT). Leptin expression was detected in 36 cases of adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (36/36, 100%) with moderate (++) to strong (+++) intensity; and in 72.22%(26/36) of HCC with weaker (+) intensity (P<0.05). Thirty of 36 (83.33%) cases of adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues were positive for Ob-R, with moderate (++) to strong (+++) intensity. In HCC, 11/36 (30.56%) cases were positive, with weak (+) intensity (P<0.05). In cell proliferation assay, leptin inhibited the proliferation of Chang liver cells. The cell survival rate was 10-13% lower than that of the untreated cells (P>0.05). Leptin had little effect on the proliferation of liver cancer cells (P>0.05). High level expression and decreased or absent expression of leptin and its receptor in adjacent non-tumorous liver cells and HCC cells, inhibitory effect of leptin on the proliferation of normal Chang liver cells and no effect of leptin on proliferation of liver cancer cells, may provide new insights into the carcinogenesis and progression of human HCC. It could be assumed that leptin acting as an inhibitor and/or promoter, is involved in the process of carcinogenesis and progress of human HCC. Copyright 2004 The WJG Press ISSN

  17. Modulation of PPAR-Gamma Signaling in Prostatic Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-07-1-0479 TITLE: Modulation of PPAR -Gamma Signaling in...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2008 – 1 Sep 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modulation of PPAR -Gamma Signaling in...4 Annual Report PCRP Idea Development Award W81XWH-07-1-0479 Modulation of PPAR -Gamma Signaling in Prostatic Carcinogenesis P.I. Simon W

  18. Ecology of Root Colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. Conclusions In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche. PMID:22808103

  19. [Wounds and injuries to the colon].

    PubMed

    Sheianov, S D; Tsybuliak, G N

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of a retrospective analysis of results of treatment of 1097 patients with wounds and injuries of the colon of the peace and war time as well as of experiments in 160 dogs it has been established that the level of lethal outcomes and amount of complications are dependent on the size, number and localization of the colon wounds, severity of peritonitis by the moment of primary operation, degree of traumatic shock, blood loss volume, severity of the coexisting injuries and the chosen method of surgical treatment. A classification of the wounds according to the volume of injuries of the colon is proposed. Different variants of surgical treatment and outcomes are considered. Experiments in dogs have shown the indisputable effectiveness of precise one-row sero-musculo-submucous sutures with the present-day sutural material as compared with other methods of treatment of wounds of the colon. The peritoneal sorption with liquid colloid sorbents at the early postoperative period facilitate the prophylaxis and treatment of peritonitis, reduce lethality. A surgical classification of injuries of the colon is developed and types of operative interventions are recommended.

  20. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  1. In vitro analysis of multistage carcinogenesis

    SciT

    Nettesheim, P.; Fitzgerald, D.J.; Kitamura, H.

    1987-11-01

    Several key events in the multistep process of neoplastic transformation of rat tracheal epithelium (RTE) are described. Whether tracheal epithelium is exposed in vivo to carcinogenic agents or whether primary tracheal epithelial cells are exposed in vitro to carcinogens, initiated stem cells can be detected soon after the exposure by their ability to grow under selective conditions in culture. These initiated stem cells differ fundamentally from normal stem cells in their response to factors normally constraining proliferation and self-renewal. Thus, disruption of inhibitory control mechanisms of stem cell replication appears to be the first event in RTE cell transformation. Whilemore » the probability of self-renewal (PSR) is clearly increased in initiated stem cells, most of the descendants derived form such stem cells differentiate and become terminal and do not express transformed characteristics. Progression from the first to the second stage of RTE cell transformation, the stage of the immortal growth variant (IGV), is characterized by loss of responsiveness to the growth-restraining effects of retinoic acid. In the third stage of neoplastic transformation, the stage during which neoplastic growth variants (NGV) appear, a growth factor receptor gene is inappropriately expressed in some of the transformants. Thus, it appears that loss of growth-restraining mechanisms may be an early event, and activation of a growth stimulatory mechanism a late event, in neoplastic transformation of RTE cells.« less

  2. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25961580

  3. AAG8 promotes carcinogenesis by activating STAT3.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ehata, Shogo; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-09-01

    Dysregulation of signalling pathways by changes of gene expression contributes to hallmarks of cancer. The ubiquitously expressed chaperone protein AAG8 (aging-associated gene 8 protein, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is often found to be overexpressed in various cancers. AAG8 is involved in ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-associated degradation and has been intensively elaborated in neuroscience. However, its rationale in carcinogenesis has rarely been noticed. In this study, we explored the intrinsic oncogenetic roles of AAG8 in cancer cells and found that AAG8 promoted carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We further characterized AAG8, for the first time to our knowledge, as a STAT3 activator and elucidated that it alternatively activated STAT3 in addition to IL6/JAK pathway. Based on these findings and a drug screening study, we demonstrated that combined inhibition of AAG8 and IL6/JAK signalling synergistically limits cancer cell growth. Taken together, our findings shed light on the fundamental evidences for identification of AAG8 as an oncoprotein and potential target for cancer prevention, as well as highlight the importance of ER proteins in contributing to JAK/STAT signaling and carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. β-Catenin—A Linchpin in Colorectal Carcinogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Newton Alexander Chiang Shuek; Pignatelli, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    An important role for β-catenin pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis was first suggested by the protein’s association with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, and by evidence of dysregulation of β-catenin protein expression at all stages of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Recent studies have, however, shown that yet more components of colorectal carcinogenesis are linked to β-catenin pathways. Pro-oncogenic factors that also release β-catenin from the adherens complex and/or encourage translocation to the nucleus include ras, epidermal growth factor (EGF), c-erbB-2, PKC-βΙΙ, MUC1, and PPAR-γ, whereas anti-oncogenic factors that also inhibit nuclear β-catenin signaling include transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, retinoic acid, and vitamin D. Association of nuclear β-catenin with the T cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) family of transcription factors promotes the expression of several compounds that have important roles in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma, namely: c-myc, cyclin D1, gastrin, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (aPAR), CD44 proteins, and P-glycoprotein. Finally, genetic aberrations of several components of the β-catenin pathways, eg, Frizzled (Frz), AXIN, and TCF-4, may potentially contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. In discussing the above interactions, this review demonstrates that β-catenin represents a key molecule in the development of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:11839557

  5. Raman Spectroscopy of Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis: Study on Sequential Cancer Progression in Hamster Buccal Pouch Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish; Krishna, C Murali

    2016-10-01

    Oral cancers suffer from poor 5-year survival rates, owing to late detection of the disease. Current diagnostic/screening tools need to be upgraded in view of disadvantages like invasiveness, tedious sample preparation, long output times, and interobserver variances. Raman spectroscopy has been shown to identify many disease conditions, including oral cancers, from healthy conditions. Further studies in exploring sequential changes in oral carcinogenesis are warranted. In this Raman spectroscopy study, sequential progression in experimental oral carcinogenesis in Hamster buccal pouch model was investigated using 3 approaches-ex vivo, in vivo sequential, and in vivo follow-up. In all these studies, spectral changes show lipid dominance in early stages while later stages and tumors showed increased protein to lipid ratio and nucleic acids. On similar lines, early weeks of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated and control groups showed higher overlap and low classification. The classification efficiency increased progressively, reached a plateau phase and subsequently increased up to 100% by 14 weeks. The misclassifications between treated and control spectra suggested some changes in controls as well, which was confirmed by a careful reexamination of histopathological slides. These findings suggests Raman spectroscopy may be able to identify microheterogeneity, which may often go unnoticed in conventional biochemistry wherein tissue extracts are employed, as well as in histopathology. In vivo findings, quite comparable to gold-standard supported ex vivo findings, give further proof of Raman spectroscopy being a promising label-free, noninvasive diagnostic adjunct for future clinical applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. VEGF-C and VEGF-D blockade inhibits inflammatory skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Annamari K; Proulx, Steven T; Karaman, Sinem; Aebischer, David; Martino, Stefania; Jost, Manuela; Schneider, Nicole; Bry, Maija; Detmar, Michael

    2013-07-15

    VEGF-C and VEGF-D were identified as lymphangiogenic growth factors and later shown to promote tumor metastasis, but their effects on carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the effects of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on tumor development in the murine multistep chemical carcinogenesis model of squamous cell carcinoma by using a soluble VEGF-C/VEGF-D inhibitor. After topical treatment with a tumor initiator and repeated tumor promoter applications, transgenic mice expressing a soluble VEGF-C/VEGF-D receptor (sVEGFR-3) in the skin developed significantly fewer squamous cell tumors with a delayed onset when compared with wild-type mice or mice expressing sVEGFR-3 lacking the ligand-binding site. Epidermal proliferation was reduced in the carcinogen-treated transgenic skin, whereas epidermal keratinocyte proliferation in vitro was not affected by VEGF-C or VEGF-D, indicating indirect effects of sVEGFR-3 expression. Importantly, transgenic mouse skin was less sensitive to tumor promoter-induced inflammation, with reduced angiogenesis and blood vessel leakage. Cutaneous leukocytes, especially macrophages, were reduced in transgenic skin without major changes in macrophage polarization or blood monocyte numbers. Several macrophage-associated cytokines were also reduced in transgenic papillomas, although the dermal macrophages themselves did not express VEGFR-3. These findings indicate that VEGF-C/VEGF-D are involved in shaping the inflammatory tumor microenvironment that regulates early tumor progression. Our results support the use of VEGF-C/VEGF-D-blocking agents not only to inhibit metastatic progression, but also during the early stages of tumor growth. ©2013 AACR.

  7. Evidence Report: Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Janice; Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Chappell, Lori; Kerry, George; Lumpkins, Sarah; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Werneth, Charles

    2016-01-01

    As noted by Durante and Cucinotta (2008), cancer risk caused by exposure to space radiation is now generally considered a main hindrance to interplanetary travel for the following reasons: large uncertainties are associated with the projected cancer risk estimates; no simple and effective countermeasures are available, and significant uncertainties prevent scientists from determining the effectiveness of countermeasures. Optimizing operational parameters such as the length of space missions, crew selection for age and sex, or applying mitigation measures such as radiation shielding or use of biological countermeasures can be used to reduce risk, but these procedures have inherent limitations and are clouded by uncertainties. Space radiation is comprised of high energy protons, neutrons and high charge (Z) and energy (E) nuclei (HZE). The ionization patterns and resulting biological insults of these particles in molecules, cells, and tissues are distinct from typical terrestrial radiation, which is largely X-rays and gamma-rays, and generally characterized as low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are comprised mostly of highly energetic protons with a small component of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. Prominent HZE nuclei include He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. GCR ions have median energies near 1 GeV/n, and energies as high as 10 GeV/n make important contributions to the total exposure. Ionizing radiation is a well known carcinogen on Earth (BEIR 2006). The risks of cancer from X-rays and gamma-rays have been established at doses above 50 mSv (5 rem), although there are important uncertainties and on-going scientific debate about cancer risk at lower doses and at low dose rates (<50 mSv/h). The relationship between the early biological effects of HZE nuclei and the probability of cancer in humans is poorly understood, and it is this missing knowledge that leads to significant uncertainties in projecting cancer risks during space

  8. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  9. Colon and rectal injuries.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Robert K; Pomerantz, Richard A; Lampman, Richard M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to develop treatment algorithms for colon, rectal, and anal injuries based on the review of relevant literature. Information was obtained through a MEDLINE ( www.nobi.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi ) search, and additional references were obtained through cross-referencing key articles cited in these papers. A total of 203 articles were considered relevant. The management of penetrating and blunt colon, rectal, and anal injuries has evolved during the past 150 years. Since the World War II mandate to divert penetrating colon injuries, primary repair or resection and anastomosis have found an increasing role in patients with nondestructive injuries. A critical review of recent literature better defines the role of primary repair and fecal diversion for these injuries and allows for better algorithms for the management of these injuries.

  10. Hypermutable DNA chronicles the evolution of human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naxerova, Kamila; Brachtel, Elena; Salk, Jesse J.; Seese, Aaron M.; Power, Karen; Abbasi, Bardia; Snuderl, Matija; Chiang, Sarah; Kasif, Simon; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Intratumor genetic heterogeneity reflects the evolutionary history of a cancer and is thought to influence treatment outcomes. Here we report that a simple PCR-based assay interrogating somatic variation in hypermutable polyguanine (poly-G) repeats can provide a rapid and reliable assessment of mitotic history and clonal architecture in human cancer. We use poly-G repeat genotyping to study the evolution of colon carcinoma. In a cohort of 22 patients, we detect poly-G variants in 91% of tumors. Patient age is positively correlated with somatic mutation frequency, suggesting that some poly-G variants accumulate before the onset of carcinogenesis during normal division in colonic stem cells. Poorly differentiated tumors have fewer mutations than well-differentiated tumors, possibly indicating a shorter mitotic history of the founder cell in these cancers. We generate poly-G mutation profiles of spatially separated samples from primary carcinomas and matched metastases to build well-supported phylogenetic trees that illuminate individual patients’ path of metastatic progression. Our results show varying degrees of intratumor heterogeneity among patients. Finally, we show that poly-G mutations can be found in other cancers than colon carcinoma. Our approach can generate reliable maps of intratumor heterogeneity in large numbers of patients with minimal time and cost expenditure. PMID:24753616

  11. [Curcumin inhibited rat colorectal carcinogenesis by activating PPAR-γ: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu-bin; Duan, Chang-nong; Ma, Zeng-yi; Xu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    To explore the chemopreventive effect of curcumin on DMH induced colorectal carcinogenesis and the underlining mechanism. Totally 40 Wistar rats were divided into the model group and the curcumin group by random digit table, 20 in each group. Meanwhile, a normal control group was set up (n =10). A colorectal cancer model was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 mg/kg DMH. The tumor incidence and the inhibition rate were calculated. The effect of curcumin on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in rat colon mucosal tissues was observed using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. HT 29 cell line were cultured and divided into a control group, the curcumin + GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-4-phenylbenzamide) intervention group, and the curcumin group. The inhibition of different concentrations curcumin on HT29 cell line was detected using MTT. The expression of curcumin on PPARy was also detected using Western blot. The tumor incidence was 80. 00% (12/15 cases) in the model group, obviously higher than that of the curcumin group (58. 82%, 10/17 cases, P <0. 05). The inhibition rate of curcumin on DMH induced colorected carcinoma reached 26. 46%. Compared with the normal control group, the expression of PPARγ protein was significantly increased in the curcumin group and the model group (P <0. 01). Compared with the model group at the same time point, the expression of PPARy protein was significantly enhanced in the curcumin group (P <0. 05). MTT analysis showed that curcumin could inhibit the proliferation of in vitro HT 29 cells in dose and time dependent manners. The expression of PPARy protein was significantly increased in the GW9662 group and the curcumin group, showing statistical difference when compared with the normal control group (P <0. 01). Compared with the GW9662 group, the expression of PPARγ protein was significantly increased in the curcumin group (P <0. 01). Curcumin could inhibit DMH-induced rat colorectal

  12. Bladder carcinogenesis in rats subjected to ureterosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, Conceição Aparecida; Santos, Alessandra Marques Dos; Correia, Antonio Lucas Oliveira; Juanes, Camila de Carvalho; Coelho, João Paulo Ferreira; Cunha, Bianca Lopes; Maciel, André Vinicius Vieira; Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of L-lysine in the bladder and intestinal epithelia in rats submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy. we divided forty Wistar rats into four groups: group I - control group (Sham); group II - submitted to vesicosigmoidostomy and treated with L-lysine 150mg/kg; group III - submitted only to vesicosigmoidostomy; and group IV - received L-lysine 150mg/kg. After eight weeks the animals were sacrificed. in the bladders of all operated animals we observed simple, papillary and nodular hyperplasia of transitional cells, transitional cell papillomas and squamous metaplasia. As for the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of operated animals, we did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the distal, proximal and medium fragments, or in all fragments together (p=1.0000). Although statistically there was no promotion of carcinogenesis in the epithelia of rats treated with L-lysine in the observed time, it was clear the histogenesis of bladder carcinogenesis in its initial phase in all operated rats, this being probably associated with chronic infection and tiny bladder stones. o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o efeito da L-lisina nos epitélios vesical e intestinal de ratas submetidas à vesicossigmoidostomia. quarenta ratas Wistar, foram divididas em quatro grupos: grupo I- grupo controle (Sham); grupo II- submetido à vesicossigmoidostomia e tratado com L-lisina 150mg/kg; grupo III- submetido apenas à vesicossigmoidostomia; e grupo IV- recebeu L-lisina 150mg/kg. Após oito semanas os animais foram sacrificados. na bexiga de todos os animais operados observou-se hiperplasia simples, papilar e nodular de células transicionais, papiloma de células transicionais e metaplasia escamosa. Quanto à ocorrência de focos de criptas aberrantes nos colos dos animais operados, não foi evidenciado diferença estatística significante em nenhum dos fragmentos distal, proximal e médio, e todos juntos (P=1,0000). apesar de

  13. Complement activation promotes colitis-associated carcinogenesis through activating intestinal IL-1β/IL-17A axis.

    PubMed

    Ning, C; Li, Y-Y; Wang, Y; Han, G-C; Wang, R-X; Xiao, H; Li, X-Y; Hou, C-M; Ma, Y-F; Sheng, D-S; Shen, B-F; Feng, J-N; Guo, R-F; Li, Y; Chen, G-J

    2015-11-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive complement activation has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, its role in the development of CAC is largely unknown. Here, using a CAC model induced by combined administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we demonstrated that complement activation was required for CAC pathogenesis. Deficiency in key components of complement (e.g., C3, C5, or C5a receptor) rendered tumor repression in mice subjected to AOM/DSS. Mechanistic investigation revealed that complement ablation dramatically reduced proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the colonic tissues that was mainly produced by infiltrating neutrophils. IL-1β promoted colon carcinogenesis by eliciting IL-17 response in intestinal myeloid cells. Furthermore, complement-activation product C5a represented a potent inducer for IL-1β in neutrophil, accounting for downregulation of IL-1β levels in the employed complement-deficient mice. Overall, our study proposes a protumorigenic role of complement in inflammation-related colorectal cancer and that the therapeutic strategies targeting complement may be beneficial for the treatment of CAC in clinic.

  14. Regulation of TH17 Cells and Associated Cytokines in Wound Healing, Tissue Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Leonie; Giannou, Anastasios D; Gagliani, Nicola; Huber, Samuel

    2017-05-11

    Wound healing is a crucial process which protects our body against permanent damage and invasive infectious agents. Upon tissue damage, inflammation is an early event which is orchestrated by a multitude of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets including T H 17 cells. T H 17 cells and T H 17 cell associated cytokines can impact wound healing positively by clearing pathogens and modulating mucosal surfaces and epithelial cells. Injury of the gut mucosa can cause fast expansion of T H 17 cells and their induction from naïve T cells through Interleukin (IL)-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β signaling. T H 17 cells produce various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, and IL-22, which can promote cell survival and proliferation and thus tissue regeneration in several organs including the skin, the intestine, and the liver. However, T H 17 cells are also potentially pathogenic if not tightly controlled. Failure of these control mechanisms can result in chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), and can ultimately promote carcinogenesis. Therefore, there are several mechanisms which control T H 17 cells. One control mechanism is the regulation of T H 17 cells via regulatory T cells and IL-10. This mechanism is especially important in the intestine to terminate immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, T H 17 cells have the potential to convert from a pro-inflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by changing their cytokine profile and acquiring IL-10 production, thereby limiting their own pathological potential. Finally, IL-22, a signature cytokine of T H 17 cells, can be controlled by an endogenous soluble inhibitory receptor, Interleukin 22 binding protein (IL-22BP). During tissue injury, the production of IL-22 by T H 17 cells is upregulated in order to promote tissue regeneration. To limit the regenerative program, which could promote carcinogenesis, IL-22BP is upregulated during the later phase

  15. General Information about Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. In vivo multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy of epithelial carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Gracie; Shilagard, Tuya; Sun, Ju; Motamedi, Massoud

    2006-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy were used to image epithelial changes in a hamster model for oral malignant transformation. In vivo imaging was performed to characterize morphometric alterations in normal and precancerous regions. Morphometric measurements such as cell nucleus area and epithelial thicknesses obtained from MPM-SHGM were in excellent agreement with histology obtained after in vivo imaging. MPM-SHGM was highly sensitive to spectroscopic and architectural alterations throughout carcinogenesis, showing statistically significant changes in morphology. MPM revealed hyperkeratosis, nuclear enlargement/crowding in dysplasia, and immune cell infiltration. SHGM revealed alterations in submucosal architecture, with a decrease in SHG density evident during early stages of precancer. By combining MPM with SHGM, the basement membrane could be identified in normal, hyperplasia, and dysplasia samples and in some cases of early invasion. The combined technique of MPM-SHGM has the potential to serve as an adjunct to biopsy for assessing precancerous changes and will be investigated further for that purpose. Additionally, the method can provide spatiotemporal assessment of early neoplastic changes in order to elucidate the stages of transformation in vivo and could be used to assess therapeutic efficacy of agents being tested for the treatment of epithelial precancers/cancer.

  17. Colonization, mouse-style

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325 PMID:20977781

  18. Short-term exposure to pregnancy levels of estrogen prevents mammary carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy; Guzman, Raphael C.; Yang, Jason; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Talamantes, Frank; Nandi, Satyabrata

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that pregnancy early in life reduces the risk of breast cancer in women and that this effect is universal. This phenomenon of parity protection against mammary cancer is also observed in rodents. Earlier studies have demonstrated that short-term administration of estradiol (E) in combination with progesterone mimics the protective effect of parity in rats. In this study, the lowest effective E dosage for preventing mammary cancer was determined. Rats were injected with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea at 7 weeks of age; 2 weeks later, the rats were subjected to sustained treatment with 20 μg, 100 μg, 200 μg, or 30 mg of E in silastic capsules for 3 weeks. Treatments with 100 μg, 200 μg, and 30 mg of E resulted in serum levels of E equivalent to those of pregnancy and were highly effective in preventing mammary cancer. E treatment (20 μg) did not result in pregnancy levels of E and was not effective in reducing the mammary cancer incidence. In another set of experiments, we determined the effect of different durations of E with or without progesterone treatments on mammary carcinogenesis. These experiments indicate that a period as short as one-third the period of gestation is sufficient to induce protection against mammary carcinogenesis. The pioneering aspect of our study in contrast to long-term estrogen exposure, which is thought to increase the risk of breast cancer, is that short-term sustained treatments with pregnancy levels of E can induce protection against frank mammary cancer. PMID:11573010

  19. Intestinal microbiota enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ryan M; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Gauthier, Josee; Beveridge, Mark; Pope, Jillian L; Guijarro, Maria V; Yu, Qin; He, Zhen; Ohland, Christina; Newsome, Rachel; Trevino, Jose; Hughes, Steven J; Reinhard, Mary; Winglee, Kathryn; Fodor, Anthony A; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Jobin, Christian

    2018-05-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States yet data are scant regarding host factors influencing pancreatic carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence support the role of the host microbiota in carcinogenesis but its role in PDAC is not well established. Herein we report that antibiotic-mediated microbial depletion of KrasG12D/PTENlox/+ mice showed a decreased proportion of poorly differentiated tumors compared to microbiota-intact KrasG12D/PTENlox/+ mice. Subsequent 16S rRNA PCR showed that ~50% of KrasG12D/PTENlox/+ mice with PDAC harbored intrapancreatic bacteria. To determine if a similar observation in humans correlates with presence of PDAC, benign and malignant human pancreatic surgical specimens demonstrated a microbiota by 16S bacterial sequencing and culture confirmation. However, the microbial composition did not differentiate PDAC from non-PDAC tissue. Furthermore, murine pancreas did not naturally acquire a pancreatic microbiota, as germ-free mice transferred to specific pathogen-free housing failed to acquire intrapancreatic bacteria over time, which was not augmented by a murine model of colitis. Finally, antibiotic-mediated microbial depletion of Nod-SCID mice, compared to microbiota-intact, showed increased time to PDAC xenograft formation, smaller tumors, and attenuated growth. Interestingly, both xenograft cohorts were devoid of intratumoral bacteria by 16S rRNA PCR, suggesting that intrapancreatic/intratumoral microbiota is not the sole driver of PDAC acceleration. Xenografts from microbiota-intact mice demonstrated innate immune suppression by immunohistochemistry and differential regulation of oncogenic pathways as determined by RNA sequencing. Our work supports a long-distance role of the intestinal microbiota on PDAC progression and opens new research avenues regarding pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  20. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated. PMID:28933386

  1. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciT

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasionmore » of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked

  2. Vitamin-C, steroid and environmental carcinogenesis (review).

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T

    1995-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the relation between oxidative metabolism of neoplastic tissues and carcinogenesis from the point of view of the vitaminology/endocrinology fusion science. Our discussion was developed on the basis of maximum information available in- and outside our laboratory. We present 3 suggestions to throw new light on the phenomenon of eternal enigma - carcinogenesis. They are given as follows: i) the emergence of the oxidant criminal theory motivated us to refresh our old memory surrounding the metabolic characteristics of cancer cells with increased aerobic glycolysis. Evidence was presented to suggest that a neoplastic cell in its behavior can be classified as a facultative anaerobe, whereas a non-neoplastic cell belongs to the family of obligate aerobes. Information is also available to indicate that both glucocorticoid and vitamin C are working together to maintain concerted relationship between mitochondria and cytoplasm. On the basis of the information in paleontology, we propose to assume the metabolic characteristics of a neoplastic cell as an example of failed symbiosis between oxidant-intoxicated host cell (an anaerobe) and rebelling mitochondria (aerobes). ii) In view of the complexity of relation between the ever-changing environment and the humans as regards the cancer risk variations in time and space, we propose to assume the presence of a signal translation system as the intermediator between the outer environment and the target tissue. The steroid generating system, of which the implication to carcinogenesis is suggested in both human and non-human systems, may take over that role maintaining a cross talk with the hypothalamus-pituitary complex. One finds a good model of carcinogenesis in polymorphism of insects in which tranposon may well play important role in the induction of genetic transformation. iii) We should make further effort to explore the usefulness of vitamin C in cancer prevention. Worth consideration in

  3. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  4. Giant colonic volvulus due to colonic pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Kerem; Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Beyazit, Yavuz; Han, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie’s syndrome, is a clinical syndrome characterised by gross dilation of the caecum and right hemicolon, which sometimes extends to the sigmoid colon and rectum in the absence of an anatomic lesion in the intestinal lumen. It is characterised by impaired propulsion of contents of the gastrointestinal tract, which results in a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. A careful examination of the markedly distended colon can exclude several colonic pathologies, including mechanical obstruction and other causes of toxic megacolon. ACPO can sometimes predispose or mimic colonic volvulus, especially in geriatric patients. PMID:25716038

  5. Preventive effects of curcumin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaya; Shimizu, Masahito; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Yasuda, Yoichi; Terakura, Daishi; Baba, Atsushi; Ohno, Tomohiko; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic abnormalities include a state of chronic inflammation and adipocytokine imbalance, which increase the risk of colon cancer. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, exerts both cancer preventive and antiinflammatory properties. Curcumin is also expected to have the ability to reverse obesity-related metabolic derangements. The present study examined the effects of curcumin on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic premalignant lesions in C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) obese mice. Feeding with a diet containing 0.2% and 2.0% curcumin caused a significant reduction in the total number of colonic premalignant lesions compared with basal diet-fed mice. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNAs on the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice were significantly decreased by curcumin administration. Dietary feeding with curcumin markedly activated AMP-activated kinase, decreased the expression of COX-2 protein, and inhibited nuclear factor-κB activity on the colonic mucosa of AOM-treated mice. Curcumin also increased the serum levels of adiponectin while conversely decreasing the serum levels of leptin and the weights of fat. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an obesity-related colorectal carcinogenesis model, at least in part, by attenuating chronic inflammation and improving adipocytokine imbalance. Curcumin may be useful in the chemoprevention of colorectal carcinogenesis in obese individuals.

  6. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  7. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  8. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3rd week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P+ AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group. PMID:23055806

  9. Sewage sludge does not induce genotoxicity and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-07-01

    Through a series of experiments, the genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of sewage sludge was assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - liver carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 200 mg/kg i.p.); Group 3 and G4-liver carcinogenesis initiated by DEN and fed 10,000 ppm or 50,000 ppm of sewage sludge. The animals were submitted to a 70% partial hepatectomy at the 3(rd) week. Livers were processed for routine histological analysis and immunohistochemistry, in order to detect glutathione S-transferase positive altered hepatocyte foci (GST-P(+) AHF). Peripheral blood samples for the comet assay were obtained from the periorbital plexus immediately prior to sacrificing. Polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) were analyzed in femoral bone-marrow smears, and the frequencies of those micronucleated (MNPCEs) registered. There was no sewage-sludge-induced increase in frequency of either DNA damage in peripheral blood leucocytes, or MNPCEs in the femoral bone marrow. Also, there was no increase in the levels of DNA damage, in the frequency of MNPCEs, and in the development of GST-P AHF when compared with the respective control group.

  10. Kif18A is involved in human breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunpeng; Zhu, Changjun; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Linwei; Guo, Liping; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Shih Hsin

    2010-09-01

    Microtubule (MT) kinesin motor proteins orchestrate various cellular processes (e.g. mitosis, motility and organelle transportation) and have been implicated in human carcinogenesis. Kif18A, a plus-end directed MT depolymerase kinesin, regulates MT dynamics, chromosome congression and cell division. In this study, we report that Kif18A is overexpressed in human breast cancers and Kif18A overexpression is associated with tumor grade, metastasis and poor survival. Functional analyses reveal that ectopic overexpression of Kif18A results in cell multinucleation, whereas ablation of Kif18A expression significantly inhibits the proliferative capability of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of Kif18A not only affects the critical mitotic function of Kif18A but also decreases cancer cell migration by stabilizing MTs at leading edges and ultimately induces anoikis of cells with inactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway. Together, our results indicate that Kif18A is involved in human breast carcinogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human breast cancer.

  11. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  12. Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed F; Ali, Doaa A; Fernando, Augusta; Abdraboh, Mohamed E; Gaur, Rajiv L; Ibrahim, Wael M; Raj, Madhwa H G; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-06-02

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The present study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of SP against rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis induced by dibutyl nitrosamine (DBN) precursors, and further characterized its underlying mechanisms of action in HepG2 cell line. Investigation by light and electron microscopy showed that DBN treatment induced severe liver injury and histopathological abnormalities, which were prevented by SP supplementation. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly reduced from 80 to 20% by SP. Immunohistochemical results indicated that both PCNA and p53 were highly expressed in the liver of DBN-treated rats, but were significantly reduced by SP supplementation. Molecular analysis indicated that SP treatment inhibited cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased p21 and decreased Rb expression levels at 48hrs post-treatment. In addition, SP increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating induction of apoptosis by 48hrs. This is the first report of the in vivo chemopreventive effect of SP against DBN-induced rat liver cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, suggesting its potential use in chemoprevention of cancer.

  13. Chemoprevention of rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis by Spirulina

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mohamed F; Ali, Doaa A; Fernando, Augusta; Abdraboh, Mohamed E; Gaur, Rajiv L; Ibrahim, Wael M; Raj, Madhwa HG; Ouhtit, Allal

    2009-01-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is a filamentous cyanobacterium microalgae with potent dietary phyto-antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The present study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of SP against rat liver toxicity and carcinogenesis induced by dibutyl nitrosamine (DBN) precursors, and further characterized its underlying mechanisms of action in HepG2 cell line. Investigation by light and electron microscopy showed that DBN treatment induced severe liver injury and histopathological abnormalities, which were prevented by SP supplementation. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly reduced from 80 to 20% by SP. Immunohistochemical results indicated that both PCNA and p53 were highly expressed in the liver of DBN-treated rats, but were significantly reduced by SP supplementation. Molecular analysis indicated that SP treatment inhibited cell proliferation, which was accompanied by increased p21 and decreased Rb expression levels at 48hrs post-treatment. In addition, SP increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating induction of apoptosis by 48hrs. This is the first report of the in vivo chemopreventive effect of SP against DBN-induced rat liver cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, suggesting its potential use in chemoprevention of cancer. PMID:19521547

  14. Progress and Challenges in Selected Areas of Tobacco Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use continues to be a major cause of cancer in the developed world and, despite significant progress in this country in tobacco control which is driving a decrease in cancer mortality, there are still over one billion smokers in the world. This perspective discusses some selected issues in tobacco carcinogenesis focusing on progress during the 20 years of publication of Chemical Research in Toxicology. The topics covered include metabolism and DNA modification by tobacco-specific nitrosamines, tobacco carcinogen biomarkers, an unidentified DNA ethylating agent in cigarette smoke, mutations in the K-RAS and p53 gene in tobacco-induced lung cancer and their possible relationship to specific carcinogens, secondhand smoke and lung cancer, emerging issues in smokeless tobacco use, and a conceptual model for understanding tobacco carcinogenesis. It is hoped that a better understanding of mechanisms of tobacco-induced cancer will lead to new and useful approaches for prevention of lung cancer and other cancers caused by tobacco use. PMID:18052103

  15. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of oral treatment with lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil (LGEO) on leukocyte DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Also, the anticarcinogenic activity of LGEO was investigated in a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibuthyl)nitrosamine in Balb/C female Balb/c mice (DDB-initiated mice). In the short-term study, the animals were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (negative control), MNU group (positive control) and LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 5 weeks) plus MNU group (test group). Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocyte DNA damage by comet assay 4 h after each MNU application at the end of weeks 3 and 5. The LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ treated group showed significantly lower (P < 0.01) leukocyte DNA damage than its respective positive group exposed to MNU alone at week 3. In the medium-term study, DDB-initiated mice were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (positive control) and LGEO 125 or 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 6 weeks; test groups). At week 20, all animals were euthanized and mammary glands, colon and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analyses for detection of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. A slight non-significant effect of treatment with LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ in reducing development of alveolar and ductal mammary hyperplasia was found (P = 0.075). Our findings indicate that lemongrass essential oil provided protective action against MNU-induced DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis in DDB-initiated female Balb/C mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Modulation of expression of Programmed Death-1 by administration of probiotic Dahi in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Marotta, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Interaction of probiotic bacteria with the host immune system elicits beneficial immune modulating effects. Although, there are many published studies on interaction of probiotics with immune system focusing on activation of immune system by bacterial cell wall through the engagement of Toll-like receptor family; very few studies have focused on molecules involved in the T-cell activation, and not much work has been executed to study the correlation of probiotics and programmed death-1 in colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of probiotic Dahi on expression of programmed death (PD-1) in colorectum of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine treated Wistar rats. DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 168 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to seven groups, each group having twenty-four animals. The rats were euthanized at the 8th, 16th and 32nd week of the experiment and examined for the expression of PD-1 in colorectal tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Expression of PD-1 was observed in colorectal tissues of normal and DMH-treated rats. Feeding rats with probiotic Dahi or the treatment with piroxicam decreased the expression of PD-1 in DMH-induced colorectal mucosa, and the combined treatment with probiotic Dahi and piroxicam was significantly more effective in reducing the expression of PD-1. PD-1 expressed independent of carcinogen administration in normal colonic mucosa and may play a role in modulation of immune response in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study suggests that probiotic Dahi can be used as an effective chemopreventive agent in the management of colorectal cancer.

  17. miRNA-26b Overexpression in Ulcerative Colitis-associated Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Benderska, Natalya; Dittrich, Anna-Lena; Knaup, Sabine; Rau, Tilman T; Neufert, Clemens; Wach, Sven; Fahlbusch, Fabian B; Rauh, Manfred; Wirtz, Ralph M; Agaimy, Abbas; Srinivasan, Swetha; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi; Rümmele, Petra; Rapti, Emmanouela; Gazouli, Maria; Hartmann, Arndt; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-09-01

    Longstanding ulcerative colitis (UC) bears a high risk for development of UC-associated colorectal carcinoma (UCC). The inflammatory microenvironment influences microRNA expression, which in turn deregulates target gene expression. microRNA-26b (miR-26b) was shown to be instrumental in normal tissue growth and differentiation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of miR-26b in inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis. Two different cohorts of patients were investigated. In the retrospective group, a tissue microarray with 38 samples from 17 UC/UCC patients was used for miR-26b in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. In the prospective group, we investigated miR-26b expression in 25 fresh-frozen colon biopsies and corresponding serum samples of 6 UC and 15 non-UC patients, respectively. In silico analysis, Ago2-RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction examination, and miR-26b mimic overexpression were employed for target validation. miR-26b expression was shown to be upregulated with disease progression in tissues and serum of UC and UCC patients. Using miR-26b and Ki-67 expression levels, an UCC was predicted with high accuracy. We identified 4 novel miR-26b targets (DIP1, MDM2, CREBBP, BRCA1). Among them, the downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase DIP1 was closely related to death-associated protein kinase stabilization along the normal mucosa-UC-UCC sequence. In silico functional pathway analysis revealed that the common cellular pathways affected by miR-26b are highly related to cancerogenesis and the development of gastrointestinal diseases. We suggest that miR-26b could serve as a biomarker for inflammation-associated processes in the gastrointestinal system. Because miR-26b expression is downregulated in sporadic colon cancer, it could discriminate between UCC and the sporadic cancer type.

  18. Colonic intussusception in descending colon: An unusual presentation of colon lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Bagherzadeh Saba, Reza; Sadeghi, Amir; Rad, Neda; Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Barzegar, Farnoush

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas of the colon are relatively rare benign soft tissue tumors derived from mature adipocytes of mesenchymatic origin. During colonoscopy, surgery or autopsy they are generally discovered incidentally. Most cases are asymptomatic, with a small tumor size, and do not need any special treatment. However, in the cases with larger in size of tumor some symptoms such as anemia, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, bleeding, or intussusception may be presented. We reported a 47-year-old woman with colonic intussusception in the descending colon caused by colonic lipoma and diagnosed after surgical exploration for obstructive colonic mass. PMID:28224035

  19. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  20. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding. PMID:25452881

  1. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Sage Tea Drinking: Decreased DNA Damage and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exopolysaccharides synergizes with low level ionizing radiation to modulate signaling molecular targets in colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Walid E; Elsonbaty, Sawsan M; Moawed, Fatma S M

    2017-08-01

    Combination therapy that targets cellular signaling pathway represents an alternative therapy for the treatment of colon cancer (CRC). The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the probable interaction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 exopolysaccharides (EPS) with low level ionizing γ radiation (γ-R) exposure against dimethylhydrazine (DMH)- induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. Colon cancer was induced with 20mg DMH/kg BW. Rats received daily by gastric gavage 100mg EPS/Kg BW concomitant with 1Gy γ-R over two months. Colonic oxidative and inflammatory stresses were assessed. The change in the expression of p-p38 MAPK, p-STAT3, β-catenin, NF-kB, COX-2 and iNOS was evaluated by western blotting and q-PCR. It was found that DMH treatment significantly induced colon oxidative injury accompanied by inflammatory disturbance along with increased protein expression of the targeted signaling factors p-p38 MAPK, p-STAT3 and β-catenin. The mRNA gene expression of NF-kB, COX-2 and iNOS was significantly higher in DMH-treated animals. It's worthy to note that colon tissues with DMH treatment showed significant dysplasia and anaplasia of the glandular mucosal lining epithelium with loses of goblet cells formation, pleomorphism in the cells and hyperchromachia in nuclei. Interestingly, EPS treatment with γ-R exposure showed statistically significant amelioration of the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers with modulated signaling molecular factors accompanied by improved histological structure against DMH-induced CRC. In conclusion, our findings showed that Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 EPS with low level γ-R in synergistic interaction are efficacious control against CRC progression throughout the modulation of key signaling growth factors associated with inflammation via antioxidant mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical carcinogens and inhibitors of carcinogenesis in the human diet

    SciT

    Carr, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of cancer by chemicals as presently understood involves a series of steps, some of which require the passage of time. Many substances that are potent carcinogens in experimental animals are known to exist in nature and occur as part of the human diet. In addition, many of the substances that are known to inhibit experimental carcinogenesis also exist in the human diet. Thus, in addition to industrially produced carcinogens, humans can be presumed to have evolved in an environment that contains both carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. There is also a great deal of experimental and human epidemiologic data onmore » the influence of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates on cancer incidence rates; however, much of those data are confusing and conflicting.« less

  4. Altered DNA methylation: a secondary mechanism involved in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jay I; Watson, Rebecca E

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on the role that DNA methylation plays in the regulation of normal and aberrant gene expression and on how, in a hypothesis-driven fashion, altered DNA methylation may be viewed as a secondary mechanism involved in carcinogenesis. Research aimed at discerning the mechanisms by which chemicals can transform normal cells into frank carcinomas has both theoretical and practical implications. Through an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which chemicals affect the carcinogenic process, we learn more about basic biology while, at the same time, providing the type of information required to make more rational safety assessment decisions concerning their actual potential to cause cancer under particular conditions of exposure. One key question is: does the mechanism of action of the chemical in question involve a secondary mechanism and, if so, what dose may be below its threshold?

  5. The anti-oncogenic influence of ellagic acid on colon cancer cells in leptin-enriched microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Amany I; El-Masry, Omar S; Yassin, Eman H

    2016-10-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) has been proposed as a promising candidate for therapeutic use in colon cancer. Investigation of the effectiveness of EA in a leptin-enriched model might have been given a little interest. Here in, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of EA in the presence of leptin to reflect on therapeutic use of EA in obesity-linked colon cancer. Proven effective in leptin-enriched microenvironment, EA inhibited cell proliferation of HCT-116 and CaCo-2 cell lines, modulated cell cycle, translocated Bax to the mitochondrial fraction of cells, activated caspase-8, and reduced PCNA expression. The current study findings cast a beam of light on the potential therapeutic use of EA in obesity-related colon carcinogenesis.

  6. Challenging the Myth: Transvaginal Mesh is Not Associated with Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Sedrakyan, Art; Mao, Jialin; Thomas, Dominique; Eilber, Karyn S; Clemens, J Quentin; Anger, Jennifer T

    2017-10-01

    We sought to determine if there was a potential link between synthetic polypropylene mesh implantation for transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence, and carcinogenesis using statewide administrative data. Women who underwent transvaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence with mesh between January 2008 and December 2009 in New York State were identified using ICD-9-CM procedure codes and CPT-4 codes. Patients in the mesh cohort were individually matched to 2 control cohorts based on comorbidities and procedure date. Carcinogenesis was determined before and after matching at 1, 2 and 3 years, and during the entire followup time. A total of 2,229 patients who underwent mesh based pelvic organ prolapse surgery and 10,401 who underwent sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence between January 2008 and December 2009 were included in the study. Mean followup was 6 years (range 5 to 7). Exact matching between the mesh and control cohorts resulted in 1,870 pairs for pelvic organ prolapse mesh and cholecystectomy (1:2), 1,278 pairs for pelvic organ prolapse mesh and hysterectomy (1:1), 7,986 pairs for sling and cholecystectomy (1:1) and 3,810 pairs for sling and hysterectomy (1:1). Transvaginal mesh implantation was not associated with an increased risk of a cancer diagnosis (pelvic/local cancers or any cancer) at 1 year and during the entire followup of up to 7 years. Transvaginal surgery with implantation of mesh was not associated with the development of malignancy at a mean followup of 6 years. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relevance of CCL3/CCR5 axis in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Janine Mayra; Moreira Dos Santos, Tálita Pollyanna; Sobral, Lays Martin; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Russo, Remo Castro; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2017-08-01

    The chemokine CCL3 is a chemotactic cytokine crucial for inflammatory cell recruitment in homeostatic and pathological conditions. CCL3 might stimulate cancer progression by promoting leukocyte accumulation, angiogenesis and tumour growth. The expression of CCL3 and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 was demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but their role was not defined. Here, the functions of CCL3 were assessed using a model of chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Lineages of OSCC were used to analyse the effects of CCL3 in vitro . The 4NQO-induced lesions exhibited increased expression of CCL3, CCR1 and CCR5. CCL3 -/- and CCR5 -/- mice presented reduced incidence of tongue tumours compared to wild-type (WT) and CCR1 -/- mice. Consistently, attenuated cytomorphological atypia and reduced cell proliferation were observed in lesions of CCL3 -/- and CCR5 -/- mice. OSCC from CCL3 -/- mice exhibited lower infiltration of eosinophils and reduced expression of Egf, Fgf1, Tgf-β1, Vegfa, Vegfb, Itga-4, Vtn, Mmp-1a, Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 than WT mice. In vitro , CCL3 induced invasion and production of CCL5, IL-6, MMP -2, -8, -9. Blockage of CCL3 in vitro using α-CCL3 or Evasin-1 (a CCL3-binding protein) impaired tumour cell invasion. In conclusion, CCL3/CCR5 axis has pro-tumourigenic effects in oral carcinogenesis. The induction of inflammatory and angiogenic pathways and eosinophils recruitment appear to be the underlying mechanism explaining these effects. These data reveal potential protective effects of CCL3 blockade in oral cancer.

  8. Carrying Capacity and Colonization Dynamics of Curvibacter in the Hydra Host Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Tanita; Dagan, Tal; Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Hülter, Nils F.

    2018-01-01

    Most eukaryotic species are colonized by a microbial community – the microbiota – that is acquired during early life stages and is critical to host development and health. Much research has focused on the microbiota biodiversity during the host life, however, empirical data on the basic ecological principles that govern microbiota assembly is lacking. Here we quantify the contribution of colonizer order, arrival time and colonization history to microbiota assembly on a host. We established the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris and its dominant colonizer Curvibacter as a model system that enables the visualization and quantification of colonizer population size at the single cell resolution, in vivo, in real time. We estimate the carrying capacity of a single Hydra polyp as 2 × 105 Curvibacter cells, which is robust among individuals and time. Colonization experiments reveal a clear priority effect of first colonizers that depends on arrival time and colonization history. First arriving colonizers achieve a numerical advantage over secondary colonizers within a short time lag of 24 h. Furthermore, colonizers primed for the Hydra habitat achieve a numerical advantage in the absence of a time lag. These results follow the theoretical expectations for any bacterial habitat with a finite carrying capacity. Thus, Hydra colonization and succession processes are largely determined by the habitat occupancy over time and Curvibacter colonization history. Our experiments provide empirical data on the basic steps of host-associated microbiota establishment – the colonization stage. The presented approach supplies a framework for studying habitat characteristics and colonization dynamics within the host–microbe setting. PMID:29593687

  9. Colonic strictures: dilation and stents.

    PubMed

    Adler, Douglas G

    2015-04-01

    Colonic strictures, both benign and malignant, are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Benign strictures are most commonly treated by balloon dilation and less frequently with stents. Balloon dilation can help forestall or obviate surgery in some patients. Colonic strictures of malignant etiology generally need to be managed by stents and/or surgery. This article reviews endoscopic approaches to the management of colonic strictures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serrated Colon Polyps as Precursors to Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sweetser, Seth; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Sinicrope, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the serrated neoplasia pathway has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Insights have included an increased recognition of the malignant potential of different types of serrated polyps, such as sessile and traditional serrated adenomas. Sessile serrated adenomas share molecular features with colon tumors, such as microsatellite instability and a methylator phenotype, indicating that these lesions are precursors that progress via the serrated neoplasia pathway. There is evidence that the serrated pathway contributes to interval or missed cancers. These data have important implications for clinical practice and CRC prevention, since hyperplastic polyps were previously regarded as having no malignant potential. Endoscopic detection of serrated polyps is a challenge because they are often inconspicuous with indistinct margins, and are frequently covered by adherent mucus. It is important for gastroenterologists to recognize the subtle endoscopic features of serrated polyps, which would facilitate their detection and removal, to ensure a high-quality colonoscopy examination. Recognition of the role of serrated polyps in colon carcinogenesis has led to the inclusion of these lesions in post-polypectomy surveillance guidelines. However, an enhanced effort is needed to identify and completely remove serrated adenomas, with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of colonoscopy to reduce CRC incidence. PMID:23267866

  11. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenic activity of Senna and Cascara glycosides for the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Mereto, E; Ghia, M; Brambilla, G

    1996-03-19

    Anthraquinone glycosides of Senna and Cascara were investigated for their ability to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colon mucosa, which are considered putative preneoplastic lesions. Dietary exposure to high doses of these glycosides for 56 successive days did not cause the appearance of ACF or increase in incidence of ACF induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH). However, in rats treated with both DMH and the highest dose of glycosides, the average number of aberrant crypts per focus, considered a consistent predictor of tumor outcome, was higher than in rats given DMH alone. These findings suggest that Senna and Cascara glycoside might behave as weak promoters in rat colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Prognostic and predictive potential molecular biomarkers in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Nastase, A; Pâslaru, L; Niculescu, A M; Ionescu, M; Dumitraşcu, T; Herlea, V; Dima, S; Gheorghe, C; Lazar, V; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    An important objective in nowadays research is the discovery of new biomarkers that can detect colon tumours in early stages and indicate with accuracy the status of the disease. The aim of our study was to identify potential biomarkers for colon cancer onset and progression. We assessed gene expression profiles of a list of 10 candidate genes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-7, DEFA 1, DEFA-5, DEFA-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, SPP-1, CTHRC-1) by quantitative real time PCR in triplets of colonic mucosa (normal, adenoma, tumoral tissue) collected from the same patient during surgery for a group of 20 patients. Additionally we performed immunohistochemistry for DEFA1-3 and SPP1. We remarked that DEFA5 and DEFA6 are key factors in adenoma formation (p<0.05). MMP7 is important in the transition from a benign to a malignant status (p <0.01) and further in metastasis being a prognostic indicator for tumor transformation and for the metastatic potential of cancer cells. IL8, irrespective of tumor stage, has a high mRNA level in adenocarcinoma (p< 0.05). The level of expression for SPP1 is correlated with tumor level. We suggest that high levels of DEFAS, DEFA6 (key elements in adenoma formation), MMP7 (marker of colon cancer onset and progression to metastasis), SPP1 (marker of progression) and IL8 could be used to diagnose an early stage colon cancer and to evaluate the prognostic of progression for colon tumors. Further, if DEFA5 and DEFA6 level of expression are low but MMP7, SPP1 and IL8 level are high we could point out that the transition from adenoma to adenocarcinoma had already occurred. Thus, DEFA5, DEFA6, MMP7, IL8 and SPP1 consist in a valuable panel of biomarkers, whose detection can be used in early detection and progressive disease and also in prognostic of colon cancer.

  13. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20525330

  14. Model-Based Phenotypic Signatures Governing the Dynamics of the Stem and Semi-differentiated Cell Populations in Dysplastic Colonic Crypts.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Santos, Guido; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2018-02-01

    Mathematical modeling of cell differentiated in colonic crypts can contribute to a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying colonic tissue organization, but also its deregulation during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Here, we combined bifurcation analysis to assess the effect that time delay has in the complex interplay of stem cells and semi-differentiated cells at the niche of colonic crypts, and systematic model perturbation and simulation to find model-based phenotypes linked to cancer progression. The models suggest that stem cell and semi-differentiated cell population dynamics in colonic crypts can display chaotic behavior. In addition, we found that clinical profiling of colorectal cancer correlates with the in silico phenotypes proposed by the mathematical model. Further, potential therapeutic targets for chemotherapy resistant phenotypes are proposed, which in any case will require experimental validation.

  15. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  16. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  17. Pathways to Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The steps required for space colonization are many to grow from our current 3-person International Space Station, now under construction, to an infrastructure that can support hundreds and eventually thousands of people in space. This paper will summarize the author's findings from numerous studies and workshops on related subjects and identify some of the critical next steps toward space colonization. Findings will be drawn from the author s previous work on space colony design, space infrastructure workshops, and various studies that addressed space policy. In conclusion, this paper will note that significant progress has been made on space facility construction through the International Space Station program, and that significant efforts are needed in the development of new reusable Earth to Orbit transportation systems. The next key steps will include reusable in space transportation systems supported by in space propellant depots, the continued development of inflatable habitat and space elevator technologies, and the resolution of policy issues that will establish a future vision for space development.

  18. Chemopreventive Strategies for Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis: Current Status and Future Direction.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yusuke; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Futoshi

    2017-04-19

    A sustained and chronically-inflamed environment is characterized by the presence of heterogeneous inflammatory cellular components, including neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. These infiltrated cells produce growth stimulating mediators (inflammatory cytokines and growth factors), chemotactic factors (chemokines) and genotoxic substances (reactive oxygen species and nitrogen oxide) and induce DNA damage and methylation. Therefore, chronic inflammation serves as an intrinsic niche for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this article, we summarize the up-to-date findings regarding definitive/possible causes and mechanisms of inflammation-related carcinogenesis derived from experimental and clinical studies. We also propose 10 strategies, as well as candidate agents for the prevention of inflammation-related carcinogenesis.

  19. [Penetrant injuries of colon--our experience].

    PubMed

    Lazović, R; Krivokapić, Z; Dobricanin, V

    2010-01-01

    In attemption to determine the place of primary repair in management of colon injuries, an open, non randomized clinical study was performed. Retrospective (RS) group of 62 patients according to exclusion criteria by Stone (S/F) and Flint (F1) was managed by one or two stage surgical procedure. Prospective (PR) group of 34 patients was managed using one stage repair non-selectively: two stage procedures were performed in 3 cases of advanced peritonitis and multi-segmental lacerations with impaired circulation of colon. In RS group 36 patients were managed by primary repair and in PR group, 31 were managed by primary repair. Both groups were of similar age/sex. Indexes of trauma severity were similar (TS, ISS, PATI). The latent time was shorter in PR group. Associated injuries to other body regions and abdominal organs were similar in both groups. S/F criteria and Flint grading in both (RS vs. PR) groups were similar. Comparison of attempted and successful primary repairs justifies the more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries.

  20. Differential regulation of a fibroblast growth factor-binding protein during skin carcinogenesis and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Andreas; Aigner, Achim; Cabal-Manzano, Rafael H; Butler, Robert E; Hood, Dozier R; Sessions, Roy B; Czubayko, Frank; Wellstein, Anton

    2004-01-01

    The initiation of premalignant lesions is associated with subtle cellular and gene expression changes. Here we describe a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft model with human adult skin and compare chemical carcinogenesis and wound healing. We focus on a secreted binding protein for fibroblast growth factors (FGF-BP) that enhances the activity of locally stored FGFs and is expressed at high levels in human epithelial cancers. Carcinogen treatment of murine skin induced papilloma within 6 weeks, whereas the human skin grafts displayed no obvious macroscopic alterations. Microscopic studies of the human skin, however, showed p53-positive keratinocytes in the epidermis, increased angiogenesis in the dermis of the treated skin, enhanced proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer, and an increase of FGF-BP protein and mRNA expression. In contrast, after surgical wounding of human skin grafts or of mouse skin, FGF-BP expression was upregulated within a few hours and returned to control levels after 2 days with wound closure. Enhanced motility of cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts by FGF-BP supports a role in wound healing. We conclude that adult human skin xenografts can be used to identify early molecular events during malignant transformation as well as transient changes during wound healing.

  1. Silica-induced Chronic Inflammation Promotes Lung Carcinogenesis in the Context of an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment12

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Javier; Ajona, Daniel; de Biurrun, Gabriel; Agorreta, Jackeline; Segura, Victor; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Bleau, Anne-Marie; Pio, Ruben; Blanco, David; Montuenga, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The association between inflammation and lung tumor development has been clearly demonstrated. However, little is known concerning the molecular events preceding the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize a chemically induced lung cancer mouse model in which lung cancer developed in the presence of silicotic chronic inflammation. Silica-induced lung inflammation increased the incidence and multiplicity of lung cancer in mice treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine, a carcinogen found in tobacco smoke. Histologic and molecular analysis revealed that concomitant chronic inflammation contributed to lung tumorigenesis through induction of preneoplastic changes in lung epithelial cells. In addition, silica-mediated inflammation generated an immunosuppressive microenvironment in which we observed increased expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), as well as the presence of regulatory T cells. Finally, the K-RAS mutational profile of the tumors changed from Q61R to G12D mutations in the inflammatory milieu. In summary, we describe some of the early molecular changes associated to lung carcinogenesis in a chronic inflammatory microenvironment and provide novel information concerning the mechanisms underlying the formation and the fate of preneoplastic lesions in the silicotic lung. PMID:23908592

  2. CoReCG: a comprehensive database of genes associated with colon-rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rahul; Kumar, Binayak; Jayadev, Msk; Raghav, Dhwani; Singh, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of large intestine is commonly referred as colorectal cancer, which is also the third most frequently prevailing neoplasm across the globe. Though, much of work is being carried out to understand the mechanism of carcinogenesis and advancement of this disease but, fewer studies has been performed to collate the scattered information of alterations in tumorigenic cells like genes, mutations, expression changes, epigenetic alteration or post translation modification, genetic heterogeneity. Earlier findings were mostly focused on understanding etiology of colorectal carcinogenesis but less emphasis were given for the comprehensive review of the existing findings of individual studies which can provide better diagnostics based on the suggested markers in discrete studies. Colon Rectal Cancer Gene Database (CoReCG), contains 2056 colon-rectal cancer genes information involved in distinct colorectal cancer stages sourced from published literature with an effective knowledge based information retrieval system. Additionally, interactive web interface enriched with various browsing sections, augmented with advance search facility for querying the database is provided for user friendly browsing, online tools for sequence similarity searches and knowledge based schema ensures a researcher friendly information retrieval mechanism. Colorectal cancer gene database (CoReCG) is expected to be a single point source for identification of colorectal cancer-related genes, thereby helping with the improvement of classification, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Database URL: lms.snu.edu.in/corecg PMID:27114494

  3. Oral Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome Impacts Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klimesova, Klara; Jiraskova Zakostelska, Zuzana; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Host's physiology is significantly influenced by microbiota colonizing the epithelial surfaces. Complex microbial communities contribute to proper mucosal barrier function, immune response, and prevention of pathogen invasion and have many other crucial functions. The oral cavity and large intestine are distant parts of the digestive tract, both heavily colonized by commensal microbiota. Nevertheless, they feature different proportions of major bacterial and fungal phyla, mostly due to distinct epithelial layers organization and different oxygen levels. A few obligate anaerobic strains inhabiting the oral cavity are involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Interestingly, these microbiota components are also enriched in gut inflammatory and tumor tissue. An altered microbiota composition - dysbiosis - and formation of polymicrobial biofilms seem to play important roles in the development of oral diseases and colorectal cancer. In this review, we describe the differences in composition of commensal microbiota in the oral cavity and large intestine and the mechanisms by which microbiota affect the inflammatory and carcinogenic response of the host.

  4. Potentiating NK cell activity by combination of Rosuvastatin and Difluoromethylornithine for effective chemopreventive efficacy against Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Naveena B.; Mohammed, Altaf; Bryant, Taylor; Zhang, Yuting; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Biddick, Laura; Singh, Anil; Lightfoot, Stan; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second highest cause of cancer-related deaths. A successful strategy to improve chemopreventive efficacies is by down-regulating tumor polyamines and enhancing NK cell activities. Colonic carcinogenesis was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in male F344 rats. Eight weeks after AOM treatment, animals were fed diets containing Rosuvastatin and difluromethylornithine (DFMO) individually and in combination for 40 weeks. Both agents showed significant suppression of adenocarcinoma multiplicity and incidence with no toxicity compared to untreated rats. Low-dose Rosuvastatin plus DFMO suppressed colon adenocarcinoma multiplicity by 76% compared to low-dose Rosuvastatin (29%) and DFMO (46%), suggesting additive efficacy. Furthermore, low-dose combination caused a delay in colonic adenocarcinoma progression. DFMO, Rosuvastatin and/or combinations significantly decreased polyamine content and increased intra-tumoral NK cells expressing perforin plus IFN-γ compared to untreated colon tumors. Further ex-vivo analysis of splenic NK cells exposed to DFMO, Rosuvastatin or combination resulted in an increase of NKs with perforin expression. This is the first report on Rosuvastatin alone or combination strategy using clinically relevant statin plus DFMO doses which shows a significant suppression of colon adenocarcinomas, and their potential in increasing functional NK cells. This strategy has potential for further testing in high risk individuals for colon cancer. PMID:27841323

  5. Reduction in promotor methylation utilizing EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) restores RXRα expression in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jay; Moseley, Vondina R; Cabang, April B; Coleman, Katie; Wei, Wei; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wargovich, Michael J

    2016-06-07

    Silencing of regulatory genes through hypermethylation of CpG islands is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis. In colon cancer, RXRα, an important dimerization partner with other nuclear transcription factors, is silenced through this mechanism. We previously found that colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice had diminished levels of RXRα protein and expression levels of this gene were restored by treatment with a green tea intervention, due to reduced promoter methylation of RXRα. We hypothesized that CIMP+ cell lines, which epigenetically silence key regulatory genes would also evidence silencing of RXRα and EGCG treatment would restore its expression. We indeed found EGCG to restore RXRα activity levels in the human cell lines, in a dose dependent manner and reduced RXRα promoter methylation. EGCG induced methylation changes in several other colon cancer related genes but did not cause a decrease in global methylation. Numerous epidemiological reports have shown the benefits of green tea consumption in reducing colon cancer risk but to date no studies have shown that the risk reduction may be related to the epigenetic restoration by tea polyphenols. Our results show that EGCG modulates the reversal of gene silencing involved in colon carcinogenesis providing a possible avenue for colon cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lumen of the sigmoid colon was seen and biopsies were taken. Histopathological examination indicated a suspicion of gastrointestinal tumour and the patient underwent sigmoid colon resection after preoperative evaluation by laboratory analysis, abdominal ultrasonography and CT. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on the fifth day for outpatient control. The histopathology report revealed schwannoma of the sigmoid colon. This was a case of schwannoma of the sigmoid colon that was successfully treated with total resection. PMID:25976197

  7. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Cellular Response to Sustained Risk Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Kim Y. C.; Ooi, Cheng Cheng; Zucker, Michelle H.; Lockett, Trevor; Williams, Desmond B.; Cosgrove, Leah J.; Topping, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The current models for colorectal cancer (CRC) are essentially linear in nature with a sequential progression from adenoma through to carcinoma. However, these views of CRC development do not explain the full body of published knowledge and tend to discount environmental influences. This paper proposes that CRC is a cellular response to prolonged exposure to cytotoxic agents (e.g., free ammonia) as key events within a sustained high-risk colonic luminal environment. This environment is low in substrate for the colonocytes (short chain fatty acids, SCFA) and consequently of higher pH with higher levels of free ammonia and decreased mucosal oxygen supply as a result of lower visceral blood flow. All of these lead to greater and prolonged exposure of the colonic epithelium to a cytotoxic agent with diminished aerobic energy availability. Normal colonocytes faced with this unfavourable environment can transform into CRC cells for survival through epigenetic reprogramming to express genes which increase mobility to allow migration and proliferation. Recent data with high protein diets confirm that genetic damage can be increased, consistent with greater CRC risk. However, this damage can be reversed by increasing SCFA supply by feeding fermentable fibre as resistant starch or arabinoxylan. High protein, low carbohydrate diets have been shown to alter the colonic environment with lower butyrate levels and apparently greater mucosal exposure to ammonia, consistent with our hypothesis. Evidence is drawn from in vivo and in vitro genomic and biochemical studies to frame experiments to test this proposition. PMID:23807509

  8. Systemic Chromosome Instability Resulted in Colonic Transcriptomic Changes in Metabolic, Proliferation, and Stem Cell Regulators in Sgo1-/+ Mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Sanghera, Saira; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Reddy, Arun; Lightfoot, Stan; Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Dai, Wei; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2016-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer and is predicted to claim 49,700 lives in the United States this year. Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in 80% to 90% of colon cancers and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. To investigate the impact of CIN on colon cancer development, we developed shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (-/+) mice, an animal model focusing on mitotic error-induced CIN. In this study, we analyzed signature changes in the colonic transcriptome of Sgo1(-/+) mice to examine the molecular events underlying the altered carcinogenesis profiles in Sgo1(-/+) mice. We performed next-generation sequencing of normal-looking colonic mucosal tissue from mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane after 24 weeks. Transcriptome profiling revealed 349 hits with a 2-fold expression difference threshold (217 upregulated genes, 132 downregulated genes, P < 0.05). Pathway analyses indicated that the Sgo1-CIN tissues upregulated pathways known to be activated in colon cancer, including lipid metabolism (z score 4.47), Notch signaling (4.47), insulin signaling (3.81), and PPAR pathways (3.75), and downregulated pathways involved in immune responses including allograft rejection (6.69) and graft-versus-host disease (6.54). Notably, stem cell markers were also misregulated. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that systemic CIN results in transcriptomic changes in metabolism, proliferation, cell fate, and immune responses in the colon, which may foster a microenvironment amenable to cancer development. Therefore, therapeutic approaches focusing on these identified pathways may be valuable for colon cancer prevention and treatment. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Colonize, evade, flourish

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J; Trent, M Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an adapted gastric pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing severe gastritis and gastric cancer. A hallmark of infection is the ability of this organism to evade detection by the human immune system. H. pylori has evolved a number of features to achieve this, many of which involve glyco-conjugates including the lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan layer, glycoproteins, and glucosylated cholesterol. These major bacterial components possess unique features from those of other gram-negative organisms, including differences in structure, assembly, and modification. These defining characteristics of H. pylori glycobiology help the pathogen establish a long-lived infection by providing camouflage, modulating the host immune response, and promoting virulence mechanisms. In this way, glyco-conjugates are essential for H. pylori pathogenicity and survival, allowing it to carve out a niche in the formidable environment of the human stomach. PMID:23859890

  10. USE OF GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY PROFILES IN ASSESSMENT OF CARCINOGENESIS AND TRANSMISSIBLE GENETIC EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology has been developed to display and evaluate multiple test quantitative information on genetic toxicants for purposes of assessing carcinogenesis and transmissible genetic effects. ose Information is collected from the open literature: either the lowest effective dose...

  11. Affinity-based strategies to fast track development of colon cancer biomarkers — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our goal is to discover plasma and tissue-based tumor biomarkers that work well enough together to identity colon cancer at early stages, lead to accurate diagnosis and could ultimately allow for individualized treatment.

  12. Synchronous volvulus of the sigmoid colon and caecum, a very rare cause of large bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shariful; Hosein, Devin; Bheem, Vinoo; Dan, Dilip

    2016-10-14

    Colonic volvulus usually occurs as a single event that can affect various parts of the colon. The usual sites affected being the sigmoid colon (75%) and the caecum (22%). The phenomenon of multiple sites simultaneously undergoing volvulus is an extremely rare occurrence. Synchronous double colonic volvulus is extremely rare and to the best of our knowledge, this is the 4th reported case of simultaneous sigmoid and caecal volvulus in the English literature. The clinical presentation and the radiological findings are that of large bowel obstruction. Classic radiological findings may not be present or may be overlooked due to its rarity. Treatment of this condition is early surgical intervention to prevent the sequalae of a colonic volvulus and its associated mortality. We report a case of an 80-year-old man with synchronous volvulus of the sigmoid colon and caecum. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Chemopreventive effect of dietary glutamine on colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yun; Wang, Keming; Wang, Zhaoxia; Li, Nan; Ji, Guozhong

    2013-07-01

    Chronic colonic inflammation is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Glutamine (GLN) supplementation has shown its anti-inflammation benefit in experimental colitis. Whether GLN is effective in preventing colon carcinogenesis remains to be investigated. The chemopreventive activity of GLN was evaluated in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)/azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colitis-associated CRC in this study. Mice were treated with DSS/AOM and randomized to receive either a control diet or GLN-enriched diet intermittently of the study. The disease activity index was evaluated weekly. On day 80 of the experiment, the entire colon and rectum were processed for histopathologic examination and further evaluation. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time-PCR and western blot analysis. Here, we show that after GLN-enriched diet, the colitis presented a statistical improvement and tumors burden decreased significantly. This was accompanied by lower activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, lower expression of cytokines and chemokines as well as reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis in the colons of colitis-associated CRC mice. Our data demonstrate the protective/preventive effect of GLN in the progression of colitis-associated CRC, which was correlated with a dampening of inflammation and NF-κB activity and with a decrease of inflammatory protein overexpression.

  14. Free radical scavenging and COX-2 inhibition by simple colon metabolites of polyphenols: A theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Jeremić, Svetlana; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Free radical scavenging and inhibitory potency against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by two abundant colon metabolites of polyphenols, i.e., 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (4-HPPA) were theoretically studied. Different free radical scavenging mechanisms are investigated in water and pentyl ethanoate as a solvent. By considering electronic properties of scavenged free radicals, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are found to be thermodynamically probable and competitive processes in both media. The Gibbs free energy change for reaction of inactivation of free radicals indicates 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA as potent scavengers. Their reactivity toward free radicals was predicted to decrease as follows: hydroxyl>alkoxyls>phenoxyl≈peroxyls>superoxide. Shown free radical scavenging potency of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA along with their high μM concentration produced by microbial colon degradation of polyphenols could enable at least in situ inactivation of free radicals. Docking analysis with structural forms of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicates dianionic ligands as potent inhibitors of COX-2, an inducible enzyme involved in colon carcinogenesis. Obtained results suggest that suppressing levels of free radicals and COX-2 could be achieved by 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicating that these compounds may contribute to reduced risk of colon cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of Colitis-associated Colon Tumorigenesis by Baicalein and Betaine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of modulation of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis by two natural products, baicalein and betaine, which have anti-inflammatory activities. Baicalein and betaine have been shown to provide various health benefits to organism in many ways. Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid derived originally from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. From ancient times, baicalein has widely been used in oriental medicines as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapy. Betaine, trimethylglycine, is an essential biochemical molecule of the methionine/homocysteine cycle and is synthesized by conversion of choline. Betaine is an important human nutrient obtained from various foods including sugar beet and lycium. Betaine has provided various health benefits including disease prevention. However, the action mechanisms of their activity remain poorly understood. Recent studies reported the effects of baicalein and betaine on cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells and chemically induced colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice. Administrations of baicalein and betaine containing diets significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors and hyperplasia with down-regulation of inflammation. Therefore, baicalein and betaine might be applicable to the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis.

  16. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  17. Proinflammatory cytokines cause FAT10 upregulation in cancers of liver and colon.

    PubMed

    Lukasiak, S; Schiller, C; Oehlschlaeger, P; Schmidtke, G; Krause, P; Legler, D F; Autschbach, F; Schirmacher, P; Breuhahn, K; Groettrup, M

    2008-10-09

    The mRNA of the ubiquitin-like modifier FAT10 has been reported to be overexpressed in 90% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in over 80% of colon, ovary and uterus carcinomas. Elevated FAT10 expression in malignancies was attributed to transcriptional upregulation upon the loss of p53. Moreover, FAT10 induced chromosome instability in long-term in vitro culture, which led to the hypothesis that FAT10 might be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study we show that interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha synergistically upregulated FAT10 expression in liver and colon cancer cells 10- to 100-fold. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that FAT10 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in 37 of 51 (72%) of human HCC samples and in 8 of 15 (53%) of human colon carcinomas. The FAT10 cDNA sequences in HCC samples were not mutated and intact FAT10 protein was detectable. FAT10 expression in both cancer tissues correlated with expression of the IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent proteasome subunit LMP2 strongly suggesting that proinflammatory cytokines caused the joint overexpression of FAT10 and LMP2. NIH3T3 transformation assays revealed that FAT10 had no transforming capability. Taken together, FAT10 qualifies as a marker for an interferon response in HCC and colon carcinoma but is not significantly overexpressed in cancers lacking a proinflammatory environment.

  18. Hypothesis: Induction of biomarkers for detection of colonic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bordonaro, Michael; Lazarova, Darina

    2018-01-01

    The signing of the National Cancer Act of 1971 by President Nixon marked the beginning of our war on cancer. More than 45 years later, the war is still going steady, with the enemy being almost as strong as in 1971. Furthermore, the increasing rates of obesity not only among adults, but among children and adolescents, are the likely cause for the 30-year trend of colon cancer (CC) becoming a disease of the younger population in the U.S. These trends, however, have not spurred the development of novel screening approaches for CC. Considering the need for a sensitive and non-invasive detection of early stage neoplastic lesions in the colon, we propose the development of a test based on a novel concept - the concept of induced biomarkers. The proposal is based upon our findings that the food additives propolis and gamma-cyclodextrin (gCD) (a) decrease the neoplastic burden in normal weight and obese ApcMin mice, a model of early stage intestinal neoplasia, and (b) elicit significant changes in the serum proteome in ApcMin mice. We posit that gCD and propolis induce the release of neoplasm-associated biomarkers in systemic circulation (e.g., metabolites, neoplastic, apoptotic, and immune response proteins), and these markers could be used to detect early stage intestinal neoplasms. Additional dietary bioactives may also elicit a complement of induced markers. The hypothesis could be ascertained by utilizing a mouse model, the Apc+/1638Nmice, as well as through human subject studies that integrate proteomics and metabolomics analyses. The concept of detecting inducible markers of colonic neoplasms is novel, and is substantiated by the significant physiological effects of gCD and propolis on neoplastic colonic cells in culture and on early neoplastic development in ApcMinmice. The long-term objective is to develop a minimally invasive method that detects early stage neoplastic development in the human colon. PMID:29290782

  19. Inhibition of autophagy prevents cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Deeksha; Suman, Suman; Kolluru, Venkatesh; Sears, Sophia; Das, Trinath P; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K; Freedman, Jonathan H; Damodaran, Chendil

    2017-06-27

    Cadmium, an established carcinogen, is a risk factor for prostate cancer. Induction of autophagy is a prerequisite for cadmium-induced transformation and metastasis. The ability of Psoralidin (Pso), a non-toxic, orally bioavailable compound to inhibit cadmium-induced autophagy to prevent prostate cancer was investigated. Psoralidin was studied using cadmium-transformed prostate epithelial cells (CTPE), which exhibit high proliferative, invasive and colony forming abilities. Gene and protein expression were evaluated by qPCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Xenograft models were used to study the chemopreventive effects in vivo. Cadmium-transformed prostate epithelial cells were treated with Pso resulting in growth inhibition, without causing toxicity to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). Psoralidin-treatment of CTPE cells inhibited the expression of Placenta Specific 8, a lysosomal protein essential for autophagosome and autolysosome fusion, which resulted in growth inhibition. Additionally, Pso treatment caused decreased expression of pro-survival signalling proteins, NFκB and Bcl2, and increased expression of apoptotic genes. In vivo, Pso effectively suppressed CTPE xenografts growth, without any observable toxicity. Tumours from Pso-treated animals showed decreased autophagic morphology, mesenchymal markers expression and increased epithelial protein expression. These results confirm that inhibition of autophagy by Pso plays an important role in the chemoprevention of cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

  20. Liver carcinogenesis by FOS-dependent inflammation and cholesterol dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bakiri, Latifa; Hamacher, Rainer; Graña, Osvaldo; Guío-Carrión, Ana; Martinez, Lola; Dienes, Hans P.; Thomsen, Martin K.; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C.

    2017-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which arise on a background of chronic liver damage and inflammation, express c-Fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor. Using mouse models, we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of c-Fos protects against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCCs, whereas liver-specific c-Fos expression leads to reversible premalignant hepatocyte transformation and enhanced DEN-carcinogenesis. c-Fos–expressing livers display necrotic foci, immune cell infiltration, and altered hepatocyte morphology. Furthermore, increased proliferation, dedifferentiation, activation of the DNA damage response, and gene signatures of aggressive HCCs are observed. Mechanistically, c-Fos decreases expression and activity of the nuclear receptor LXRα, leading to increased hepatic cholesterol and accumulation of toxic oxysterols and bile acids. The phenotypic consequences of c-Fos expression are partially ameliorated by the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac and largely prevented by statin treatment. An inverse correlation between c-FOS and the LXRα pathway was also observed in human HCC cell lines and datasets. These findings provide a novel link between chronic inflammation and metabolic pathways important in liver cancer. PMID:28356389