Ang, Darwin N; Rivara, Frederick P; Nathens, Avery; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Maier, Ronald V; Wang, Jin; MacKenzie, Ellen J
Background To examine the association between patient complications and admission to level 1 trauma centers (TC) compared to non-trauma centers (NTC). Study Design A retrospective cohort study of data derived from the National Study on the Costs and Outcomes of Trauma (NSCOT). Patients were recruited from 18 level 1 TC and 51 NTC in 15 regions encompassing 14 states. Trained study nurses, using standardized forms, abstracted the medical records of the patients. The overall number of complications per patient was identified as well as the presence or absence of 13 specific complications. Results Patients treated in TC were more likely to have any complication compared to NTC with an adjusted relative risk (RR) of 1.34 (95% CI 1.03, 1.74). For individual complications, only urinary tract infection RR 1.94 (95% CI 1.07, 3.17) was significantly higher in TC. TC patients were more likely to have three or more complications, RR 1.83 (95% CI 1.16, 2.90). Treatment variables that are surrogates for markers of injury severity, such as use of pulmonary artery catheters, multiple operations, massive transfusions (> 2,500mL packed red blood cells), and invasive brain catheters, occurred significantly more often in TC. Conclusions Trauma centers have a slightly higher incidence rate of complications even after adjusting for patient case mix. Aggressive treatment may account for a significant portion of TC-associated complications. PA catheter use and intubation had the most influence on overall TC complication rates. Further study is needed to provide accurate benchmark measures of complication rates and to determine their causes. PMID:19854399
Komeda, Yoriaki; Bruno, Marco; Koch, Arjun
Background and study aims In recent years, it has been reported that early Barrett’s and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) neoplasia can be effectively and safely treated using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Multiband mucosectomy (MBM) appears to be the safest EMR method. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the safety and efficacy of MBM compared with ESD for the treatment of early neoplasia in Barrett’s or at the EGJ. Methods A literature review of studies published up to May 2013 on EMR and ESD for early Barrett’s esophagus (BE) neoplasia and adenocarcinoma at the EGJ was performed through MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Results on outcome parameters such as number of curative resections, complications and procedure times are compared and reported. Results A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis in this study. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates when comparing EMR (10/380, 2.6 %) to ESD (1/333, 0.7 %) (OR 8.55; 95 %CI, 0.91 – 80.0, P = 0.06). All recurrences after EMR were treated with additional endoscopic resection. The risks of delayed bleeding, perforation and stricture rates in both groups were similar. The procedure was considerably less time-consuming in the EMR group (mean time 36.7 min, 95 %CI, 34.5 – 38.9) than in the ESD group (mean time 83.3 min, 95 %CI, 57.4 – 109.2). Conclusions The MBM technique for EMR is as effective as ESD when comparing outcomes related to recurrence and complication rates for the treatment of early Barrett’s or EGJ neoplasia. The MBM technique is considerably less time-consuming. PMID:26135261
Camkiran Firat, A; Komurcu, O; Zeyneloglu, P; Turker, M; Sezgin, A; Pirat, A
The aim of this study was to determine the types, incidence, and risk factors for early postoperative pulmonary complications in heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively collected data from the records of consecutive heart transplantations from January 2003 to December 2013. A total of 83 patients underwent heart transplantation. The data collected for each case were demographic features, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory problems that developed during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and early postoperative mortality (<30 d). Of the 72 patients considered, 52 (72.2%) were male. The overall mean age at the time of transplantation was 32.1 ± 16.6 years. Twenty-five patients (34.7%) developed early postoperative respiratory complications. The most frequent problem was pleural effusion (n = 19; 26.4%), followed by atelectasis (n = 6; 8.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 5; 6.9%), pulmonary edema (n = 4; 5.6%), and pneumonia (n = 3; 4.2%). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (44.2 ± 59.2 h vs 123.8 ± 190.8 h; P = .005) and the length of postoperative ICU stay (10.1 ± 5.8 h vs 19.8 ± 28.9 h; P = .03) were longer among patients who had respiratory problems. Postoperative length of stay in the hospital (22.3 ± 12.5 d vs 30.3 ± 38.3 d; P = .75) was similar in the 2 groups. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 9). The patients who had respiratory problems did not show higher mortality than those who did not have respiratory problems (16.0% vs 10.6%; P = .71). Respiratory complications were relatively common in our cohort of heart transplant recipients. However, these complications were mostly self-limiting and did not result in worse mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radulović, Slobodan; Milenković-Petronić, Dragica; Vuksanović, Aleksandar; Vavić, Bozo
Localization of ureteric stones and difference in disintegration success are the most important factors in determining the first treatment approach for ureteric stones. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference in complication rate between different ureteric stone litho-tripsy modalities. Two hundred sixty patients with ureteric stones were analyzed in a prospective bicentric study that lasted 1 year.The patients were divided into two groups: 1-120 patients who underwent ESWL (extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy) treatment and II-140 patients who were treated endoscopically with ballistic lithotripsy. RESULTS Ureteroscopic lithotripsy of all pelvic and iliac stones was significantly more successful comparing to ESWL, while lumbar ureteric stone treatment with ureteroscopic lithotripsy was not significantly more successful than ESWL, except for lumbar stones larger than 100mm2 that were significantly better treated endoscopically. In the I group complications after lithotripsy were recorded in 64 (59.3%) and in the II group in 58 (42.0%) patients, meaning that complications were statistically significantly more frequent in the I than in the II group. In the II group complications were significantly more often recorded after treatment of proximal comparing to ureteric stones of other localizations, while in the I group complica-tions were significantly more often detected after treatment of impacted stones than in the II group. Being significantly successful comparing to ESWL, ureteric stone treatment with ureteroscopic lithotripsy should be considered as the first therapeutic option for all, especially impacted stones located in the iliac and pelvic ureteric portion. In spite of absent statistical difference in the success rate, ESWL should be chosen as the first treatment option in all cases of lumbar ureteric stones due to lower complication rate except for stones larger than 100mm2that should be primarily treated endoscopically.
Beaghler, Marc A.; Stewart, Steven C.; Ruckle, Herbert C.; Poon, Michael W.
The purpose of this study is to report early complications in our initial experience with the holmium laser in 133 patients. A retrospective study of patients undergoing endourological procedures with the holmium laser was performed. Complications included urinary tract infection (3), post-operative bradycardia (1), inverted T-waves (1), intractable flank pain (1), urinary retention (1), inability to access a lower pole calyx with a 365 micron fiber (9), stone migration (5), termination of procedure due to poor visualization (2). No ureteral perforations or strictures occurred. The holmium laser was capable of fragmenting all urinary calculi in this study. In our initial experience, the holmium laser is safe and effective in the treatment of genitourinary pathology. Use of laser fibers larger than 200 microns occasionally limit deflection into a lower pole or dependent calyx.
Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan
Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.
Nowaczyk, M J; Clarke, J T; Morin, J D
We report three cases of Hurler's disease in which glaucoma developed in early childhood. We draw attention to the fact that glaucoma may be a commonly unrecognised early complication of this condition. PMID:3140740
STOLL, Aluisio; ROSIN, Leandro; DIAS, Mariana Fernandes; MARQUIOTTI, Bruna; GUGELMIN, Giovana; STOLL, Gabriela Fanezzi
ABSTRACT Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is one of the most common bariatric surgery and leads to considerable weight loss in the first months. Aim: To quantify the main early postoperative complications in patients submitted to the gastric bypass. Method: Observational retrospective cohort. Data of 1051 patients with class II obesity associated with comorbidities or class III obesity submitted to the gastric bypass with 30 days of follow-up starting from the date of the surgery. Results: The age average was 36 years with a predominance of females (81.1%). The mean preoperative body mass index was 43 kg/m². The major complication was fistula (2.3%), followed by intestinal obstruction (0.5%) and pulmonary embolism (0.5%). Death occurred in 0.6% of the cases. Conclusion: In the period of 30 days after surgery the overall complication rate was 3.8%; reoperation was necessary in 2.6% and death occurred in 0.6%. Fistula was the main complication and the leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit, reoperation and death. PMID:27683781
Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu e Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope
Objective: To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. Method: There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Results: Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. Conclusion: The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage. PMID:27077063
Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu E Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope
To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage.
Iqbal, Yasir; Zia, Sohail; Baig Mirza, Aneeq Ullah
To determine the intraoperative and early postoperative complications of manual sutureless cataract extraction. Case series. Redo Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2010. Three hundred patients of cataract through purposive non-probability sampling were selected. The patients underwent manual sutureless cataract surgery (MSCS) by single experienced surgeon and intraoperative complications were documented. The surgical technique was modified to deal with any intraoperative complications accordingly. Patients were examined on the first postoperative day and on the first postoperative week for any postoperative complications. The data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and the results were calculated in frequencies. Among the 300 cases, 81.3% surgeries went uneventful whereas 18.6% had some complication. The common intraoperative complications were superior button-hole formation in 5%; posterior capsular rent in 5% and premature entry with iris prolapse in 3% cases. Postoperatively, the commonly encountered complications were striate keratopathy in 9.6% and hyphema 9%. At first week follow-up, 4% had striate keratopathy and 0.6% had hyphema. Striate keratopathy resolved with topical medication on subsequent follow-up. A total of 9 cases (3%) underwent second surgery: 2 cases for lens matter wash, 2 cases for hyphema and 5 cases needed suturing of wound for shallow anterior chamber due to wound leak. Superior button-hole formation, posterior capsular rent and premature entry were the common intraoperative complications of MSCS whereas the common early postoperative complications were striate keratopathy and hyphema.
Raposio, Edoardo; Caruana, Giorgia; Santi, Pierluigi; Cafiero, Ferdinando
The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship between lunar cycles and haemorrhagic complication rate in surgery. The possible relationship between moon phases and surgical outcome was tested by evaluating the haemorrhagic complication rate for 18,760 patients who underwent surgery between January 2001 and December 2008 at the National Institute for Cancer Research in Genoa. A total of 103 lunar phases were considered using Chi-square (χ 2 ) test analysis, and patients were allocated a surgery date. One hundred and sixty-seven haemorrhagic complications were observed. Three hundred and nine new moon phase days were analysed and 12 incidences of complications detected, with a 3.9% complication rate per day. In the waxing moon phase, 1184.5 d were analysed with 68 incidences of complications at a daily rate of 5.7%. In the full moon phase there was a 4.9% complication rate per day (15 incidences in 309 d), whereas in the waning moon phase, the 6% percentage rate per day resulted from 72 incidences in 1184.5 d. No statistically significant correlations were found between moon cycles and postoperative haemorrhagic complications (p = .50).
Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Machała, Waldemar; Kuśmierczyk, Krzysztof; Miłoński, Jarosław; Wiśniewski, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Joanna; Olszewski, Jurek
The aim of the work was to assess early complications of Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy in the own material. The study covered 155 patients aged 17-88, including 36 women and 119 men. The patients were treated at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy between 2006-2010. They underwent Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy by a laryngologist or a trained anaesthesiologist. Each surgical procedure was conducted with the use of Portex Blue Line Ultra Percutaneous Tracheotomy Kit (Smiths Medical Co., USA), the trachea was intubated while the patient was under general anaesthesia with propofol, fentanyl and relaxation with atracurium. The studied material revealed Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy complications in 26 patients (16.8%), in which 11 patients (7.1%) presented complications within the perioperative period while 15 patients (9.7%) reported early complications. Haemorrhage, usually not very profuse, occurred 7 times (4.6%), mainly in tracheopunction, and was the most often perioperative complication. Moreover, in the perioperative period, 3 patients (1.9%) had trachea identifications difficulties, which required tracheopunction many a time, and 1 patient (0.65%) encountered sudden circulatory arrest with asystolia and effective CPR. In the early postoperative period after Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy, the most common complication was haemorrhage in the operative twenty-four hours, which was noted in 10 patients (6.5%). Among other adverse complications were found: infection of the tissues near the tracheostomal region in 3 patients (1.9%), subcutaneous oedema in 1 patient (0.65%), accidental removing the tube from an unformed tracheostoma in 1 patient (0.65%). In the studied material, complications after Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy amounted to 16.8%, of which 7.1% occurred in the perioperative period while 9.7% were early complications, mainly light bleeding. This may prove good preparation of the surgical team for the surgical procedures
humidity and temperature , reduced barometric pressure and oxygen levels, increased vibration, trapped gas expansion, and serious n oise, not to...correlated to PFC and PFC-100 rates. This finding suggests that aggressive prescribing of CARs may have a salutary effect on postflight complication...suggests that aggressive prescribing of CARs may have a salutary effect on postflight complication rates and bears further investigation. KEYWORDS: cabin
Bendavid, Eran; Kaganova, Yevgenia; Needleman, Jack; Gruenberg, Leonard; Weissman, Joel S
Recent studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that patient safety may be compromised on weekends. Our objective was to determine whether rates of complications in hospitals are higher on weekends than on weekdays. We examined records from 4,967,114 admissions to acute care hospitals in 3 states and analyzed complication rates using the Patient Safety Indicators. We selected 8 indicators that could be assigned to a single day: complications of anesthesia, retained foreign bodies, postoperative hemorrhage, accidental cuts and lacerations during procedures, birth trauma, obstetric trauma during vaginal deliveries with and without instrumentation, and obstetric trauma during cesarean delivery. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing weekends versus weekdays were adjusted for demographics, type of admission, and admission route. In a subgroup analysis of surgical complications, we restricted the population to patients who underwent cardiac or vascular procedures. Four of the 8 complications occurred more frequently on weekends: postoperative hemorrhage (OR 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.14), newborn trauma (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 1.03-1.10), vaginal deliveries without instrumentation (OR 1.03, 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), and obstetric trauma during cesarean sections (OR 1.36, 95% CI, 1.29-1.44). Complications related to anesthesia occurred less frequently on weekends (OR 0.86). Among patients undergoing vascular procedures, surgical complications occurred more frequently on weekends (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.16-1.85). Rates of complications are marginally higher on weekends than on weekdays for some surgical and newborn complications, but more significantly for obstetric trauma and for surgical complications involving patients undergoing vascular procedures. Hospitals should work toward increasing the robustness of safeguards on weekends.
Gabos, Peter G; Inan, Muharrem; Thacker, Mihir; Borkhu, Buttugs
Retrospective case-control study. To examine the postoperative complications of posterior spinal fusion in a population of patients with Rett syndrome (RS). Scoliosis is a common feature of RS, a progressive neurologic disorder affecting almost exclusively females. Despite this, there is little published information regarding the surgical treatment of scoliosis in this disorder. Sixteen consecutive female patients with RS treated by posterior spinal fusion and unit rod instrumentation for progressive scoliosis between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated. Only patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were included. Preoperative medical conditions and postoperative complications were recorded. As a control group, we randomly selected 32 spastic quadriplegic patients who underwent the identical procedure during the same time period, selected from our database and matched according to age, level of neurologic impairment, and medical complexity. There was a high rate of early medical complications in the RS patients, with 28 major and 37 minor complications. Only 1 patient did not have a major medical complication, and every patient had at least 1 minor gastrointestinal and/or respiratory complication. Major respiratory complications occurred in 10 patients (63%) and comprised 61% of all major complications. Major gastrointestinal complications occurred in 6 patients (37%) and comprised 21% of all major complications. Other major complications included disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (1 patient), subacute bacterial endocarditis (1 patient), sacral decubiti requiring surgical debridement (2 patients), and extensive bilateral heterotopic ossification of the hips (1 patient). There were no cases of instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, deep infection, or need for rod revision. Postoperative complication scores were similar to those in patients with spastic quadriplegic pattern cerebral palsy. Spinal fusion for scoliosis in RS can give a satisfactory technical result
Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ramirez, J Roberto; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye
Among aesthetic surgery procedures, abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate, but previous studies are limited by small sample sizes or single-institution experience. A cohort of patients who underwent abdominoplasty between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Major complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed evaluating risk factors, including age, smoking, body mass index, sex, diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures. The authors identified 25,478 abdominoplasties from 183,914 procedures in the database. Of these, 8,975 patients had abdominoplasty alone and 16,503 underwent additional procedures. The number of complications recorded was 1,012 (4.0 percent overall rate versus 1.4 percent in other aesthetic surgery procedures). Of these, 31.5 percent were hematomas, 27.2 percent were infections and 20.2 percent were suspected or confirmed venous thromboembolism. On multivariate analysis, significant risk factors (p < 0.05) included male sex (relative risk, 1.8), age 55 years or older (1.4), body mass index greater than or equal to 30 (1.3), multiple procedures (1.5), and procedure performance in a hospital or surgical center versus office-based surgical suite (1.6). Combined procedures increased the risk of complication (abdominoplasty alone, 3.1 percent; with liposuction, 3.8 percent; breast procedure, 4.3 percent; liposuction and breast procedure, 4.6 percent; body-contouring procedure, 6.8 percent; liposuction and body-contouring procedure, 10.4 percent). Abdominoplasty is associated with a higher complication rate compared with other aesthetic procedures. Combined procedures can significantly increase complication rates and should be considered carefully in higher risk patients. Risk, II.
Oranusi, C K; Nwofor, Ame; Oranusi, I O
Traditional open prostatectomies either transvesical or retropubic remains the reference standard for managing benign prostatic enlargement in some centers, especially in developing countries. The comparison of complication rates between the various types of open prostatectomies is usually a source of significant debate among urologists, most times with conflicting results. The Clavien-Dindo classification system is an excellent attempt at standardization of reporting complications associated with surgeries. We reviewed retrospectively the records of patients who had open transvesical prostatectomy (TVP) in three specialist urology centers in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria, over a period of 5 years (January 2004-December 2009), with the aim of documenting medical and surgical complications arising from open TVP. These complications were then categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo system. A total of 362 patients had open TVP over the period under review. Of this number, 145 had documented evidence of complications. The mean age of the patients was 66.3 years (SD 9.4 years; range 49-96 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.8 months (SD 12.6 months; range 6-33 months). The overall complication rate for open TVP in this study was 40.1% (145/362). Complication rates for grades i, id, ii, iiia, and iiib were 0.8%, 0.6%, 35.1%, 0.6%, and 3.0%, respectively. Most complications of open TVP occur in the early postoperative period. Open TVP still remains a valid surgical option in contemporary environment where advanced techniques for transurethral resection of the prostate and laparoscopic prostatectomy are unavailable. Most complications occur in the early postoperative period, with bleeding requiring several units of blood transfusion accounting for the commonest complication. This should be explained to patients during the preoperative counselling.
Liu, Liyan; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S.
Purpose Among long-term (≥5 years) colorectal cancer survivors with permanent ostomy or anastomosis, we compared the incidence of medical and surgical complications and examined the relationship of complications with health-related quality of life. Background The incidence and effects of complications on long-term health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors are not adequately understood. Methods Participants (284 ostomy/395 anastomosis) were long-term colorectal cancer survivors enrolled in an integrated health plan. Health-related quality of life was assessed via mailed survey questionnaire in 2002–2005. Information on colorectal cancer, surgery, co-morbidities, and complications was obtained from computerized data and analyzed using survival analysis and logistic regression. Results Ostomy and anastomosis survivors were followed an average 12.1 and 11.2 years, respectively. Within 30 days of surgery, 19% of ostomy and 10% of anastomosis survivors experienced complications (p<0.01). From 31 days on, the percentages were 69% and 67% (after adjustment, p<0.001). Bleeding and post-operative infection were common early complications. Common long-term complications included hernia, urinary retention, hemorrhage, skin conditions, and intestinal obstruction. Ostomy was associated with long-term fistula (odds ratio 5.4; 95% CI 1.4–21.2), and among ostomy survivors, fistula was associated with reduced health-related quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusions Complication rates remain high despite recent advances in surgical treatment methods. Survivors with ostomy have more complications early in their survivorship period, but complications among anastomosis survivors catch up after 20 years, when the two groups have convergent complication rates. Among colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy, fistula has especially important implications for health-related quality of life. PMID:20087096
Liu, Liyan; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S
Among long-term (>or=5 y) colorectal cancer survivors with permanent ostomy or anastomosis, we compared the incidence of medical and surgical complications and examined the relationship of complications with health-related quality of life. The incidence and effects of complications on long-term health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors are not adequately understood. Participants (284 survivors with ostomies and 395 survivors with anastomoses) were long-term colorectal cancer survivors enrolled in an integrated health plan. Health-related quality of life was assessed via mailed survey questionnaires from 2002 to 2005. Information on colorectal cancer, surgery, comorbidities, and complications was obtained from computerized data and analyzed by use of survival analysis and logistic regression. Ostomy and anastomosis survivors were followed up for an average of 12.1 and 11.2 years, respectively. Within 30 days of surgery, 19% of ostomy survivors and 10% of anastomosis survivors experienced complications (P < .01). From 31 days on, the percentages were 69% and 67% (after adjustment, P < .001). Bleeding and postoperative infection were common early complications. Common long-term complications included hernia, urinary retention, hemorrhage, skin conditions, and intestinal obstruction. Ostomy was associated with long-term fistula (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI 1.4-21.2), and among ostomy survivors, fistula was associated with reduced health-related quality of life (P < .05). Complication rates remain high despite recent advances in methods of surgical treatment. Survivors with ostomy have more complications early in their survivorship period, but complications among anastomosis survivors catch up after 20 years, when the 2 groups have convergent complication rates. Among colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy, fistula has especially important implications for health-related quality of life.
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff
Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth complications predispose to externalizing behavior is not well explored. This study aims to assess whether birth complications predispose to early adolescent externalizing behavior and to test whether Intelligence Quotient (IQ) mediates relationships between predictor and outcome variables. We used data from a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort of 1,795 3-year-old boys and girls from Mauritius to test hypotheses. Birth complications were assessed from hospital record data, malnutrition from a pediatric exam at age 3 years, psychosocial adversity from parental interviews at age 3 years, and externalizing behavior problems from parental ratings at age 11 years. We found that babies with birth complications are more likely to develop externalizing behavior problems at age 11. Low IQ was associated with birth complications and was found to mediate the link between early predictors and later externalizing behavior. These prospective, longitudinal findings have potential clinical implications for the identification of early adolescent externalizing behavior and for public health attempts to prevent the occurrence of child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:22485069
Niimura, Manabu; Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto
Early surgical education is required for neurosurgical residents to learn many surgical procedures. However, the participation of less experienced residents may increase perioperative complication rates. Perioperative complication studies in the field of neurosurgery are being increasingly published; however, studies have not yet focused on cervical laminoplasty. The study population included 193 consecutive patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty in Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Patient and surgeon background factors, as well as perioperative complication rates were retrospectively compared between resident and board-certified spine neurosurgeon groups. Deteriorated or newly developed neurological deficits and surgical site complications within 30days of cervical laminoplasty were defined as perioperative complications. Out of 193 patients, 123 (64%) were operated on by residents as the first operator and 70 (36%) by board-certified spine neurosurgeons. No significant differences were observed in patient and surgeon factors between the two groups, except for hyperlipidemia (13 vs 17, p=0.02). Furthermore, no significant differences were noted in perioperative complication rates between the two groups (7 [5.7%] vs 4 [5.7%], p=1). Cervical laminoplasty performed in a standardized manner by residents who received their surgical training in our hospital did not increase perioperative complication rates, and ensured the safety of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Goodall, Deborah
Background Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40–45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature. In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see – observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Materials and methods Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. Results The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated. Long-term rates of
Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Goodall, Deborah
Spinal fusion surgery is currently recommended when curve magnitude exceeds 40-45 degrees. Early attempts at spinal fusion surgery which were aimed to leave the patients with a mild residual deformity, failed to meet such expectations. These aims have since been revised to the more modest goals of preventing progression, restoring 'acceptability' of the clinical deformity and reducing curvature.In view of the fact that there is no evidence that health related signs and symptoms of scoliosis can be altered by spinal fusion in the long-term, a clear medical indication for this treatment cannot be derived. Knowledge concerning the rate of complications of scoliosis surgery may enable us to establish a cost/benefit relation of this intervention and to improve the standard of the information and advice given to patients. It is also hoped that this study will help to answer questions in relation to the limiting choice between the risks of surgery and the "wait and see - observation only until surgery might be recommended", strategy widely used. The purpose of this review is to present the actual data available on the rate of complications in scoliosis surgery. Search strategy for identification of studies; Pub Med and the SOSORT scoliosis library, limited to English language and bibliographies of all reviewed articles. The search strategy included the terms; 'scoliosis'; 'rate of complications'; 'spine surgery'; 'scoliosis surgery'; 'spondylodesis'; 'spinal instrumentation' and 'spine fusion'. The electronic search carried out on the 1st February 2008 with the key words "scoliosis", "surgery", "complications" revealed 2590 titles, which not necessarily attributed to our quest for the term "rate of complications". 287 titles were found when the term "rate of complications" was used as a key word. Rates of complication varied between 0 and 89% depending on the aetiology of the entity investigated. Long-term rates of complications have not yet been reported upon. Scoliosis
Birkmeyer, John D; Finks, Jonathan F; O'Reilly, Amanda; Oerline, Mary; Carlin, Arthur M; Nunn, Andre R; Dimick, Justin; Banerjee, Mousumi; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O
Clinical outcomes after many complex surgical procedures vary widely across hospitals and surgeons. Although it has been assumed that the proficiency of the operating surgeon is an important factor underlying such variation, empirical data are lacking on the relationships between technical skill and postoperative outcomes. We conducted a study involving 20 bariatric surgeons in Michigan who participated in a statewide collaborative improvement program. Each surgeon submitted a single representative videotape of himself or herself performing a laparoscopic gastric bypass. Each videotape was rated in various domains of technical skill on a scale of 1 to 5 (with higher scores indicating more advanced skill) by at least 10 peer surgeons who were unaware of the identity of the operating surgeon. We then assessed relationships between these skill ratings and risk-adjusted complication rates, using data from a prospective, externally audited, clinical-outcomes registry involving 10,343 patients. Mean summary ratings of technical skill ranged from 2.6 to 4.8 across the 20 surgeons. The bottom quartile of surgical skill, as compared with the top quartile, was associated with higher complication rates (14.5% vs. 5.2%, P<0.001) and higher mortality (0.26% vs. 0.05%, P=0.01). The lowest quartile of skill was also associated with longer operations (137 minutes vs. 98 minutes, P<0.001) and higher rates of reoperation (3.4% vs. 1.6%, P=0.01) and readmission (6.3% vs. 2.7%) (P<0.001). The technical skill of practicing bariatric surgeons varied widely, and greater skill was associated with fewer postoperative complications and lower rates of reoperation, readmission, and visits to the emergency department. Although these findings are preliminary, they suggest that peer rating of operative skill may be an effective strategy for assessing a surgeon's proficiency.
Schmitges, Jan; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Abdollah, Firas; Sun, Maxine; Bianchi, Marco; Budäus, Lars; Zorn, Kevin; Perotte, Paul; Schlomm, Thorsten; Haese, Alexander; Montorsi, Francesco; Menon, Mani; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I
Existing population-based reports on complication rates after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) did not address temporal trends. To examine contemporary temporal trends in perioperative MIRP outcomes. Between 2001 and 2007, 4387 patients undergoing MIRP were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. To examine the rates and trends of intraoperative and postoperative complications, transfusion rates, length of stay in excess of the median, and in-hospital mortality. We tested the effect of the late (2006-2007) versus the early (2001-2005) study period on all outcomes using multivariable logistic regression models controlled for clustering among hospitals. Intraoperative and postoperative complications decreased from 7.0% to 0.8% (p < 0.001) and from 28.5% to 8.7% (p < 0.001), respectively. Transfusion rates decreased from 3.5% to 2.1% (p = 0.3). Hospital length of stay >2 d decreased from 56% to 15% (p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, intraoperative (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; p = 0.002) and postoperative (OR: 0.65; p = 0.007) complications were less frequent in the late versus the early study period. Late study period patients were less likely to stay >2 d than early study period patients (OR: 0.34; p > 0.001). Limitations of these findings include the lack of adjustment for several patient variables including disease characteristics, surgeon variables including surgeon caseload, and the restriction to in-hospital events. Our analyses demonstrate that in-hospital complication rates and length of stay after MIRP decreased over time. This implies that temporal differences specific to complication rates after MIRP must be considered when comparisons are made with other radical prostatectomy techniques. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John B
Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.
Alloubi, Ihsan; Jougon, Jacques; Delcambre, Frédéric; Baste, Jean Marc; Velly, Jean François
The purpose of this study was to assess the mortality and risk factors of complications after pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Between 1996 and 2001, we reviewed and analysed the demographic, clinical, functional, and surgical variables of 168 patients to identify risk factors of postoperative complications by univariate and multivariate analyses with Medlog software system. The mean age was 60+/-10 years, overall mortality and morbidity rates were 4.17% and 41.6%, respectively. All frequencies of respiratory complications were 1.2% for acute respiratory failure, 10.1% for pneumonia, 2.4% for acute pulmonary oedema, 4.17% for bronchopleural fistula, 2.4% for thoracic empyema and 18.5% for left recurrent nerve injuries. Postoperative arrhythmias developed in 46% of our patients. The risk factors for cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality with univariate analysis were advanced age (P<0.01), preoperative poor performance status (P<0.015), and chronic artery disease (P<0.008). Factors adversely affecting morbidity with multivariate analysis included age (P=0.0001), associated cardiovascular disease (P=0.001), and altered forced expiratory volume in 1 s (P=0.0005). Complications after pneumonectomy are associated with high mortality. Careful attention must be paid to patients with advanced age and heart disease. Chest physiotherapy is paramount to have uneventful outcomes.
Haemovigilance is defined as the collection of information on complications of transfusion, the analysis of the data, and suggestions for improvement in the transfusion service. A national haemovigilance system is of value in identifying possible areas in need of improvement in the national transfusion system. Haemovigilance becomes even more important if the system is used to compare the situation in one country with the situation in other countries, e.g. if the countries differ significantly in products used. The current study focuses on immunological transfusion complications, especially TRALI, as published in haemovigilance reports from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK. In Norway immunological transfusion reactions occurred 96.7 times per 100 000 red cell (RBC) transfusion, 231.1 times per 100 000 thrombocyte (Trc) concentrate transfusion and five times per 100.000 transfusions of solvent detergent treated plasma (SD plasma). Denmark and the UK have similar rates of transfusion reactions to RBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but quite different for Trc (0.5 vs. 4.9 per 100 000). In 49% of reported TRALI the causative product is FFP, but no case of TRALI after SD plasma transfusion has been reported. When considering all reports for immunological complications in Norway, the most striking is the very small number of reports related to SD plasma. Comparing data from Denmark and the UK shows a big difference in reactions caused by thrombocyte concentrates that may reflect different production methods in the two countries. TRALI is most often caused by FFP, but has never been reported after SD plasma transfusion. Heamovigilance data can be valuable in choosing the safest products available.
Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul
Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.
Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129
Sing, David C; Ding, David Y; Aguilar, Thomas U; Luan, Tammy; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T; Zhang, Alan L
To report the prevalence of obesity in shoulder arthroscopy, determine a body mass index (BMI) threshold most predictive of complication within 30 days, and evaluate obesity as an independent risk factor for medical and surgical complications. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we reviewed all patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy during 2011 to 2013. Receiver operating characteristic and Youden coefficient were calculated to find an optimal BMI cutoff to predict complications within 30 days of surgery. A case-control matched analysis was then performed by stratifying patient BMI by this cutoff and matching patients one to one according to age, sex, type of shoulder arthroscopy, American Society of Anesthesiology rating, surgical setting, and 8 comorbidities. Operating time, complications, and readmissions were also compared. Of the 15,589 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy, 6,684 (43%) were classified as obese when using the optimal cutoff point of BMI = 30 according to the Youden coefficient. Obese patients had a higher risk of superficial site infection than nonobese patients (0.3% vs 0.0%; odds ratio [OR]: 6.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 26.8; P = .015). Obese patients did not have significantly increased risk for overall early postoperative complication (1.2% compared with nonobese 0.8%; OR: 1.54; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.4), readmissions (OR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.5), or increased operating time (P = .068). Up to 43% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy can be classified as obese, but early perioperative complications are uncommon. Higher patient BMI is associated with increased risk of superficial site infection but not an overall risk for complication, readmission, or increased operating time. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Jun-jie; Zhang, Zhi-wei; Qian, Ming-yang; Wang, Hui-shen; Li, Yu-fen
To evaluate the early complications during and after transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (PMVSDs) in children. A total of 223 patients received transcatheter closure of PMVSDs from March 2002 to December 2005 in our hospital were included in this retrospective study. The overall complications rate was 26.9% (60/223). Major complications occurred in 9 patients (4.0%) including III degrees atrioventricular block (AVB) in 2 (0.9%), hemolysis in 3 (1.3%) and surgical interventions in 4 patients (1.8%) because of device malposition (1), mild aortic regurgitation (2) and device embolization (1) and all 4 patients recovered without further complications. The 2 patients with III degrees AVB were completely recovered to normal sinus rhythm after 7 days treatment with temporary pacemaker and corticosteroid. Hemolysis in 3 patients disappeared after corticosteroid treatment. Minor complications occurred in 51 patients (22.8%) including bundle branch block (BBB) in 37 (16.6%), first-degree AVB in 2 (0.9%), second-degree AVB in 1 (0.4%), new-onset mild aortic regurgitation in 5 (2.2%) and new-onset mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in 6 patients (2.6%). Except for right bundle branch blocks, other BBBs were treated with albumin and corticosteroid and completely recovered. No treatment was applied for new-onset valve regurgitations. There was no death in all 223 patients. Early complications post PMVSDs in children are mostly minor with good prognosis and the prognosis for major complications post PMVSDs is good after proper treatment.
Fundament, Tomasz; Eldridge, Paul R; Green, Alexander L; Whone, Alan L; Taylor, Rod S; Williams, Adrian C; Schuepbach, W M Michael
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating illness associated with considerable impairment of quality of life and substantial costs to health care systems. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical treatment option for some patients with advanced PD. The EARLYSTIM trial has recently demonstrated its clinical benefit also in patients with early motor complications. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DBS, compared to best medical therapy (BMT), among PD patients with early onset of motor complications, from a United Kingdom (UK) payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to represent the progression of PD as rated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) over time in patients with early PD. Evidence sources were a systematic review of clinical evidence; data from the EARLYSTIM study; and a UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) dataset including DBS patients. A mapping algorithm was developed to generate utility values based on UPDRS data for each intervention. The cost-effectiveness was expressed as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to explore the effect of parameter uncertainty. Over a 15-year time horizon, DBS was predicted to lead to additional mean cost per patient of £26,799 compared with BMT (£73,077/patient versus £46,278/patient) and an additional mean 1.35 QALYs (6.69 QALYs versus 5.35 QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £19,887 per QALY gained with a 99% probability of DBS being cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were not significantly impacted by plausible changes in the input parameter values. These results indicate that DBS is a cost-effective intervention in PD patients with early motor complications when compared with existing interventions, offering additional health benefits at acceptable incremental cost
Yu, Melissa K; Freeman, Lisa M; Heinze, Cailin R; Parker, Valerie J; Linder, Deborah E
To compare complication rates between nasoesophageal (NE) and nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes in dogs. Retrospective study. University referral veterinary hospital. A total of 46 dogs that were fed through a NE (n = 28) or NG (n = 18) tube between January 2007 and December 2011 and that also had either thoracic radiography or computed tomography performed so that location of the distal tip of the tube in either the esophagus or stomach could be confirmed. None. The medical record of each eligible case was reviewed and data recorded included signalment, underlying disease, body weight, body condition score, medications, duration of feeding, diet used, and complications observed (ie, vomiting, regurgitation, diarrhea, early tube removal, clogged tube, epistaxis, pulmonary aspiration, hyperglycemia, and refeeding syndrome). Dogs with NE tubes were significantly younger than dogs with NG tubes (P = 0.03) but there were no other significant differences in signalment, underlying disease, medications, duration of anorexia, percent of resting energy requirement achieved, or change in weight during tube feeding. There also was no significant difference between the NE and NG groups for any of the recorded complications. Significantly fewer dogs in the NE group died or were euthanized (3/28) compared to the NG group (7/18; P = 0.02) but outcome was not associated with age, underlying disease, or any of the recorded tube complications. This study did not identify a difference in complication rate between NE and NG feeding tubes in dogs. Additional studies are required to determine the optimal terminal location of feeding tubes in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.
Shaparin, Naum; Widyn, James; Nair, Singh; Kho, Irene; Geller, David; Delphin, Ellise
There is evidence that very obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m(2)) undergoing hip replacement have longer average hospital stays, as well as higher rates of complications and readmission compared with patients with normal BMI. However, there are sparse data describing how overweight and obese patients fare in the period immediately after hip replacement surgery compared with patients with low or normal BMI. In this study, we sought to explore the association of BMI with the rate of early postoperative complications in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. A proprietary hospital software program, Clinical Looking Glass was used to query the Montefiore Medical Center database and create a list of patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 81.51 (hip replacement) from the period of January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. The medical records of patients with length of stay 5 or more days were reviewed to evaluate the reason for the extended stay. The primary outcome studied was the association between BMI and occurrence of early complications in patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association of BMI and early postoperative complications. Of the 802 patients undergoing hip replacement surgery within our time frame, 142 patient medical records were reviewed due to their length of stay of ≥5 days. Overall complication rate in the analyzed patients demonstrated a J-curve distribution pattern, with the highest morbidity being 23.5% in the underweight group, the second highest in the normal-weight group (17.3%), and decreasing to nadir in the overweight (8.0%) and obese class I (10.0%) and then higher again in classes II (14.3%) and III (16.7%). Adjusted ORs demonstrated the same J distribution pattern similar to the pattern observed in the univariate analysis. Of the variables studied
Sorabella, Robert A.; Han, Sang Myung; Grbic, Mark; Wu, Yeu Sanz; Takyama, Hiroo; Kurlansky, Paul; Borger, Michal A.; Argenziano, Michael; Gordon, Rachel; George, Isaac
Background Valve surgery for patients presenting with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by stroke is thought to carry elevated risk of postoperative complications. Our aim is to compare outcomes of IE patients who undergo surgery early after diagnosis of septic cerebral emboli with patients without preoperative emboli. Methods All patients undergoing surgery for left-sided IE between 1996–2013 at our institution were reviewed. Patients undergoing surgery > 14 days after embolic stroke diagnosis (n=11) and those with purely hemorrhagic lesions were excluded from analysis (n=7). In total, 308 were included in the study and stratified according to the presence (STR, n=54) or absence of a preoperative septic cerebral embolus (NoSTR, n=254). Primary outcomes of interest were development of new postoperative stroke and 30-day mortality. Results Mean time to surgical intervention from stroke onset was 6.0 ± 4.1 days. S. aureus (39% STR vs. 21% NoSTR, p = 0.004) and annular abscess at surgery (52% STR vs. 27% NoSTR, p < 0.001) were more prevalent in STR patients. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality (9.3% STR vs. 7.1% NoSTR, p = 0.57) or rate of new postoperative stroke [5 (9.4%) STR vs. 12 (4.7%) NoSTR, p = 0.19] between groups. Additionally, there was no difference in 10-year survival between groups (log rank p = 0.74). Conclusions Early surgical intervention in patients with IE complicated by preoperative septic cerebral emboli does not lead to significantly worse postoperative outcomes. Early surgery for IE following embolic stroke warrants consideration, particularly in patients with high-risk features such as S. aureus and/or annular abscess. PMID:26116483
Hanemann, Michael S; Grotting, James C
To assess the relationships between body mass index, smoking, and diabetes and postoperative complications after cosmetic breast surgery, based on patient claims made to CosmetAssure, a program which provides coverage for treatment of significant complications, which might not be reimbursed by patients' health insurance carriers. Complication rates of cosmetic breast operations were reviewed from 13,475 consecutive patients between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009. Correlations between complication rates and risk factors of body mass index > or =30, smoking, and diabetes were analyzed. Because this insurance program reimburses patients for costs associated with the treatment of postsurgical complications, physicians are incentivized to report significant complications. A "significant" complication is defined as a postsurgical problem, occurring within 30 days of the procedure that requires admission to a hospital, emergency room, or surgery center. Minor complications that were treated in the outpatient setting are not included, as their treatment did not generate an insurance claim. According to patient claims data between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009, the overall complication rate for cosmetic breast surgery was 1.8%. Obese patients (body mass index > or = 30) undergoing breast augmentation and augmentation mastopexy demonstrated higher complication rates than nonobese patients. Patients with diabetes undergoing augmentation mastopexy experienced higher complication rates than nondiabetics. Data collection is ongoing, and as the number of cases increases (approximately 1300 new cosmetic breast surgeries per month), multiple other trends in this study will likely achieve statistical significance. Analysis of CosmetAssure data can accurately and objectively track the rate of significant postoperative complications secondary to cosmetic surgical procedures. As the number of risk factors increase, the risk of complications increases. Cosmetic breast surgery is
Bücher, Katharina; Neumann, Claudia; Thiering, Elisabeth; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the current guidelines of the International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) for emergency care of traumatised teeth result in lower complication rates. Therapeutic strategies of 361 dental injuries in 291 patients treated at a university dental hospital over a 5-year period were investigated by evaluating the patients' records. Adherence to the guidelines of the IADT (Flores et al. Dent Traumatol 17:1-4, 2001; 49-52, 2001; 97-102, 2001; 145-148, 2001; and 193-196, 2001; Flores et al. Dent Traumatol 23:66-71, 2007; 130-136, 2007; and 196-202, 2007) was evaluated. Complications were also recorded according to the patients' records and analysed relative to the treatment and injury pattern. During follow-up visits, the teeth were inspected regarding pulp vitality and overall function of the injured tooth. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of pulps and teeth was performed for different injury categories. The majority of injuries (322/361; 89.2 %) were treated according to the guidelines. When IADT guidelines were followed, complication rates were significantly lower than for cases treated without adherence to the guidelines. The most frequent complication was the loss of restoration, followed by pulp necrosis, abnormal mobility, and tooth loss. The overall survival analysis showed that in the permanent dentition, the loss of pulp vitality and tooth occurs within the first 6 months but may also occur later. The results of this study indicate that traumatised teeth that were treated according to the recommendations had a lower complication rate. In addition, the majority of pulp necrosis and tooth losses in the permanent dentition occurred within the first 6 months after trauma. These results indicate that early follow-up visits are essential to promptly treat complications. Adherence to the IADT guidelines for treatment of dental trauma may lead to more favourable outcomes when compared to cases treated
Adesiyun, Tolulope A.; Lee, Bernard T.; Yueh, Janet H.
Purpose: There are few long-term studies of how the sequencing of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) and breast reconstruction (BR) affects the time to development of complications or patient satisfaction with BR. We therefore studied this issue. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirteen women who underwent BR at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, MA) from 1999-2006 and also received PMRT were included. Complications requiring surgery were categorized as early (within 90 days of BR) or late. The median length of follow-up after BR was 46.5 months. Patients' general and esthetic satisfaction was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Complications occurred amongmore » 32% of 57 women receiving PMRT before BR and 44% of 57 patients having BR before PMRT (p = 0.176). Early complications were more frequent in patients who had PMRT first (18%) than for those with BR first (11%) (p = 0.210); conversely, late complication rates in the two groups were 14% and 33%, respectively (p = 0.009). General satisfaction was comparable between the PMRT-first and BR-first groups (68% and 68%, respectively; p = 0.995); esthetic satisfaction rates were also similar (50% and 62%, respectively; p = 0.238). Conclusions: The sequencing of PMRT and BR did not have a substantial impact on the total risk of complications or patients' general and esthetic satisfaction. However, early complications tended to develop in patients having PMRT first, whereas patients having BR first had a higher risk of late complications. Additional study of the effects of sequencing of PMRT on particular types of reconstructions may help devise strategies for reducing these risks.« less
Lomax, Adam; Singh, Anjani; N Jane, Madeley; C Senthil, Kumar
In this cohort study, we present comprehensive injury specific and surgical outcome data from one of the largest reported series of pilon fractures of the distal tibia treated in a UK tertiary referral centre. A series of 68 closed pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed from case notes, plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Patient demographics, injury and fracture patterns, methods and timing of fixation and clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed over a mean follow-up period of 7.7 months (1.5-30). Overall, deep infection occurred in 1.6% with superficial infection and wound breakdown occurring in 6.3% of cases. Rates of nonunion and malunion were 7.8%. Radiological posttraumatic arthritis was present in 26.6%, which was symptomatic and requiring orthopaedic management in 9.4%. Further surgery for all causes occurred in 26.6% of cases. Fixation of these complex fractures in subspecialist units can achieve overall low rates of wound complications, with definitive fixation of selected fractures within 48 h of initial presentation achieving comparable results to those fixed in a delayed fashion. However, this injury continues to have a significant overall complication rate with a high chance of developing early posttraumatic arthritis and of requiring further surgery. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Hua, X; Ying-Ying, C; Zu-Jun, F; Gang, X; Zu-Quan, X; Qiang, D; Hao-Wen, J
To investigate whether obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) would increase post-nephrectomy complication rates using standardized classification method. We retrospectively included 843 patients from March 2006 to November 2012, of whom 613 underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 229 had partial nephrectomy (PN). Modified Clavien classification system was applied to quantify complication severity of nephrectomy. Fisher's exact or chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between complication rates and obesity, hypertension, as well as DM. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and DM was 11.51%, 30.84%, 8.78%, respectively. The overall complication rate was 19.31%, 30.04%, 35.71% and 36.36% for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), open-RN, LPN and open-PN respectively. An increasing trend of low grade complication rate as BMI increased was observed in LRN (P=.027) and open-RN (P<.001). Obese patients had greater chance to have low grade complications in LRN (OR=4.471; 95% CI: 1.290-17.422; P=0.031) and open-RN (OR=2.448; 95% CI: 1.703-3.518; P<.001). Patients with hypertension were more likely to have low grade complications, especially grade ii complications in open-RN (OR=1.526; 95% CI: 1.055-2.206; P=.026) and open PN (OR=2.032; 95% CI: 1.199-3.443; P=.009). DM was also associated with higher grade i complication rate in open-RN (OR=2.490; 95% CI: 331-4.657; P=.016) and open-PN (OR=4.425; 95% CI: 1.815-10.791; P=.013). High grade complication rates were similar in comparison. Obesity, hypertension, and DM were closely associated with increased post-nephrectomy complication rates, mainly low grade complications. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Tara, Fatemeh; Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh; Moeindarbari, Somayeh
The occurrence of early abortion after amniocentesis is a serious problem in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and it is always important to discover the factors influencing this phenomenon. The incidence rate has been reported in different studies, even up to about 10%. So far, no studies have been conducted in Iran on the effect of amniocentesis and related complications on early abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniocentesis and relevant complications on the incidence of early abortion in pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. This cohort study was conducted between March 2014 and March 2016 on pregnant candidates for amniocentesis referred to the perinatology clinic at Ommol-Banin Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Amniocentesis was performed for all patients with about 20-30cc in the same manner by a perinatologist. Maternal blood group, causes of amniocentesis, amniotic fluid profile (liquid color), status of inserting the needle through the placenta during amniocentesis, amniotic fluid leakage, and bleeding after amniocentesis were considered as exposure factors, and spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis until the end of the 20th week of pregnancy was taken as a consequence. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 20 via t-test and chi-square. Relative risk (RR) was calculated to determine the causal relationship of exposure with the consequences of spontaneous abortion during the first week after amniocentesis. This study was performed on 1000 pregnant women with mean age of 33.4±6.0 years (minimum 16, maximum 48 years). The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis was obtained 1%. There was no association among causes of amniocentesis, maternal blood group, maternal underlying diseases, history of diseases associated with pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Based on the chi-square test, a significant statistical relationship was found between amniotic fluid leakage and spontaneous abortion (RR=15.37, p
Tara, Fatemeh; Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh; Moeindarbari, Somayeh
Introduction The occurrence of early abortion after amniocentesis is a serious problem in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and it is always important to discover the factors influencing this phenomenon. The incidence rate has been reported in different studies, even up to about 10%. So far, no studies have been conducted in Iran on the effect of amniocentesis and related complications on early abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniocentesis and relevant complications on the incidence of early abortion in pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. Methods This cohort study was conducted between March 2014 and March 2016 on pregnant candidates for amniocentesis referred to the perinatology clinic at Ommol-Banin Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Amniocentesis was performed for all patients with about 20–30cc in the same manner by a perinatologist. Maternal blood group, causes of amniocentesis, amniotic fluid profile (liquid color), status of inserting the needle through the placenta during amniocentesis, amniotic fluid leakage, and bleeding after amniocentesis were considered as exposure factors, and spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis until the end of the 20th week of pregnancy was taken as a consequence. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 20 via t-test and chi-square. Relative risk (RR) was calculated to determine the causal relationship of exposure with the consequences of spontaneous abortion during the first week after amniocentesis. Results This study was performed on 1000 pregnant women with mean age of 33.4±6.0 years (minimum 16, maximum 48 years). The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis was obtained 1%. There was no association among causes of amniocentesis, maternal blood group, maternal underlying diseases, history of diseases associated with pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Based on the chi-square test, a significant statistical relationship was found between amniotic fluid leakage and
Bjørslev, Naja; Ebskov, Lars; Lind, Marianne; Mersø, Camilla
The purpose of this study was to determine the quality and re-operation rate of the surgical treatment of ankle fractures at a large university hospital. X-rays and patient records of 137 patients surgically treated for ankle fractures were analyzed for: 1) correct classification according to Lauge-Hansen, 2) if congruity of the ankle joint was achieved, 3) selection and placement of the hardware, and 4) the surgeon's level of education. Totally 32 of 137 did not receive an optimal treatment, 11 were re-operated. There was no clear correlation between incorrect operation and the surgeon's level of education.
Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Klug, Didier; Beganton, Frankie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Gras, Daniel; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique; Bordachar, Pierre; Sadoul, Nicolas; Boveda, Serge; Piot, Olivier
The lifesaving benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has been demonstrated. Their use has increased considerably in the past decade, but related complications have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and effect on outcomes of early (≤30 days) complications after ICD implantation for primary prevention in a large French population. We analyzed data from 5539 patients from the multicenter French DAI-PP (Défibrillateur Automatique Implantable-Prévention Primaire) registry (2002-2012) who had coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy and were implanted with an ICD for primary prevention. Overall, early complications occurred in 707 patients (13.5%), mainly related to lead dislodgment or hematoma (57%). Independent factors associated with occurrence of early complications were severe renal impairment (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.37, P = .02), age ≥75 years (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, P = .03), cardiac resynchronization therapy (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.17, P = .01), and anticoagulant therapy (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, P = .03). During a mean ± SD follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.3 years, 824 (15.8%) patients experienced ≥1 late complication (>30 days), and 782 (14.9%) patients died. After adjustment, early complications remained associated with occurrence of late complications (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.73-2.66, P < .0001) and mortality (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.34-2.17, P = .003). Early complications are common after ICD implantation for primary prevention, occurring in 1 in 7 patients, and are associated with an increased risk of late complications and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of such associations. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Z; Wu, Q; Wang, F; Wu, K; Fan, D
Infliximab is widely used in severe and refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). The results of clinical studies are inconsistent on whether preoperative infliximab use increases early postoperative complications in UC patients. To determine the clinical safety and efficacy of preoperative infliximab treatment in UC patients with regard to short-term outcomes following abdominal surgery. PubMed, Embase databases were searched for controlled observational studies comparing postsurgical morbidity in UC patients receiving infliximab preoperatively with those not on infliximab. The primary endpoint was total complication rate. Secondary endpoints included the rate of infectious and non-infectious complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as summary measures. A total of 13 studies involving 2933 patients were included in our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between infliximab therapy preoperatively and total (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.37, P = 0.47), infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.51-2.38, P = 0.81) and non-infectious (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.76-1.59, P = 0.61) postoperative complications respectively. Infliximab might be a protective factor against infection for the use within 12 weeks prior to surgery (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.83, P = 0.01). No publication bias was found. Preoperative infliximab use does not increase the risk of early postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing abdominal surgery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gamez, Josep; Salvado, Maria; Martinez-de La Ossa, Alejandro; Deu, Maria; Romero, Laura; Roman, Antonio; Sacanell, Judith; Laborda, Cesar; Rochera, Isabel; Nadal, Miriam; Carmona, Francesc; Santamarina, Estevo; Raguer, Nuria; Canela, Merce; Solé, Joan
Neurological complications after lung transplantation are common. The full spectrum of neurological complications and their impact on clinical outcomes has not been extensively studied. We investigated the neurological incidence of complications, categorized according to whether they affected the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems, in a series of 109 patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center between January 1 2013 and December 31 2014. Fifty-one patients (46.8%) presented at least one neurological complication. Critical illness polyneuropathy-myopathy (31 cases) and phrenic nerve injury (26 cases) were the two most prevalent complications. These two neuromuscular complications lengthened hospital stays by a median period of 35.5 and 32.5 days respectively. However, neurological complications did not affect patients' survival. The real incidence of neurological complications among lung transplant recipients is probably underestimated. They usually appear in the first two months after surgery. Despite not affecting mortality, they do affect the mean length of hospital stay, and especially the time spent in the Intensive Care Unit. We found no risk factor for neurological complications except for long operating times, ischemic time and need for transfusion. It is necessary to develop programs for the prevention and early recognition of these complications, and the prevention of their precipitant and risk factors.
Salvado, Maria; Martinez-de La Ossa, Alejandro; Deu, Maria; Romero, Laura; Roman, Antonio; Sacanell, Judith; Laborda, Cesar; Rochera, Isabel; Nadal, Miriam; Carmona, Francesc; Santamarina, Estevo; Raguer, Nuria; Canela, Merce; Solé, Joan
Background Neurological complications after lung transplantation are common. The full spectrum of neurological complications and their impact on clinical outcomes has not been extensively studied. Methods We investigated the neurological incidence of complications, categorized according to whether they affected the central, peripheral or autonomic nervous systems, in a series of 109 patients undergoing lung transplantation at our center between January 1 2013 and December 31 2014. Results Fifty-one patients (46.8%) presented at least one neurological complication. Critical illness polyneuropathy-myopathy (31 cases) and phrenic nerve injury (26 cases) were the two most prevalent complications. These two neuromuscular complications lengthened hospital stays by a median period of 35.5 and 32.5 days respectively. However, neurological complications did not affect patients’ survival. Conclusions The real incidence of neurological complications among lung transplant recipients is probably underestimated. They usually appear in the first two months after surgery. Despite not affecting mortality, they do affect the mean length of hospital stay, and especially the time spent in the Intensive Care Unit. We found no risk factor for neurological complications except for long operating times, ischemic time and need for transfusion. It is necessary to develop programs for the prevention and early recognition of these complications, and the prevention of their precipitant and risk factors. PMID:28301586
Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R
To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.
Gülçelik, Mehmet Ali; Doğan, Lütfi; Karaman, Niyazi; Turan, Müjdat; Kahraman, Yavuz Selim; Akgül, Gökhan Giray; Özaslan, Cihangir
Background/aim: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) may pose a risk for wound complications. All technical aspects of IORT regarding early wound complications were evaluated. Materials and methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients operated on with the same surgical technique and given (study group) or not given (control group) IORT were included. Wound complications were evaluated in two groups. Results: Forty-three patients were treated with boost dose IORT and 50 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery without IORT. When both groups were compared in terms of early postoperative complications, there were 11 (25.5%) patients with seroma in the IORT group and 3 patients (6%) in the control group (P = 0.04). While 9 (21%) patients were seen to have surgical site infection (SSI) in the IORT group, there was 1 (2%) SSI in the control group (P = 0.005). There were 15 (35%) patients with delayed wound healing in the IORT group and 4 patients (8%) in the control group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: IORT could have a negative effect on seroma formation, SSI, and delayed healing. It should be kept in mind, however, that in centers with IORT implementation, the complication rate could also increase. Necessary measures for better sterilization in the operating room should be taken, while patient wound healing should be monitored closely.
Mangili, Giorgia; Giorgione, Veronica; Gentile, Cinzia; Bergamini, Alice; Pella, Francesca; Almirante, Giada; Candiani, Massimo
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate differences in clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole between women ≥40 years and younger women. Retrospective study. A tertiary referral unit in northern Italy. Three hundred and sixty-five women with hydatidiform mole were divided into group A (<40 years, 318 cases) and group B (≥40 years, 47 cases). Clinical presentation between groups A and B was analyzed, also considering partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole. Differences in clinical presentation according to woman's age. In group B the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole at ≥12 gestational weeks was more frequent (p < 0.001) and the detection of ultrasound features was higher (p < 0.05) than in group A. Vaginal bleeding (p < 0.05), increased uterine volume (p < 0.0001) and hyperemesis (p < 0.05) occurred more frequently in group B. In the women with complete hydatidiform mole, group B women presented with vaginal bleeding (p < 0.001), increased uterine volume (p < 0.05) and hyperemesis (p < 0.05) more frequently than group A women. Complete hydatidiform mole was more commonly diagnosed after 12 weeks of gestation in group B (p < 0.0001). In women ≥50 years, an increased rate of disease-related complications was detected. The clinical features of hydatidiform mole in women ≥40 years are different from those seen in younger women. Failures in the early detection of hydatidiform mole in older women may expose them to a higher rate of severe complications. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Matovinovic, Elizabeth
postoperative ileus were comparable between study groups (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.29, P = 0.14, 3 RCTs, 279 women, I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). When we considered the rates of nausea or vomiting or both, there was no evidence of a difference between the study groups (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.67, P = 0.90, 4 RCTs, 484 women, I² = 73%, moderate-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference between the study groups in abdominal distension (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.47, 2 RCTs, 301 women, I² = 0%) or a need for postoperative nasogastric tube placement (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.80, 1 RCT, 195 women).Early feeding was associated with shorter time to the presence of bowel sound (MD -0.32 days, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.03, P = 0.03, 2 RCTs, 338 women, I² = 52%, moderate-quality evidence) and faster onset of flatus (MD -0.21 days, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.01, P = 0.04, 3 RCTs, 444 women, I² = 23%, moderate-quality evidence). In addition, women in the early feeding group resumed a solid diet sooner (MD -1.47 days, 95% CI -2.26 to -0.68, P = 0.0003, 2 RCTs, 301 women, I² = 92%, moderate-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in time to the first passage of stool between the two study groups (MD -0.25 days, 95% CI -0.58 to 0.09, P = 0.15, 2 RCTs, 249 women, I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). Hospital stay was shorter in the early feeding group (MD -0.92 days, 95% CI -1.53 to -0.31, P = 0.003, 4 RCTs, 484 women, I² = 68%, moderate-quality evidence). Infectious complications were less common in the early feeding group (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.73, P = 0.02, 2 RCTs, 183 women, I² = 0%, high-quality evidence). In one study, the satisfaction score was significantly higher in the early feeding group (MD 11.10, 95% CI 6.68 to 15.52, P < 0.00001, 143 women, moderate-quality evidence). Early postoperative feeding after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery for either benign or malignant conditions appeared to be safe without increased gastrointestinal
Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Fialkoff, Jared; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos
Ambispective cohort review. To examine the effects of early mobilization on patient outcomes, complications profile, and 30-day readmission rates. Prolonged immobilization after surgery can result in functional decline and an increased risk of hospital-associated complications. We conducted an ambispective study of 125 elderly patients (>65 years) undergoing elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. We identified all unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Unplanned readmissions were defined to have occurred as a result of either a surgical or a nonsurgical complication. "Days of immobility" was defined as the number of days until a patient moved out of bed beyond a chair. Patients in the top and bottom quartiles were dichotomized into "early ambulators" and "late ambulators", respectively. Early ambulators were ambulatory within 24 hours of surgery, whereas late ambulators were ambulatory at a minimum of 48 hours after surgery. Complication rates, duration of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission rates were compared between early ambulators and late ambulators. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. Compared with patients with a longer duration of immobility (i.e., late ambulators), the prevalence of at least one perioperative complication was significantly lower in the early ambulators cohort (30% vs. 54%, P = 0.06). The length of inhospital stay was 34% shorter in the early ambulators cohort (5.33 days vs. 8.11 days, P = 0.01). Functional independence was superior in the early ambulators cohort, with the majority of patients discharged directly home after surgery compared with late ambulators (71.2% vs. 22.0%, P = 0.01). Early ambulation after surgery significantly reduces the incidence of perioperative complications, shortens duration of inhospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients. Even a delay of 24 hours to ambulation is
Fu, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Guang-Hua; Xiong, Zhen-Fang; Liao, Xincheng; Liu, Ming-Zhuo; Luo, Jinhua
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early anticoagulation treatment on severe burns complicated by inhalation injury in a rabbit model. Under anesthetization, an electrical burns instrument (100°C) was used to scald the backs of rabbits for 15 sec, which established a 30% III severe burns model. Treatment of the rabbits with early anticoagulation effectively improved the severe burns complicated by inhalation injury-induced lung injury, reduced PaO2, PaCO2 and SPO2 levels, suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and increased the activity of IL-10. In addition, it was found that early anticoagulation treatment effectively suppressed the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, upregulated the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased the protein expression of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in the severe burns model. It was concluded that early anticoagulation treatment affected the severe burns complicated by inhalation injury in a rabbit model through the upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of PAR1 signaling pathways. Thus, early anticoagulation is a potential therapeutic option for severe burns complicated by inhalation injury. PMID:28944866
Bowring, S A; Grotzinger, J P; Isachsen, C E; Knoll, A H; Pelechaty, S M; Kolosov, P
An explosive episode of biological diversification occurred near the beginning of the Cambrian period. Evolutionary rates in the Cambrian have been difficult to quantify accurately because of a lack of high-precision ages. Currently, uranium-lead zircon geochronology is the most powerful method for dating rocks of Cambrian age. Uranium-lead zircon data from lower Cambrian rocks located in northeast Siberia indicate that the Cambrian period began at approximately 544 million years ago and that its oldest (Manykaian) stage lasted no less than 10 million years. Other data indicate that the Tommotian and Atdabanian stages together lasted only 5 to 10 million years. The resulting compression of Early Cambrian time accentuates the rapidity of both the faunal diversification and subsequent Cambrian turnover.
Bowring, Samuel A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Isachsen, Clark E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Pelechaty, Shane M.; Kolosov, Peter
An explosive episode of biological diversification occurred near the beginning of the Cambrian period. Evolutionary rates in the Cambrian have been difficult to quantify accurately because of a lack of high-precision ages. Currently, uranium-lead zircon geochronology is the most powerful method for dating rocks of Cambrian age. Uranium-lead zircon data from lower Cambrian rocks located in northeast Siberia indicate that the Cambrian period began about 544 million years ago and that its oldest (Manykaian) stage lasted no less than 10 million years. Other data indicate that the Tommotian and Atdabanian stages together lasted only 5 to 10 million years. The resulting compression of Early Cambrian time accentuates the rapidity of both the faunal diversification and subsequent Cambrian turnover.
Park, Eugene; Deshpande, Gaurav; Schonmeyr, Bjorn; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex
To evaluate complication rates following cleft lip and cleft palate repairs during the transition from mission-based care to center-based care in a developing region. We performed a retrospective review of 3419 patients who underwent cleft lip repair and 1728 patients who underwent cleft palate repair in Guwahati, India between December 2010 and February 2014. Of those who underwent cleft lip repair, 654 were treated during a surgical mission and 2765 were treated at a permanent center. Of those who underwent cleft palate repair, 236 were treated during a surgical mission and 1491 were treated at a permanent center. Two large surgical missions to Guwahati, India, and the Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center (GCCCC) in Assam, India. Overall complication rates following cleft lip and cleft palate repair. Overall complication rates following cleft lip repair were 13.2% for the first mission, 6.7% for the second mission, and 4.0% at GCCCC. Overall complication rates following cleft palate repair were 28.0% for the first mission, 30.0% for the second mission, and 15.8% at GCCCC. Complication rates following cleft palate repair by the subset of surgeons permanently based at GCCCC (7.2%) were lower than visiting surgeons ( P < .05). Our findings support the notion that transitioning from a mission-based model to a permanent facility-based model of cleft care delivery in the developing world can lead to decreased complication rates.
Bonsignori, F; Chiappini, E; Frenos, S; Peraldo, M; Galli, L; de Martino, M
A retrospective study was conducted to provide epidemiological data on hospitalization for complicated and uncomplicated chickenpox in a pediatric population. The study analyzed hospitalization cases for chickenpox, among all the 31 Tuscan hospitals, during the period 1997-2003. Globally, 650 cases were recorded (306 = 47.07% for uncomplicated and 344 = 52.92% for complicated chickenpox). Total hospitalization rate was 22.66 per 100,000 living Tuscan children and 11.52 per 1,000 notified chickenpox cases. Hospitalization rates for complicated chickenpox were 12.00 per 100,000 living children and 6.09 per 1,000 notified cases. Notably, significantly increased hospitalization rates for complicated chickenpox were evidenced over years (p = 0.011 per 100,000 living children and p = 0.001 per 1,000 notified cases), due to the increased proportion of neurological (p = 0.043 per 100,000 living children and p = 0.025 per 1,000 notified cases) and respiratory (p = 0.021 per 100,000 living children and p = 0.008 per 1,000 notified cases) complications, whereas hospitalization rates for other complications as well as for uncomplicated chickenpox remained constant (p = 0.25 per 100,000 living children and p = 0.09 per 1,000 notified cases). Chickenpox complications, requiring hospitalization, occurred at a substantial rate in our pediatric population. In particular, increasing hospitalization rates for neurological and respiratory complications were evidenced over the study period. Our epidemiological data may provide additional information while planning a vaccination strategy for Italy.
Chun, Danielle S; Cook, Ralph W; Weiner, Joseph A; Schallmo, Michael S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Freshman, Ryan D; Patel, Alpesh A; Hsu, Wellington K
Retrospective cohort. Determine whether surgeon demographic factors influence postoperative complication rates after elective spine fusion procedures. Surgeon demographic factors have been shown to impact decision making in the management of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Complication rates are frequently reported outcome measurements used to evaluate surgical treatments, quality-of-care, and determine health care reimbursements. However, there are few studies investigating the association between surgeon demographic factors and complication outcomes after elective spine fusions. A database of US spine surgeons with corresponding postoperative complications data after elective spine fusions was compiled utilizing public data provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2011-2013) and ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard (2009-2013). Demographic data for each surgeon was collected and consisted of: surgical specialty (orthopedic vs. neurosurgery), years in practice, practice setting (private vs. academic), type of medical degree (MD vs. DO), medical school location (United States vs. foreign), sex, and geographic region of practice. General linear mixed models using a Beta distribution with a logit link and pairwise comparison with post hoc Tukey-Kramer were used to assess the relationship between surgeon demographics and complication rates. 2110 US-practicing spine surgeons who performed spine fusions on 125,787 Medicare patients from 2011 to 2013 met inclusion criteria for this study. None of the surgeon demographic factors analyzed were found to significantly affect overall complication rates in lumbar (posterior approach) or cervical spine fusion. Publicly available complication rates for individual spine surgeons are being utilized by hospital systems and patients to assess aptitude and gauge expectations. The increasing demand for transparency will likely lead to emphasis of these statistics to improve outcomes. We conclude that none of the
Zhou, Li-Li; Han, Yue; Zhu, Qian; Zhao, Shi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming-Qing; Dai, Lan; Shen, Wen-Hong; Wu, De-Pei
To investigate the alteration of microparticles (MP) in the recipients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and its significance, and to search the early diagnostic indicators of thrombotic complications after transplantation. According to the occurrence of transplantation-associated complications, 94 allo-HSCT patients were divided into 4 groups: thrombotic group (VOD n = 7, TMA n = 2), acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) group (n = 27), infection group (n = 41) and non-complication group (n = 17). Alterations of serum concentration of tissue factor positive microparticles (TF(+) MP) and endothelial microparticles (EMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry during the process of conditioning treatment and the early stage after transplantation. The relation of these 2 kinds of MP with complications was analysed. (1) The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP of patients undogoing allo-HSCT before conditioning treatment were obviously higher than those in normal controls, and showed some elevation during different times, but there was no significant statistical difference. Although the levels of TF(+) MP and EMP at the end of conditioning treatment were some higher than those before conditioning treatment, but there was no statistical difference between them. (2)The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP in thrombotic group were obviously higher than those in aGVHD group and infection group (P < 0.05). (3)The levels of TF(+) MP and EMP in thrombotic group at different times were significant differences from those in other groups (P < 0.05), and the levels of TF(+) MP and EMP were no significant difference from those in non-complication group. The increase of the TF(+) MP and EMP levels may be associated with occurrence of thrombosis after transplantation, indicating occurrence of the thrombotic complications, like hepatic vein occulusive disease (HVOD). The dynamically monitoring levels of TF(+) MP and EMP contributes to early discovery of thrombotic complications.
Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima
Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001). There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63-25.97, p < 0.001), burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97-41.89, p < 0.001), pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54-40.75, p = 0.001), dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22-37.01, p = 0.03) or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21-5.55, p = 0.01) during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic
Cook, Ralph W; Weiner, Joseph A; Schallmo, Michael S; Chun, Danielle S; Barth, Kathryn A; Singh, Sameer K; Hsu, Wellington K
Retrospective cohort study. We sought to determine whether financial relationships with industry had any impact on operative and/or complication rates of spine surgeons performing fusion surgeries. Recent actions from Congress and the Institute of Medicine have highlighted the importance of conflicts of interest among physicians. Orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons have been identified as receiving the highest amount of industry payments among all specialties. No study has yet investigated the potential effects of disclosed industry payments with quality and choices of patient care. A comprehensive database of spine surgeons in the United States with compiled data of industry payments, operative fusion rates, and complication rates was created. Practice pattern data were derived from a publicly available Medicare-based database generated from selected CPT codes from 2011 to 2012. Complication rate data from 2009 to 2013 were extracted from the ProPublica-Surgeon-Scorecard database, which utilizes postoperative inhospital mortality and 30-day-readmission for designated conditions as complications of surgery. Data regarding industry payments from 2013 to 2014 were derived from the Open Payments website. Surgeons performing <10 fusions, those without complication data, and those whose identity could not be verified through public records were excluded. Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between industry payments, operative fusion rate, and/or complication rate. A total of 2110 surgeons met the inclusion criteria for our database. The average operative fusion rate was 8.8% (SD 4.8%), whereas the average complication rate for lumbar and cervical fusion was 4.1% and 1.9%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant but negligible relationship between disclosed payments/transactions and both operative fusion and complication rates. Our findings do not support a
Evan Pollack, Craig; Wang, Hao; Bekelman, Justin E; Weissman, Gary; Epstein, Andrew J; Liao, Kaijun; Dugoff, Eva H; Armstrong, Katrina
Variation in care within and across geographic areas remains poorly understood. The goal of this article was to examine whether physician social networks-as defined by shared patients-are associated with rates of complications after radical prostatectomy. In five cities, we constructed networks of physicians on the basis of their shared patients in 2004-2005 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data. From these networks, we identified subgroups of urologists who most frequently shared patients with one another. Among men with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy, we used multilevel analysis with generalized linear mixed-effect models to examine whether physician network structure-along with specific characteristics of the network subgroups-was associated with rates of 30-day and late urinary complications, and long-term incontinence after accounting for patient-level sociodemographic, clinical factors, and urologist patient volume. Networks included 2677 men in five cities who underwent radical prostatectomy. The unadjusted rate of 30-day surgical complications varied across network subgroups from an 18.8 percentage-point difference in the rate of complications across network subgroups in city 1 to a 26.9 percentage-point difference in city 5. Large differences in unadjusted rates of late urinary complications and long-term incontinence across subgroups were similarly found. Network subgroup characteristics-average urologist centrality and patient racial composition-were significantly associated with rates of surgical complications. Analysis of physician networks using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data provides insight into observed variation in rates of complications for localized prostate cancer. If validated, such approaches may be used to target future quality improvement interventions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier
Heidemann, Lauren; Nathani, Niket; Sagana, Rommel; Chopra, Veneet; Heung, Michael
Limited data exist regarding rates of mechanical complications of ultrasound-guided, nontunneled central venous catheters (CVC). Similarly, trainee perceptions surrounding CVC complications are largely unknown. To evaluate contemporary CVC mechanical complication rates, associated risk factors, and trainee perspectives. A single-center retrospective review of CVC procedures between June 1, 2014, and May 1, 2015. Electronic survey distributed to internal medicine trainees. Intensive care units and the emergency department at an academic hospital. Electronic health records of patients with CVC procedures were reviewed for complications. Demographic and procedural characteristics were compared for complicated vs uncomplicated procedures. Student t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Of the 730 reviewed records, 14 serious mechanical complications occurred due to pneumothorax (n = 5), bleeding (n = 3), vascular injury (n = 3), stroke (n = 1), and death (n = 2). Risk factors for complicated vs uncomplicated CVC placement included subclavian location (21.4% vs 7.8%, = 0.001), number of attempts (2.2 vs 1.5, = 0.02), unsuccessful CVC (21.4% vs. 4.3%, = 0.001), attending supervision (61.5% vs 34.7%, = 0.04), low body mass index (mean 25.7 kg/ m² vs 31.5 kg/m², = 0.001), anticoagulation (28.6% vs 20.6%, = 0.048), and ventilation (78.5% vs 66.5%, = 0.001). Survey data suggested deficiencies in managing unsuccessful CVC procedures; specifically, only 35% (N = 21/60) of trainees regularly perform chest x-rays after failed CVC attempt. We observed a 1.9% rate of mechanical complications associated with CVC placement. Our study confirms historical data that unsuccessful CVC attempts are an important risk factor for complications. Education regarding unsuccessful CVC placement may improve patient safety. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine
Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse
Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.
Our objective was to evaluate the complications and early follow-up of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT)-SECUR, a new minimally invasive anti-incontinence operative procedure. A prospective, observational, and consecutive patient series was conducted. Perioperative and 12-month postoperative data were prospectively collected for the first 50 patients against the next consecutive 50 patients, among which TVT-SECUR specific surgical measurements were adopted (Canadian Task Force classification 2). In private hospital operative theatres, the TVT-SECUR operation was performed. Patients with urodynamically proved stress urinary incontinence were enrolled in this study after detailed informed consent was given. The TVT-SECUR, in the hammock shape to mimic the TVT-obturator placement, yet with no skin incisions, required neither bladder catheterization nor intraoperative diagnostic cystoscopy. The clinical and surgical data of 100 consecutive patients with TVT-SECUR were collected prospectively. Two patients had urinary obstructions and needed surgical tape-tension relief. One patient had a 50 mL paravesical self-remitting hematoma. At the first-month postoperative follow-up appointment, the objective therapeutic failure rate for the TVT-SECUR procedure among the 50 patients was 20.0% (10 patients). But when the tape was placed close to the urethra with no space allowed in between, the failure rate in the second patient group went down to 8.0% (4 patients); yet no further postoperative bladder outlet obstruction was diagnosed. Four (8.0%) patients in the first group had vaginal wall penetration with the inserters, requiring withdrawal, reinsertion, and vaginal wall repair. This was avoided with the second patient group by facilitating the inserters' introduction by widening the submucosal tunnel to 12 mm. Six (12.0%) other patients in the first group needed postoperative trimming of a vaginally extruded tape segment, performed in the office with satisfactory results
Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R
Objective To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Conclusions Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery. PMID:25050061
Ruan, Zhong-Bao; Zhu, Li; Yin, Yi-Gang; Chen, Ge-Cai
The risk factors associated with death in complicated Stanford B acute aortic dissection (AAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and late events and mortality of complicated Stanford B AAD associated with TEVAR. Sixty-two patients with complicated Stanford B AAD undergoing TEVAR were included in this study. Primary technical success of TEVAR was achieved in 61 (98.39%) cases. The early mortality rate was 9.68%. Procedural type I endoleak (p = 0.007, OR = 7.71, 95% CI: 1.75-34.01) and cardiac tamponade (p = 0.010, OR = 8.86, 95% CI: 1.70-4 6.14) were the significant predictors of early death in the multivariate model. The late mortality was 16.07%. Cox regression analysis revealed rupture of false lumen (p = 0.001, hazard ratio = 21.96, 95% CI: 3.02-82.12), postoperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.001, hazard ratio = 9.86, 95% CI: 2.12-39.64), and acute renal failure (p = 0.024, hazard ratio = 3.98, 95% CI: 1.26-12.11) to be independent risk factors of late mortality. Type I procedural endoleak and cardiac tamponade were the significant predictors of early death in patients of complicated Stanford B AAD undergoing TEVAR. Rupture of false lumen, postoperative myocardial infarction, and acute renal failure were the independent risk factors for late death after TEVAR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Gupta, Varun; Winocour, Julian; Layliev, John; Ramirez, Roberto; Grotting, James C; Higdon, Kent
Liposuction is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures, and is being performed increasingly as an adjunct to other procedures. To report the incidence and risk factors of significant complications after liposuction, and to determine whether adding liposuction to other cosmetic surgical procedures impacts the complication risk. A prospective cohort of patients who underwent liposuction between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Primary outcome was occurrence of major complications requiring emergency room visit, hospital admission, or reoperation within 30 days of the operation. Univariate and multivariate analysis evaluated risk factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, type of surgical facility, and combined procedures. Of the 31,010 liposuction procedures, only 11,490 (37.1%) were performed as a solitary procedure. Liposuction alone had a major complication rate of 0.7% with hematoma (0.15%), pulmonary complications (0.1%), infection (0.1%), and confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) (0.06%) being the most common. Independent predictors of major complications included combined procedures (Relative Risk (RR) 4.81), age (RR 1.01), BMI (RR 1.05), and procedures performed in hospitals (RR 1.36). When examining specifically other aesthetic procedures performed alone or with liposuction, combined procedures had a higher risk of confirmed VTE (RR 5.65), pulmonary complications (RR 2.72), and infection (RR 2.41), but paradoxically lower hematoma risk (RR 0.77) than solitary procedures. Liposuction performed alone is a safe procedure with a low risk of major complications. Combined procedures, especially on obese or older individuals, can significantly increase complication rates. The impact of liposuction on the risk of hematoma in combined procedures needs further investigation. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pedrazzani, Corrado; Moro, Margherita; Mantovani, Guido; Lazzarini, Enrico; Conci, Simone; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Lippi, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Alfredo
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and enhanced recovery programs have been increasingly adopted in colorectal surgery. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the usefulness of the C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration measured on postoperative day 3 (POD-3) as an early predictor of severe complications after minimally invasive colorectal resection. From January 2014 to December 2015, 160 patients underwent resection of colorectal disease by MIS at the Division of General and Hepatobiliary Surgery, University of Verona Hospital Trust. Among these, CRP measurement was available on POD-3 in 143 patients. Conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery was necessary in 18 patients (12.6%). The mean POD-3 CRP concentration was significantly higher in patients who did than did not require conversions (205.6 ± 89.6 mg/L versus 104.6 ± 85.8 mg/L, respectively; P < 0.001), even in the absence of postoperative complications, and these patients were therefore excluded from the subsequent analysis. No deaths occurred during the study period, but complications occurred in 39 patients (31.2%). Among these, 24 patients (61.5%) developed surgery-related complications. A POD-3 CRP concentration of 120 mg/L was highly reliable for excluding the occurrence of surgery-related and severe complications. The negative predictive values for excluding surgery-related and severe complications was 86.8% and 97.7%, respectively. Assessment of the POD-3 CRP concentration after colorectal MIS is clinically significant for excluding the occurrence of surgery-related and severe complications. This measurement is a largely available, inexpensive, and easy-to-use tool that allows early and safe discharge in the setting of colorectal MIS and enhanced recovery programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vänskä, Matti; Koivula, Irma; Jantunen, Esa; Hämäläinen, Sari; Purhonen, Anna-Kaisa; Pulkki, Kari; Juutilainen, Auni
Early diagnosis of complicated course in febrile neutropenia is cumbersome due to the non-specificity of clinical and laboratory signs of severe infection. This prospective study included 100 adult hematological patients with febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy at the onset of fever (d0) and for 3 days (d1-d3) thereafter. The study aim was to find early predictors for complicated course of febrile neutropenia, defined as bacteremia or septic shock. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) all predicted complicated course of febrile neutropenia on d0, but only PCT was predictive throughout the study period. For IL-10 on d0-1 with cut-off 37 ng/L, sensitivity was 0.71, specificity 0.82, positive predictive value 0.52 and negative predictive value 0.92. For PCT on d0-1 with cut-off 0.13 μg/L, the respective measures were 0.95, 0.53, 0.36, and 0.98. For the combination of IL-10 and PCT on d0-1 with the same cut-offs, specificity improved to 0.85 and positive predictive value to 0.56. In conclusion, the present study confirms the high negative predictive value of PCT and provides new evidence for IL-10 as an early predictor for complicated course of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients. Combining IL-10 with PCT improves the early prediction for complicated course of febrile neutropenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turturro, Francesco; Montanaro, Antonello; Calderaro, Cosma; Labianca, Luca; Di Sanzo, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Andrea
The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications in a large series of patients affected by neuromuscular scoliosis. It was a monocentric retrospective study. In this study have been considered complications those events that significantly affected the course of treatment, such as getting the hospital stay longer, or requiring a subsequent surgical procedure, or corrupting the final result of the treatment. Of the 358 patients affected by neuromuscular scoliosis treated from January 1985 to December 2010, 185 that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were recorded 66 complications in 55/185 patients. Of that 66 complications, 54 complications occurred in 46/120 patients with Luque's instrumentation, while only 12 complications occurred in 9/65 patients with hybrid instrumentation and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05); 11/126 patients with pelvic fixation and 5/59 without pelvic fixation, as well as 45/156 patients treated by posterior approach alone and 10/29 patient that underwent combined anterior-posterior approach suffered complications but both this did not result in a statistical significant difference (p > 0.05). The surgical treatment in neuromuscular scoliosis is burdened by a large number of complications. An accurate knowledge of possible complications is mandatory to prepare strategies due to prevent adverse events. A difference in definitions could completely change results in good or bad as well as in our same series the adverse events amounted at almost 30% of cases, but complications that due to complete failure would amount at 9.19% of patients.
el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R
To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Jung, Young-Soo
The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction.
Naqshbandi, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B; Esler, James G; Antwi-Nsiah, Fred
The world's Indigenous peoples are experiencing an unprecedented epidemic of type 2 diabetes [T2DM] but little has been published describing the complications burden. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of T2DM complications in Indigenous populations worldwide. A literature review was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE to examine available complications data. Country, Indigenous population, authors, publication year, total sample size, Indigenous sample size, age, methodology, and prevalence of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, lower extremity amputations, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and mortality due to diabetes were recorded. One-hundred and eleven studies were selected. Results revealed a disproportionate burden of disease complications among all Indigenous peoples regardless of their geographic location. Complication rates were seen to vary widely across Indigenous groups. Gaps were found in the published literature on complications among Indigenous populations, especially those living in underdeveloped countries. These gaps may be in part due to the challenges caused by varying operational practices, research methodologies, and definitions of the term Indigenous, making documentation of rates among these peoples problematic. Comprehensive surveillance applying standardized definitions and methodologies is needed to design targeted prevention and disease management strategies for Indigenous peoples with T2DM.
Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B
a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.
Nickel, Katelin B; Fox, Ida K; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wallace, Anna E; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A
Background Non-infectious wound complications (NIWCs) following mastectomy are not routinely tracked and data are generally limited to single-center studies. Our objective was to determine the rates of NIWCs among women undergoing mastectomy and assess the impact of immediate reconstruction (IR). Study Design We established a retrospective cohort using commercial claims data of women aged 18–64 years with procedure codes for mastectomy from 1/2004–12/2011. NIWCs within 180 days after operation were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and rates were compared among mastectomy with and without autologous flap and/or implant IR. Results 18,696 procedures (10,836 [58%] with IR) among 18,085 women were identified. The overall NIWC rate was 9.2% (1,714/18,696); 56% required surgical treatment. The NIWC rates were 5.8% (455/7,860) after mastectomy-only, 10.3% (843/8,217) after mastectomy + implant, 17.4% (337/1,942) after mastectomy + flap, and 11.7% (79/677) after mastectomy + flap and implant (p<0.001). The rates of individual NIWCs varied by specific complication and procedure type, ranging from 0.5% for fat necrosis after mastectomy-only to 7.2% for dehiscence after mastectomy + flap. The percentage of NIWCs resulting in surgical wound care varied from 50% (210/416) for mastectomy + flap to 60% (507/843) for mastectomy + implant. Early implant removal within 60 days occurred after 6.2% of mastectomy + implant; 66% of the early implant removals were due to NIWCs and/or surgical site infection. Conclusions The rate of NIWC was approximately two-fold higher after mastectomy with IR than after mastectomy-only. NIWCs were associated with additional surgical treatment, particularly in women with implant reconstruction, and with early implant loss. PMID:27010582
Muthalaly, Rahul G; John, Roy M; Schaeffer, Benjamin; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Kapur, Sunil; Zei, Paul C; Epstein, Laurence M; Tedrow, Usha B; Michaud, Gregory F; Stevenson, William G; Koplan, Bruce A
Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is increasingly common, but is associated with potential major complications. Technology, experience, and protocols have evolved significantly in recent times, and may have impacted procedural safety. We sought to compare AF ablation safety profiles, including complication rates and fluoroscopy times in a "modern" versus "historical" cohort. We evaluated consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation from a modern cohort (MC) from 2014 to 2015 and a historic cohort (HC) from 2009 to 2011 for complications. Major complications were categorized according to Heart Rhythm Society guidelines. We included 1,425 patients, 726 in the HC and 699 in the MC. The MC was older, had more OSA and less valvular AF. Fifty-two (3.5%) procedures suffered major complications across the cohorts, with significantly fewer in the MC (5.0% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.007). The largest reductions were seen in vascular, hemorrhagic, ischemic stroke, and perforation/tamponade related complications. Periprocedural antiplatelets drugs (aHR 2.1 [95 CI 1.1-3.9], P = 0.02) and force-sensing catheters (aHR 0.4 [95 CI 0.2-0.9], P = 0.03) were independently related to major complication rates. Direct oral anticoagulants and uninterrupted anticoagulation were not associated with complications. There was a decrease in both fluoroscopy (-17.4 minutes [95 CI 19.2-15.6], P < 0.0001) and radiofrequency ablation times (-561 seconds [95CI -750 to -371], P < 0.0001). The safety profile of AF ablation has improved significantly in less than a decade. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Oppenraaij, R H F; Jauniaux, E; Christiansen, O B; Horcajadas, J A; Farquharson, R G; Exalto, N
BACKGROUND The aim was to evaluate the impact of early pregnancy events and complications as predictors of adverse obstetric outcome. METHODS We conducted a literature review on the impact of first trimester complications in previous and index pregnancies using Medline and Cochrane databases covering the period 1980-2008. RESULTS Clinically relevant associations of adverse outcome in the subsequent pregnancy with an odds ratio (OR) > 2.0 after complications in a previous pregnancy are the risk of perinatal death after a single previous miscarriage, the risk of very preterm delivery (VPTD) after two or more miscarriages, the risk of placenta praevia, premature preterm rupture of membranes, VPTD and low birthweight (LBW) after recurrent miscarriage and the risk of VPTD after two or more termination of pregnancy. Clinically relevant associations of adverse obstetric outcome in the ongoing pregnancy with an OR > 2.0 after complications in the index pregnancy are the risk of LBW and very low birthweight (VLBW) after a threatened miscarriage, the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age and low 5-min Apgar score after detection of an intrauterine haematoma, the risk of VPTD and intrauterine growth restriction after a crown-rump length discrepancy, the risk of VPTD, LBW and VLBW after a vanishing twin phenomenon and the risk of PTD, LBW and low 5-min Apgar score in a pregnancy complicated by severe hyperemesis gravidarum. CONCLUSIONS Data from our literature review indicate, by finding significant associations, that specific early pregnancy events and complications are predictors for subsequent adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. Though, some of these associations are based on limited or small uncontrolled studies. Larger population-based controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, identification of these risks will improve obstetric care.
Cay, Serkan; Cagirci, Goksel; Atak, Ramazan; Balbay, Yucel; Demir, Ahmet Duran; Aydogdu, Sinan
Both early repolarization and altered heart rate profile are associated with sudden death. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate an association between early repolarization and heart rate profile during exercise. A total of 84 subjects were included in the study. Comparable 44 subjects with early repolarization and 40 subjects with normal electrocardiogram underwent exercise stress testing. Resting heart rate, maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and decrement were analyzed. Both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics including resting heart rate. Maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement of the subjects in early repolarization group had significantly decreased maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to control group (all P < 0.05). The lower heart rate increment (< 106 beats/min) and heart rate decrement (< 95 beats/min) were significantly associated with the presence of early repolarization. After adjustment for age and sex, the multiple-adjusted OR of the risk of presence of early repolarization was 2.98 (95%CI 1.21-7.34) (P = 0.018) and 7.73 (95%CI 2.84-21.03) (P < 0.001) for the lower heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to higher levels, respectively. Subjects with early repolarization have altered heart rate profile during exercise compared to control subjects. This can be related to sudden death.
Butchon, Rukmanee; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Suchonwanich, Yolsilp
To determine the rates of births in adolescent pregnant women in diferent regions of Thailand and assess the rates of complications occurring at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in women admitted in the hospitals ofThailand. The secondary analysis of data from pregnant women aged 10 to 49 years, who were admitted to hospitals and recorded in the National Health Security Office database between October 2010 and September 2011 was carried out. Adolescent birth rate by the regions and rate of complications ofpregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by age groups were analyzed. Highest birth rate was found among women aged 19 years (58.3 per 1, 000 population). The distribution of adolescent births varied across regions of Thailand, which was high in central region. Rate of preterm delivery was highest (10%) in adolescent aged 10 to 14 years. Rate of diabetes mellitus (6%), preeclampsia (4%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%) among women aged 35 to 49 years were substantially higher than those among women aged 34 years or less. Adolescent birth rate varied across regions of Thailand. Complications occurred differently by ages of women. Holistic policy and planning strategies for proper prevention and management among pregnant women in different age groups are needed
Chen, Junyu; Cai, He; Suo, Lai; Xue, Yiyuan; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the survival and complication rates of inlay-retainer fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs). A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in English and time filters (articles published from 1960) were used. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and prospective cohort studies on IRFDPs with a mean follow-up period of at least 2 years were included. Among 501 screened articles, one RCT and ten prospective cohort studies were included in this study. Of the included studies, information on failure and complications was independently extracted by two reviewers in duplicate. The failure and complication rates of IRFDPs were pooled with a random effect model and Poisson regression was applied to further investigate the influence of framework materials. The estimated 3- and 5-year survival rates of IRFDPs were 92.6% (95% CI: 85.8-97.6%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 77.4-96.1%), respectively. Debonding, fracture, dentine hypersensitivity and secondary caries were primary complications. The estimated 5-year rates of debonding, veneer fracture and secondary caries were 5.3%, 15.2% and 2.7%, respectively. Additionally, fiber-reinforced composite IRFDPs exhibited a lower incidence of debonding and caries with a higher rate of veneer fracture compared with metal-based and all-ceramic IRFDPs (p<0.05). Compared with conventional fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and implant-supported single crowns (ISCs), IRFDPs exhibited an acceptable 3-year survival rate but higher complication rates of debonding and veneer fracture. IRFDPs can be recommended as viable short- or middle-term minimally invasive alternatives to short-span conventional FDPs and ISCs, while the clinical outcome of IRFDPs as long-term definitive restorations still calls for further research. The indications of IRFDPs should be strictly controlled and monitored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Ho, Gwendolyn; Jonas, Brian A; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Wun, Ted; Keegan, Theresa H M
Few studies have evaluated the impact of complications, sociodemographic and clinical factors on early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. Using data from the California Cancer Registry linked to hospital discharge records from 1999 to 2012, we identified patients aged ≥15 years with AML who received inpatient treatment (N = 6359). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of complications with early mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and hospital type. Early mortality decreased over time (25·3%, 1999-2000; 16·8%, 2011-2012) across all age groups, but was higher in older patients (6·9%, 15-39, 11·4%, 40-54, 18·6% 55-65, and 35·8%, >65 years). Major bleeding [Odds ratio (OR) 1·5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-1·9], liver failure (OR 1·9, 95% CI 1·1-3·1), renal failure (OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·0-2·9), respiratory failure (OR 7·6, 95% CI 6·2-9·3) and cardiac arrest (OR 15·8, 95% CI 8·7-28·6) were associated with early mortality. Higher early mortality was also associated with single marital status, low neighbourhood socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance and comorbidities. Treatment at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centres was associated with lower early mortality (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·4-0·6). In conclusion, organ dysfunction, hospital type and sociodemographic factors impact early mortality. Further studies should investigate how differences in healthcare delivery affect early mortality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Truntzer, Jeremy N; Hoppe, Daniel J; Shapiro, Lauren M; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Safran, Marc
To identify major and minor complication rates associated with hip arthroscopy from a payer-based national database and compare with the rates reported in the existing literature. Patients who underwent hip arthroscopy between 2007 and 2014 were identified using PearlDiver, a publicly available database. Rates of major and minor complications, as well as conversion to total hip arthroscopy (THA), were determined by using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes. Incidence rates of select major complications across the entire database were used as a comparison group. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Of 18 million patients screened from 2007 to 2014, a total of 2,581 hip arthroscopies were identified. The rates of major and minor complications within a 1-year postoperative period were 1.74% and 4.22%, respectively. Complications included heterotopic ossification (2.85%), bursitis (1.23%), proximal femur fracture (1.08%), deep vein thrombosis (0.79%), and hip dislocation (0.58%). The rate of conversion to THA within 1 year was 2.85%. When compared to rates in the general population, the relative risks [RRs] of requiring a THA (age <50 years, RR = 57.66, P < .001; age >50 years, RR = 22.05, P < .001), sustaining a proximal femur fracture (age <50 years, RR = 18.02, P < .001; age >50 years, RR = 2.23, P < .001), or experiencing a hip dislocation (RR 19.60, P < .001) at 1 year after hip arthroscopy were significantly higher in all age groups. Higher major complication rates after hip arthroscopy were observed using a national payer-based database than previously reported in the literature, especially in regard to hip dislocations and proximal femur fractures. Rates of total hip arthroplasty were similar to prior studies, whereas the rates of revision hip arthroscopy were higher. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by
Fundament, Tomasz; Eldridge, Paul R.; Green, Alexander L.; Whone, Alan L.; Taylor, Rod S.; Williams, Adrian C.; Schuepbach, W. M. Michael
Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating illness associated with considerable impairment of quality of life and substantial costs to health care systems. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical treatment option for some patients with advanced PD. The EARLYSTIM trial has recently demonstrated its clinical benefit also in patients with early motor complications. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DBS, compared to best medical therapy (BMT), among PD patients with early onset of motor complications, from a United Kingdom (UK) payer perspective. Methods We developed a Markov model to represent the progression of PD as rated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) over time in patients with early PD. Evidence sources were a systematic review of clinical evidence; data from the EARLYSTIM study; and a UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) dataset including DBS patients. A mapping algorithm was developed to generate utility values based on UPDRS data for each intervention. The cost-effectiveness was expressed as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to explore the effect of parameter uncertainty. Results Over a 15-year time horizon, DBS was predicted to lead to additional mean cost per patient of £26,799 compared with BMT (£73,077/patient versus £46,278/patient) and an additional mean 1.35 QALYs (6.69 QALYs versus 5.35 QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £19,887 per QALY gained with a 99% probability of DBS being cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000/QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were not significantly impacted by plausible changes in the input parameter values. Conclusion These results indicate that DBS is a cost-effective intervention in PD patients with early motor complications when compared with existing interventions, offering additional health
Simhan, Jay; Smaldone, Marc C; Tsai, Kevin J; Canter, Daniel J; Li, Tianyu; Kutikov, Alexander; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y T; Greenberg, Richard E; Uzzo, Robert G
The association between tumor complexity and postoperative complications after partial nephrectomy (PN) has not been well characterized. We evaluated whether increasing renal tumor complexity, quantitated by nephrometry score (NS), is associated with increased complication rates following PN using the Clavien-Dindo classification system (CCS). We queried our prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients undergoing PN from 2007 to 2010 for whom NS was available. All patients underwent PN. Tumors were categorized into low- (NS: 4-6), moderate- (NS: 7-9), and high-complexity (NS: 10-12) lesions. Complication rates within 30 d were graded (CCS: I-5), stratified as minor (CCS: I or 2) or major (CCS: 3-5), and compared between groups. A total of 390 patients (mean age: 58.0 ± 11.9 yr; 66.9% male) undergoing PN (44.6% open, 55.4% robotic) for low- (28%), moderate- (55.6%), and high-complexity (16.4%) tumors (mean tumor size: 3.74 ± 2.4 cm; median: 3.2 cm) from 2007 to 2010 were identified. Tumor size, estimated blood loss, and ischemia time all significantly differed (p<0.0001) between groups; patient age, body mass index (BMI), and operative time were comparable. When stratified by CCS, minor and major complication rates for all patients were 26.7% and 11.5%, respectively. Minor complication rates were comparable (26.6 vs. 24.9 vs 32.8%; p=0.45), whereas major complication rates differed (6.4 vs. 11.1 vs. 21.9%; p=0.009) among tumor complexity groups. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, type of surgical approach, operative duration, and tumor complexity, prolonged operative time (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.02) and high tumor complexity (OR: 5.4; CI, 1.2-24.2) were associated with the postoperative development of a major complication. Lack of external validation is a limitation of this study. Increasing tumor complexity is associated with the development of major complications after PN. This association should be validated
Abu Ruz, Mohannad E; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K
Anxiety is common after acute myocardial infarction and increases the number of complications and the length of stay in the hospital. Anxiety-induced activation of the sympathetic nervous system is hypothesized to be an underlying cause of increased complication rates. Little is known about whether use of β-blockers eliminates the effects of anxiety on complication rate and length of stay. To compare number of complications and length of stay among nonanxious and anxious patients receiving β-blockers during hospitalization. A total of 322 patients with acute myocardial infarction participated in this study within 48 hours of hospital admission. Patients completed the Brief Symptom Inventory to assess anxiety level. After discharge, medical records were reviewed to determine use of β-blockers, type and number of complications, and length of stay. Most patients (96%) were treated with less than 200 mg daily of metoprolol. Anxious patients had more complications (mean [SD], 1.43 [0.15] vs 0.73 [.09], P ≤ .01) and longer stays (7.0 [0.49] vs 5.7 [0.36] days, P < .05) than did nonanxious patients. To test whether the dose of β-blocker made a difference, the interaction between daily dose and anxiety score was tested. No interaction was found between metoprolol dose and anxiety score, and no main effect was found for metoprolol dose. Anxious patients had more complications and longer stays than did nonanxious patients. The administration of metoprolol did not eliminate this relationship, perhaps because patients did not receive a sufficient dose of metoprolol to counter the effect of anxiety.
Werner, Brian C; Fashandi, Ahmad H; Chhabra, A Bobby; Deal, D Nicole
To use a national insurance database to explore the association of obesity with the incidence of complications after elbow arthroscopy in a Medicare population. Using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes, we queried the PearlDiver database for patients undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Patients were divided into obese (body mass index [BMI] >30) and nonobese (BMI <30) cohorts using ICD-9 codes for BMI and obesity. Nonobese patients were matched to obese patients based on age, sex, tobacco use, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Postoperative complications were assessed with ICD-9 and Current Procedural Terminology codes, including infection, nerve injury, stiffness, and medical complications. A total of 2,785 Medicare patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy were identified from 2005 to 2012; 628 patients (22.5%) were coded as obese or morbidly obese, and 628 matched nonobese patients formed the control group. There were no differences between the obese patients and matched control nonobese patients regarding type of elbow arthroscopy, previous elbow fracture or previous elbow arthroscopy. Obese patients had greater rates of all assessed complications, including infection (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, P = .037), nerve injury (OR 5.4, P = .001), stiffness (OR 1.9, P = .016) and medical complications (OR 6.9, P < .0001). Obesity is associated with significantly increased rates of all assessed complications after elbow arthroscopy in a Medicare population, including infection, nerve injury, stiffness, and medical complications. Therapeutic Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slump, Jelena; Hofer, Stefan O P; Ferguson, Peter C; Wunder, Jay S; Griffin, Anthony M; Hoekstra, Harald J; Bastiaannet, Esther; O'Neill, Anne C
Flap reconstruction plays an essential role in the surgical management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS) for many patients. But flaps increase the duration and complexity of the surgery and their contribution to overall morbidity is unclear. This study directly compares the complication rates in patients with ESTS undergoing either flap reconstruction or primary wound closure and explores contributing factors. Eight hundred and ninety-seven patients who underwent ESTS resection followed by primary closure (631) or flap reconstruction (266) were included in this study. Data on patient, tumour and treatment variables and post-operative medical and surgical complications were collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of complications. Post-operative complications occurred in 33% of patients. Flap patients were significantly older, had more advanced disease and were more likely to require neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy. There was no significant difference in complication rates following flap reconstruction compared to primary closure on multivariate analysis (38 vs 30.9% OR 1.12, CI 0.77-1.64, p = 0.53). Pre-operative radiation and distal lower extremity tumour location were significant risk factors in patients who underwent primary wound closure but not in those who had flap reconstruction. Patients with comorbidities, increased BMI and systemic disease were at increased risk of complications following flap reconstruction. Flap reconstruction is not associated with increased post-operative complications following ESTS resection. Flaps may mitigate the effects of some risk factors in selected patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rogers, Gina M; Oetting, Thomas A; Lee, Andrew G; Grignon, Connie; Greenlee, Emily; Johnson, A Tim; Beaver, Hilary A; Carter, Keith
To determine whether institution of a structured surgical curriculum for ophthalmology residents decreased the rate of sentinel surgical complications. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa, USA. A retrospective review was performed of third-year ophthalmic resident quality-assurance surgical outcomes data at a single residency-training site from 1998 to 2008. The primary outcome measure was defined as a sentinel event; that is, a posterior capsule tear (with or without vitreous loss) or vitreous loss (from any cause) occurring during a resident-performed case. The study population was divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised surgical cases of residents trained before the surgical curriculum change (academic years 1998 to 2003) and Group 2, surgical cases of residents trained with the enhanced curriculum (academic years 2004 to 2008). Data from 1 year (academic year 2003 to 2004) were excluded because the transition to the enhanced curriculum occurred during that period. The data were analyzed and adjusted for surgical experience. In Group 1 (before institution of surgical curriculum), there were 823 cases with 59 sentinel complications. In Group 2 (after institution of surgical curriculum), there were 1009 cases with 38 sentinel complications. There was a statistically significant reduction in the sentinel complication rate, from 7.17% before the curriculum changes to 3.77% with the enhanced curriculum (P = .001, unpaired 2-tailed t test). Implementation of a structured surgical curriculum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in sentinel event complications, even after adjusting for surgical experience.
Yip, Doris; Vanasco, Matthew; Funaki, Brian
To compare complication rates and tube performance of percutaneous mushroom gastrostomy, balloon gastrostomy, and gastrojejunostomy. Between September 9, 1999 and April 23, 2001, 203 patients underwent 250 radiologically guided percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy procedures. Follow-up was conducted through chart reviews and review of our interventional radiology database. Procedural and catheter-related complications were recorded. Chi-square statistical analysis was performed. In patients receiving mushroom-retained gastrostomy catheters (n = 114), the major complication rate was 0.88% (n = 1), the minor complication rate was 5.3% (n = 6), and the tube complication rate was 4.4% (n = 5). In patients receiving balloon-retained gastrostomymore » tubes (n = 67), the major complication rate was 0, the minor complication rate was 4.5% (n = 3), and the tube complication rate was 34.3% (n = 23). In patients receiving gastrojejunostomy catheters (n = 69), the major complication rate was 1.4% (n = 1), the minor complication rate was 2.9% (n = 2), and the tube complication rate was 34.8% (n = 24). No statistically significant differences were found between procedural or peri-procedural complications among the different types of tubes. Mushroom-retained catheters had significantly fewer tube complications (p < 0.01). Percutaneous gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy have similar procedural and peri-procedural complication rates. Mushroom gastrostomy catheters have fewer tube-related complications compared with balloon gastrostomy and gastrojejunostomy catheters. In addition, mushroom-retained catheters exhibit the best overall long-term tube patency and are therefore the gastrostomy catheter of choice.« less
Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano
Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant
Ahmed, Mohammed M; Otto, Thomas J; Moed, Berton R
Limited-incision total hip arthroplasty (THA) preserves hip abductors, posterior capsule, and external rotators potentially diminishing dislocation risk. However, potential complications also exist, such as component malposition. Specific implants have been manufactured that enhance compatibility with this technique, while preserving metaphyseal bone; however, little data exists documenting early complications and component position. The purpose was to evaluate primary THA using a curved, bone-sparing stem inserted through the anterior approach with respect to component alignment and early complications. In a retrospective analysis of 108 cases, the surgical technique was outlined and the occurrence of intraoperative fractures, postoperative dislocations, infection, and limb length inequality was determined. Femoral stem and acetabular cup alignment was quantified using the initial postoperative radiographs. Patient follow-up averaged 12.9 (range 2 to 36) months. There were eight (7.4 %) complications requiring revision surgery in three (2.8 %) patients with three (2.8 %) infections and three (2.8 %) dislocations. Intraoperative complications included one calcar fracture above the lesser trochanter. Leg length inequality >5 mm was present in three (2.8 %) patients. Radiographic analysis showed that femoral neutral alignment was achieved in 95 hips (88.0 %). All femoral stems demonstrated satisfactory fit and fill and no evidence of subsidence, osteolysis, or loosening. An average abduction angle of 44.8° (± 5.3) and average cup anteversion of 16.2° (± 4.2) were also noted. Although the technique with this implant and approach is promising, it does not appear to offer important advantages over standard techniques. However, the findings merit further, long-term study.
Worley, Guy H T; Segal, Jonathan P; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Clark, Susan K; Faiz, Omar D
It is well established that ileoanal pouch-related septic complications (PRSC) increase the risk of pouch failure. There are a number of publications that describe the management of early PRSC in ulcerative colitis (UC) in small series. This article aims to systematically review and summarise the relevant contemporary data on this subject and provide an algorithm for the management of early PRSC. A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies published between 2000 and 2017 describing the clinical management of PRSC in patients with UC within 30 days of primary ileoanal pouch surgery were included. A qualitative analysis was undertaken due to the heterogeneity and quality of studies included. 1157 abstracts and 266 full text articles were screened. Twelve studies were included for analysis involving a total of 207 patients. The studies described a range of techniques including image-guided, endoscopic, surgical and endocavitational vacuum methods. Based on the evidence from these studies, an algorithm was created to guide the management of early PRSC. The results of this review suggest that although successful salvage of early pouch related septic complications is improving there is little information available relating to methods of salvage and outcomes.. Novel techniques may offer increased chance of salvage but comparative studies with longer follow-up are required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Perez, Claudia Andira; Figueroa, Stephen A
Hyperosmolar therapy with hypertonic saline (HTS) is a cornerstone in the management of intracranial hypertension and hyponatremia in the neurological intensive care unit. Theoretical safety concerns remain for infiltration, thrombophlebitis, tissue ischemia, and venous thrombosis associated with continuous 3% HTS administered via peripheral intravenous (pIV) catheters. It is common practice at many institutions to allow only central venous catheter infusion of 3% HTS. Hospital policy was changed to allow the administration of 3% HTS via 16- to 20-gauge pIVs to a maximum infusion rate of 50 mL/h in patients without central venous access. We prospectively monitored patients who received peripheral 3% HTS as part of a quality improvement project. We documented gauge, location, maximum infusion rate, and total hours of administration. Patients were assessed for infiltration, erythema, swelling, phlebitis, thrombosis, and line infection. There were 28 subjects across 34 peripheral lines monitored. Overall, subjects received 3% HTS for a duration between 1 and 124 hours with infusion rates of 30 to 50 mL/h. The rate of complications observed was 10.7% among all subjects. Documented complications included infiltration (n = 2), with an incidence of 6%, and thrombophlebitis (n = 1), with an incidence of 3%. There has been a long concern among healthcare providers, including nursing staff, in regard to pIV administration of prolonged 3% HTS infusion therapy. Our study indicates that peripheral administration of 3% HTS carries a low risk of minor, nonlimb, or life-threatening complications. Although central venous infusion may reduce the risk of these minor complications, it may increase the risk of more serious complications such as large vessel thrombosis, bloodstream infection, pneumothorax, and arterial injury. The concern regarding the risks of pIV administration of 3% HTS may be overstated and unfounded.
Grigoropoulos, P; Kalles, V; Papapanagiotou, I; Mekras, A; Argyrou, A; Papageorgiou, K; Derian, A
Introduction of stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) brought a radical change in the treatment of haemorrhoidal disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results and the complications (early and late) from the use of this technique. During the last 6 years (2005-2011), 123 patients underwent a SH in our ward. Our sample consists of 79 male and 44 female patients with an average age of 48.2 years (range 22-83 years). Of them, 83 had third-degree haemorrhoidal disease, 34 had fourth-degree and 6 had second-degree bleeding haemorrhoids. The follow-up period was 6-72 months. Pain was minimal or even not existent. Additional sutures or use of adrenaline 1:200.000 for haemostasis were required in 6 patients (4.8%). The bleeding has been diminished with the use of this new haemorrhoidectomy stapler PPH03. Urinary retention, which was observed in 3 patients (2.4%), was temporary and the use of catheter was not needed. As a late complication, 'faecal urgency' occurred in 8 patients (6.5%), and disappeared after some months. No recurrent haemorrhoidal disease occurred. No cases of chronic pain were reported. Average hospital stay was 1 day, except for 2 patients who remained for 2 days for bleeding observation. The correct application of SH reduces the possible complications. The advantages of the stapled procedure are reduced postoperative pain, the minimal hospital stay and early return to work.
Sawada, Shigeaki; Yamagishi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Syuuichiro; Matsuoha, Jiro; Arai, Hideki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro
The management of pancreatic leakage is important after pancreatic resection because such leakagge can be associated with additional complications. In this paper, we present a new therapy "irrigation with suction" after pancreatic surgery. The addition of suction permits the start of irrigation early after surgery and prevents severe post-operative complications. Between January 1995 and June 2003, 29 consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment of the pancreas for a variety of indications. Among them, 18 patients were treated with continuous irrigation with suction prophylactically. In these 29 patients, we did not encounter any additional complications such as intraabdominal hemorrhage or abscess formation. A representative case report demonstrates the application of this treatment. The irrigation with suction therapy was started on the first post-operative day after the pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with left lobectomy of the liver. CT with irrigation of contrast reagent showed that the reagent did not spread to the uninvolved abdominal area, and the patient did not develop hemorrhage or abscess. It seems that continuous irrigation with suction therapy was effective in preventing additional serious complications after pancreatic resection.
Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan
, irrespective of the location of the wound and whether or not the wound was dressed. We excluded trials if they included patients with contaminated, dirty or infected wounds and those that included open wounds. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials, cohort studies and case-control studies. We extracted data on the characteristics of the patients included in the trials, risk of bias in the trials and outcomes from each trial. For binary outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous variables we planned to calculate the mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For count data outcomes, we planned to calculate the rate ratio (RaR) with 95% CI. We used RevMan 5 software for performing these calculations. Only one trial was identified for inclusion in this review. This trial was at a high risk of bias. This trial included 857 patients undergoing minor skin excision surgery in the primary care setting. The wounds were sutured after the excision. Patients were randomised to early post-operative bathing (dressing to be removed after 12 hours and normal bathing resumed) (n = 415) or delayed post-operative bathing (dressing to be retained for at least 48 hours before removal and resumption of normal bathing) (n = 442). The only outcome of interest reported in this trial was surgical site infection (SSI). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who developed SSIs between the two groups (857 patients; RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48). The proportions of patients who developed SSIs were 8.5% in the early bathing group and 8.8% in the delayed bathing group. There is currently no conclusive evidence available from randomised trials regarding the benefits or harms of early versus delayed post-operative showering or bathing for the prevention of wound complications, as the confidence intervals around the point estimate are wide, and, therefore, a clinically significant increase
Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan
their wounds, irrespective of the location of the wound and whether or not the wound was dressed. We excluded trials if they included patients with contaminated, dirty or infected wounds and those that included open wounds. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials, cohort studies and case-control studies. We extracted data on the characteristics of the patients included in the trials, risk of bias in the trials and outcomes from each trial. For binary outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous variables we planned to calculate the mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For count data outcomes, we planned to calculate the rate ratio (RaR) with 95% CI. We used RevMan 5 software for performing these calculations. Only one trial was identified for inclusion in this review. This trial was at a high risk of bias. This trial included 857 patients undergoing minor skin excision surgery in the primary care setting. The wounds were sutured after the excision. Patients were randomised to early post-operative bathing (dressing to be removed after 12 hours and normal bathing resumed) (n = 415) or delayed post-operative bathing (dressing to be retained for at least 48 hours before removal and resumption of normal bathing) (n = 442). The only outcome of interest reported in this trial was surgical site infection (SSI). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who developed SSIs between the two groups (857 patients; RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48). The proportions of patients who developed SSIs were 8.5% in the early bathing group and 8.8% in the delayed bathing group. There is currently no conclusive evidence available from randomised trials regarding the benefits or harms of early versus delayed post-operative showering or bathing for the prevention of wound complications, as the confidence intervals around the point estimate are wide, and, therefore, a clinically
Chao, Min; Zhang, Yin; Liang, Chaozhao
To improve the surgical outcome of hypospadias repair surgery, preoperative hormonal stimulation (PHS) has been proposed. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of preoperative hormonal stimulation (PHS) treatment on complication rates following hypospadias repair surgery. A comprehensive literature search up to June 1st, 2015 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, relative ratio (RR) was calculated to compare postoperative complication rates. Heterogeneity among individual studies was tested using the Cochran χ2 Q test and quantified by calculating the I2 index. Meta-regression was applied to find potential affective factors. Overall, 428 patients from 6 studies had undergone primary hypospadias repair, of which 171 (39.95%) received some form of PHS with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T). They underwent three different types of surgical techniques, including onlay island flap (N.=277), tubularized incised plate (N.=99) and Koyanagi urethroplasty (N.=52). These 6 studies classified the complication rates based on PHS. The relative ratio (RR) for a complication occurring following PHS use was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.70-2.00, Z=0.91, P=0.539). Significant heterogeneity (I2=47.1%, P=0.092) among various research literature was found and meta-regression was undertaken for the heterogeneity, but surgical technique, mean age of patients at time of surgery, types of PHS and the quality of studies were not the cause of heterogeneity. Use of T, DHT and HCG prior to hypospadias repair does not appear to increase the incidence of postoperative complications, but further investigation is needed.
Grubnik, V V; Dotsenko, S A; Chuev, P N; Basenko, I L; Salamekh, A
The results of conduction of operative interventions in 37 patients with alimentary-costitutional obesity are adduced. In 22 of them having the obesity of III-IV stages the small stomach 100-150 ml in volume was constructed puuling in it too tight with a synthetic ribbon. In 1-1.5 years after the operation patient loses 70-80% of excessive body mass, and severe metabolic disturbances never occur. In 15 patients cutaneo-subcutaneous aprons on the abdomen were excised. Intravascular blood irradiation with the help of helium-neon laser for the prophylaxis of early postoperative complications occurrence was conducted. The stimulating action of laserotherapy on the cell and humoral immunity groups, alike central and peripheral hemodynamics improvement, moderate hypocoagulating and analgetic effect, lowering of the purulent-septical and thromboembolic complications in 1.5-2 times was noted.
Seklehner, Stephan; Heißler, Ortwin; Engelhardt, Paul F; Riedl, Claus
To evaluate the impact of retrograde pyelography (RPG) in patients treated with ureteroscopy (URS) for ureteral calculi. Retrospective analysis of patients treated with and without RPG prior to URS at a single institution from 2010 to 2013. Assessment of stone-free rates and intraoperative complications. Out of 469 URS, 211 (45%) were done with and 258 (55%) without RPG. Complete stone removal was achieved in 86.8% without RPG compared to 73% with RPG (p=0.0001). Partial stone removal rates were similar in both groups (p=0.77). Stone removal was not achieved in 9.3 vs. 22.7% (p=0.0001), with concordant findings in the distal (7.4 vs. 16.9%, p=0.007) and the proximal ureter (14.5 vs. 38.6%, p=0.002). Patients with RPG had a threefold higher chance of an unsuccessful URS (OR 3.05, 1.71-5.43, p<0.0001) and were less likely of having a complete stone removal (OR 0.37, 0.22-0.61, p<0.0001). Ureteral avulsions (0%) and ureteral perforation rates were similar (4.7 vs. 3.8%, p=0.65). Patients treated with an RPG prior to URS had significantly inferior stone-free rates. RPG was identified as an independent risk factor for inferior results. RPG neither facilitates nor diminishes complication rates during URS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sampietro, G M; Cristaldi, M; Porretta, T; Montecamozzo, G; Danelli, P; Taschieri, A M
Strictureplasty (SP) or miniresective 'bowel-sparing' techniques (MR) can prevent the risk of intestinal stomia and short bowel syndrome in patients affected by Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the perioperative morbidity and mortality in 104 of 138 consecutive patients treated for CD complications using bowel-sparing techniques. We also considered the factors that may be related to the risk of perioperative complications and the long-term outcome. One hundred and four patients were treated with SP and/or MR and then included in a prospectively maintained database. The factors claimed to influence perioperative complications were analyzed using Fisher's exact test for categorical observations and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. A multivariate analysis, using logistic regression, and a long-term time-to-event analysis using the Kaplan-Meier function, were also performed. Perioperative mortality was nil. In relation to the 6 postoperative complications (5.8%), 4 patients underwent minimal bowel resection (MR), 1 a MR with SP, and 1 SP alone. Three of these patients (2.9%) needed reoperation for septic complications, and 3 (2.9%) were treated as outpatients for enterocutaneous fistulas. A correlation (p < 0.05) was found between low serum hemoglobin levels and postoperative complications at univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year surgical recurrence-free rate was 75% overall, 73% for patients treated with SP, 78% with MR, and 77% with MR + SP. Postoperative complications are not related to conservative or miniresective surgery even when active disease is present at the resection margins or the site of SP. The higher risk reported for patients with low serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels suggests that surgeons should consider using preoperative iron and vitamin support, parenteral nutrition and erythropoietin therapy, when necessary, in those cases. Our postoperative morbidity, mortality and long-term surgical
Slump, Jelena; Hofer, Stefan O P; Ferguson, Peter C; Wunder, Jay S; Griffin, Anthony M; Hoekstra, Harald J; Bastiaannet, Esther; O'Neill, Anne C
Flap reconstruction plays an essential role in facilitating limb preservation in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS). However, the effect of flap choice on the rates of postoperative complications and functional outcomes has not been clearly established. This study directly compares the outcomes of free and pedicled flap reconstructions in patients with ESTS. Two hundred sixty-six patients who underwent flap reconstruction following ESTS resection were included. Associations between flap type and complications were determined using logistic regression analyses. Functional outcome was evaluated using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Scales (MSTS). There was no significant difference between complication rates in the pedicled and free flap groups (32% vs. 38%, p = 0.38). In the lower limb, pedicled flaps had complication rates similar to those of free flaps on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.56-2.26, p = 0.75). Conversely, in the upper limb, pedicled flaps were associated with fewer complications on univariate analysis (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.11-0.86, p = 0.03), but this was not significant on multivariate analysis (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.13-1.59, p = 0.22). Obesity was a strong predictor of complications in the upper limb group on multivariate analysis (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , OR = 7.01, 95% CI = 1.28-38.51, p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in functional outcomes between both flap groups in either upper or lower limbs. Postoperative complications and functional outcomes for patients undergoing free and pedicled flaps are similar in ESTS reconstruction. Selecting the most suitable reconstructive option in each individual case is paramount to preserving function while minimizing postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and
Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej
Introduction Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. Aim To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. Material and methods The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1st and 2nd postoperative day (POD). Results Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1st and 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2nd POD compared to the remainder. Conclusions The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG. PMID:28694902
Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej
Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.
Hungness, Eric S; Sternbach, Joel M; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E; Soper, Nathaniel J
We aimed to report long-term outcomes for patients undergoing per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) after our initial 15-case learning curve. POEM has become an established, natural-orifice surgical approach for treating esophageal motility disorders. To date, published outcomes and comparative-effectiveness studies have included patients from the early POEM experience. Consecutive patients undergoing POEM after our initial 15 cases, with a minimum of 1-year postoperative follow-up, were included. Treatment success was defined as an Eckardt score ≤3 without reintervention. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined by abnormal pH-testing or reflux esophagitis >Los Angeles grade A. Between January 2012 and March 2015, 115 patients underwent POEM at a single, high-volume center. Operative time was 101 ± 29 minutes, with 95% (109/115) of patients discharged on postoperative day 1. Clavien-Dindo grade III complications occurred in 2.7%, one of which required diagnostic laparoscopy to rule out Veress needle injury to the gall bladder. The rate of grade I complications was 15.2%. At an average of 2.4 years post-POEM (range 12-52 months), the overall success rate was 92%. Objective evidence of reflux was present in 40% for all patients and 33% for patients with a body mass index <35 kg/m and no hiatal hernia. POEM performed by experienced surgeons provided durable symptomatic relief in 94% of patients with nonspastic achalasia and 90% of patients with type 3 achalasia/spastic esophageal motility disorders, with a low rate of complications. The rate of gastroesophageal reflux was comparable with prior studies of both POEM and laparoscopic Heller myotomy.
Bolsin, Stephen N; Stow, Peter; Bucknell, Sarah
To assess the incidence of renal failure in a cardiac surgery service commencing in Australia. Prospective data collection and retrospective database analysis. A tertiary referral, university teaching hospital in the state of Victoria, Australia. The first 502 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in this institution from commencement of the service. The overall rate of renal failure was low in comparison to other studies at 0.2% (95% CI 0.04-1.3%). The rate of postoperative renal dysfunction was also low at 4.2% (95% CI 2.7-6.5%). The safety of the new service with respect to this complication of cardiac surgery was good when compared with published data. However the lack of uniform definitions of renal failure following cardiac surgery make comparisons between studies difficult. Uniform reporting of this complication would facilitate comparisons between units and quality assurance activities in this field.
Postoperative Early Major and Minor Complications in Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.
Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Alodat, Tareq; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to compare the "early postoperative complication rate i.e. within 30-days" reported from randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing these two procedures. RCTs comparing the early complication rates following LVSG and LRYGB between 2000 and 2015 were selected from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database. The outcome variables analyzed included 30-day mortality, major and minor complications and interventions required for their management, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, operating time, and conversions from laparoscopic to open procedures. Six RCTs involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on early major complications. A statistically significant reduction in relative odds of early major complications favoring the LVSG procedure was noted (p = 0.05). Five RCTs representing 633 patients (LVSG n = 317, LRYGB n = 316) reported early minor complications. A non-statically significant reduction in relative odds of 29 % favoring the LVSG procedure was observed for early minor complications (p = 0.4). However, other outcomes directly related to complications which included reoperation rates, readmission rate, and 30-day mortality rate showed comparable effect size for both surgical procedures. This meta-analysis and systematic review of RCTs suggests that fewer early major and minor complications are associated with LVSG compared with LRYGB procedure. However, this does not translate into higher readmission rate, reoperation rate, or 30-day mortality for either procedure.
Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Krukziener, Náthalie; Hutten, Barbara A; Vollebregt, Karlijn C; van Eijsden, Manon; Twickler, Marcel B
Elevated lipid levels during late pregnancy are associated with complications and adverse outcome for both mother and newborn. However, it is inconclusive whether a disturbed lipid profile during early pregnancy has similar negative associations. Our objective was to investigate whether nonfasting maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during early pregnancy are associated with six major adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development (ABCD) cohort study. Random blood samples of nonfasting total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined during early gestation (median = 13, interquartile range = 12-14 wk). Outcome measures were pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia, preterm birth, small/large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and child loss. Only nondiabetic women with singleton deliveries were included; the baseline sample consisted of 4008 women. Analysis for PIH and preeclampsia were performed in nulliparous women only (n = 2037). Mean (sd) triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were 1.33 (0.55) and 4.98 (0.87) mmol/liter, respectively. The incidence of pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes were as follows: PIH, 4.9%; preeclampsia, 3.7%; preterm birth, 5.3%; SGA, 9.3%; LGA, 9.3%; and child loss, 1.4%. After adjustments, every unit increase in triglycerides was linearly associated with an increased risk of PIH [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, P = 0.021], preeclampsia (OR = 1.69, P = 0.018), LGA (OR = 1.48, P < 0.001), and induced preterm delivery (OR = 1.69, P = 0.006). No associations were found for SGA or child loss. Total cholesterol was not associated with any of the outcome measures. Elevated maternal triglyceride levels measured during early pregnancy are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. These results suggest that future lifestyle programs in women of reproductive age with a focus on lowering triglyceride levels (i.e. diet, weight
Géczi, Tibor; Paszt, Attila; Simonka, Zsolt; Furák, József; Lázár, György
We report the case of a 45-year-old male patient who developed an acute peptic ulcer perforation of the tubal stomach on the second postoperative day after oesophagectomy. The patient underwent emergency surgery (perforation was closed with a Graham patch) followed by treatment in intensive care, and was finally discharged on the 19th postoperative day. Gastric pull-up is a surgical technique that is widely used to re-establish the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract after oesophagectomy. Various early and late complications of reconstruction with the tubal stomach are well-known, such as gastric necrosis, gastritis, gastric ulcer, as well as benign and malignant tumors. The precise etiology of gastric tube ulceration is not known yet, however, it can develop not only in the late, but also in the early postoperative period, as well.
PURPOSE The prospective follow-up aimed to assess the performance of lithium disilicate crowns and clinical reasons of adverse events compromising survival and quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS 58 patients were treated with 375 heat-pressed monolithic crowns, which were bonded with resin cement. Annual recalls up to five years included a complete dental examination as well as quality assessment using CDA-criteria. Any need for clinical intervention led to higher complication rate and any failure compromised the survival rate. Kaplan-Meier-method was applied to all crowns and a dataset containing one randomly selected crown from each patient. RESULTS Due to drop-outs, 45 patients (31 females, 14 males) with the average age of 43 years (range = 17–73) who had 327 crowns (176 anterior, 151 posterior; 203 upper jaw, 124 lower jaw) were observed and evaluated for between 4 and 51 months (median = 28). Observation revealed 4 chippings, 3 losses of retention, 3 fractures, 3 secondary caries, 1 endodontic problem, and 1 tooth fracture. Four crowns had to be removed. Survival and complication rate was estimated 98.2% and 5.4% at 24 months, and 96.8% and 7.1% at 48 months. The complication rate was significantly higher for root canal treated teeth (12%, P<.01) at 24 months. At the last observation, over 90% of all crowns showed excellent ratings (CDA-rating Alfa) for color, marginal fit, and caries. CONCLUSION Heat pressed lithium disilicate crowns showed an excellent performance. Besides a careful luting, dentists should be aware of patients' biological prerequisites (grade of caries, oral hygiene) to reach full success with these crowns. PMID:27350853
Fleming, C A; Kuteva, M; O'Hanlon, K; O'Brien, G; McGreal, G
Approximately 19% of morbidity in peripheral vascular surgery is attributable to wound complications, which can result in delayed healing, and also arterial or graft infection leading to limb loss and even mortality in extreme cases. To determine whether groin wound complications were reduced following the routine introduction of PICO negative pressure wound therapy dressings in patients who underwent peripheral vascular surgery. Patients who underwent peripheral vascular surgery from 2011 to 2016 were identified and divided into PICO and non-PICO groups. Patient, procedure and wound characteristics were tabulated and analysed. Patients were followed-up for at least six weeks postoperatively. Wound complication rates, infection confirmed by microbiology, and requirement for re-admission due to wound complications were noted. Basic cost analysis was performed. In total, 151 patients were analysed (N = 73 PICO, N = 78 non-PICO). No difference in age (P = 0.862), body mass index (P = 0.673), diabetes (P = 0.339), pre-operative albumin (P = 0.196), use of drain (P = 0.343) and history of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = 0.281) was observed between groups. The PICO group contained more smokers than the non-PICO group (45% vs 29%, P = 0.034). Wound complications were seen in 8% (N = 6) of the PICO group and 19% (N = 15) of the non-PICO group (P = 0.042). No significant difference in infection was found between the two groups (3% vs 6%, P = 0.249), but fewer seromas were observed when PICO dressings were used (1.4% vs 7.7%, P = 0.069). Haematoma (2.7% vs 3.8%, P = 0.531) and dehiscence rates (1.4% vs 1.3%, P = 0.735) were similar between the two groups. Routine use of PICO dressings is associated with a reduction in wound complication rates following peripheral vascular surgery, and is cost-effective. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dams, Judith; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Siebert, Uwe; Deuschl, Günther; Schuepbach, W M Michael; Krack, Paul; Timmermann, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons; Reese, Jens-Peter; Dodel, Richard
Recent research efforts have focused on the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) for selected patients with mild-to-moderate PD experiencing motor complications. We assessed the cost utility of subthalamic DBS compared with the best medical treatment for German patients below the age of 61 with early motor complications of PD. We applied a previously published Markov model that integrated health utilities based on EuroQoL and direct costs over patients' lifetime adjusted to the German health care payer perspective (year of costing: 2013). Effectiveness was evaluated using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 summary index. We performed sensitivity analyses to assess uncertainty. In the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-utility ratio for STN DBS compared to best medical treatment was 22,700 Euros per quality-adjusted life year gained. The time to, and costs for, battery exchange had a major effect on the incremental cost-utility ratios, but never exceeded a threshold of 50,000 Euros per quality-adjusted life year. Our decision analysis supports the fact that STN DBS at earlier stages of the disease is cost-effective in patients below the age of 61 when compared with the best medical treatment in the German health care system. This finding was supported by detailed sensitivity analyses reporting robust results. Whereas the EARLYSTIM study has shown STN DBS to be superior to medical therapy with respect to quality of life for patients with early motor complications, this further analysis has shown its cost-effectiveness. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Yu, Nan-Ze; Huang, Jiu-Zuo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Ru; Bai, Ming; Long, Xiao
Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR) of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30–83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3–52.5% after 15 weeks). Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00–14.56% after 1-year). Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2), stroke (10), vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke), sepsis (3), multiple abscess (1) and giant fat necrotic cyst (2). Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack of
Lewandowski, Louis R.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Tribble, David R.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Petfield, Joseph; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Murray, Clinton K.; Stinner, Daniel; Aggarwal, Deepak; Shaikh, Faraz; Potter, Benjamin K.
Objective Clinicians have anecdotally noted that combat-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) lead to residual limb shortening, additional days and operative procedures prior to initial wound closure, and high early complication rates. We evaluated the validity of these observations and identified risk factors that may impact time to initial wound closure. Design Retrospective review and case-control analysis. Setting Military hospitals. Patients/Participants United States military personnel injured during combat operations (2009–2011). The IFI cases were identified based upon the presence of recurrent, necrotic extremity wounds with mold growth in culture and/or histopathologic fungal evidence. Non-IFI controls were matched on injury pattern and severity. In a supplemental matching analysis, non-IFI controls were also matched by blood volume transfused within 24 hours of injury. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measurements Amputation revision rate and loss of functional levels. Results Seventy-one IFI cases (112 fungal-infected extremity wounds) were identified and matched to 160 control patients (315 non-IFI extremity wounds). The IFI wounds resulted in significantly more changes in amputation level (p<0.001). Additionally, significantly (p<0.001) higher number of operative procedures and longer duration to initial wound closure was associated with IFI. A shorter duration to initial wound closure was significantly associated with wounds lacking IFIs (Hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.01). The supplemental matching analysis found similar results. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that IFIs adversely impact wound healing and patient recovery, requiring more frequent proximal amputation revisions and leading to higher early complication rates. PMID:26360542
Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin
Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P < 0.05), renal replacement therapy (P < 0.05), and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05) more often and had a higher maximal administered dose of norepinephrine (P < 0.05), compared to patients without jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P < 0.05). Occurrence of jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P < 0.05). In particular, infections as well as renal and GI complications occurred more frequently in group 1 during follow-up. Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Tan, Anna; Tan, Donald T; Tan, Xiao-Wei; Mehta, Jodhbir S
Case series on osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis (OOKP) published in English from 1950-June 2010 were identified in Medline/PubMed. Indications for surgery, visual acuity, anatomical survival, complication and repeat surgery rates were compared among the different studies. Our own case series is a retrospective review of all OOKP surgeries performed in our center from February 2004-July 2011. Eight case series including our own were systematically reviewed. Sample sizes ranged from 4-181 eyes. The most common indications for surgery were severe cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and thermal and chemical burns that were unamenable to other forms of surgery or had had previous surgical failure. Anatomical survival rate in all the studies was 87.8% (range 67-100%) at 5 years, and three studies showed survival rates of 81.0% (range 65-98%) at 20 years. Visual acuity was more than 6/18 in 52% (range 46-72%) of the eyes with OOKP surgery. The most common intraoperative complication was vitreous hemorrhage (0-52%) and the most common long-term blinding complication was glaucoma (7-47%). Endophthalmitis rates ranged from 2-8%. The most common repeat surgical procedure was mucosal trimming due to mucosal overgrowth at the optical cylinder and mucosal grafting for extrusion of the OOKP or mucosal ulceration. Of the available biological and synthetic keratoprosthesis, OOKP appears to be an excellent option for the treatment of end-stage corneal diseases. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharkawi, Eamon; Artes, Paul H; Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Bela, Cyrielle; Achache, Farid; Barton, Keith; Bergin, Ciara
Evaluation of a protocol of total intraluminal occlusion of Baerveldt shunts and its effects on early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) control and hypotony-related complications. This was a noncomparative, prospective, and interventional study. Glaucoma patients were recruited to undergo Baerveldt shunt surgery. A total of 116 eyes of 112 patients were enrolled. During shunt implantation, aqueous outflow was restricted using an intraluminal occluding stent inserted through the entire tube length, with and without external ligation, to halt aqueous flow. Postoperatively, eyes underwent ligature laser suture lysis and partial or complete stent removals, at predetermined time intervals. Loss of postoperative IOP control was categorized as transient or persistent hypotony (IOP≤5 mm Hg) or hypertony (IOP>21 mm Hg). Patients were followed up for 1 year. Preoperatively median IOP was 23 mm Hg (mean 26 mm Hg, SD 12 mm Hg), median number of glaucoma medications was 3.0 (mean 3.0, SD 1.2). During year 1, laser suture lysis was performed in 30 eyes (26%) and stent removal in 93 eyes (80%) (23 partial; 70 complete). There was 1 case of transient hypotony, no cases of persistent hypotony, 10 of transient hypertony, and 3 of persistent hypertony. Nine eyes had IOP≤5 mm Hg at ≥1 time points and hypotony-related complications occurred in 8 eyes (7%). At 1 year, median IOP was 12 mm Hg (mean 13 mm Hg, SD 4 mm Hg) with a median of 1.0 glaucoma medications (mean 1.1, SD 1.3). The cumulative probability of failure during the first 12 months follow-up was 6% (n=7). Overall postoperative complications occurred in 11 eyes (9%). The surgical and postoperative protocol resulted in controlled, step-wise reductions of IOP with low rates of hypotony and related complications.
Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza
Background: Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). Conclusions: The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications. PMID:25741514
Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza
Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications.
Gueret, P; Khalife, K; Jobic, Y; Fillipi, E; Isaaz, K; Tassan-Mangina, S; Baixas, C; Motreff, P; Meune, C
Since the early reports on the incidence of mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) assessed by echocardiography published in the 1980s, the management of patients with AMI has changed considerably, in particular with the progressive development of early revascularisation. The aim of this multicentre study was to assess the incidence of mechanical complications of AMI in the reperfusion era. Nine-hundred and eight consecutive patients were included. Echocardiography was performed on admission and at discharge. Seventy-eight percent of patients were revascularised at the acute phase. The following incidence rates of mechanical complications were observed: mitral regurgitation 28%, secondary to left ventricular (LV) remodelling (43%) or papillary muscle dysfunction (57%); pericardial effusion 6.6%, more frequent after anterior AMI and associated with a lower ejection fraction (EF); LV thrombus 2.4%, mainly after anterior AMI and associated with a lower EF (38+/-10% vs. 48+/-12%; p<0.001); early infarct expansion 4%; septal rupture 0.6%; and acute free wall rupture 0.8%. The following factors were independently associated with the occurrence of mechanical complications by multivariate logistic regression analysis: lack of early revascularisation (OR 3.48, 95%CI 1.36-8.95; p<0.001), LV-EF<50% (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.42-2.67; p<0.001), Killip class>II (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.27-2.87; p<0.002) and age > or =70 years (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.03-1.97; p<0.03). This study demonstrates the favourable prognostic influence of early revascularisation as shown by the low incidence of mechanical complications after AMI, and underlines the persistent relationship between the development of these complications and depressed LV function.
Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun
Abstract End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients exhibit an increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease. Helicobacter pylori plays a central role in the development of peptic ulcers. The effect of early H pylori eradication on the recurrence of complicated peptic ulcer disease in ESRD patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore whether early H pylori eradication therapy in ESRD patients can reduce the risk of recurrent complicated peptic ulcers. We conducted a population-based cohort study and recruited patients with ESRD who had developed peptic ulcers. We categorized patients into early (time lag ≦120 days after peptic ulcer diagnosis) and late H pylori eradication therapy groups. The Cox proportional hazards model was used. The endpoint was based on hospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcers. The early and late H pylori eradication therapy groups consisted of 2406 and 1356 ESRD patients, respectively, in a time lag of 120 days. After adjusting for possible confounders, the early eradication group exhibited a lower rate of complicated recurrent peptic ulcer disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64–0.91, P = 0.003) in a time lag of ≦120 days, but a similar rate of complicated recurrent peptic ulcer disease in time lags of ≦1 year (HR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.79–1.19, P = 0.758) and 2 years (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.86–1.44, P = 0.433) compared with the late eradication group. We recommend administering H pylori eradication within 120 days after peptic ulcer diagnosis to H pylori infected ESRD patients who have developed peptic ulcers. PMID:25569660
Capriccioso, Christina E; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A
To investigate the effect of initial varus or valgus surgical neck alignment on outcomes of patients who sustained proximal humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). An institutional review board approved database of proximal humerus fractures treated with locked plates was reviewed. Of 185 fractures in the database, 101 fractures were identified and met inclusion criteria. Initial varus displacement was seen in 47 fractures (OTA types 11.A2.2, A3.1, A3.3, B1.2, B2.2, C1.2, C2.2, or C2.3) and initial valgus displacement was observed in 54 fractures (OTA types 11.A2.3, B1.1, C1.1, or C2.1). All patients were treated in a similar manner and examined by the treating physician at standard intervals. Functional outcomes were quantified via the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and physical examination data at 12 months. Radiographs were reviewed for complications of healing. Additionally, complication rate and reoperation rate were investigated. Patients who presented with initial varus displacement had an average age of 59.3 years, while patients in the valgus group had an average age of 62.4 years. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in age, sex distribution, BMI, fracture parts, screws used, or implant plate type between the two groups. At a minimum 12 months follow up, there was no significant difference in DASH scores between those presenting with varus versus valgus fracture patterns. In addition, no significant differences were seen in final shoulder range of motion in any plane. Overall, 30 patients included in this study developed a complication. A significantly greater number of patients in the initial varus cohort developed complications (40.4%), as compared to 20.3% of patients in the initial valgus cohort (P=0.03). Fourteen patients in this study underwent reoperation. Nine of these patients were in the varus cohort, while 5 were in the valgus cohort (P=0.15). In this
Mueller, Claire Mackenzie; Boden, Stephanie Ann; Boden, Allison Lee; Maidman, Samuel David; Cutler, Anya; Mignemi, Danielle; Bariteau, Jason
Hammertoe deformities are the most common lesser toe deformity. To date, no studies have looked at outcomes of operative management in the geriatric population, which may be at greater risk for complications or functional compromise because of comorbidities. Data on 58 patients undergoing operative correction of hammertoe deformities were prospectively collected. Clinical outcomes were assessed using preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores with a minimum of 6-month follow-up. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of age at the time of surgery: younger than 65 and 65 and older. Complication rates and mean VAS and SF-36 improvement were compared. Forty-seven patients met inclusion criteria (7 men, 40 women), with 26 patients (37 toes) in the younger cohort and 21 patients (39 toes) in the older cohort. Overall, patients demonstrated significant improvement from baseline to 6 and 12 months postoperatively in VAS ( P < .001 and P < .001) and SF-36 ( P < .001 and P < .001) scores. Mean improvement in VAS and SF-36 scores was not significantly different between the groups at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Complications occurred in 13.5% and 10.3% of patients in the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Outcomes of operative correction of hammertoe deformities in older patients were similar to outcomes in younger patients after greater than 6 months of follow-up. Overall improvement in VAS and SF-36 was statistically significant for both cohorts. There was no associated increase in complications for older patients. Level, III comparative series.
Study Objectives: (a) To find out the actual incidence of complications during endoscopic surgeries. (b) Comparison of complication rate between an experienced laparoscopic surgeon (> 10 years of experience in endoscopic surgery) and a clinical assistant (> 3 years of experience in endoscopic surgery). (c) How to manage complications in endoscopic surgery. (d) Concrete suggestions to reduce the complication rate. Design: Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification ii-2). Setting: Tertiary gynecologic endoscopic unit. Patients: A total of 3204 cases of gynecologic endoscopic surgery out of which 2001 were laparoscopic and 1203 were hysteroscopic surgeries. Interventions: Laparoscopic and hysteroscopic gynecologic surgeries in indicated cases. Measurements and Main Results: The study was carried out between April 2003 and October 2007 at a referral center for endoscopic surgery. A total of 3204 cases of gynecologic endoscopic surgery were studied. There were five significant complications in laparoscopic surgeries and four significant complications in hysteroscopic surgeries seen in four years and six months. All the complications could be managed with no mortality. Conversion to laparotomy was needed in eight cases of laparoscopic surgeries and none in hysteroscopic surgeries. Conclusion: The risk of complication reduces with the experience in endoscopic surgery. However, the proper grooming of a novice in experienced hands, for a sufficient period of time, can minimize the complication rate in the initial learning phase. The complication may be utilized as a stepping-stone to overcome any given situation without panic, but with adequate safety. PMID:22442510
Abdelaziz, Dalia H A; Ali, Sahar A; Mostafa, Mahmoud M A
In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1 g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248 ± 42 versus 508 ± 60 mg/dl), urea (32 ± 3.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.6 mg/dl), creatinine (2.2 ± 0.35 versus 3.8 ± 0.37 mg/dl), ALT (29.6 ± 3.9 versus 46.4 ± 5.9 IU/l), and AST (73.3 ± 13 versus 127.8 ± 18.7 IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds.
Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J
Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hou, Shao-zhen; Liang, Chu-yan; Liu, Hua-zhen; Zhu, Dong-mei; Wu, Ya-yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping
Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693
Kantar, Rami S; Cammarata, Michael J; Rifkin, William J; Plana, Natalie M; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Flores, Roberto L
Fiscal constraints are driving shorter hospital lengths of stay. Outpatient primary cleft lip surgery has been shown to be safe, but outpatient primary cleft palate surgery remains controversial. This study evaluates outcomes following outpatient versus inpatient primary cleft lip and palate surgery. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database was used to identify patients undergoing primary cleft lip and palate surgery between 2012 and 2015. Patient clinical factors and 30-day complications were compared for outpatient versus inpatient primary cleft lip and palate surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Three thousand one hundred forty-two patients were included in the primary cleft lip surgery group and 4191 in the primary cleft palate surgery group. Patients in the cleft lip surgery group with structural pulmonary abnormalities had a significantly longer hospital length of stay (β, 4.94; p = 0.001). Patients undergoing outpatient surgery had a significantly higher risk of superficial (OR, 1.99; p = 0.01) and deep wound dehiscence (OR, 2.22; p = 0.01), and were at a significantly lower risk of reoperation (OR, 0.36; p = 0.04) and readmission (OR, 0.52; p = 0.02). Outpatient primary cleft lip surgery is safe and has a complication profile similar to that of inpatient surgery. Outpatient primary cleft palate surgery is common practice in many U.S. hospitals and has a significantly higher rate of wound complications, and lower rates of reoperation and readmission. In properly selected patients, outpatient palatoplasty can be performed safely. Therapeutic, III.
Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Sawicki, Marcin; Lubkowska, Katarzyna; Rać, Monika
Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is a rare pathology diagnosed mostly in young adults. However, due to its hemorrhagic complications, it constitutes an important clinical problem. Treatment modalities available include endovascular, surgery and radiosurgery. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment of BAVM with Onyx ® by reporting one-center experience. Between 2006 and 2013, 54 patients with BAVM were embolized with Onyx. The group consisted of 24 males and 30 females, aged 10 to 65 years (mean 42.6±15.4). Clinical manifestations of BAVMs were: hemorrhage in 27 (50.0%), headaches in 12 (22.2%), seizures in 7 (13.0%) and focal neurologic deficits in 2 (3.7%) patients. Six (11.1%) patients were asymptomatic. A majority of BAVMs were of II and III grade in Spetzler-Martin scale (19 and 22 cases respectively). A total number of 108 endovascular procedures were performed (mean 2.00±0.98 sessions/patient). Complete obliteration of malformation was achieved in 25 (46.3%) patients, mostly with grade II and III BAVMs. In 29 (53.7%) patients, embolization led to a decrease in size of BAVM that made it feasible for other treatment modality. Morbidity and mortality rates were 5.6% and 1.8% respectively. The rate of hemorrhagic complications was 9.3%. Embolization of BAVM with Onyx ® is an effective and safe method of treatment. However, regarding type and consequences of complications, the technique needs further improvement. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Koenig, Lane; Soltoff, Samuel A; Demiralp, Berna; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Foster, Nancy E; Steinberg, Caroline Rossi; Vaz, Christopher; Wetzel, Scott; Xu, Susan
In 2016, Medicare's Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HAC-RP) will reduce hospital payments by $364 million. Although observers have questioned the validity of certain HAC-RP measures, less attention has been paid to the determination of low-performing hospitals (bottom quartile) and the assignment of penalties. This study investigated possible bias in the HAC-RP by simulating hospitals' likelihood of being in the worst-performing quartile for 8 patient safety measures, assuming identical expected complication rates across hospitals. Simulated likelihood of being a poor performer varied with hospital size. This relationship depended on the measure's complication rate. For 3 of 8 measures examined, the equal-quality simulation identified poor performers similarly to empirical data (c-statistic approximately 0.7 or higher) and explained most of the variation in empirical performance by size (Efron's R 2 > 0.85). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services could address potential bias in the HAC-RP by stratifying by hospital size or using a broader "all-harm" measure.
Alobaidaan, Raed; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Lord, Elizabeth L; Buser, Zorica; Yoon, S Tim; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Brodke, Darrel S; Wang, Jeffrey C; Meisel, Hans-Joerg
Retrospective cohort study among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. To identify the complication rates associated with the use of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in PLIF. Human BMP2 is commonly used in the "off-label" manner for various types of spine fusion procedures, including PLIF. However, recent studies have reported potential complications associated with the recombinant human BMP2 (rhBMP2) use in the posterior approach. Medicare records within the PearlDiver database were queried for patients undergoing PLIF procedure with and without rhBMP2 between 2005 and 2010. We evaluated complications within 1 year postoperatively. Chi-square was used to compare the complication rates between the 2 groups. A total of 8609 patients underwent PLIF procedure with or without rhBMP2. Individual complication rates in the rhBMP2 group ranged from 0.45% to 7.68% compared with 0.65% to 10.99 in the non-rhBMP2 group. Complication rates for cardiac, pulmonary, lumbosacral neuritis, infection, wound, and urinary tract (include acute kidney failure and post-operative complications) were significantly lower in the rhBMP2 group ( P < .05). There was no difference in the rates of central nervous system complications or radiculitis between the 2 groups. Our data showed that the patients who received rhBMP2 had lower complication rates compared to the non-rhBMP2 group. However, use of rhBMP2 was associated with a higher rate of pseudarthrosis. We did not observe any difference in radiculitis and central nervous system complications between the groups.
Alobaidaan, Raed; Cohen, Jeremiah R.; Lord, Elizabeth L.; Yoon, S. Tim; Youssef, Jim A.; Park, Jong-Beom; Brodke, Darrel S.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Meisel, Hans-Joerg
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. Objective: To identify the complication rates associated with the use of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in PLIF. Human BMP2 is commonly used in the “off-label” manner for various types of spine fusion procedures, including PLIF. However, recent studies have reported potential complications associated with the recombinant human BMP2 (rhBMP2) use in the posterior approach. Methods: Medicare records within the PearlDiver database were queried for patients undergoing PLIF procedure with and without rhBMP2 between 2005 and 2010. We evaluated complications within 1 year postoperatively. Chi-square was used to compare the complication rates between the 2 groups. Results: A total of 8609 patients underwent PLIF procedure with or without rhBMP2. Individual complication rates in the rhBMP2 group ranged from 0.45% to 7.68% compared with 0.65% to 10.99 in the non-rhBMP2 group. Complication rates for cardiac, pulmonary, lumbosacral neuritis, infection, wound, and urinary tract (include acute kidney failure and post-operative complications) were significantly lower in the rhBMP2 group (P < .05). There was no difference in the rates of central nervous system complications or radiculitis between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Our data showed that the patients who received rhBMP2 had lower complication rates compared to the non-rhBMP2 group. However, use of rhBMP2 was associated with a higher rate of pseudarthrosis. We did not observe any difference in radiculitis and central nervous system complications between the groups. PMID:29238641
Redechová, S; Féderová, L; Hammerová, L; Filkászová, A; Horváthová, D; Redecha, M
Authors in the article describe a case of a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpurain 37 weeks gestation complicated by acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotic pancreatitis during the early puerperium. Case report. Ist Department of gynaecology and obstetrics of the Comenius University Bratislava. 33-years-old patient in the 37 weeks gestation was admitted to our department with the signs of HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets). Due to the worsening clinical status, we have performed caesarean section. After the transient stabilization of the patient's clinical status, the hemolysis with severe thrombocytopenia reappeared. Based on the clinical signs of abdominal pain and computer tomography, the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic-necrotic pancreatitis was set. The primary diagnosis was thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange was performed with consequent improvement of the patients clinical state. Normalization of the platelet count was achieved after 4.plasma exchanges. Consequently 5 plasma exchanges were performed. However, one month later, the disease relapsed. Therapeutic plasma exchanges were needed again (4x), with anti CD 20 administration. This therapy had good clinical outcome, without the need for further plasma exchanges. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is highly lethal disease. Early diagnosis, treatment, and multidisciplinary approach are essential.
Selber, Jesse C; Wren, James H; Garvey, Patrick B; Zhang, Hong; Erickson, Cameron; Clemens, Mark W; Butler, Charles E
Acellular dermal matrix for implant-based breast reconstruction appears to cause higher early complication rates, but long-term outcomes are perceived to be superior. This dichotomy is the subject of considerable debate. The authors hypothesized that patient characteristics and operative variables would have a greater impact on complications than the type of acellular dermal matrix used. A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive patients who underwent two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction with human cadaveric or bovine acellular dermal matrix from 2006 to 2012 at a single institution. Patient characteristics and operative variables were analyzed using logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors for complications. The authors included 564 reconstructions in the study. Radiation therapy and obesity increased the odds of all complications. Every 100-ml increase in preoperative breast volume increased the odds of any complication by 1 percent, the odds of infection by 27 percent, and the risk of explantation by 16 percent. The odds of seroma increased linearly with increasing surface area of acellular dermal matrix. Odds of infection were higher with an intraoperative expander fill volume greater than 50 percent of the total volume. Risk of explantation was twice as high when intraoperative expander fill volume was greater than 300 ml. Radiation therapy, obesity, larger breasts, higher intraoperative fill volumes, and larger acellular dermal matrices are all independent risk factors for early complications. Maximizing the initial mastectomy skin envelope fill must be balanced with the understanding that higher complication rates may result from a larger intraoperative breast mound. Risk, III.
Barry, Rachel A; Fink, Daniel S; Pourciau, Dusty Cole; Hayley, Kasey; Lanius, Rachael; Hayley, Schuylor; Sims, Eddy; McWhorter, Andrew J
Objective Jet ventilation has been used for >30 years as an anesthetic modality for laryngotracheal surgery. Concerns exist over increased risk with elevated body mass index (BMI). We reviewed our experience using jet ventilation for laryngotracheal stenosis to assess for complication rates with substratification by BMI. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods A total of 126 procedures with jet ventilation were identified from October 2006 to December 2014. Complications were recorded, including intubation, unplanned admission, readmission, dysphonia, oral trauma, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and tracheostomy. Lowest intraoperative oxygen saturation and maximum end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 ) levels were recorded. Results Among 126 patients, 43, 77, and 6 had BMIs of <25, 25-35, and 36-45, respectively. In the BMI <25 group, there was 1 unplanned intubation. Mean maximum ETCO 2 was 36.51 with no hypoxemia observed. In the BMI 25-35 group, 2 patients required intubation, and 1 sustained minor oral trauma. The mean maximum ETCO 2 was 38.85, with 4 patients having oxygen saturation <90%. In the BMI 36-45 group, 2 patients required intubation. The mean maximum ETCO 2 was 41 with no hypoxemia observed. BMI and length of stenosis were statistically significant variables associated with incidence of intraoperative intubation. Conclusion Increased BMI was associated with an increase in highest ETCO 2 intraoperatively. However, this was not associated with an increase in major complications. Jet ventilation was performed without significant adverse events in this sample, and it is a viable option if used with an experienced team in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.
Sheetz, Kyle H.; Waits, Seth A.; Krell, Robert W.; Morris, Arden M.; Englesbe, Michael J.; Mullard, Andrew; Campbell, Darrell A.; Hendren, Samantha
Structured Abstract Background Ostomy surgery is common and has traditionally been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, suggesting an important target for quality improvement. Objective To evaluate the variation in outcomes after ostomy creation surgery within Michigan in order to identify targets for quality improvement. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The 34-hospital Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC). Patients Patients undergoing ostomy creation surgery between 2006-2011. Main outcome measures We evaluated hospitals' morbidity and mortality rates after risk-adjustment (age, comorbidities, emergency v. elective, procedure type). Results 4,250 patients underwent ostomy creation surgery; 3,866 (91.0%) procedures were open and 384 (9.0%) were laparoscopic. Unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates were 43.9% and 10.7%, respectively. Unadjusted morbidity rates for specific procedures ranged from 32.7% for ostomy-creation-only procedures to 47.8% for Hartmann's procedures. Risk-adjusted morbidity rates varied significantly between hospitals, ranging from 31.2% (95%CI 18.4-43.9) to 60.8% (95%CI 48.9-72.6). There were five statistically-significant high-outlier hospitals and three statistically-significant low-outlier hospitals for risk-adjusted morbidity. The pattern of complication types was similar between high- and low-outlier hospitals. Case volume, operative duration, and use of laparoscopic surgery did not explain the variation in morbidity rates across hospitals. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality rates for modern ostomy surgery are high. While this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an opportunity to identify quality improvement practices that could be disseminated among hospitals. PMID:24819104
Sheetz, Kyle H; Waits, Seth A; Krell, Robert W; Morris, Arden M; Englesbe, Michael J; Mullard, Andrew; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha
Ostomy surgery is common and has traditionally been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, suggesting an important target for quality improvement. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the variation in outcomes after ostomy creation surgery within Michigan to identify targets for quality improvement. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study took place within the 34-hospital Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. Patients included were those undergoing ostomy creation surgery between 2006 and 2011. We evaluated hospital morbidity and mortality rates after risk adjustment (age, comorbidities, emergency vs elective, and procedure type). A total of 4250 patients underwent ostomy creation surgery; 3866 procedures (91.0%) were open and 384 (9.0%) were laparoscopic. Unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates were 43.9% and 10.7%. Unadjusted morbidity rates for specific procedures ranged from 32.7% for ostomy-creation-only procedures to 47.8% for Hartmann procedures. Risk-adjusted morbidity rates varied significantly between hospitals, ranging from 31.2% (95% CI, 18.4-43.9) to 60.8% (95% CI, 48.9-72.6). There were 5 statistically significant high-outlier hospitals and 3 statistically significant low-outlier hospitals for risk-adjusted morbidity. The pattern of complication types was similar between high- and low-outlier hospitals. Case volume, operative duration, and use of laparoscopic surgery did not explain the variation in morbidity rates across hospitals. This work was limited by its retrospective study design, by unmeasured variation in case severity, and by our inability to differentiate between colostomies and ileostomies because of the use of Current Procedural Terminology codes. Morbidity and mortality rates for modern ostomy surgery are high. Although this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an
Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Bulëza M; Milenković, Zvonko; Koci, Remzie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora
Since neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis are encountered frequently despite antibiotic treatments, the purpose of this study was to analyze early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children in a limited-resource country (Kosovo) This study uses a retrospective chart review of children treated for bacterial meningitis in two study periods: 277 treated during years 1997-2002 and 77 children treated during years 2009-2010. Of the 277 vs 77 children treated for bacterial meningitis, 60 (22%) vs 33 (43%) patients developed early neurologic complications, while there were 15 (5.4%) vs 2 (2.6%) deaths. The most frequent early neurologic complications were the following: subdural effusions (13 vs 29%), recurrent seizures (11 vs 8%), and hydrocephalus (3 vs 3%). The relative risk (95% confidence interval) for neurologic complications was the highest in infants (3.56 (2.17-5.92) vs 2.69 (1.62-4.59)) and in cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae 1.94 (1.09-3.18) vs Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.57(1.26-4.47). Long-term sequelae were observed in 10 vs 12% of children, predominantly in infants. The most frequent long-term sequelae were late seizures 9 vs 1%, neuropsychological impairment 1 vs 5%, and deafness 1 vs 3%. In both study periods, the most frequent early neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis were subdural effusions. Long-term sequelae were observed in 10% of children, with late seizures, neuropsychological impairment, and deafness being the most common one. Age prior to 12 months was risk factor for both early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children.
Murphy, Meghan E; Hakim, Jeffrey S; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Alvi, Mohammed Ali; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Bydon, Mohamad
microscope was found to significantly increase the odds of longer operative time, but not influence rates of postoperative complications. Thus, without evidence from this study that the microscope decreases complications, the use of the microscope should be at the surgeon's discretion, validating the use of both macro and micro approaches to discectomy as acceptable standards of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo
Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all
Lamb, Laura C; Jayaraman, Vijay; Montgomery, Stephanie C; Umer, Affan; Shapiro, David S; Feeney, James M
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is frequently performed for delivery of nonoral enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill patients. Tube-based supplement initiation is often delayed for a variety of reasons despite evidence that EN interruption results in worse outcomes. To determine if early initiation of EN after PEG placement is safe and well-tolerated in critically ill patients and if early initiation of EN results in more goal-accomplished days of EN. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent PEG and at least 24 hours of EN. Patients were stratified according to time to tube- feed initiation: immediate (< one hour), early (one to four hours), and late (four to 24 hours). 'Ihe three groups were similar with respect to demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day mortality. Sixty-one percent of patients in the immediate group were advanced to the previously-met goal EN rates compared to 24% and 18% in the early and delayed groups, respectively (P < .0001). Immediate reinitiation of nonoral EN after PEG procedure is safe and is associated with reaching goal nutrition faster.
Xie, Yesi; Meng, Huanxin; Han, Jie; Pan, Shaoxia; Zhang, Li; Shi, Dong
To compare the incidence of technical complications of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses in Chinese patients with a history of moderate or severe periodontitis and periodontally healthy patients(PHP) and analyze the effects of interproximal papillae patterns on food impaction and efficacy of plaque control. A total of 103 partially edentulous patients treated with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses between December 2009 and December 2012 for a minimum 1-year follow-up period were recruited from Department of Periodontology, Peking University, School and Hospital of Stomatology. Based on the initial periodontal examination, the participants were divided into three groups: 30 PHP, 36 moderate periodontally compromised patients(mPCP) and 37 severe periodontally compromised patients(sPCP). Implant survival/loss, technical complications, plaque index, papilla index, food impaction and degree of proximal contact tightness of each patient were assessed around the implants at follow-up. According to the implant papilla index, the implants were divided into two groups: the "filling" group with the mesial and distal aspects with papilla index=3 and the "no filling" group with at least one aspect with papilla index<3. Data on implant survival, technical complications were analyzed. Comparisons of the incidence of technical complications were performed between the patients with different periodontal conditions with chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The influences of the interproximal papillae loss on food impaction and efficacy of plaque control were estimated with chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. The total implant survival rate was 100%(162/162) for all three groups. Technical complications were as following: veneer fractures(1.9%, 3/162), abutment screw loosening(1.9%, 3/162), prosthetic screw loosening(3.1%, 5/162) and decementation(3.1%, 5/162) in all subjects. No implant/screw fracture was noted. The incidence of technical complications in sPCP, m
Carey, Kai A.
Nearly 800,000 people in the U.S. experience an incident of stroke each year; 80% of these are first time occurrences and 87% are ischemic in nature. Someone dies of a stroke every few minutes in the U.S. but despite its prevalence there have been minimal advances in the early detection and screening of thromboembolic events, especially during patient post-operative periods or in genetically predisposed individuals. Environmental or genetic factors may disrupt the balance between coagulation and lysis of micro-thrombi in circulation and increase the risk of stroke. We introduced here a novel in vivo multicolor negative-contrast photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC ) platform with many innovations including customized high pulse repetition rate 1064 laser from IPG Photonics Corporation, powerful laser diode array, multichannel optical schematic, and time-resolved recording system. Using animal models, we verified the potential of this technology to detect small clots in relatively large vessels in vivo. If future clinical trials using a cost-effective, easy-to-use, safe, watch-like, wearable PA probe are successful, PAFC could provide breakthroughs in early monitoring of the growth in size and number of small clots that may predict and potentially prevent fatal thromboembolic complications. We also believe that this technology could be utilized to assess therapeutic benefits of anticoagulants and develop more efficient dosage in treatments by analyzing changes in the composition and frequency of micro-thrombi
Tashbayev, Alisher; Belenky, Alexander; Litvin, Sergey; Knizhnik, Michael; Bachar, Gil N; Atar, Eli
Various vena cava filters (VCF) are designed with the ability to be retrieved percutaneously. Yet, despite this option most of them remain in the inferior vena cava (IVC). To report our experience in the placement and retrieval of three different types of VCFs, and to compare the indications for their insertion and retrieval as reported in the literature. During a 5 year period three types of retrievable VCF (ALN, OptEase, and Celect) were inserted in 306 patients at the Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson and Hasharon hospitals). Indications, retrieval rates, median time to retrieval, success and complication rates were viewed and assessed in the three groups of filter types and were compared with the data of similar studies in the literature. Of the 306 VCFs inserted, 31 (10.1%) were retrieved with equal distribution in the three groups. In most patients the reason for filter insertion was venous thromboembolic events (VTE) and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Mean age was 68.38 ± 17.5 years (range 18-99) and was noted to be significantly higher compared to similar studies (53-56 years) (P < 0.0001). Multi-trauma patients were significantly older (71.11 ± 14.99 years) than post-pulmonary embolism patients (48.03 ± 20.98 years, P < 0.0001) and patients with preventive indication (26.00 ± 11.31, P < 0.0001). The mean indwelling time was 100.6 ± 103.399 days. Our results are comparable with the results of other studies, and there was no difference in percentage of retrieval or complications between patients in each of the three groups. In 1 of 10 patients filters should be removed after an average of 3.5 months. All three IVC filter types used are safe to insert and retrieve.
Bacon, S; Kyithar, M P; Rizvi, S R; Donnelly, E; McCarthy, A; Burke, M; Colclough, K; Ellard, S; Byrne, M M
HNF1A gene mutations are the most common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in the UK. Persons with HNF1A-MODY display sensitivity to sulphonylurea therapy; however, the long-term efficacy is not established. There is limited literature as to the prevalence of micro- and macrovascular complications in this unique cohort. The aim of this study was to determine the natural progression and clinical management of HNF1A-MODY diabetes in a dedicated MODY clinic. Sixty patients with HNF1A-MODY and a cohort of 60 BMI-, age-, ethnicity- and diabetes duration-matched patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus participated in the study. All patients were phenotyped in detail. Clinical follow-up of the HNF1A-MODY cohort occurred on a bi-annual basis. Following a genetic diagnosis of MODY, the majority of the cohort treated with sulphonylurea therapy remained insulin independent at 84-month follow-up (80%). The HbA1c in the HNF1A-MODY group treated with sulphonylurea therapy alone improved significantly over the study period [from 49 (44-63) mmol/mol, 6.6 (6.2-7.9)% to 41 (31-50) mmol/mol, 5.9 (5-6.7)%; P = 0.003]. The rate of retinopathy was significantly lower than that noted in the Type 1 diabetes mellitus group (13.6 vs. 50%; P = 0.0001).There was also a lower rate of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular disease in the HNF1A-MODY group compared with the Type 1 diabetes mellitus group. This study demonstrates that the majority of patients with HNF1A-MODY can be maintained successfully on sulphonylurea therapy with good glycaemic control. We note a significantly lower rate of micro- and macrovascular complications than reported previously. The use of appropriate therapy at early stages of the disorder may decrease the incidence of complications. © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Currie, B M; Getrajdman, G I; Covey, A M; Alago, W; Erinjeri, J P; Maybody, M; Boas, F E
To compare the technical success and complication rates of push versus pull gastrostomy tubes in cancer patients, and to examine their dependence on operator experience. A retrospective review was performed of 304 cancer patients (170 men, 134 women; mean age 60.3±12.6 [SD], range: 19-102 years) referred for primary gastrostomy tube placement, 88 (29%) of whom had a previously unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement. Analyzed variables included method of insertion (push versus pull), indication for gastrostomy, technical success, operator experience, and procedure-related complications within 30 days of placement. Gastrostomy tubes were placed for feeding in 189 patients and palliative decompression in 115 patients. Technical success was 91%: 78% after endoscopy had previously been unsuccessful and 97% when excluding failures associated with prior endoscopy. In the first 30 days, there were 29 minor complications (17.2%) associated with push gastrostomies, and only 8 minor complications (7.5%) with pull gastrostomies (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in major complications (push gastrostomy 5.3%, pull gastrostomy 5.6%). For decompressive gastrostomy tubes, the pull technique resulted in lower rates of both minor and major complications. There was no difference in complications or technical success rates for more versus less experienced operators. Pull gastrostomy tube placement had a lower rate of complications than push gastrostomy tube placement, especially when the indication was decompression. The technical success rate was high, even after a failed attempt at endoscopic placement. Both the rates of success and complications were independent of operator experience. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Philip M.; Glasziou, Paul; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Harrap, Stephen B.; Salomon, Joshua A.
Background Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Methods and Findings Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE) study (mean age at entry 66 y). The probability of hospital utilization and number of days in hospital for major events associated with coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy were estimated for three regions (Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies) using multiple regression analysis. The resulting estimates of days spent in hospital were multiplied by regional estimates of the costs per hospital bed-day from the World Health Organization to compute annual acute and long-term costs associated with the different types of complications. To assist, comparability, costs are reported in international dollars (Int$), which represent a hypothetical currency that allows for the same quantities of goods or services to be purchased regardless of country, standardized on purchasing power in the United States. A cost calculator accompanying this paper enables the estimation of costs for individual countries and translation of these costs into local currency units. The probability of attending a hospital following an event was highest for heart failure (93%–96% across regions) and lowest for nephropathy (15%–26%). The average numbers of days in hospital given at least one admission were greatest for
Furdon, Susan Arana; Horgan, Michael J; Bradshaw, Wanda Todd; Clark, David A
Umbilical arterial catheters (UAC) are routinely used in the care of critically ill newborns. Complications related to UACs include vascular compromise, hemorrhage, complications related to malposition, severance of the catheter itself, and infection. This article is Part II in a series dedicated to assessing infants with an umbilical catheter. Part I focused on infants with umbilical venous catheters; this article will focus on the physical assessment relevant to infants with an UAC. Complications related to UACs can occur during any phase of treatment: insertion, while indwelling, or after discontinuing the catheter. Review of clinical signs of complications along with clinical photographs, will assist caregivers in promptly recognizing UAC-related complications.
Everding, S; Römer, S; Bohn, A; Holz, E; Lieder, F; Baumgart, P; Loyen, M; Waltenberger, J; Lebiedz, P
Systemic thrombolysis was introduced as the sole prehospital treatment option in patients with cardiac arrest in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia or pulmonary embolism; however, it remains the subject of discussion. A total of 194 patients with sudden prehospital cardiac arrest were included in this retrospective case control study. Of these patients, 96 in whom circulatory arrest due to cardiac disease (pulmonary artery embolism or myocardial ischemia) was suspected underwent thrombolytic treatment and were compared to the remaining 98 patients that did not undergo thrombolytic therapy. In addition to the circumstances of circulatory arrest, the course and success of resuscitation, as well as in-hospital course (including bleeding complications), overall survival and neurological outcomes were compared. There were no significant differences between patients with or without thrombolysis in terms of the circumstances of cardiac arrest. Patients that received thrombolytic treatment were significantly younger and were more frequently treated with anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors and amiodarone. They also received higher doses of epinephrine and arrived at hospital under ongoing resuscitation significantly more frequently. A trend toward more prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following thrombolytic treatment was seen in the entire cohort. However, patients pre-treated with acetylsalicylic acid and heparin did not show better prehospital ROSC rates as a result of additional thrombolytic therapy. Significant differences in terms of bleeding complications or the need for blood transfusion could not be seen due to the small number of patients. The indication for systemic thrombolysis in the context of prehospital resuscitation should remain restricted to patients with clear symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism or recurrent episodes of ventricular fibrillation in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Due to a lack of
Cognetti, Daniel; Keeny, Heather M; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Hanson, Darrell S; Blanke, Kathy; Hwang, Steven W
OBJECTIVE Postoperative complications are one of the most significant concerns in surgeries of the spine, especially in higher-risk cases such as neuromuscular scoliosis. Neuromuscular scoliosis is a classification of multiple diseases affecting the neuromotor system or musculature of patients leading to severe degrees of spinal deformation, disability, and comorbidity, all likely contributing to higher rates of postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate deformity correction of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis over a 12-year period (2004-2015) by looking at changes in postsurgical complications and management. METHODS The authors queried the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) database for neuromuscular scoliosis cases from 2004 to 2015. The SRS M&M database is an international database with thousands of self-reported cases by fellowship-trained surgeons. The database has previously been validated, but reorganization in 2008 created less-robust data sets from 2008 to 2011. Consequently, the majority of analysis in this report was performed using cohorts that bookend the 12-year period (2004-2007 and 2012-2015). Of the 312 individual fields recorded per patient, demographic analysis was completed for age, sex, diagnosis, and preoperative curvature. Analysis of complications included infection, bleeding, mortality, respiratory, neurological deficit, and management practices. RESULTS From 2004 to 2015, a total of 29,019 cases of neuromuscular scoliosis were reported with 1385 complications, equating to a 6.3% complication rate when excluding the less-robust data from 2008 to 2011. This study shows a 3.5-fold decrease in overall complication rates from 2004 to 2015. A closer look at complications shows a significant decrease in wound infections (superficial and deep), respiratory complications, and implant-associated complications. The overall complication rate decreased by approximately 10% from 2004
Pjetursson, Bjarni E; Asgeirsson, Asgeir G; Zwahlen, Marcel; Sailer, Irena
The objective of this systematic review was to assess and compare the survival and complication rates of implant-supported prostheses reported in studies published in the year 2000 and before, to those reported in studies published after the year 2000. Three electronic searches complemented by manual searching were conducted to identify 139 prospective and retrospective studies on implant-supported prostheses. The included studies were divided in two groups: a group of 31 older studies published in the year 2000 or before, and a group of 108 newer studies published after the year 2000. Survival and complication rates were calculated using Poisson regression models, and multivariable robust Poisson regression was used to formally compare the outcomes of older and newer studies. The 5-year survival rate of implant-supported prostheses was significantly increased in newer studies compared with older studies. The overall survival rate increased from 93.5% to 97.1%. The survival rate for cemented prostheses increased from 95.2% to 97.9%; for screw-retained reconstruction, from 77.6% to 96.8%; for implant-supported single crowns, from 92.6% to 97.2%; and for implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), from 93.5% to 96.4%. The incidence of esthetic complications decreased in more recent studies compared with older ones, but the incidence of biologic complications was similar. The results for technical complications were inconsistent. There was a significant reduction in abutment or screw loosening by implant-supported FDPs. On the other hand, the total number of technical complications and the incidence of fracture of the veneering material was significantly increased in the newer studies. To explain the increased rate of complications, minor complications are probably reported in more detail in the newer publications. The results of the present systematic review demonstrated a positive learning curve in implant dentistry, represented in higher survival rates and
Gurdan, Z; Szalma, J
Orthodontic mini-implants are important devices for successful anchorage management in orthodontics; however, the survival of these devices depends on several clinical factors. The aim of our study was to calculate the success and complication rates of orthodontic mini-implants. In this retrospective study, patients of our orthodontic department were enrolled, getting overall 59 orthodontic mini-implants during their orthodontic treatment in a 2-year period. Every patient had one or more of the 1.6 mm × 8 mm in size self-drilling mini-implants (Jeil Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil Medical Corp., Seoul, Korea). Screw loading was performed immediately after insertions, keeping tension forces under 150 g. Soft tissue and bone infections, implant mobility and screw loss, implant fracture, and neighboring tooth injury were registered. Relationships between variables were tested using the Chi-square test for statistical significance. The success rate of the orthodontic mini-implants was 89.8% in this study while the average loading period was 8.1 months. Soft-tissue infections varied between 6.3% and 33.3% of the cases while screw mobility varied between 3.1% and 20.8% of the cases regarding the anatomic localization. Screw mobility was significantly more frequent in the buccal fold than in the palate (P = 0.034). Screw mobility was significantly more frequent in the buccal fold than in the palate (P = 0.034) and screw mobility was found more frequently in case of intrusions than by extrusions (P = 0.036). The overall success rate of mini-implants was found acceptable in this study, however, screw mobility in the buccal fold showed a high incidence, suggesting the thorough consideration of the immediate loading by buccal mini-implants.
Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Aram, Shahnaz; Pourkabirian, Soodabeh; Khodaee, Sepideh; Choupannejad, Shekofeh
BACKGROUND: Routine episiotomy is a controversial issue among gynecologists. The aim of this study was to compare early maternal and neonatal complications of restrictive episiotomy and routine episiotomy in primiparus vaginal delivery. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, two groups of primiparus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) cases with routine and restrictive episiotomy were studied. Immediately and in the first 24 and 48 hours after delivery, specific charts were used to compare the two groups in terms of perineal laceration size, neonatal Apgar score and post-delivery. For data analysis, SPSS was used to conduct student t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Forty primiparus pregnant women were studied in each group. Episiotomy was performed in 7.5% of the restrictive group. Perineal laceration was measured as 3.68 ± 0.47 cm and 1.21 ± 1.1 in routine and restrictive episiotomy groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Intact perineum or first-degree laceration was seen in 80% of the restrictive group. However, second- and third-degree laceration were respectively observed in 75% and 15% of the routine episiotomy group (p < 0.05). Pain relief (immediately, 24 and 48 hours after delivery) was significantly higher in the restrictive group (p < 0.05). On the contrary, no significant difference in Apgar scores at the first and fifth minutes after birth was found between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive episiotomy results in low maternal complications. Therefore, avoiding routine episiotomy in unnecessary conditions would increase the rate of intact perineal and minor perineal trauma and reduce postpartum delivery pain with no adverse effects neither on maternal nor neonatal morbidities. PMID:22973367
Passias, Peter G; Diebo, Bassel G; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Jalai, Cyrus M; Horn, Samantha R; Zhou, Peter L; Paltoo, Karen; Bono, Olivia J; Worley, Nancy; Poorman, Gregory W; Challier, Vincent; Dixit, Anant; Paulino, Carl; Lafage, Virginie
OBJECTIVE It is becoming increasingly necessary for surgeons to provide evidence supporting cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment for cervical spine pathology. Anticipating surgical risk is critical in accurately evaluating the risk/benefit balance of such treatment. Determining the risk and cost-effectiveness of surgery, complications, revision procedures, and mortality rates are the most significant limitations. The purpose of this study was to determine independent risk factors for medical complications (MCs), surgical complications (SCs), revisions, and mortality rates following surgery for patients with cervical spine pathology. The most relevant risk factors were used to structure an index that will help quantify risk and anticipate failure for such procedures. METHODS The authors of this study performed a retrospective review of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for patients treated surgically for cervical spine pathology between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate models were performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of the independent risk factors that led to MCs and repeated for SCs, revisions, and mortality. The models controlled for age (< and > 65 years old), sex, race, revision status (except for revision analysis), surgical approach, number of levels fused/re-fused (2-3, 4-8, ≥ 9), and osteotomy utilization. ORs were weighted based on their predictive category: 2 times for revision surgery predictors and 4 times for mortality predictors. Fifty points were distributed among the predictors based on their cumulative OR to establish a risk index. RESULTS Discharges for 362,989 patients with cervical spine pathology were identified. The mean age was 52.65 years, and 49.47% of patients were women. Independent risk factors included medical comorbidities, surgical parameters, and demographic factors. Medical comorbidities included the following: pulmonary circulation disorder, coagulopathy, metastatic cancer, renal failure, congestive heart failure
Srinivasan, Mythili; Hamvas, Corrine; Coplen, Douglas
To determine rates of complications after newborn circumcision by performing a retrospective chart review of patients circumcised at a well-baby nursery, neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and special care nursery (SCN) from 2007 to 2012. A total of 5129 babies (73%) were circumcised at the well-baby nursery and 1909 babies (27%) at the NICU and SCN. Forty-seven patients (0.67%, 95% CI 0.49% to 0.89%) had circumcision-related complications: 5 (0.07%) patients with acute and 42 (0.6%) with late complications. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.23 to 7.19) compared with those in well-baby nursery. There were increased odds of complications in babies with Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.89) compared with African American babies and in babies with private insurance (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5) compared with nonprivate insurance. The rates of complications after newborn circumcisions were low. Babies in the NICU/SCN had increased odds of complication. © The Author(s) 2015.
Introduction. Charcot arthropathy may lead to a loss of osteoligamentous foot architecture and consequently loss of the plantigrade alignment. In this series of patients a technique of internal corrective arthrodesis with maximum fixation strength was provided in order to lower complication rates. Materials/Methods. 21 feet with severe nonplantigrade diabetic Charcot deformity Eichenholtz stages II/III (Sanders/Frykberg II/III/IV) and reconstructive arthrodesis with medial and additional lateral column support were retrospectively enrolled. Follow-up averaged 4.0 years and included a clinical (AOFAS score/PSS), radiological, and complication analysis. Results. A mean of 2.4 complications/foot occurred, of which 1.5/foot had to be solved surgically. 76% of feet suffered from soft tissue complications; 43% suffered hardware-associated complications. Feet with only 2 out of 5 high risk criteria according to Pinzur showed significantly lower complication counts. Radiographs revealed a correct restoration of all foot axes postoperatively with superior fixation strength medially. Conclusion. Late corrective arthrodesis with medial and lateral column stabilization in the nonplantigrade stages of neuroosteoarthropathy can provide reasonable reconstruction of the foot alignment. Nonetheless, overall complication/reoperation rates were high. With separation into low/high risk criteria a helpful guide in treatment choice is provided. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) under number DRKS00007537. PMID:26000309
Knudsen, Roland; Bahadirov, Zafar; Damborg, Frank
Fracture of the distal radius (DRF) is one of the most common fractures treated by orthopaedic surgeons. The most common operative treatments of these fractures are open reduction and internal fixation. The incidents and types of complications associated with the use of these operations have not been studied in detail. We performed a retrospective study documenting types of complications and their occurrence in a group of patients who received open reduction and internal fixation. Our definition of a complication was a case in which the patient had one or more complications which required an operation, or suffered from complex regional pain syndrome, or skin healing problems lasting more than four weeks from the operation. A total of 165 patients were included. In all, 39 complications in 30 wrists were registered: i.e. 18% had a minimum of one complication. Our finding that 18% suffer from a serious complication when treated using a volar locking plate must be taken into consideration when surgeons choose between conservative or operative treatment for DRF treatment. A few other studies have looked at the incidents of complications and have reported similar results. not relevant. not relevant.
Kumar, Ujwal; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Priyadarshi, Shivam; Vyas, Nachiket; Agarwal, Neeraj; Dayal, Ram
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to compare Guy's score and STONE score in predicting the success and complication rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Materials and Methods: A total of 445 patients were included in the study between July 2015 and December 2016. The patients were given STONE score and Guy's Stone Score (GSS) grades based on CT scan done preoperatively and intra- and post-operative complications were graded using the modified Clavien grading system. The PCNL were done by a standard technique in prone positions. Results: The success rate in our study was 86.29% and both the GSS and STONE score were significantly associated with a success rate of the procedure. Both the scoring systems correlated with operative time and postoperative hospital stay. Of the total cases, 102 patients (22.92%) experienced complications. A correlation between STONE score stratified into low, moderate, and high nephrolithometry score risk groups (low scores 4–5, moderate scores 6–8, high scores 9–13), and complication was also found (P = 0.04) but not between the GSS and complication rate (P = 0.054). Conclusion: Both GSS and STONE scores are equally effective in predicting success rate of the procedure. PMID:29416280
Disseldorp, D J G; Hannemann, P F W; Poeze, M; Brink, P R G
Internal fixation with plates is a reliable fixation technique for the treatment of distal radius fractures. An ongoing discussion exists whether volar or dorsal plating is the appropriate technique. In clinical practice, volar plate fixation is usually preferred because of the assumed lower complication frequency. However, recent studies with the newer generation low-profile dorsal plates reported lower complication rates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the differences in complication rates between volar and dorsal plate for the treatment of distal radius fractures in adult patients. A total of 214 patients with acute distal radius fractures were included in this retrospective study with a minimum 2 years of follow-up. In total, 123 patients were treated with dorsal plate fixation and 91 patients with volar plate fixation. Our primary study outcome was complication rate. The overall risk for complications was 15.4% in the dorsal group and 14.3% in the volar group (p = 0.81). A total of 19 patients had implant removal due to complications: 11 patients in the dorsal group and 8 patients in the volar group (p = 0.97). There is no preferred plate fixation technique based on these study results. In our opinion, decision for type of plate fixation should be based on fracture type and surgeon's experience with the specific approach and plate types. Therapeutic level III.
Axelrod, David A; Dzebisashvilli, Nino; Lentine, Krista L; Xiao, Huiling; Schnitzler, Mark; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet E; Segev, Dorry L
Despite improvement in surgical technique and medical management of liver transplant recipients, biliary complications remain a frequent cause of posttransplant morbidity and graft loss. Biliary complications require potentially expensive interventions including radiologic procedures and surgical revisions. A national data set linking transplant registry and Medicare claims data for 12,803 liver transplant recipients was developed to capture information on complications, treatments, and associated direct medical costs up to 3 years after transplantation. Biliary complications were more common in recipients of donation after cardiac death compared to donation after brain death allografts (23% vs. 19% P<0.001). Among donation after brain death recipients, biliary complications were associated with $54,699 (95% confidence interval [CI], $49,102 to $60,295) of incremental spending in the first year after transplantation and $7,327 in years 2 and 3 (95% CI, $4,419-$10,236). Biliary complications in donation after cardiac death recipients independently increased spending by $94,093 (95% CI, $64,643-$124,542) in the first year and $12,012 (95% CI, $-1,991 to $26,016) in years 2 and 3. This national study of biliary complications demonstrates the significant economic impact of this common perioperative complication and suggests a potential target for quality of care improvements.
Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian; Wuerker, Anne; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff
Prior studies have shown that birth complications interact with psychosocial risk factors in predisposing to increased externalizing behavior in childhood and criminal behavior in adulthood. However, little is known about the direct relationship between birth complications and externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the mechanism by which the birth…
Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Felzemburgh, Ridalva; Costa, Federico; Nery, Nivison; Mattos, Adriana; Henriques, Daniele F; Ko, Albert I; For The Salvador Zika Response Team
Zika virus transmission in Brazil was linked to a large outbreak of microcephaly but less is known about longer term anthropometric and neurological outcomes. We studied a cohort of infants born between October 31, 2015, and January 9, 2016, in a state maternity hospital, followed up for 101 ± 28 days by home visits. Microcephaly (< 2 standard deviations, Intergrowth standard) occurred in 62 of 412 (15%) births. Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was diagnosed in 29 patients. Among CZS patients, we observed a significant gain in anthropometric measures ( P < 0.001) but no significant gain in percentile for these measures. The main neurological outcome was epilepsy, occurring in 48% of infants at a rate of 15.6 cases per 100 patient-months, frequently requiring multiple anti-seizure medications. The cumulative fatality rate was 7.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.1-23.4%). Health-care professionals should be alerted on the high risk of epilepsy and death associated with CZS in early infancy and the need to actively screen for seizures and initiate timely treatment.
Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka
Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ye, Yuanliang; Wang, Fuyu; Zhou, Tao; Luo, Yi
To evaluate effect of sellar reconstruction during pituitary adenoma resection surgery by the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach using artificial cerebral dura mater patch.This was a retrospective study of 1281 patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for the treatment of pituitary adenomas between December 2006 and May 2014 at the Neurosurgery Department of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital. The patients were classified into 4 grades according to intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage site. All patients were followed up for 3 months by telephone and outpatient visits.One thousand seventy three (83.7%) patients underwent sellar reconstruction using artificial dura matter patched outside the sellar region (method A), 106 (8.3%) using artificial dura matter patched inside the sellar region (method B), and 102 (8.0%) using artificial dura matter and a mucosal flap (method C). Method A was used for grade 0-1 leakage, method B for grade 1 to 2 leakage, and method C for grade 2 to 3 leakage. During the 3-month follow-up, postoperative CSF leakage was observed in 7 patients (0.6%): 2 among patients who underwent method B (1.9%) and 5 among those who underwent method C (4.9%). Meningitis was diagnosed in 13 patients (1.0%): 2 among patients who underwent method A (0.2%), 4 among those who underwent method B (3.8%), and 7 among those who underwent method C (6.7%).Compared with other reconstruction methods, sellar reconstruction surgery that only use artificial dura mater as repair material had a low rate of complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Foote, Michael; Cooper, Roger A; Crampton, James S; Sadler, Peter M
The extent to which biological diversity affects rates of diversification is central to understanding macroevolutionary dynamics, yet no consensus has emerged on the importance of diversity-dependence of evolutionary rates. Here, we analyse the species-level fossil record of early Palaeozoic graptoloids, documented with high temporal resolution, to test directly whether rates of diversification were influenced by levels of standing diversity within this major clade of marine zooplankton. To circumvent the statistical regression-to-the-mean artefact, whereby higher- and lower-than-average values of diversity tend to be followed by negative and positive diversification rates, we construct a non-parametric, empirically scaled, diversity-independent null model by randomizing the observed diversification rates with respect to time. Comparing observed correlations between diversity and diversification rate to those expected from this diversity-independent model, we find evidence for negative diversity-dependence, accounting for up to 12% of the variance in diversification rate, with maximal correlation at a temporal lag of approximately 1 Myr. Diversity-dependence persists throughout the Ordovician and Silurian, despite a major increase in the strength and frequency of extinction and speciation pulses in the Silurian. By contrast to some previous work, we find that diversity-dependence affects rates of speciation and extinction nearly equally on average, although subtle differences emerge when we compare the Ordovician and Silurian. © 2018 The Author(s).
Scott, Richard B; Eccles, Fiona; Lloyd, Andrew; Carpenter, Katherine
Background The neuropsychological arm of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (N-ISAT) evaluated the cognitive outcome of 573 patients at 12 months following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The assessment included 29 psychometric measures, yielding a substantial and complex body of data. We have explored alternative and optimal methodologies for analysing and summarising these data to enable the estimation of a cognitive complication rate (CCR). Any differences in cognitive outcome between the two arms of the trial are not however reported here. Methods All individual test scores were transformed into z-scores and a 5th percentile cut-off for impairment was established. A principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to these data to mathematically transform correlated test scores into a smaller number of uncorrelated principal components, or cognitive 'domains'. These domains formed the basis for grouping and weighting individual patients' impaired scores on individual measures. In order to increase the sample size, a series of methods for handling missing data were applied. Results We estimated a 34.1% CCR in all those patients seen face-to-face, rising to 37.4% CCR with the inclusion of patients who were unable to attend assessment for reason related to the index SAH. This group demonstrated significantly more self and carer/relative rated disability on a Health Related Quality of Life questionnaire, than patients classified as having no functionally significant cognitive deficits. Conclusion Evaluating neuropsychological outcome in a large RCT involves unique methodological and organizational challenges. We have demonstrated how these problems may be addressed by re-classifying interval data from 29 measures into a dichotomous CCR. We have presented a 'sliding scale' of undifferentiated individual cognitive impairments, and then on the basis of PCA-derived cognitive 'domains', included consideration of the distribution of impairments in these terms
Nakayama, Hiroshi; Kambara, Syunichiro; Iseki, Tomoya; Kanto, Ryo; Kurosaka, Kenji; Yoshiya, Shinichi
To compare the early postoperative outcomes and complications of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with and without remnant preservation. The study population comprised 125 consecutive knees that underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft. Among the 125 knees, remnant preservation was indicated for 50 knees, while standard double-bundle reconstruction was performed in the remaining 75 knees. Postoperative evaluations included heel-height difference (HHD) at periodical follow-ups, number of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement due to problematic extension loss within six months, re-injury within one year, graft status upon second-look arthroscopy, and clinical examinations by Lysholm score and KT measurement at one year. All patients could be followed up for a minimum of one year after surgery. When the results obtained from both groups were compared, HHD values were significantly larger in the preservation group at three and six months, and the rate of knees requiring arthroscopic debridement was also higher in this group (12% versus 4.0%). Graft status on second-look arthroscopy was considered to be good for 92% of the knees in the preservation group versus 59% in the non-preservation group. Re-injury rates within one year were 2.0% in the preservation group and 5.3% in the non-preservation group. No significant differences in clinical examinations were found between the groups at one year. Remnant preservation in double-bundle hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction may enhance tissue healing; however, retention of the remnant with its full volume resulted in an increased incidence of postoperative problematic extension loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tamarelle, B; Perrin, P; Devonec, M; Paparel, P; Ruffion, A
To identify hospitalizations directly related to a complication occurring within 30 days following a transrectal prostate biopsy (PBP). Overall hospitalization rates, mortality rates, potential predisposing factors for complications. Single-center study including all patients who underwent PBP between January 2005 and January 2012. Any hospitalization occurring within 30 days of the PBP for urgent motive was considered potentially attributable to biopsy. We identified the reason for hospitalization with direct complications (urinary infection or fever, rectal bleeding, bladder caillotage, retention) and indirect (underlying comorbidities decompensation) of the biopsy. The contributing factors were anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment well as waning immunity factors (corticosteroid therapy, HIV, chemotherapy or immunodulateur). Among 2715 men who underwent PBP, there were 120 (4.4%) hospitalizations including 28 (1.03%) caused by the biopsy. Twenty-five (0.92%) were related to a direct complication of biopsy: 14 (56%) for urinary tract infection or fever including 1 hospitalization in intensive care, 5 (20%) for rectal bleeding which required several transfusions 1, 10 (40%) urinary retention and 3 (0.11%) for an indirect complication (2 coronary syndromes and 1 respiratory failure). Several direct complications were associated in 3 cases. Only two hospitalizations associated with rectal bleeding were taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant. There was no association between hospitalization for urinary tract infections and a decreased immune status. The first death observed in our study occurred at D31 of pulmonary embolism (advanced metastatic patient with bladder cancer). Twenty (60.6%) patients urgently hospitalized did not have prostate cancer. Within this large sample of patients the overall rate of hospitalization due to the realization of a PBP was 1%. It has not been found predictive of complications leading to hospitalization. 4. Copyright © 2016
Kallio, Peter J; Nolan, Jenea; Olsen, Amy C; Breakwell, Susan; Topp, Richard; Pagel, Paul S
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is risk factor for complications after orthopedic surgery. We tested the hypothesis that anesthesia preoperative clinic (APC) referral for elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduces complication rate after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Patients (n = 203) with and without DM were chosen from 1,237 patients undergoing TJA during 2006 - 12. Patients evaluated in the APC had surgery in 2006 - 8 regardless of HbA1c (uncontrolled). Those evaluated between in subsequent two-year intervals were referred to primary care for HbA1c ≥ 10% and ≥ 8%, respectively, to improve DM control before surgery. Complications and mortality were quantified postoperatively and at three, six, and twelve months. Length of stay (LOS) and patients requiring a prolonged LOS (> 5 days) were recorded. Patients (197 men, 6 women) underwent 71, 131, and 1 total hip, knee, and shoulder replacements, respectively. Patients undergoing TJA with uncontrolled HbA1c and those with HbA1c < 10%, but not those with HbA1c < 8%, had a higher incidence of coronary disease and hypercholesterolemia than patients without DM. An increase in complication rate was observed in DM patients with uncontrolled HbA1c versus patients without DM (P < 0.001); the complication rate progressively decreased with tighter HbA1c control. More DM patients with preoperative HbA1c that was uncontrolled or ≥ 10% required prolonged LOS versus those without DM (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0404, respectively). APC referral for elevated HbA1c reduces complication rate and the incidence of prolonged hospitalization during the first year after surgery in diabetics undergoing TJA.
Pearce, Benjamin J; Passman, Marc A; Patterson, Mark A; Taylor, Steve M; Lecroy, Christopher J; Combs, Bart R; Jordan, William D
We assessed the technical success and early outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection treated at a single institution using a commercially available device. All patients with symptomatic complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection treated with TEVAR since Food and Drug Administration approval of the Gore (Flagstaff, AZ) TAG endoprosthesis were identified from a prospectively maintained vascular registry. Clinical indications, operative technique, perioperative complications, follow-up imaging, and mortality were analyzed. Between March 2005 and November 2007, 127 TEVARs using the TAG endoprosthesis were performed, of which 15 (11.8%) were for complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection. Indications for repair were malperfusion (53%), persistent pain (27%), and primary aortic failure (33%). Technical feasibility and success with deployment proximal to the entry tear was 93.3%, requiring at least partial coverage of the left subclavian artery in seven (46.7%). Adjunctive procedures required at the time of TEVAR included renal stent (n = 2), iliac stent (n = 3), and access-artery open repair (n = 2). Twelve patients (80%) had immediate resolution of the malperfusion deficit. Major perioperative complications included paraplegia (13.3%), renal failure requiring hemodialysis (13.3%), and stroke (6.7%). Perioperative mortality was 13.3%, occurring in one patient presenting with rupture and one with profound heart failure on admission. For complicated acute type B thoracic aortic dissection, TEVAR using commercially available stent grafts showed high technical success, excellent results at resolving malperfusion, and acceptably low complications and perioperative mortality.
Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea
Selectivity is the most emphasized advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, at drug and light doses used for clinical applications, response from normal tissue surrounding the tumor reduces the real selectivity of the drug-light system and increases the surface of the area responding to the treatment. It is now evident that light irradiation of a sensitized patient produces damage at a various degree not only in the tumor but also in non-neoplastic tissues included in the field of irradiation. We report our experience in endoscopic PDT of early stage tumors in tracheobronchial, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, describing early and late local complications caused by the damage of normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and included in the field of light irradiation. Among 44 patients treated, local complications, attributable to a poor selectivity of the modality, occurred in 6 patients (14%). In particular, the rate of local complications was 9% in patients treated for esophageal tumors, 14% in patients with gastric tumors, 9% in patients with tracheobronchial tumors, and 67% in bladder cancer patients. Clinical pictures as well as endoscopic findings at various intervals from treatment showed that mucositis is a common event following endoscopic PDT. It causes exudation and significant tissue inflammatory response, whose consequences are different in the various organs treated. Photoradiation must be, as much as possible, limited to the malignant area.
Haughom, Bryan D; Erickson, Brandon J; Hellman, Michael D; Jacobs, Joshua J
Although metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces provide low rates of volumetric wear and increased stability, evidence suggests that certain MoM hip arthroplasties have high rates of complication and failure. Some evidence indicates that women have higher rates of failure compared with men; however, the orthopaedic literature as a whole has poorly reported such complications stratified by gender. This systematic review aimed to: (1) compare the rate of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR); (2) dislocation; (3) aseptic loosening; and (4) revision between men and women undergoing primary MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE searches identified all level I to III articles published in peer-reviewed journals, reporting on the outcomes of interest, for MoM HRA. Articles were limited to those with 2-year followup that reported outcomes by gender. Ten articles met inclusion criteria. Study quality was evaluated using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score; the overall quality was poor. Heterogeneity and bias were analyzed using a Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Women demonstrated an increased odds of developing ALTR (odds ratio [OR], 5.70 [2.71-11.98]; p<0.001), dislocation (OR, 3.04 [1.2-7.5], p=0.02), aseptic loosening (OR, 3.18 [2.21-4.58], p<0.001), and revision (OR, 2.50 [2.25-2.78], p<0.001) after primary MoM HRA. A systematic review of the currently available literature reveals a higher rate of complications (ALTR, dislocation, aseptic loosening, and revision) after MoM HRA in women compared with men. Although femoral head size has been frequently implicated as a prime factor in the higher rate of complication in women, further research is necessary to specifically probe this relationship. Retrospective studies of data available (eg, registry data) should be undertaken, and moving forward studies should report outcomes by gender (particularly complications). Level III, therapeutic study.
Markelić, I; Jakopović, M; Klepetko, W; Džubur, F; Hećimović, A; Makek, M J; Samaržija, M; Dugac, A V
A 22-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis (CF) developed lung abscess, as a rare complication caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infection, after lung transplantation (LT). After 6 months of long-term antibiotic therapy, the abscess was successfully eliminated. In reviewed published literature, no previous report was found describing this kind of complication caused by MDR A. baumannii in post-LT patient with CF. In our experience, lung abscess in LT recipients with CF can be successfully treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Johnstone, Nancy; Ward, Daniel A
The objective of this retrospective study was to report the incidence of posterior capsule disruption during routine phacoemulsification and to document the postoperative outcomes and complications in eyes with posterior capsule disruption compared with eyes with intact posterior capsules. Records of 143 dogs (244 eyes) were reviewed. Data collected included whether the posterior capsule was disrupted, whether the disruption was planned or accidental, whether an intraocular lens was implanted, and visual outcome. Records were reviewed for postoperative complications. Intraocular lens implantation rates, complication rates, and visual outcomes were compared between intact and disrupted posterior capsule groups using Chi-square analyses. The posterior capsule was disrupted in 33/244 eyes (14%). Planned capsulotomies accounted for 36% of the disruptions. Intraocular lenses were implanted in 76% of eyes without a disruption of the posterior capsule and in 31% of eyes with a posterior capsule disruption. Intraocular lenses were more likely to be implanted in eyes with a planned disruption of the posterior capsule (7/12; 58%) than in eyes with an accidental disruption (3/20; 15%). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications or visual outcome between eyes with posterior capsule disruption and those without. The most significant complication of posterior capsule disruption during phacoemulsification is the inability to implant an intraocular lens. Intraocular lenses are more likely to be placed in eyes with intentional disruptions of the posterior capsule than those with accidental ruptures.
Chiung-Jui Su, Daniel; Yuan, Kuo-Shu; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hong, Rong-Bin; Wu, Ming-Ping; Wu, Hing-Man; Chou, Willy
To investigate whether early rehabilitation reduces the occurrence of posttotal hip arthroplasty (THA) complications, adverse events, and medical expenses within one postoperative year. We retrospectively retrieve data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who had undergone THA during the period from 1998 to 2010 were recruited, matched for propensity scores, and divided into 2 groups: early rehabilitation (Early Rehab) and delayed rehabilitation (Delayed Rehab). Eight hundred twenty of 999 THA patients given early rehabilitation treatments were matched to 205 of 233 THA patients given delayed rehabilitation treatments. The Delayed Rehab group had significantly (all p < 0.001) higher medical and rehabilitation expenses and more outpatient department (OPD) visits than the Early Rehab group. In addition, the Delayed Rehab group was associated with more prosthetic infection (odds ratio (OR): 3.152; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.211-8.203; p < 0.05) than the Early Rehab group. Early rehabilitation can significantly reduce the incidence of prosthetic infection, total rehabilitation expense, total medical expenses, and number of OPD visits within the first year after THA.
Laimer, Markus; Melmer, Andreas; Mader, Julia K; Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Engels, Heide-Rose; Götz, Gabriele; Pfeifer, Martin; Hermann, Julia M; Stettler, Christoph; Holl, Reinhard W
Traditionally, basal rate profiles in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy are individually adapted to cover expected insulin requirements. However, whether this approach is indeed superior to a more constant BR profile has not been assessed so far. This study analysed the associations between variability of BR profiles and acute and chronic complications in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus. BR profiles of 3118 female and 2427 male patients from the "Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation" registry from Germany and Austria were analysed. Acute and chronic complications were recorded 6 months prior and after the most recently documented basal rate. The "variability index" was calculated as variation of basal rate intervals in percent and describes the excursions of the basal rate intervals from the median basal rate. The variability Index correlated positively with severe hypoglycemia (r = .06; p<0.001), hypoglycemic coma (r = .05; p = 0.002), and microalbuminuria (r = 0.05; p = 0.006). In addition, a higher variability index was associated with higher frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (r = .04; p = 0.029) in male adult patients. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, duration of disease and total basal insulin confirmed significant correlations of the variability index with severe hypoglycemia (β = 0.013; p<0.001) and diabetic ketoacidosis (β = 0.012; p = 0.017). Basal rate profiles with higher variability are associated with an increased frequency of acute complications in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Ban, Kristen A; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Friedberg, Mark W; Stulberg, Jonah J; Zhou, Lynn; Hall, Bruce L; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y
The ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard is the first nationwide, multispecialty public reporting of individual surgeon outcomes. However, ProPublica's use of a previously undescribed outcome measure (composite of in-hospital mortality or 30-day related readmission) and inclusion of only inpatients have been questioned. Our objectives were to (1) determine the proportion of cases excluded by ProPublica's specifications, (2) assess the proportion of inpatient complications excluded from ProPublica's measure, and (3) examine the validity of ProPublica's outcome measure by comparing performance on the measure to well-established postoperative outcome measures. Using ACS-NSQIP data (2012-2014) for 8 ProPublica procedures and for All Operations, the proportion of cases meeting all ProPublica inclusion criteria was determined. We assessed the proportion of complications occurring inpatient, and thus not considered by ProPublica's measure. Finally, we compared risk-adjusted performance based on ProPublica's measure specifications to established ACS-NSQIP outcome measure performance (eg, death/serious morbidity, mortality). ProPublica's inclusion criteria resulted in elimination of 82% of all operations from assessment (range: 42% for total knee arthroplasty to 96% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy). For all ProPublica operations combined, 84% of complications occur during inpatient hospitalization (range: 61% for TURP to 88% for total hip arthroplasty), and are thus missed by the ProPublica measure. Hospital-level performance on the ProPublica measure correlated weakly with established complication measures, but correlated strongly with readmission (R = 0.834, P < 0.001). ProPublica's outcome measure specifications exclude 82% of cases, miss 84% of postoperative complications, and correlate poorly with well-established postoperative outcomes. Thus, the validity of the ProPublica Surgeon Scorecard is questionable.
Shabib, Abdullah Bin; Alsayed, Fahad; Aldughaythir, Saad; Habeeb, Hanan; Al Tamimi, Sumayyah; Masuadi, Emad; Alzahrani, Mohsen; Alaklabi, Ali; Alotaibi, Azzam; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Almegren, Mosaad
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is indicated in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) in whom therapeutic anticoagulation is contraindicated. While prophylactic insertion of an IVC filter may be considered for patients at high risk of VTE, there are significant differences between clinical guidelines on the role of IVC filters. These discrepancies have arisen predominantly because of the paucity of data on the efficacy and safety of IVC filters. We, therefore, evaluated the indications for filter insertion, the rate of filter retrieval and complications in patients who received IVC filters at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A descriptive, retrospective review of electronic- and paper-based medical records was performed. Consecutive sampling was used to study all adult patients who received an IVC filter at KAMC between 2007 and 2016 and met the inclusion criteria. A total of 382 IVC filters were inserted. 113 patients (30%) had an acute VTE and a contraindication to anticoagulation while 53 patients (14%) received an IVC filter in the absence of VTE (i.e., prophylactic). Only 124 (32.5%) IVC filters were eventually retrieved. The most common reason for nonretrieval was the need for permanent filtration (155, 60%). Thrombotic complications developed in 72 (19%) patients; nine patients had fatal pulmonary embolism. The insertion of IVC filters in this cohort was associated with low retrieval rate and relatively high incidence of thrombotic complications. Follow-up of patients is required to detect IVC filter-related complications and to increase retrieval rate.
Wang, Junli; Zhao, Jiamin; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Chong
Effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support on nutritional status and blood glucose in patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus after radical gastrectomy were investigated. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus type 2 admitted to the First People's Hospital of Jinan (Jinan, China), from June 2012 to June 2016 were selected into the study. According to different nutrition support pathways, these patients were randomly divided into the EEN group and the TPN group. The improvement of nutritional indexes, postoperative complications, gastrointestinal function recovery and perioperative blood glucose fluctuation were compared between the two groups. On the 4th day after operation, the improvement levels of total bilirubin (TBL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP), prealbumin (PAB), hemoglobin (HGB) and weight (Wt) in the EEN group were significantly higher than those in the conventional group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups on the 8th day after operation (P>0.05). No patients had complications in the EEN group, while a total of 29 patients in the TPN group suffered adverse reactions, indicating that the incidence rate of complications in the EEN group was significantly lower than that in the TPN group (P<0.05). The postoperative evacuation time was earlier, hospitalization time was shorter and cost of postoperative hospitalization was less in the EEN group than those in the TPN group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood glucose fluctuation values at fasting and 2 h after a meal in the TPN group were higher than those in the EEN group within 8 days after operation, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 =13.219, P=0.002; χ 2 =20.527, P<0.001). EEN support provides nutrition for patients with gastric cancer complicated
Franklyn, J; Varghese, G; Mittal, R; Rebekah, G; Jesudason, M R; Perakath, B
A stoma rod or bridge has been traditionally placed under the bowel loop while constructing a loop colostomy. This is believed to prevent stomal retraction and provide better faecal diversion. However, the rod can cause complications such as mucosal congestion, oedema and necrosis. This single-centre prospective randomized controlled trial compared outcomes after creation of loop colostomy with and without a supporting stoma rod. The primary outcome studied was stoma retraction rate; other stoma-related complications were studied as secondary outcomes. One hundred and fifty-one patients were randomly allotted to one of two arms, colostomy with or without a supporting rod. Postoperative complications such as retraction, mucocutaneous separation, congestion and re-exploration for stoma-related complications were recorded. There was no difference in the stoma retraction rate between the two arms (8.1% in the rod arm and 6.6% in the no-rod arm; P = 0.719). Stomal necrosis (10.7% vs 1.3%; P = 0.018), oedema (23% vs 3.9%; P = 0.001), congestion (20.3% vs 2.6%; P = 0.001) and re-admission rates (8.5% vs 0%; P = 0.027) were significantly increased in the arm randomized to the rod. The stoma rod does not prevent stomal retraction. However, complication rates are significantly higher when a stoma rod is used. Routine use of a stoma rod for construction of loop colostomy can be avoided. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Aboltins, C; Dowsey, M M; Peel, T; Lim, W K; Parikh, S; Stanley, P; Choong, P F
Patients treated for early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with surgical debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics, such as rifampicin or fluoroquinolones have a rate of successful infection eradication that is similar to patients treated with the traditional approach of prosthesis exchange. It is therefore important to consider other outcomes after PJI treatment that may influence management decisions, such as function, quality of life (QOL) and treatment-associated complications. To describe rates of successful treatment for patients with PJI undergoing surgical debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics and compare their functional outcomes, QOL and complication rates to patients without PJI. Nineteen patients treated for PJI after hip arthroplasty with debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics were matched to 76 controls who underwent hip arthroplasty with no infection. Cumulative survival free from treatment failure at 2 years was 88% (95% confidence interval, 59-97%). PJI cases had significant improvement from pre-arthroplasty to 12-months post-arthroplasty in function according to Harris Hip Score and QOL according to the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary. There was no significant difference in the improvement between controls and cases. PJI was not a risk factor for poor function or QOL. Medical complications occurred more frequently in cases (6/19 (32%)) than controls (9/76 (12%); P = 0.04), with this difference being accounted for by drug reactions. Surgical complications were the same in the two groups. Treatment of PJI with debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics is successful, well tolerated and results in significant improvements in function and QOL, which are similar to patients without PJI. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Sabesan, Vani J; Petersen-Fitts, Graysen; Lombardo, Daniel; Briggs, Daniel; Whaley, James
Low socioeconomic status and Medicaid insurance as a primary payer have been associated with major disparities in resource utilization and risk-adjusted outcomes for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. With the expansion of Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act in 2014, examination of these disparities has become increasingly relevant for the treatment of proximal humerus fracture (PHF). The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients who were treated for PHF from 2002 to 2012. Primary outcomes included treatment type, surgical fixation method, in-hospital complications, mean length of stay, and mean total charges for Medicaid patients vs. a matched privately insured cohort. In an effort to minimize confounding variables, each Medicaid patient was matched to a privately insured patient on the basis of gender, race, year of procedure, and age. Of the 678,831 patients treated with PHF, 4.9% (33,263) had Medicaid as the primary payer during the 10-year period. Medicaid patients were found to have a significantly higher risk (P < .05) of postoperative in-hospital complications, including postoperative infection (odds ratio [OR], 2.00 [1.37-2.93]), wound complications (OR, 1.69 [1.04-2.75]), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.34 [1.15-1.59]). Medicaid patients have a significantly higher risk for certain postoperative hospital complications and consume more resources after treatment for PHFs. Additional work is needed to understand the optimal treatment type for Medicaid patients and to understand the complex interplay between socioeconomic status and outcomes to ensure appropriate resource allocation and risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Furness, Peter N; Philpott, Carl M; Chorbadjian, Mary T; Nicholson, Michael L; Bosmans, Jean-Louis; Corthouts, Bob L; Bogers, Johannes J P M; Schwarz, Anke; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Mengel, Michael; Seron, Daniel; Moreso, Francesc; Cañas, Conception
Clinical trials in renal transplantation must use surrogate markers of long-term graft survival if conclusions are to be drawn at acceptable speed and cost. Morphologic changes in transplant biopsies provide the earliest available evidence of damage, and "protocol" biopsies from stable grafts can be used to reduce the number of patients needed in clinical trials. This approach has been inhibited by concerns over safety, but the risk of biopsy of a stable kidney, with no active inflammation or acute functional impairment, has never been formally estimated. In accordance with a predefined set of questions, a retrospective audit of a sequential series of protocol biopsies was performed in four major transplant centers. A total of 2,127 biopsy events were assessed for major complications, and 1,486 were assessed for minor ones. There were no deaths. One graft was lost, under circumstances indicating that the loss should have been prevented. Three episodes of hemorrhage required direct intervention. Three further patients required transfusion. There were two episodes of peritonitis, but one was arguably an unrelated event. All serious complications presented within 4 hr of biopsy. The incidence of clinically significant complications after protocol biopsy of a stable renal transplant is low. Direct benefits to the patients concerned (irrespective of the benefit that may accrue in clinical trials) were not formally assessed but seem likely to outweigh the risk of the procedure. We believe that it is ethically justifiable to ask renal transplant recipients to undergo protocol biopsies in clinical trials and routine care.
Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T
Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Association between hospital procedure volume and early complications after pacemaker implantation: results from a large, unselected, contemporary cohort of the German nationwide obligatory external quality assurance programme.
Nowak, Bernd; Tasche, Karl; Barnewold, Linda; Heller, Günther; Schmidt, Boris; Bordignon, Stefano; Chun, K R Julian; Fürnkranz, Alexander; Mehta, Rajendra H
Several studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between cardioverter-defibrillator implantation volume and complication rates, suggesting better outcomes for higher volume centres. However, the association of institutional procedural volume with patient outcomes for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation remains less known, especially in decentralized implantation systems. We performed retrospective examination of data on patients undergoing PPM from the German obligatory quality assurance programme (2007-12) to evaluate the relationship of hospital PPM volume (categorized into quintiles of their mean annual volume) with risk-adjusted in-hospital surgical complications (composite of pneumothorax, haemothorax, pericardial effusion, or pocket haematoma, all requiring intervention, or device infection) and pacemaker lead dislocation. Overall 430 416 PPM implantations were documented in 1226 hospitals. Systems included dual (72.8%) and single (25.8%) chamber PPM and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices (1.1%). Complications included surgical (0.92%), and ventricular (0.99%), and atrial (1.22%) lead dislocation. Despite an increase in relatively complex procedures (dual chamber, CRT), there was a significant decrease in the procedural and fluoroscopy times and complications from lowest to highest implantation volume quintiles (P for trend <0.0001). The greatest difference was observed between the lowest (1-50 implantations/year-reference group) and the second-lowest (51-90 implantations/year) quintile: surgical complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.69; confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.78], atrial lead dislocations (OR 0.69; CI 0.59-0.80), and ventricular lead dislocations (OR 0.73; CI 0.63-0.84). Hospital annual PPM volume was directly related to indication-based implantation of relatively more complex PPM and yet inversely with procedural times and rates of early surgical complications and lead dislocations. Thus, our data suggest better performance and lower
Chughtai, Morad; Mistry, Jaydev B; Diedrich, Aloise M; Jauregui, Julio J; Elmallah, Randa K; Bonutti, Peter M; Harwin, Steven F; Malkani, Arthur L; Kolisek, Frank R; Mont, Michael A
Dislocation complicates 1% to 5% of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs). As a result, some surgeons consider dual-mobility articulations, which are usually used in the revision setting to decrease the likelihood of dislocation, as an option for primary THA. However, few studies have evaluated their use in this setting. (1) What is the cup survivorship when the dual-mobility articulation is used in the setting of primary THA? (2) What are the clinical outcomes with this approach? (3) What are the radiographic outcomes? (4) What are the complications of dual-mobility articulations in primary THA? Between 2011 and 2013, the five participating surgeons performed 495 cementless primary THAs. During that time, one of the five surgeons used dual-mobility articulations for all THAs, and the other four used it whenever the acetabular cup size was 52 mm or greater to enable a 28-mm head. Of the 495 patients, 453 (92%) were performed using this device. Smaller patients were treated with a standard THA. Of the 453 patients, a total of 43 patients (10%) were lost to followup before the 2-year minimum. The resulting 410 patients who were included in the analysis (164 men, 246 women) had a mean age of 64 years (SD, 12 years). The mean followup was 3 years (SD, 0.7 years). We performed Kaplan-Meier analyses to assess survivorship to aseptic failure and all-cause acetabular component survivorship. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Harris hip score (HHS); radiographs were assessed for cup migration, progressive radiolucencies, and positional changes of the components; and any surgery-related complications were recorded. The survivorship to aseptic failure and all-cause acetabular component survivorship was 99.8% (failures, n = 1) (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.517-4.547) and 99.3% (failures, aseptic, n = 1; septic, n = 2) (95% CI, 4.494-4.543); one hip had trunnion notching caused by impingement of a malpositioned cup, which was treated with revision of the cup and
Vavken, Julia; Vavken, Patrick; Mameghani, Alexander; Schaeren, Stefan
Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the current best evidence to assess effectiveness and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) as a biological stimulant in spine fusion. Methods Studies were included if they reported on outcomes after spine fusion with rhBMP-7. The data was synthesized using Mantel-Haenszel pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Main end points were union rate, overall complications, postoperative back and leg pain, revision rates, and new-onset cancer. Results Our search produced 796 studies, 6 of which were eligible for inclusion. These studies report on a total of 442 patients (328 experimental, 114 controls) with a mean age of 59 ± 11 years. Our analysis showed no statistically significant differences in union rates (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.11, p = 0.247), overall complications (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.20, p = 0.545), postoperative back and leg pain (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.48 to 2.19, p = 0.941), or revision rate (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.40, p = 0.449). There was a mathematical indicator of increased tumor rates, but with only one case, the clinical meaningfulness of this finding is questionable. Conclusion We were not able to find data in support of the use of rhBMP-7 for spine fusion. We found no evidence for increased complication or revision rates with rhBMP-7. On the other hand, we also found no evidence in support of improved union rates.
Frega, Antonio; Schimberni, Mauro; Ralli, Eleonora; Verrone, Antonella; Manzara, Federica; Schimberni, Matteo; Nobili, Flavia; Caserta, Donatella
The treatment of Bartholin's gland cysts by traditional surgery is characterized by some disadvantages and complications such as hemorrhage, postoperative dyspareunia, infections, necessity for a general anesthesia. Contrarily, CO2 laser surgery might be less invasive and more effective as it solves many problems of traditional surgery. The aim of our study is to describe CO2 laser technique evaluating its feasibility, complication rate and results vs traditional surgery. Among patients treated for Bartholin's gland cyst, we enrolled 62 patients comparing traditional surgical excision vs CO2 laser surgery of whom 27 patients underwent traditional surgery, whereas 35 patients underwent CO2 laser surgery. Mean operative time, complication rate, recurrence rate and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. The procedures required a mean operative time of 9 ± 5.3 min for CO2 laser surgery and 42.2 ± 13.8 for traditional surgery. Two patients (5.7 %) needed an hemostatic suture for intraoperative bleeding in the laser CO2 laser technique against 14.8 % for traditional surgery. Carbon dioxide allows a complete healing in a mean time of 22 days without scarring, hematomas or wound infections and a return to daily living in a mean time of 2 days. Instead, patients undergone traditional surgery required a mean time of 14 days to return to daily life with a healing mean time completed in 28 days. The minimum rate of intra- and post-operative complications, the ability to perform it under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting make CO2 laser surgery more cost-effective than traditional surgery.
Mohammadzadeh, Iraj; Noei, Somayyeh; Babazadeh, Kazem; Zamani, Hassan; Barari-Savadkoohi, Rahim; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
Background: Cardiac involvement was the major leading cause of death in patients with Kawasaki and IVIG administration reduces cardiac complications. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of cardiovascular complications and duration of fever with regard to the time of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration of patients with Kawasaki disease. Methods: This follow-up study was done on all patients with Kawasaki disease who were hospitalized at Amirkola Children’s Hospital between 2006 and 2011. Diagnosis of Kawasaki was clinical and included fever more than 5 days with 4 of 5 signs containing mucosal changes, scaling and skin rash, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, cervical lymph adenopathy and edema in lower extremities. After diagnosis of Kawasaki, all patients received standard treatment (intravenous immunoglobulins and aspirin) and undergoing cardiac echocardiography in 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months. Information including age, sex, sign of diseases, laboratory findings, and cardiac complications in echocardiography were recorded. Results: This study was performed on 100 patients (61 boys and 39 girls) with Kawasaki disease. The mean age of children was 2.8±2.6 years. Cardiac complication rate was 47% at the onset of the disease and had reached to 7% at the end of the sixth month (P=0.000). Distribution of cardiovascular complications in the second week, the second month and the sixth month after treatment was not significantly different according to the start of time of treatment (p>0.05). Duration of fever in patients who received treatment before 10th day (1.5±1.3) did not have significant difference (P=0.78) with patients who received after 10th day (1.6±0.9). Conclusion: Result shows that most of patients (99%) responded to the treatment with IVIG and ASA and cardiovascular complication ratio decreased. There was not significant relationship between duration of fever and time of IVIG treatment initiation. PMID:27757208
McNab, Theresa C.; Blackman, James A.
Provides early-intervention professionals with a basic familiarity and understanding of some of the newest technologies employed in the neonatal intensive care units for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Early…
Azzam, Daniel; Romiyo, Prasanth; Nguyen, Thien; Sheppard, John P; Alkhalid, Yasmine; Lagman, Carlito; Prashant, Giyarpuram N; Yang, Isaac
Duraplasty, a common neurosurgical intervention, involves synthetic or biological graft placement to ensure dural closure. The objective of this study is to advance our understanding of the use of dural substitutes in cranial surgery. The PubMed database was systematically searched to identify studies published over the past decade (2007-2017) that described duraplasty procedures. Clinical data were disaggregated and analyzed for the comparisons of biological versus synthetic grafts. A total of 462 cases were included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall, the most common indication for duraplasty was tumor resection (53%). Allografts were more frequently used in decompression for Chiari malformations compared with xenografts and synthetic grafts (P < 0.001). Xenografts were more frequently used in decompressive hemicraniectomy procedures for evacuation of acute subdural hematomas over allografts and synthetics (P < 0.001). Synthetic grafts were more frequently used in tumor cases than biological grafts (P = 0.002). The cumulative complication rate for dural substitutes of all types was 11%. There were no significant differences in complication rates among the 3 types of dural substitutes. Dural substitutes are commonly used to ensure dural closure in a variety of cranial procedures. This study provides greater insight into duraplasty practices and highlights the moderate complication rate associated with the procedure. Future studies are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of such procedures in larger prospective cohorts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Marozio, Luca; Garofalo, Anna; Berchialla, Paola; Tavella, Anna Maria; Salton, Loredana; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara
Abnormal placentation is a common pathogenic mechanism of many placenta-mediated complications of late pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, and placental abruption. During successful placentation, the trophoblast (which is a semi-allograft) is not rejected by decidual immune cells because of maternal immune tolerance, mainly induced by human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G). Deficient HLA-G expression seems to be associated with the development of complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether low soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels in maternal blood at the beginning of pregnancy may be associated with subsequent placenta-mediated complications. For this retrospective case-control study, 117 cases of placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy and 234 controls with uneventful pregnancy were selected. Plasma sHLA-G levels were measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in blood samples previously obtained at first-trimester prenatal screening for chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Women who subsequently developed placenta-mediated complications had significantly lower sHLA-G levels at the beginning of pregnancy (median, 43.08 IU/mL) than controls (median, 49.10 IU/mL; P = 0.008). An sHLA-G level lower than 43.50 IU/mL at the end of the first trimester was associated with a twofold increased risk of developing a pregnancy complication (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.73). The strongest association, although only moderately strong, was observed with severe pre-eclampsia (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.56). Placenta-mediated complications of pregnancy may be associated with low sHLA-G levels in the first trimester, suggesting a potential role of sHLA-G in the early stages of placentation. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Düzgünoglu, Muzaffer; Hönle, Wolfgang; Scheller, Alexander; Schuh, Alexander
The aim of the study is to show whether there are any changes in quality or incidence of complications in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after establishing a centre for endoprothesis (EPZ). We conducted a retrospective study comparing 100 TKAs one year before establishing an EPZ (Group I) with 100 TKAs one year after establishing an EPZ (group II). Data were collected by analysing our electronic documentation system, and the report of the rehabilitation hospital. The following parameters were documented which are necessary to establish an EPZ: existence of X-rays before and after operation. Existence of full length weight bearing X-ray before operation or using a navigation device. Existence of preoperative planning, duration of TKA below 100 minutes. The following complications were documented: Periprosthetic infections, occurrence of periprosthetic fissures/fractures, thrombembolism, neurologic complications, patients' satisfaction rate with the hospital stay and mortality rate. Additionally femorotibial angle, femoral angle, tibial angle and tibial slope were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 22.0. using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Qui-Square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. There were no statistical differences in local or systemic complications. The mean duration of operation was 82.9 min in group I (min.: 55, max.: 141) und 81.5 min in group II (min.: 57, max.: 129; p > 0.05). In group I, there were 20/100 cases (20%) with operation time longer than 100 minutes, in group II 13/100 cases (13%; p < 0.001). Analysis of anatomical femorotibial angle, femur angle, tibial angle and tibial slope showed no significant differences. The rate of documented survey of patients' satisfaction rate improved from 62% in group I to 98% in group II (p < 0.001). By establishing an EPZ, we achieved a significant improvement in the parameters operation time > 100 minutes and documented survey of patients' satisfaction rate, but not
Kiskaddon, Eric M; Lee, Jessica H; Meeks, Brett D; Barnhill, Spencer W; Froehle, Andrew W; Krishnamurthy, Anil
Attempts to control costs associated with total joint arthroplasty have included efforts to shorten hospital length of stay (LOS). Concerns related to patient outcomes and safety with decreased LOS persist. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether discharge on postoperative day (POD) 1 after joint replacement is associated with increased rates of 90-day return to the operating room, and 30-day readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits. After chart review, 447 patients admitted between January 2, 2013 and September 16, 2016 met inclusion criteria. All patients underwent one total joint arthroplasty. Patients were either discharged on POD 1 (subgroup 1) or POD 2 or 3 (subgroup 2). Statistical evaluation was performed using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests for continuous variables, and Fisher exact tests for categorical and frequency data. Statistical significance was established at P ≤ .05. Subgroup 1 had significantly fewer return trips to the operating room (P = .043) and significantly fewer 30-day readmissions (P = .033). ED visits were not significantly different between groups (P = .901). Early discharge after joint arthroplasty appears to be a viable practice and did not result in increased rates of reoperation within the 90-day global period, or rates of 30-day readmission and ED visits. Our results support the utilization of an early discharge protocol on POD 1, with no evidence that shorter LOS results in higher rates of short-term complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Eng, Dorien M; Schepers, Tim; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L
Whether Achilles tendon rupture benefits from surgery or conservative treatment remains controversial. Moreover, the outcome can be influenced by the rehabilitation protocol. The goal of the present meta-analysis was to compare the rerupture rate after surgical repair of the Achilles tendon followed by weightbearing within 4 weeks versus conservative treatment with weightbearing within 4 weeks. In addition, a secondary analysis was performed to compare the rerupture rates in patients who started weightbearing after 4 weeks. Seven randomized controlled trials published from 2001 to 2012, with 576 adult patients, were included. The primary outcome measure was the rerupture rate. The secondary outcomes were minor and major complications other than rerupture. In the early weightbearing group, 7 of 182 operatively treated patients (4%) experienced rerupture versus 21 of 176 of the conservatively treated patients (12%). A secondary analysis of the patients treated with late weightbearing showed a rerupture rate of 6% (7 of 108) for operatively treated patients versus 10% (11 of 110) for conservatively treated patients. The differences concerning the rerupture rate in both groups were not statistically significant. No differences were found in the occurrence of minor or major complications after early weightbearing in both patient groups. In conclusion, we found no difference in the rerupture rate between the surgically and nonsurgically treated patients followed by early weightbearing. Weightbearing after 4 weeks also resulted in no differences in the rupture rate in the surgical versus conservatively treated patients. However, surgical treatment was associated with a twofold greater complication rate than conservative treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The author determined pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in 109 women with threatened early pregnancy as 32 of the women suffered from abortus imminens with several unsuccessful pregnancies in the past as well as 67 women with abortus incipiens with bleeding ex utero. The author established that 87% of women with abortus imminens and preserved pregnancies had values of beta 1-glycoprotein close to those of normal pregnancy for the respective gestational week. 93% of women with abortus incipiens preserved pregnancies till term, but the specific glycoprotein was with in normal ranges. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 7% of women with low values under the 10th percentile. The present study show that examination of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in women with threatened early pregnancy is of prognostic significance for the outcome of pregnancy.
Kuroki, Lindsay M; Mullen, Mary M; Massad, L Stewart; Wu, Ningying; Liu, Jingxia; Mutch, David G; Powell, Matthew A; Hagemann, Andrea R; Thaker, Premal H; McCourt, Carolyn K; Novetsky, Akiva P
To compare wound complication rates after skin closure with staples and subcuticular suture in obese gynecology patients undergoing laparotomy through a midline vertical incision. In this randomized controlled trial, women with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 30 or greater undergoing surgery by a gynecologic oncologist through a midline vertical incision were randomized to skin closure with staples or subcuticular 4-0 monofilament suture. The primary outcome was the rate of wound complication, defined as the presence of a wound breakdown, or infection, within 8 weeks postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included operative time, Stony Brook scar cosmetic score, and patient satisfaction. A sample size of 162 was planned to detect a 50% reduction in wound complications. At planned interim review (n=82), there was no significant difference in primary outcome. Between 2013 and 2016, 163 women were analyzed, including 84 who received staples and 79 suture. Women who received staples were older (mean age 59 compared with 57 years), had lower mean BMI (37.3 compared with 38.9), and fewer benign indications for surgery (22 compared with 27). There were no differences in wound complication rates between staple compared with suture skin closure (28 [33%] compared with 25 [32%], relative risk 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-1.64). Women with staples reported worse median cosmetic scores (four of five compared with five of five, P<.001), darker scar color (37 [49%] compared with 13 [18%], relative risk 2.69, 95% CI 1.57-4.63), and more skin marks (30 [40%] compared with three [4%], relative risk 9.47, 95% CI 3.02-29.65) compared with women with suture closure. There was no group difference regarding satisfaction with their scar. Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed BMI (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.20), maximum postoperative glucose (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01), and cigarette smoking (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.32-18.71) were correlates of wound complication. Closure of
Brasil, Albert Vincent Berthier; Teles, Alisson R; Roxo, Marcelo Ricardo; Schuster, Marcelo Neutzling; Zauk, Eduardo Ballverdu; Barcellos, Gabriel da Costa; Costa, Pablo Ramon Fruett da; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Kraemer, Jorge Luiz; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Gobbato, Pedro Luis; Worm, Paulo Valdeci
To analyze the cumulative effect of risk factors associated with early major complications in postoperative spine surgery. Retrospective analysis of 583 surgically-treated patients. Early "major" complications were defined as those that may lead to permanent detrimental effects or require further significant intervention. A balanced risk score was built using multiple logistic regression. Ninety-two early major complications occurred in 76 patients (13%). Age > 60 years and surgery of three or more levels proved to be significant independent risk factors in the multivariate analysis. The balanced scoring system was defined as: 0 points (no risk factor), 2 points (1 factor) or 4 points (2 factors). The incidence of early major complications in each category was 7% (0 points), 15% (2 points) and 29% (4 points) respectively. This balanced scoring system, based on two risk factors, represents an important tool for both surgical indication and for patient counseling before surgery.
Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Sienko, Jacek; Mogilinski, Mariusz; Bros, Magdalena; Szczecina, Roman; Czajkowska, Anna
To compare the influence of vaginal micronized progesterone and oral dydrogesterone supplementation on uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy that is complicated by threatened abortion. Randomized, parallel group, double-blind, double dummy-controlled study. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty-three patients with threatened abortion and a living embryo. Three hundred milligrams of micronized vaginal progesterone or 30 mg of oral dydrogesterone daily supplementation for 6 weeks, serial transvaginal Doppler ultrasound measurement of pulsatility index, resistance index, and systolic/diastolic ratio of the spiral arteries, the uterine arteries, and the intrachorionic area. Uteroplacental blood flow. The study demonstrated that vaginal progesterone administration, but not oral dydrogesterone treatment, results in the decrease in the spiral artery pulsatility and resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio. Insignificant decrease in pulsatility index and resistance index of the uterine artery was observed at >9 weeks and was not associated with treatment regimen. Dydrogesterone treatment was only accompanied by the decrease in the uterine artery systolic/diastolic ratio. Vaginal progesterone and oral dydrogesterone supplementation have a different influence on the uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy that is complicated by threatened abortion.
Savoie, P-H; Abdalla, S; Bordes, J; Laroche, J; Fournier, R; Pons, F; Bonnet, S
Giant inguinoscrotal hernias represent a real public health problem in the Ivory Coast that can dramatically impair patients' quality of life. Limited resources require a simplified surgical strategy including, in our experience, not using a mesh and leaving the distal hernia sac. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of this technique in terms of complications (seroma, haematoma, trophic troubles) and the ability to recover from surgery and return to work at 1 month postsurgery. Between January and May 2012, all patients who presented with a giant primary inguinoscrotal hernia that was spontaneously reducible in the decubitus position and who did not have any trophic changes in the scrotal skin were prospectively studied. The surgical procedure was a herniorrhaphy as described by Bassini. All patients received follow-up examinations on postoperative days 5, 12 and 30. Twenty-five males with a median age of 42 years (range 18-60) underwent surgery. Three patients (12 %) presented with a superficial skin infection and four (16 %) with early scrotal swelling without seroma, spontaneously resolved by postoperative day 30. Three patients (12 %) presented with scrotal swelling and seroma; two required aspiration. No early recurrence was observed at the end of follow-up, and all patients were able to return to work. Leaving the distal hernial sac in the scrotum does not interfere with the type of hernia repair and can limit the occurrence of complications. This technique is reliable, reproducible and does not incur additional morbidity when used in selected patients.
Hariri, Essa; Tisminetzky, Mayra; Lessard, Darleen; Yarzebski, Jorge; Gore, Joel; Goldberg, Robert
The occurrence of a stroke after an acute myocardial infarction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, limited data are available, particularly from a population-based perspective, about recent trends in the incidence and mortality rates associated with stroke complicating an acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to examine 25-year trends (1986-2011) in the incidence and in-hospital mortality rates of initial episodes of stroke complicating acute myocardial infarction. The study population consisted of 11,436 adults hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 1986 and 2011. In this study cohort, 159 patients (1.4%) experienced an acute first-ever stroke during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. The proportion of patients with acute myocardial infarction who developed a stroke increased through the 1990s but decreased slightly thereafter. Compared with patients who did not experience a stroke, those who experienced a stroke were significantly older, were more likely to be female, had a previous acute myocardial infarction, had a significant burden of comorbidities, and were more likely to have died (32.1% vs 10.8%) during their index hospitalization. Patients who developed a first stroke in the most recent study years (2003-2011) were more likely to have died during hospitalization than those hospitalized during earlier study years. Although the incidence rates of acute stroke complicating acute myocardial infarction remained relatively stable during the years under study, the in-hospital mortality rates of those experiencing a stroke have not decreased. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kisser, U; Kufeldt, J; Adderson-Kisser, C; Becker, S; Baumeister, P; Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Thomas, M N; Rittler, P
Malnutrition is considered as an independent risk factor for morbidity, mortality and a prolonged hospital stay for in-hospital patients. While most available data on the impact of malnutrition on health-related and financial implications refer to gastroenterologic or abdominal surgery patients, little is known about the impact of malnutrition on Ear Nose Throat (ENT)/head and neck surgery patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of malnutrition on morbidity and length of hospital stay in an elective ENT/head and neck surgery patient cohort. The study was performed as a single-center, prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral centre. Nutritional risk at admission was assessed using the NRS-2002 screening tool. Multivariate regression models were used to determine independent risk factors for complications and a prolonged hospitalization. Three hundred fifty one participants were included in the study. A malignant disease was found in 62 participants (17.7 %). 62 patients (17.7 %) were at a moderate to severe risk of malnutrition. A bad general health condition and complications during hospital stay could be identified as independent risk factors for a prolonged hospitalization. Patients with a malignant tumor showed a more than fourfold higher risk of developing at least one complication. Malnutrition, however, was not statistically associated with a higher complication rate or a prolonged hospital stay. Our data suggests that malnutrition does not seem to play such an important role as a risk factor for complications and a prolonged hospital stay in ENT patients as it does in other disciplines like abdominal surgery or gastroenterology.
Nylund, Adam M; Drury, Adam; Weir, Heather; Monnet, Eric
OBJECTIVE To assess rates of intraoperative complications and conversion to laparotomy associated with supervised veterinary students performing laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 161 female shelter dogs for which elective laparoscopic ovariectomy had been performed by supervised senior (fourth-year) veterinary students from 2010 through 2014. PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs were reviewed and data collected regarding duration of surgery, surgical complications and other characteristics, and whether conversion to laparotomy was required. RESULTS Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with a 2-cannula technique and a 10-mm vessel-sealing device for hemostasis in all dogs. A Veress needle was used for initial insufflation in 144 (89.4%) dogs; method of insufflation was not reported for the remaining 17 (10.6%) dogs. Mean ± SD duration of surgery was 114.90 ± 33.40 minutes. Surgical complications, all classified as minor blood loss, occurred in 24 (14.9%) dogs. These included splenic puncture during insertion of the Veress needle (n = 20 [12.4%]) and minor bleeding from the ovarian pedicle (4 [2.5%]). Splenic puncture required no intervention, and ovarian pedicle bleeding required application of the vessel-sealing device an additional time to control the bleeding. Two ovaries were dropped in the abdominal cavity at the time of removal. Both were retrieved without complication. Conversion to laparotomy was not required for any dog. All dogs were discharged from the hospital within 24 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs was performed safely by closely supervised novice surgeons, with only minor intraoperative complications encountered and no need for conversion to laparotomy.
Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian
Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…
Stokes, Audrey L; Tice, Shelly; Follett, Suzi; Paskey, Diane; Abraham, Lini; Bealer, Cheryl; Keister, Holly; Koltun, Walter; Puleo, Frances J
The purpose of this study was to compare selected postoperative complications (including stomal and peristomal complications), hospital length of stay, and readmission rates in a group of patients who attended a preoperative educational intervention to a retrospective group of patients who did not receive the intervention. Retrospective, comparison cohort study. The intervention group comprised 124 patients who attended an educational session for persons with fecal ostomies at a single tertiary care center in the Northeastern United States. They were compared to findings from a group of 94 individuals who underwent ostomy surgery during a 1-year period before initiation of the class. Patients undergoing emergent procedures or who had previous stomas were excluded. We found no significant differences between the 2 cohorts with respect to age, gender, comorbidities, open versus minimally invasive procedures, or colorectal diagnoses. A preoperative 2-hour stoma education class was led by certified WOC nurses for all patients undergoing colorectal surgeries in which the creation of a stoma was anticipated. This session included a didactic portion outlining postoperative expectations in the management of new ostomies (including dietary changes, prevention of dehydration, and an overview of ostomy supplies), as well as a hands-on portion to practice stoma care skills. We compared postoperative complications within 30 days (particularly stoma-related complications, including pouch leakage due to loss of seal, and peristomal skin irritation) between the group attending the education session and the control group. We also compared length of stay and 30-day readmission rates. Patients who participated in the educational intervention experienced significantly fewer peristomal complications than did patients in the historic control group (44.7% vs 20.2%, P = .002). Logistic regression analysis revealed that participation in the group was associated with a lower likelihood of
Nath, Saswati; Roy, Rita; Mukherjee, Suchandra
Early and intensive intervention can have a profound impact on the quality of life for children at risk for autism. Hence a high degree of suspicion towards babies exposed to known risk factors is warranted. Previous studies have shown that different perinatal factors like antepartum bleeding, postmaturity, birth asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome, anaemia in early infancy and exposure to toxins of various origins makes an infant susceptible to development of autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders in later life.This study aims to find out the association of perinatal risk factors in relation to development of autism spectrum disorders. All babies who are at least three years of age, attending the neurodevelopment and early intervention clinic at SSKM Hospital at Kolkata taken as cases. Age matched controls were taken from general paediatric OPD of the same hospital. After history taking, physical and neurological examination, developmental maturity was assessed by the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). A semi-structured parent's questionnaire and the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) was used to screen for autism. Diagnosis was confirmed by DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria. Significant correlation was found between presence of antepartum haemorrhage, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm delivery and autism in the baby. Perinatal complications are important risk factor for autism. Knowing the risk factors will help clinicians to be aware of the avoidable complications, and to undertake either preventive steps or intense intervention to reduce the degree of disability.
Brocklehurst, Neil; Ruta, Marcello; Müller, Johannes; Fröbisch, Jörg
Tree shape analyses are frequently used to infer the location of shifts in diversification rate within the Tree of Life. Many studies have supported a causal relationship between shifts and temporally coincident events such as the evolution of “key innovations”. However, the evidence for such relationships is circumstantial. We investigated patterns of diversification during the early evolution of Amniota from the Carboniferous to the Triassic, subjecting a new supertree to analyses of tree balance in order to infer the timing and location of diversification shifts. We investigated how uneven origination and extinction rates drive diversification shifts, and use two case studies (herbivory and an aquatic lifestyle) to examine whether shifts tend to be contemporaneous with evolutionary novelties. Shifts within amniotes tend to occur during periods of elevated extinction, with mass extinctions coinciding with numerous and larger shifts. Diversification shifts occurring in clades that possess evolutionary innovations do not coincide temporally with the appearance of those innovations, but are instead deferred to periods of high extinction rate. We suggest such innovations did not cause increases in the rate of cladogenesis, but allowed clades to survive extinction events. We highlight the importance of examining general patterns of diversification before interpreting specific shifts. PMID:26592209
Emanuelsson, P; Gunnarsson, U; Strigård, K; Stark, B
The aim of this study was to evaluate early complications following retromuscular mesh repair with those after dual layer suture of the anterior rectus sheath in a randomised controlled clinical trial for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis (ARD). Patients with an ARD wider than 3 cm and clinical symptoms related to the ARD were included in a prospective randomised study. They were assigned to either retromuscular inset of a lightweight polypropylene mesh or to dual closure of the anterior rectus fascia using Quill self-locking technology. All patients completed a validated questionnaire for pain assessment (Ventral Hernia Pain Questionnaire, VHPQ) and for quality of life (SF36) prior to and 3 months after surgery. The most frequently seen adverse event was minor wound infection. Of the patients, 14/57 had a superficial wound infection; five related to Quill and nine to mesh repair. No deep wound infections were reported. Patient rating for subjective muscular improvement postoperatively was better in the mesh technique group with a mean of 6.9 (range 0-10) compared to a mean of 4.8 (range 0-10) in the Quill group (p=0.01). The pre- and post-operative SF36 scores improved in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two surgical techniques in terms of early complications and perceived pain at the 3-month follow-up. Both techniques may be considered equally reliable for ARD repair in terms of adverse outcomes during the early postoperative phase, even though patients operated with a mesh experienced better improvement in muscular strength. ClinicalTrial.gov: 2009/227-31/3/PE/96. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anker, Christopher J; Hymas, Richard V; Ahluwalia, Ravinder; Kokeny, Kristine E; Avizonis, Vilija; Boucher, Kenneth M; Neumayer, Leigh A; Agarwal, Jayant P
The optimal method of reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) is controversial. This study evaluated patient satisfaction and complication rates among patients who received implant-based breast reconstruction. The specific treatment algorithm analyzed included patients receiving mastectomy and immediate temporary tissue expander (TE), followed by placement of a permanent breast implant (PI). If indicated, RT was delivered to the fully expanded TE. Records of 218 consecutive patients with 222 invasive (85%) or in situ (15%) breast lesions from the Salt Lake City region treated between 1998 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed, 28% of whom received RT. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy, and 41% received a scar boost at a median dose of 10 Gy. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the cumulative incidence of surgical complications, including permanent PI removal. Risk factors associated with surgical events were analyzed. To evaluate cosmetic results and patient satisfaction, an anonymous survey was administered. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range 6-144). Actuarial 5-year PI removal rates for non-RT and RT patients were 4% and 22%, respectively. On multivariate analysis (MVA), the only factor associated with PI removal was RT (p = 0.009). Surveys were returned describing the outcomes of 149 breasts. For the non-RT and RT groups, those who rated their breast appearance as good or better were 63% versus 62%, respectively. Under 1/3 of each group was dissatisfied with their reconstruction. RT did not significantly affect patient satisfaction scores, but on MVA RT was the only factor associated with increased PI removal. This reconstruction technique may be considered an acceptable option even if RT is needed, but the increased complication risk with RT must be recognized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Park, Youngsoo; Choi, Kyoung Wook; Chung, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha
Background The use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction has been increasing. The current ADMs available for breast reconstruction are offered as aseptic or sterile. No published studies have compared aseptic and sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction. The authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate the outcomes of aseptic versus sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction. Methods Implant-based immediate breast reconstructions with ADM conducted between April 2013 and January 2016 were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the aseptic ADM (AlloDerm) group and the sterile ADM (MegaDerm) group. Archived records were reviewed for demographic data and postoperative complication types and frequencies. The complications included were infection, flap necrosis, capsular contracture, seroma, hematoma, and explantation for any cause. Results Twenty patients were reconstructed with aseptic ADM, and 68 patients with sterile ADM. Rates of infection (15.0% vs. 10.3%), flap necrosis (5.0% vs. 7.4%), capsular contracture (20.0% vs. 14.7%), seroma (10.0% vs. 14.7%), hematoma (0% vs. 1.5%), and explantation (10.0% vs. 8.8%) were not significantly different in the 2 groups. Conclusions Sterile ADM did not provide better results regarding infectious complications than aseptic ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction. PMID:27896182
Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas
Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tejwani, R; Wang, H-H S; Young, B J; Greene, N H; Wolf, S; Wiener, J S; Routh, J C
Increased case volumes and training are associated with better surgical outcomes. However, the impact of pediatric urology sub-specialization on perioperative complication rates is unknown. To determine the presence and magnitude of difference in rates of common postoperative complications for elective pediatric urology procedures between specialization levels of urologic surgeons. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative administrative database, was used. The NIS (1998-2009) was retrospectively reviewed for pediatric (≤18 years) admissions, using ICD-9-CM codes to identify urologic surgeries and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) inpatient postoperative complications. Degree of pediatric sub-specialization was calculated using a Pediatric Proportion Index (PPI), defined as the ratio of children to total patients operated on by each provider. The providers were grouped into PPI quartiles: Q1, 0-25% specialization; Q2, 25-50%; Q3, 50-75%; Q4, 75-100%. Weighted multivariate analysis was performed to test for associations between PPI and surgical complications. A total of 71,479 weighted inpatient admissions were identified. Patient age decreased with increasing specialization: Q1, 7.9 vs Q2, 4.8 vs Q3, 4.8 vs Q4, 4.6 years, P < 0.01). Specialization was not associated with race (P > 0.20), gender (P > 0.50), or comorbidity scores (P = 0.10). Mortality (1.5% vs 0.2% vs 0.3% vs 0.4%, P < 0.01) and complication rates (15.5% vs 11.7% vs 9.6% vs 10.9%, P < 0.0001) both decreased with increasing specialization. Patients treated by more highly specialized surgeons incurred slightly higher costs (Q2, +4%; Q3, +1%; Q4 + 2%) but experienced shorter length of hospital stay (Q2, -5%; Q3, -10%; Q4, -3%) compared with the least specialized providers. A greater proportion of patients treated by Q1 and Q3 specialized urologists had CCS ≥2 than those seen by Q2 or Q4 urologists (12.5% and 12.2%, respectively vs 8.4% and
Tejwani, R.; Wang, H-H. S.; Young, B. J.; Greene, N. H.; Wolf, S.; Wiener, J. S.; Routh, J. C.
Summary Introduction Increased case volumes and training are associated with better surgical outcomes. However, the impact of pediatric urology sub-specialization on perioperative complication rates is unknown. Objectives To determine the presence and magnitude of difference in rates of common postoperative complications for elective pediatric urology procedures between specialization levels of urologic surgeons. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative administrative database, was used. Study Design The NIS (1998–2009) was retrospectively reviewed for pediatric (≤18 years) admissions, using ICD-9-CM codes to identify urologic surgeries and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) inpatient postoperative complications. Degree of pediatric sub-specialization was calculated using a Pediatric Proportion Index (PPI), defined as the ratio of children to total patients operated on by each provider. The providers were grouped into PPI quartiles: Q1, 0–25% specialization; Q2, 25–50%; Q3, 50–75%; Q4, 75–100%. Weighted multivariate analysis was performed to test for associations between PPI and surgical complications. Results A total of 71,479 weighted inpatient admissions were identified. Patient age decreased with increasing specialization: Q1, 7.9 vs Q2, 4.8 vs Q3, 4.8 vs Q4, 4.6 years, P<0.01). Specialization was not associated with race (P>0.20), gender (P>0.50), or comorbidity scores (P=0.10). Mortality (1.5% vs 0.2% vs 0.3% vs 0.4%, P<0.01) and complication rates (15.5% vs 11.7% vs 9.6% vs 10.9%, P<0.0001) both decreased with increasing specialization. Patients treated by more highly specialized surgeons incurred slightly higher costs (Q2, +4%; Q3, +1%; Q4 + 2%) but experienced shorter length of hospital stay (Q2, –5%; Q3, –10%; Q4, –3%) compared with the least specialized providers. A greater proportion of patients treated by Q1 and Q3 specialized urologists had CCS ≥2 than those seen by Q2 or Q4 urologists
Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y
During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.
Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Shin, Yeon Myung; Choi, Kyung Hyun; Hwang, Hyun Yong
Pancreatic leakage is a serious complication of gastrectomy due to stomach cancer. Therefore, we analyzed amylase and lipase concentrations in blood and drainage fluid, and evaluated the volume of drainage fluid to discern their usefulness as markers for the early detection of serious pancreatic leakage requiring reoperation after gastrectomy. From January 2001 to December 2007, we retrospectively analyzed data from 24,072 patient samples. We divided patients into two groups; 1) complications with pancreatic leakage (CG), and 2) no complications associated with pancreatic leakage (NCG). Values of amylase and lipase in the blood and drainage fluid, volume of the drainage fluid, and relationships among the volumes, amylase values, and lipase values in the drainage fluid were evaluated, respectively in the two groups. The mean amylase values of CG were significantly higher than those of NCG in blood and drainage fluid (P < 0.05). For lipase, statistically significant differences were observed in drainage fluid (P < 0.05). The mean volume (standard deviation) of the drained fluid through the tube between CG (n = 22) and NCG (n = 236) on postoperative day 1 were 368.41 (266.25) and 299.26 (300.28), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.298). There was a correlation between the amylase and lipase values in the drainage fluid (r = 0.812, P = 0.000). Among postoperative amylase and lipase values in blood and drainage fluid, and the volume of drainage fluid, the amylase in drainage fluid was better differentiated between CG and NCG than other markers. The volume of the drainage fluid did not differ significantly between groups.
Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanli, Basar; Sen, Ahmet; Bostan, Habib; Budak, Ersel Tan; Pergel, Ahmet
We hypothesized that cooling hyperbaric bupivacaine from 23 to 5 °C may limit the intrathecal spread of bupivacaine and therefore increase the success rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia and decrease the rate of hemodynamic complications. A hundred patients scheduled for elective unilateral inguinal hernia surgery were randomly allocated to receive 1.8 ml of 0.5 % hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally at either 5 °C (group I, n = 50) or at 23 °C (group II, n = 50). Following spinal block at the L2-3 interspace, the lateral decubitus position was maintained for 15 min. Unilateral spinal anesthesia was assessed and confirmed at 15 and 30 min. The levels of sensory and motor block on the operative side were evaluated until complete resolution. The rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia at 15 and 30 min was significantly higher in group I (p = 0.015 and 0.028, respectively). Hypotensive events and bradycardia were significantly rarer in group I (p = 0.014 and 0.037, respectively). The density and viscosity of the solution at 5 °C was significantly higher than at 23 °C (p < 0.0001). Compared with group II, sensory block peaked later in group I (17.4 vs 12.6 min) and at a lower level (T9 vs T7), and two-segment regression of sensory block (76.4 vs 84.3 min) and motor block recovery was shorter (157.6 vs 193.4 min) (p < 0.0001). Cooling of hyperbaric bupivacaine to 5 °C increased the density and viscosity of the solution and the success rate of unilateral spinal anesthesia, and decreased the hemodynamic complication rate.
Shimanskaya, Viktoria E; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André; Hermus, Ad R M M; van de Ven, Annenienke C; van Lindert, Erik J
It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk of developing complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical reinterventions to optimize the length of hospitalization. The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on baseline patient-related characteristics, characteristics of the pituitary adenoma, perioperative complications and interventions, and postoperative outcomes. Patients who underwent additional interventions on days 2, 3, and 4 after ETS were identified as cases, and patients who did not have any interventions after day 1 postoperatively were identified as controls. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.279; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.149-15.933; P = 0.03), incomplete adenoma resection (OR, 2.840; 95% CI, 1.228-6.568; P = 0.02) and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 2.158-12.579; P <0.001) were associated with reinterventions. Patients without interventions on day 1 or 2 had only an 18.6% chance of a reintervention (OR, 0.201; 95% CI, 0.095-0.424). Patients with diabetes mellitus, incomplete adenoma resection, and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery have an increased chance on reinterventions. In addition, patients without any interventions on day 1 and 2 are at low risk for later reinterventions. These patients could be suitable candidates for early hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.
Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…
Fordyce, James A
Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.
Graffy, Peter; Loomis, Scott B; Pickhardt, Perry J; Lubner, Meghan G; Kitchin, Douglas R; Lee, Fred T; Hinshaw, J Louis
To investigate whether an autologous intraparenchymal blood patch (IPB) reduces the rate of pneumothorax-related complications associated with computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsies. This study included 834 patients: 482 who received an IPB and 352 who did not. Retrospective review was performed of all CT-guided lung biopsies performed at a single institution between August 2006 and September 2013. Patients were excluded if no aerated lung was crossed. The rate of pneumothorax, any associated intervention (eg, catheter placement, aspiration), chest tube placement, and chest tube replacement requiring hospital admission were compared by linear and multiple regression analysis. Patients who received an IPB had a significantly lower rate of pneumothorax (145 of 482 [30%] vs 154 of 352 [44%]; P < .0001), pneumothorax-related intervention (eg, catheter aspiration, pleural blood patch, chest tube placement; 43 of 482 [8.9%] vs 85 of 352 [24.1%]; P < .0001), and chest tube placement along with other determinants requiring hospital admission (18 of 482 [3.7%] vs 27 of 352 [7.7%]; P < .0001). No complications related to the IPB were noted in the study group. Autologous IPB placement is associated with a decreased rate of pneumothorax and associated interventions, including chest tube placement and hospital admission, after CT-guided lung biopsies, with no evidence of any adverse effects. These results suggest that an IPB is safe and effective and should be considered when aerated lung is traversed while performing a CT-guided lung biopsy. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fouad, Reham; El-Faissal, Yahia M; Hashem, Ahmed T; Gad Allah, Sherine H
The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcome of Tension-free Vaginal Tape Obturator (TVT-O) operation in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in obese females, with respect to uroflowmetric changes, success rate and postoperative complications. This prospective observational study included 26 patients with USI at the Obstetrics & Gynecology department-Cairo University hospital during the year 2015. The participants had body mass index (BMI)≥30. Patients underwent TVT-O operation. Follow up of the patients was performed by cough test and uroflowmetry after one week, one month, three months and six months. Postoperative complications such as groin pain, sense of incomplete emptying, need to strain to complete micturition and urinary tract infection were recorded. Comparisons between groups were done using Chi square, Phi-Cramer test for categorical variables. The mean age for the subjects was 43.58±9.01years. The mean BMI was 33.4±2.1. The success rate of TVT-O operation was 21 out of 26 patients (≈81%). Normal maximum flow rate was in 88% of patients at week one and was normal in 100% of patients at months three and six (p=0.101 & 0.101). Postoperative groin pain was the main complaint during the first week after operation and decreased significantly from week one to the 1st month postoperative (84.62% & 65.38%, P=0.041). TVT-O operation showed a high success rate in treatment of USI in obese patients without affecting the voiding function of the bladder as proven by the uroflowmetry. The main postoperative complaint was the groin pain which significantly improved after one month. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ripperda, Christopher M; Kowalski, Joseph T; Chaudhry, Zaid Q; Mahal, Aman S; Lanzer, Jennifer; Noor, Nabila; Good, Meadow M; Hynan, Linda S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rahn, David D
The rates reported for postoperative urinary retention following midurethral sling procedures are highly variable. Determining which patients have a higher likelihood of failing a voiding trial will help with preoperative counseling prior to a midurethral sling. The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors for failed voiding trial following an isolated midurethral sling. A retrospective, multicenter, case-control study was performed by including all isolated midurethral sling procedures performed between Jan. 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015, at 6 academic centers. We collected demographics, medical and surgical histories, voiding symptoms, urodynamic evaluation, and intraoperative data from the medical record. We excluded patients not eligible for attempted voiding trial after surgery (eg, bladder perforation requiring catheterization). Cases failed a postoperative voiding trial and were discharged with an indwelling catheter or taught intermittent self-catheterization; controls passed a voiding trial. We also recorded any adverse events such as urinary tract infection or voiding dysfunction up to 6 weeks after surgery. Bivariate analyses were completed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson χ 2 tests as appropriate. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine predictors of failing a voiding trial. A total of 464 patients had an isolated sling (70.9% retropubic, 28.4% transobturator, 0.6% single incision); 101 (21.8%) failed the initial voiding trial. At follow-up visits, 90.4% passed a second voiding trial, and 38.5% of the remainder passed on the third attempt. For the bivariate analyses, prior prolapse or incontinence surgery was similar in cases vs controls (31% vs 28%, P = .610) as were age, race, body mass index, and operative time. Significantly more of the cases (32%) than controls (22%) had a Charlson comorbidity index score of 1 or greater (P = .039). Overactive bladder symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urgency
Schallhorn, Steven C; Schallhorn, Julie M; Pelouskova, Martina; Venter, Jan A; Hettinger, Keith A; Hannan, Stephen J; Teenan, David
Purpose To compare refractive and visual outcomes, patient satisfaction, and complication rates among different age categories of patients who underwent refractive lens exchange (RLE). Methods A stratified, simple random sample of patients matched on preoperative sphere and cylinder was selected for four age categories: 45–49 years (group A), 50–54 years (group B), 55–59 years (group C), and 60–65 years (group D). Each group contained 320 patients. All patients underwent RLE with a multifocal intraocular lens at least in one eye. Three months postoperative refractive/visual and patient-reported outcomes are presented. Results The percentage of patients that achieved binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better was 91.6% (group A), 93.8% (group B), 91.6% (group C), 88.8% (group D), P=0.16. Binocularly, 80.0% of patients in group A, 84.7% in group B, 78.9% in group C, and 77.8% in group D achieved 20/30 or better uncorrected near visual acuity (P=0.13). The proportion of eyes within 0.50 D of emmetropia was 84.4% in group A, 86.8% in group B, 85.7% in group C, and 85.8% in group D (P=0.67). There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative satisfaction, visual phenomena, dry eye symptoms, distance or near vision activities. Apart from higher rate of iritis in the age group 50–55 years, there was no statistically significant difference in postoperative complication rates. Conclusion RLE can be safely performed in younger as well as older presbyopes. No significant difference was found in clinical or patient-reported outcomes. PMID:28894356
Memon, M; Kay, J; Ginsberg, L; Simunovic, N; Bak, K; Lapner, P; Ayeni, O R
The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy, including the aetiology, surgical decision-making, clinical outcomes, and complications associated with the procedure. Three databases [PubMed, Ovid (Medline), and Embase] were searched. Systematic literature screening and data abstraction was performed in duplicate to present a review of studies reporting on arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy. The quality of the included studies was assessed using level of evidence and the MINORS (Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies) checklist. In total, 40 studies (17 case reports, 20 case series, 2 retrospective comparative studies, and 1 prospective comparative study) were identified, including 259 patients (261 shoulders) treated arthroscopically for suprascapular neuropathy. The most common aetiology of suprascapular neuropathy was suprascapular nerve compression by a cyst at the spinoglenoid notch (42%), and the decision to pursue arthroscopic surgery was most commonly based on the results of clinical findings and investigations (47%). Overall, 97% of patients reported significant improvement in or complete resolution of their pre-operative symptoms (including pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder) over a mean follow-up period of 23.7 months. Further, there was a low overall complication rate (4%) associated with the arthroscopic procedures. While most studies evaluating arthroscopic management of suprascapular neuropathy are uncontrolled studies with lower levels of evidence, results indicate that such management provides patients with significant improvements in pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder, and has a low incidence of complications. Patients managed arthroscopically for suprascapular neuropathy may expect significant improvements in pain, strength, and subjective function of the shoulder. Level IV, systematic review of level II to IV
Bibbo, Christopher; Ehrlich, David A; Nguyen, Hoang M L; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J
Historically, the lateral extensile approach for calcaneal fracture osteosynthesis has had relatively high rates of wound healing problems. The vascular territory (angiosome) of the lateral foot is now known to be dependent upon the lateral calcaneal branch of the peroneal artery (LCBP artery). We postulated that patency of the LCBP artery may have a profound positive impact on incisional wound healing for calcaneal open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Ninety consecutive calcaneal fractures that met operative criteria were preoperatively evaluated for the presence of a Doppler signal in the LCBP artery and were followed for the development of wound healing problems. Among these 90 fractures, 85 had a positive preoperative Doppler signal along the course of the LCBP artery (94%) and 5 had no Doppler signal (6%). All patients underwent ORIF via a lateral extensile approach. Overall, incisional wound healing problems occurred in 6 of 90 calcaneal incisions (6.5%). All 5 feet that exhibited an absent Doppler signal in the LCPB artery developed an incisional wound healing complication (5/6, approximately 83%): 2 large apical wounds and 3 major dehiscence/slough. However, among the 84 feet that possessed a positive preoperative Doppler signal in the LCBP artery, there was only 1 (1/84, approximately 1%) incisional wound healing problem (P < .0001, Fischer's exact test). Smokers with a positive Doppler signal in the LCBP artery did not develop a wound healing complication. This study suggests a strong link to low incisional wound healing complications for the lateral extensile approach to the calcaneus when a preoperative Doppler signal is present in the LCBP artery. We believe this simple examination should be routinely performed prior to calcaneal ORIF. Level III, comparative case series. © The Author(s) 2014.
Xu, Han; Jie, Li; Kejian, Sun; Xiaojun, He; Chengli, Liu; Hongyi, Zhang; Yalin, Kong
BACKGROUND Conflict still remains as to the benefit of angioembolization (AE) for non-operative therapy (NOT) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT). The aim of this study was to determine whether AE could result in lower failure rates in hemodynamically stable BHT patients with high failure risk factors for NOT, and to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of AE for NOT of BHT. MATERIAL AND METHODS Medical records of all BHT patients from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2015 at a large trauma center were collected and analyzed. Failure of NOT (FNOT) occurred if hepatic surgery was performed after attempted NOT. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOT. Hepatobiliary complications related to hepatic trauma during follow-up were reviewed. RESULTS No significant difference in FNOT for the no angiographic embolization (NO-AE) group versus angiographic embolization (AE) group was found in hepatic trauma of grades I, II, and V. However, decrease in FNOT was significant with AE performed for hepatic trauma of grades III to IV. Risk factors for FNOT included grade III to IV injuries and contrast blush on CT. Follow-up data of six months also showed that the incidence of hepatobiliary complications in the NO-AE group was higher than the AE group. CONCLUSIONS Hemodynamically stable BHT patients with grade III to IV injuries, contrast blush on initial CT, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels can be candidates for selective AE during NOT course.
Xu, Han; Jie, Li; Kejian, Sun; Xiaojun, He; Chengli, Liu; Hongyi, Zhang; Yalin, Kong
Background Conflict still remains as to the benefit of angioembolization (AE) for non-operative therapy (NOT) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT). The aim of this study was to determine whether AE could result in lower failure rates in hemodynamically stable BHT patients with high failure risk factors for NOT, and to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of AE for NOT of BHT. Material/Methods Medical records of all BHT patients from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2015 at a large trauma center were collected and analyzed. Failure of NOT (FNOT) occurred if hepatic surgery was performed after attempted NOT. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOT. Hepatobiliary complications related to hepatic trauma during follow-up were reviewed. Results No significant difference in FNOT for the no angiographic embolization (NO-AE) group versus angiographic embolization (AE) group was found in hepatic trauma of grades I, II, and V. However, decrease in FNOT was significant with AE performed for hepatic trauma of grades III to IV. Risk factors for FNOT included grade III to IV injuries and contrast blush on CT. Follow-up data of six months also showed that the incidence of hepatobiliary complications in the NO-AE group was higher than the AE group. Conclusions Hemodynamically stable BHT patients with grade III to IV injuries, contrast blush on initial CT, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels can be candidates for selective AE during NOT course. PMID:29155699
Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Warshevski, Yaniv; Gold, Aviram; Shasha, Nadav; Snir, Nimrod; Chechik, Ofir; Dolkart, Oleg; Eilig, Dynai; Herman, Amir; Rath, Ehud; Kramer, Moti; Drexler, Michael
The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Nelken, N; Lewis, F
The management of penetrating colon injury has been frequently debated in the literature, yet few reports have evaluated primary closure versus diverting colostomy in similarly injured patients. Diverting colostomy is the standard of care when mucosal penetration is present, but primary closure in civilian practice has generally had excellent results, although it has been restricted to less severely injured patients. Because the degree of injury may influence choice of treatment in modern practice, various indices of injury severity have been proposed for assessment of patients with penetrating colon trauma. As yet, however, there has been no cross-comparison of repair type versus injury severity. A retrospective study 76 patients who sustained penetrating colon trauma between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 1985 and who survived for at least 24 hours was conducted. Different preferences among attending surgeons and a more aggressive approach to the use of primary closure during the years of study led to an essentially random use of primary closure and diverting colostomy for moderate levels of colon injury, with mandatory colostomy reserved for the most serious injuries. Primary closure was performed in 37 patients (three having resection and anastomosis), and colostomy was performed in 39 patients. Severity of injury was evaluated by the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), and the Flint Colon Injury Score. Complications and outcome were evaluated as a function of severity of injury, and primary closure and colostomy were compared. Demographic profiles of the two groups did not differ regarding age, sex, mechanism of injury, shock, or delay between injury and operation. The mortality rate was 2.6% for each group. Major morbidity, including septic complications, occurred in 11% of the patients of the primary closure group and in 49% of those of the colostomy group. When PATI was less than 25, the Flint score was less than or
Durand, Wesley M; Goodman, Avi D; Johnson, Joey P; Daniels, Alan H
DVT is a common complication following lower extremity surgery, occurring in up to 60% of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery without postoperative anticoagulation. The risk of fatal PE continues well-beyond two weeks postoperatively, thus extended DVT prophylaxis beyond 14 days may be warranted. This investigation sought to examine the association between prescription of extended DVT prophylaxis and 30-day postoperative complications following hip fracture surgery. This study utilized the ACS NSQIP Hip Fracture Procedure Targeted dataset, a newly available set of patient variables for 2016. The outcome measures were death, occurrence of any postoperative complication, complication subtype, readmission or reoperation within 30-days postoperatively, and length of stay. The primary independent variable was medical DVT prophylaxis continued 28-days postoperatively ("extended DVT prophylaxis"). The control group contains both patients receiving no prophylaxis and those receiving short-duration prophylaxis. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was employed to control for potential demographic, comorbidity, and procedural/medical confounding factors. In total, 7533 surgically treated hip fracture patients treated in 2016 were analyzed. Overall, 57.8% of patients (n = 4354) were prescribed extended DVT prophylaxis. On bivariate analysis, prescription of extended DVT prophylaxis was associated with significantly lower incidence of death (7.7% without vs. 2.7% with, p < 0.0001) and stroke/CVA (1.4% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.0016). In multivariate analysis, prescription of extended DVT prophylaxis was significantly associated with lower odds of death (OR 0.33, p < 0.0001), stroke/CVA (OR 0.44, p = 0.0010), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR 0.31, p = 0.0010). This retrospective cohort study of the 2016 ACS NSQIP found that hip fracture surgery patients prescribed ≥28 days of postoperative DVT prophylaxis exhibited 67% lower odds of death and
Alwaal, Amjad; Harris, Catherine R; Awad, Mohannad A; Allen, Isabel E; Breyer, Benjamin N
Male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) can significantly diminish quality of life and lead to embarrassment and social withdrawal. Surgical therapies, such as male urethral slings and artificial urinary sphincters (AUS), are considered effective and safe treatments for male SUI. Our objective is to evaluate 30-day complications in patients undergoing male slings and AUS placement from a national multicenter database. Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality of Improvement Program for 2008-2013 were used to identify patients who underwent male slings and AUS implantation. Trained coders abstracted complication data from the patient record independent of the surgical team. We compared 30-day postoperative complications for male slings and AUS. We examined the relationship between patient factors and complication rates for each procedure type. Overall, 1205 incontinence surgeries in men were identified: 597 male sling placements and 608 AUS implantations. Male sling placement had a lower 30-day postoperative complication rate compared to AUS (2.8 vs. 5.1 %, p = 0.046). Compared to AUS, male sling was associated with fewer urinary tract infections (0.3 vs. 2.0 %, p = 0.020) and return trips to the operating room (1.0 vs. 3.0 %, p < 0.001). Patients with higher BMI were more likely to have a complication, while age, race and Charlson comorbidity index were not associated with higher or lower complication rates. Complications rates for both male sling and AUS are low. Male sling is associated with a lower rate of complications than AUS. These findings allow for better patient perioperative counseling regarding 30-day perioperative complications.
D'Souza, Jill N; Levi, Jessica R; Park, David; Shah, Udayan K
Pediatric tracheotomy is a complex procedure with significant postoperative complications. Wound-related complications are increasingly reported and can have considerable impact on clinical course and health care costs to tracheotomy-dependent children. The primary objective of this study was to identify the type and rate of complications arising from pediatric tracheotomy. A retrospective review of medical records of 302 children who underwent tracheotomy between December 1, 2000, and February 28, 2014, at a tertiary care pediatric referral center. Records were reviewed for preoperative diagnoses, gestational age, age at tracheotomy, tracheotomy technique, and incidence of complication. Main outcome measures included incidence, type, and timing of complications. Secondary measures included medical diagnoses and surgical technique. Of the 302 children who underwent tracheotomy, the median (SD) age at time of tracheotomy was 5 months (64 months) and the range was birth to 21 years. The most frequent diagnosis associated with performance of a tracheotomy was ventilator-associated respiratory failure (61.9%), followed by airway anomaly or underdevelopment (25.2%), such as subglottic or tracheal stenosis, laryngotracheomalacia, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The remaining indications for tracheotomy included airway obstruction (11.6% [35 of 302]) and vocal fold dysfunction (1.3% [4 of 302]). No statistical significance was found associated with diagnosis and incidence of complications. Sixty children (19.9%) had a tracheotomy-related complication. Major complications, such as accidental decannulation (1.0% [3 of 302]). There were no deaths associated with tracheotomy. Minor complications, such as peristomal wound breakdown or granuloma (12.9% [39 of 302]) and bleeding from stoma (1.7% [5 of 302]), were more common. Of all complications, 70% (42 of 60) occurred early (≤7 days postoperatively) and 20% (12 of 60) were late (>7 days postoperatively). Pediatric
Piątek, Łukasz; Polewczyk, Anna; Kurzawski, Jacek; Zachura, Małgorzata; Kaczmarczyk, Małgorzata; Janion, Marianna
Due to increasing number of patients treated by cardiac implantable electronic devices we observe increasing number of complications after these procedures We analysed causes of early surgical revision of implantable devices connected with 1673 procedures of implantation (871 procedures) or exchange (802 procedures) of pacing systems (PM), cardioverter-difibrillators (ICD) and resynchronisation systems (CRT) in one local centre of electrotherapy in years 2012 to 2015. We characterised risk factors and its influence on encountered complications. In analysed period 72 reinterventions after implantations or exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT were performed. Main causes of early complications were: lead malfunction (2.5%), including the dislodgement of the leads in 1.9%, pocket hematoma (1.4%) and other abnormalities of the pocket (0.4 %), including pocket infections in 0.2%. The most important risk factors of early complications were often implantations of the leads with passive fixation and anticoagulation therapy in perioperative period. The knowledge of the early complications after implantations and exchanges of PM/ICD/CRT should improve the safety of procedures through more often used of the leads with active fixation and properly preparation of the patients requering the antithrombic therapy.
Davidson, B J
There is no simple and rapid test available to predict the outcome of an early pregnancy complicated by vaginal bleeding. In this prospective study, 15 women with normal pregnancies collected a weekly urine sample between 6 and 13 weeks' gestation. A single random urine sample was obtained from 15 women with bleeding who continued to carry their child and 50 women who proceeded to have a spontaneous abortion (SAB). Pregnandiol-3-glucuronide (PDG) was determined with the use of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) and estrone conjugates (E1C) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The ratios of these metabolites to creatinine (C) were calculated. PDG/C ratios in normal women rose gradually from 6 weeks on. All women with bleeding during a normal pregnancy had ratios in the normal range, but 94% of women with a SAB had ratios below the normal range. The E1C/C ratio remained unchanged from 6 to 11 weeks and then rose rapidly. Until 11 weeks, there was no clear separation between the E1C/C ratios of the women with a SAB and the women with bleeding who continued their pregnancies. The prognosis of threatened abortion can be made by a urinary PDG/C ratio but not by an E1C/C ratio. EMIT is simple and quick and uses technology present in many laboratories.
Cercadillo-Ibarguren, Iñaki; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard
To describe the clinical outcomes and complications related to provisional prostheses after full-arch implant-supported rehabilitation by means of an immediate loading protocol. This retrospective cohort study included patients who were consecutively treated with full-arch implant-supported restorations with a minimum of four implants (Replace Select Tapered TiUnite, Nobel Biocare AB) per arch and conical abutments (multi-unit, Nobel Biocare AB) by means of an immediate loading protocol. The surgical procedures were performed between May 2006 and June 2014 by a single oral surgeon. Demographic, surgical, and prosthetic variables were collected, and biologic and mechanical complications were registered. A total of 61 maxillae (57%) and 46 mandibles (43%) were treated in 88 patients (40 men and 48 women) with a mean age of 62.4 years. A total of 558 implants were placed, 295 in postextraction sockets. A total of 331 implants (59.3%) were placed in the maxilla and 227 (40.7%) in the mandible. Within a 9-month period, 18 prostheses (16.8%) fractured (15 maxillary and 3 mandibular); in nine of these patients the opposing dentition was a full-arch, implant-supported restoration, and in the remaining nine patients, it was natural dentition. Six (1.1%) maxillary and three (0.5%) mandibular implants failed. A high implant survival rate is expected in the short term following this immediate loading protocol. Fracture of the provisional prosthesis is a common finding, affecting 17% of patients, and is significantly more prevalent in patients with bruxism and in maxillary prostheses.
Yadla, Sanjay; Ghobrial, George M; Campbell, Peter G; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Harrop, James S; Ratliff, John K; Sharan, Ashwini D
Complications after spine surgery have an impact on overall outcome and health care expenditures. The increased cost of complications is due in part to associated prolonged hospital stays. The authors propose that certain complications have a greater impact on length of stay (LOS) than others and that those complications should be the focus of future targeted prevention efforts. They conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database to identify complications with the greatest impact on LOS as well as the predictive value of these complications with respect to 90-day readmission rates. Data on 249 patients undergoing spine surgery at Thomas Jefferson University from May to December 2008 were collected by a study auditor. Any complications occurring within 30 days of surgery were recorded as was overall LOS for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine whether specific complications had a statistically significant effect on LOS. For correlation, all readmissions within 90 days were recorded and organized by complication for comparison with those complications affecting LOS. The mean LOS for patients without postoperative complications was 6.9 days. Patients who developed pulmonary complications had an associated increase in LOS of 11.1 days (p < 0.005). The development of a urinary tract infection (UTI) was associated with an increase in LOS of 3.4 days (p = 0.002). A new neurological deficit was associated with an increase in LOS of 8.2 days (p = 0.004). Complications requiring return to the operating room (OR) showed a trend toward an increase in LOS of 4.7 days (p = 0.09), as did deep wound infections (3.3 days, p = 0.08). The most common reason for readmission was for wound drainage (n = 21; surgical drainage was required in 10 [4.01%] of these 21 cases). The most common diagnoses for readmission, in decreasing order of incidence, were categorized as hardware malpositioning (n = 4), fever (n = 4), pulmonary (n
Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian
This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…
Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.
A recent report hypothesized that episodes of space motion sickness (SMS) were reliably associated with low frequency oscillations (less than 0.03 to less than 0.01 Hz) in heart rate variability. This paper archives a large data set for review of investigators in this field which may facilitate the evaluation of this hypothesis. Continuous recording of Electro-cardiography (ECG) and other measures were made for 6 to 12 hours per day (waking hours) of six Shuttle crewmembers for the first 3 mission days of two separate Shuttle flights. Spectral analyses of heart rate variability during approximately 200 hours of inflight is presented. In addition, nearly 200 hours of data collected on these same individuals during ground tests prior to the mission are presented. The Purpose of this Publication is to document the incidence of low frequency oscillations of heart rate in 4 people exposed to microgravity over a period of five days. In addition, this report contains spectral analyses of heart rate data collected on these same individuals during ground-based mission simulations. By archiving these data in this manner, it is our intention to make this information available to other investigators interested in studying this phenomena.
D. T. Cooper; Robert B. Ferguson
A sample of 37 cottonwood clones from a selection program was compared with a sample of 40 random clones in a 14-year test at two sites near Stoneville, Mississippi. Throughout the test period, the select sample was slightly better in mean growth rate, but this difference decreased with age. Performance of ''blue tag" clones selected at age 5 and planted...
Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer
Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: email@example.com; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors andmore » the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative
McKnight, Braden; Heckmann, Nathanael; Hill, J Ryan; Pannell, William C; Mostofi, Amir; Omid, Reza; Hatch, George F Rick
Little is known about the perioperative complication rates of the surgical management of midshaft clavicle nonunions. The purpose of the current study was to report on the perioperative complication rates after surgical management of nonunions and to compare them with complication rates of acute fractures using a population cohort. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried to identify patients who had undergone open reduction-internal fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures between 2007 and 2013. Patients were stratified by operative indication: acute fracture or nonunion. Patient characteristics and 30-day complication rates were compared between the 2 groups using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 1215 patients were included in our analysis. Of these, 1006 (82.8%) were acute midshaft clavicle fractures and 209 (17.2%) were midshaft nonunions. Patients undergoing surgical fixation for nonunion had a higher rate of total complications compared with the acute fracture group (5.26% vs. 2.28%; P = .034). On multivariate analysis, patients with a nonunion were at a >2-fold increased risk of any postsurgical complication (odds ratio, 2.29 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-5.00]; P = .037) and >3-fold increased risk of a wound complication (odds ratio, 3.22 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-10.20]; P = .046) compared with acute fractures. On the basis of these findings, patients undergoing surgical fixation for a midshaft clavicle nonunion are at an increased risk of short-term complications compared with acute fractures. This study provides additional information to consider in making management decisions for these common injuries. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cangemi, Roberto; Calvieri, Camilla; Falcone, Marco; Bucci, Tommaso; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Scarpellini, Maria G; Barillà, Francesco; Taliani, Gloria; Violi, Francesco
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by cardiac events in the early phase of the disease. Aim of this study was to assess if these intrahospital cardiac complications may account for overall mortality and cardiovascular events occurring during a long-term follow-up. Three hundred one consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I, with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively recruited and followed up for a median of 17.4 months. Primary end point was the occurrence of death for any cause, and secondary end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke). During the intrahospital stay, 55 patients (18%) experienced a cardiac complication. Of these, 32 had an MI (29 non-ST-elevation MI and 3 ST-elevation MI) and 30 had a new episode of atrial fibrillation (7 nonmutually exclusive events). During the follow-up, 89 patients died (51% of patients with an intrahospital cardiac complication and 26% of patients without, p <0.001) and 73 experienced a cardiovascular event (47% of patients with and 19% of patients without an intrahospital cardiac complication, p <0.001). A Cox regression analysis showed that intrahospital cardiac complications, age, and Pneumonia Severity Index were significantly associated with overall mortality, whereas intrahospital cardiac complications, age, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly associated with cardiovascular events during the follow-up. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that intrahospital cardiac complications in the early phase of pneumonia are associated with an enhanced risk of death and cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Sparks, Paul B; Morton, Joseph B; Lee, Geoffrey; Joseph, Stephen A; Hawson, Joshua J; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M
Despite technological advances, studies continue to report high complication rates for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We sought to review complication rates for AF ablation at a high-volume centre over a 14-year period and identify predictors of complications. We reviewed prospectively collected data from 2750 consecutive AF ablation procedures at our institution using radiofrequency energy (RF) between January 2004 and May 2017. All cases were performed under general anaesthetic with transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 3D-mapping and an irrigated ablation catheter. Double transseptal puncture was performed under TEE guidance. All patients underwent wide antral circumferential isolation of the pulmonary veins (30W anteriorly, 25W posteriorly) with substrate modification at operator discretion. Of 2255 initial and 495 redo procedures, ablation strategies were: pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) only 2097 (76.3%), PVI+lines 368 (13.4%), PVI+posterior wall 191 (6.9%), PVI+cavotricuspid isthmus 277 (10.1%). There were 23 major (0.84%) and 20 minor (0.73%) complications. Cardiac tamponade (five cases - 0.18%) and phrenic nerve palsy (one case - 0.04%) rates were very low. Major vascular complications necessitating surgery or blood transfusion occurred in five patients (0.18%). There were no cases of death, permanent disability, atrio-oesophageal fistulae or symptomatic pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, although there were five TEE probe-related complications (0.18%). Female gender (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.07-4.26) but not age >70 (OR 1.01) was the only multivariate predictor of complications. Atrial fibrillation ablation performed at a high-volume centre using RF can be achieved with a low major complication rate in a representative AF population over a sustained period of time. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Pass, H.I.; Delaney, T.; Smith, P.D.
Photodynamic therapy is a recently introduced treatment for surface malignancies. Since January 1987, 10 patients with endobronchial neoplasms have had bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy at similar dose rates (400 mW/cm) for total atelectasis (2), carinal narrowing with respiratory insufficiency (2), or partial obstruction without collapse (4). Two patients underwent photodynamic therapy as a preliminary to immunotherapy. Histologies included endobronchial metastases (colon, ovary, melanoma, and sarcoma, 1 each; and renal cell, 3) and primary lung cancer (3). The 2 patients with total atelectasis had complete reexpansion after photodynamic therapy, which permitted eventual sleeve lobectomy in 1. Carinal narrowing was ameliorated in themore » 2 patients seen with inspiratory stridor, thereby permitting hospital discharge. Endoscopically resected fragments after photodynamic therapy exhibited avascular necrosis. These data support further controlled studies of photodynamic therapy by thoracic surgical oncologists to define its limitations as well as to improve and expand its efficacy as a palliative or surgical adjuvant.« less
Sameem, Mojib; Au, Michael; Wood, Thomas; Farrokhyar, Forough; Mahoney, James
Management of pressure sores poses a significant reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. Currently, there is no consensus on whether musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, or perforator-based flaps provide superior results for treating pressure sores. The following databases were searched: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS (January of 1950 to November of 2010), MEDLINE (January of 1950 to November of 2010), and EMBASE (January of 1980 to November of 2010). Only articles reporting on the use of musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, and perforator-based flaps were included. The primary study outcomes were complication and recurrence rates. Fifty-five articles were included in the final analysis (kappa = 0.78). From this total, 28 were categorized as pertaining to musculocutaneous flaps, 13 studied fasciocutaneous flaps, and 14 evaluated perforator-based flaps. The authors' review revealed recurrence and complication rates of 8.9 and 18.6 percent, respectively, following reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps, 11.2 and 11.7 percent following reconstruction with fasciocutaneous flaps, and 5.6 and 19.6 percent following reconstruction with perforator-based flaps. Overall, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in complication or recurrence rates among these three techniques. The authors' review revealed that there was no statistically significant difference with regard to recurrence or complication rates among musculocutaneous, fasciocutaneous, or perforator-based flaps. This suggests that surgeons performing such reconstructive procedures may choose to consider the advantages of a specific approach rather than the complication and recurrence rates. Therapeutic, IV.
Oyonarte, Miguel; Montagna, Rodrigo; Braun, Sandra; Rojo, Pamela; Jara, José L; Cereceda, Mauricio; Morales, Marcelo; Nazzal, Carolina; Nazal, Carolina; Alonso, Faustino
Rates of morbidity and mortality in Infective Endocarditis (IE) remain high and prognosis in this disease is still difficult and uncertain. To study IE in Chile in its active phase during inpatient hospital stay and long term survival rates. Observational prospective national cohort study of 506 consecutive patients included between June 1,1998 and July 31, 2008, from 37 Chilean hospitals (secondary and tertiary centers) nationwide. The main findings were the presence of Rheumatic valve disease in 22.1 % of patients, a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) only in 0.7%, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in 29.2% of blood cultures, negative blood cultures in 33.2%, heart failure in 51.7% and native valve involvement in 86% of patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis was achieved in 94% of patients. Hospital mortality was 26.1% and its prognostics factors were persisting infection (Odds ratio (OR) 6.43, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45-28.33%), failure of medical treatment and no surgical intervention (OR 48.8; CI 6.67-349.9). Five and 10 years survival rates were 75.6 and 48.6%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for long term mortality, determined by multivariate analysis were the presence of diabetes, Staphylococcus aureus infection, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure and lack of surgical treatment during the IE episode. The microbiologic diagnosis of IE must be urgently improved in Chile. Mortality rates are still high (26.1%) partly because of a high incidence of negative blood cultures and the need for more surgical valve interventions during in-hospital period. Long term prognostic factors for mortality should be identified early to improve outcome.
Mehrabi Bahar, Mostafa; Jabbari Nooghabi, Azadeh; Hamid, Alireza; Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Jangjoo, Ali
There is controversy concerning the management of the remaining cavity after the evacuation of a cyst in patients who have undergone surgical operation for liver hydatidosis. This study compares the results of capitonnage and tube drainage of the remaining cavity. In this retrospective study, participants were selected from two groups of patients with a liver hydatid cyst who underwent capitonnage or tube drainage from 2004 to 2012. The patients were followed for 6-24 months. The data of age, sex, involved liver lobe, size of the cyst, complications, drain duration, and hospital stay were analyzed. Participants included 155 patients consisting of 96 (61.94%) females and 59 (38.06%) males. Most cysts were in the right lobe, and the most common diameter of the cysts was greater than 10 cm. Capitonnage was performed on 90 (58.06%) patients and the tube drainage procedure was performed on the remaining 65 (41.94%) patients. In the tube drainage group and the capitonnage group, the operative times were 2.21 ± 0.65 hours and 2.53 ± 0.35 hours, respectively; the hospital stays were 5.695 ± 3.37 days and 4.43 ± 2.96 days, respectively; the drain duration was 9.2 ± 1.7 days and 2.1 ± 0.4 days, respectively; and the time to return to work was 14.7 ± 2.3 days and 8.3 ± 10.4 days, respectively. All variables were statistically significant, except for the operative time. Cavity infection and biliary fistula were identified in three patients and six patients, respectively, in the tube drainage group and identified in two patients and three patients, respectively, in the capitonnage group. This difference was not statistically significant. This study demonstrated that capitonnage versus the tube drainage method may result in a shorter hospital stay, decreased time to return to work, and low rate of morbidity and complications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Szeberin, Z; Dósa, E; Fehérvári, M; Csobay-Novák, C; Pintér, N; Entz, L
The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the early and long-term mortality and morbidity as well as to reveal risk factors influencing the long-term prognosis in patients with complicated acute type B aortic dissection (CABAD) undergoing open surgical suprarenal aortic fenestration (OSSAF). Fifty-two patients with CABAD, defined as (impending) rupture, acute enlargement of the false lumen, malperfusion, and/or unrelenting back pain or uncontrollable hypertension despite maximum medical therapy were treated with by surgical repair between 2002 and 2008. Ten patients with (impending) rupture had aortic graft replacement, while 42 (33 men, mean age 55 ± 11 years) had OSSAF. Follow up visits were scheduled at 1, 3-6 and 12 months after the surgery and annually thereafter. Clinical examination and computed tomography angiography findings were investigated at baseline and at subsequent visits. The indications for OSSAF were acute enlargement of the false lumen in four (10%), malperfusion in 17 (40%) (11 lower extremity [26%], 6 visceral [14%]), and unrelenting back pain or uncontrollable hypertension in 21 cases (50%). The 30 day mortality was 21.4% (2 multiple organ failure, 2 heart failure, 3 pneumonia, 1 intestinal necrosis, 1 major hemorrhage). The mean follow up was 84 ± 40 months. The 5 year survival was 70.6%. Eight patients (19%) died during the follow up period (6 aortic ruptures, 2 myocardial infarctions). None of the patients became paraplegic after the surgery. Further surgery or stenting was indicated in nine cases (21%). OSSAF has been performed with an acceptable early mortality and low paraplegia rate, but late mortality is frequently related to aortic rupture. Stentgraft coverage of the primary entry tear decreases late aortic related deaths, but suprarenal fenestration remains an option for cases not suitable for endovascular techniques. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Simcox, Louise E.; Ormesher, Laura; Tower, Clare; Greer, Ian A.
There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage) and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction). Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question. PMID:26633369
Nussenbaum, Fernando D; Rodriguez-Quintana, David; Fish, Sara M; Green, David M; Cahill, Catherine W
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common procedures with a risk of complications. Attempting to minimize complications, our institution implemented preoperative screening criteria for patients undergoing elective total joint replacement. Our study aimed to determine if screening criteria lowered total complications and/or surgical site infections (SSI). Two groups of consecutive patients undergoing TKA and THA at a single Veterans Affairs facility were evaluated prior to and after implementation of screening criteria, 520 and 475 respectively. Screening criteria included hemoglobin A1c ≤7, hemoglobin ≥11, body mass index ≤35, and albumin ≥3.5. Groups were analyzed for demographics, preoperative comorbidities, and postoperative complications. Rates of total complications and SSI were compared. Average follow-up was at least 2 years with minimum of 1 year. Demographics and comorbidities outside the screening criteria were similar. Total complication rate was reduced from 35.4% to 14.8% (P < .01) after implementation of screening criteria. For TKA, total complications were reduced from 33.1% to 15.0% (P < .01) and for THA they were reduced from 42.4% to 14.2% (P < .01). SSI rates for combined TKA and THA were reduced from 4.4% to 1.3% (P < .01). For knees, SSI was reduced from 4.6% to 1.3% (P = .01) and was statistically significant. For THA, SSI decreased from 3.8% to 1.2% (P < .05). Our institution saw a statistically significant decrease in both SSI and total complications following implementation of preoperative screening criteria for elective TKA and THA. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kochetkova, N G; Al'tman, D Sh; Teplova, S N
Using the Bioage and Snake software the immune and cardiovascular system aging rate was diagnosed in patients having early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). The indicators of biological, cardiopulmonary and immunological age were studied in patients showing early symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dyscirculatory encephalopathy of the 1st stage. The rate of age-dependent physiological changes was diagnosed compared to general body aging rate. Some specific patterns of immune system aging were found in patients with early forms of CCVDs, the cardinal aging symptoms (heterotropia, heterochronia) were verified.
Fettser, D V; Batyraliev, T A; Pershukov, I V; Vanyukov, A E; Sidorenko, B A
During recent 10-15 years, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) have reached a new level of efficacy and safety. Rate of serious coronary complications has decreased. That to a greater degree exposes the problem of peripheral complications at the site of arterial approach. At the same time portion of patients older than 75 years in the total pool of PCI constantly increases. Number of patients with pronounced obesity also grows each year. Radial approach for PCI allows to substantially decrease rate of peripheral complications at the account of lowered rate of bleedings, and to shorten duration of hospitalization. In this literature review we present results of a number of relevant clinical studies including those which contained groups of elderly patients and of patients with obesity. We also have summarized main advantages and disadvantages of radial approach as compared with femoral approach for coronary angiography and PCI.
Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Assareh, Hassan; Hollis, Stephanie J.; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas
Background Despite the increased acceptance of failure-to-rescue (FTR) as an important patient safety indicator (defined as the percentage of deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), there has not been any large epidemiological study reporting FTR in an Australian setting nor any evaluation on its suitability as a performance indicator. Methods We conducted a population-based study on elective surgical patients from 82 public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between 2002 and 2009, exploring the trends and variations in rates of hospital complications, FTR and 30-day mortality. We used Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios (RRs) after adjusting for a range of patient and hospital characteristics. Results The average rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality were 13.8 per 1000 admissions, 14.1% and 6.1 per 1000 admission, respectively. The rates of complications and 30-day mortality were stable throughout the study period however there was a significant decrease in FTR rate after 2006, coinciding with the establishment of national and state-level peak patient safety agencies. There were marked variations in the three rates within the top 20% of hospitals (best) and bottom 20% of hospitals (worst) for each of the four peer-hospital groups. The group comprising the largest volume hospitals (principal referral/teaching hospitals) had a significantly higher rate of FTR in comparison to the other three groups of smaller-sized peer hospital groups (RR = 0.78, 0.57, and 0.61, respectively). Adjusted rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality varied widely for individual surgical procedures between the best and worst quintile hospitals within the principal referral hospital group. Conclusions The decrease in FTR rate over the study period appears to be associated with a wide range of patient safety programs. The marked variations in the three rates between- and within- peer hospital groups highlight the
Cowan, Natasha; Goldenberg, Alina; Basu, Pallavi; Eilers, Robert; Hau, Jennifer; I Brian Jiang, Shang
Clinically large cutaneous tumors and those with aggressive subclinical extension (ASE) often require wider margins and increased operative time during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Our goal is to improve dermatologic surgeons' counseling information on complication risks for aggressive tumors. To examine the incidence of postoperative complications in MMS patients, with a focus on differences between aggressive and non-aggressive tumors. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional chart review of 4151 MMS cases at the University of California, San Diego. A postoperative complication was defined as an adverse event directly related to MMS reported within 6 weeks of the procedure. Clinically, large tumors had 50 times the odds of postoperative complication as compared to all other tumors (P less than 0.001). ASE was not found to be significantly associated with higher rates of postoperative complications when controlled for other factors. Clinically, large tumors may be at higher risk for complications following MMS due to their increased size and need for repair with methods other than linear closures. Tumors with ASE were not found to be at higher risk for postoperative complications. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):511-515.
Child Trends, 2010
Research suggests that high quality early care and education programs can have a significant impact on improving the cognitive, academic and social skills of all children, especially those most at risk for later school failure. A number of states are developing Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) to assess and improve the quality of…
Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life.
Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva
Objectives Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. Methods We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Results Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Conclusions Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life. PMID:27347422
Kurzyna, Marcin; Darocha, Szymon; Pietura, Radosław; Pietrasik, Arkadiusz; Norwa, Justyna; Mańczak, Rafał; Wieteska, Maria; Biederman, Andrzej; Matsubara, Hiromi; Torbicki, Adam
To assess the safety and efficacy of a refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) strategy in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). There were 157 BPA sessions performed in 56 CTEPH patients (47 non-operable, nine after pulmonary endarterectomy; aged 58.6 ± 17.9 years; 28 females) with severely impaired pulmonary haemodynamics (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP]: 51.3 ± 12.2 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR]: 10.1 ± 3.9 Wood Units). The first 50 sessions aimed to recanalise chronic occlusions and prevent reocclusion with aggressive anticoagulation. The next 107 sessions aimed to relieve "web" and "ring" lesions using reduced tip load guidewires and less intensive anticoagulation. There was significant reduction in haemoptysis (22% vs. 7%, p = 0.01), vessel injury (30% vs. 13%, p = 0.01), and reperfusion pulmonary injuries (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) after changing the BPA strategy. Mortality at 14 days was also reduced (6% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). The cumulative survival rate was 94.6% at 24 months after the first BPA, which was more favourable than medically treated historic controls. In the 31 patients with > 3 BPA sessions, there was significant reduction of PVR (10.3 ± 3.7 vs. 5.9 ± 2.8 Wood Units; p = 0.01), mPAP (50.7 ± 10.8 vs. 35.6 ± 9.3 mm Hg; p = 0.01) and improvement in World Health Organisation functional class (3.19 ± 0.48 vs. 1.97 ± 0.80; p < 0.001). Balloon pulmonary angioplasty improves haemodynamics and outcome but requires refined strategy to limit early complication rate.
Nute, Drew W; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R
Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have become increasingly common injuries among young, active individuals over the past 30 years; however, there is presently a paucity of reported outcome data. We investigated the ability to return to full preoperative level of function, complications, reoperation rates, and risk factors for failure following surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon in a cohort of young, highly active individuals. All U.S. active-duty military patients undergoing pectoralis major tendon repair between 2008 and 2013 were identified from the Military Health System using the Management Analysis and Reporting Tool (M2). Demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and trends in preoperative and postoperative self-reported pain scale (0 to 10) and strength were extracted. The ability to return to the full preoperative level of function and rates of rerupture and reoperation were the primary outcome measures. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis identified significant variables. A total of 257 patients with pectoralis major tendon repair were identified with a mean follow-up (and standard deviation) of 47.8 ± 17 months (range, 24 to 90 months). At the time of the latest follow-up, 242 patients (94%) were able to return to the full preoperative level of military function. Fifteen patients (5.8%) were unable to return to duty because of persistent upper-extremity disability. A total of 15 reruptures occurred in 14 patients (5.4%). Increasing body mass index and active psychiatric conditions were significant predictors of inability to return to function (odds ratio, 1.56 [p = 0.0001] for increasing body mass index; and odds ratio, 6.59 [p = 0.00165] for active psychiatric conditions) and total failure (odds ratio, 1.26 [p = 0.0012] for increasing body mass index; and odds ratio, 2.73 [p = 0.0486] for active psychiatric conditions). We demonstrate that 94% of patients were able to return to the full preoperative level of
Faria, Ann-Marie; Hawkinson, Laura E.; Greenberg, Ariela C.; Howard, Eboni C.; Brown, Leah
Documenting and improving early childhood program quality is a national priority, leading to a rapid expansion of Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRISs). QRISs document and improve the quality of early childhood education programs and provide clear information to families about their child care choices. The current study described how…
Moriya, Tatsumi; Tanaka, Shiro; Sone, Hirohito; Ishibashi, Shun; Matsunaga, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Haneda, Masakazu; Katayama, Shigehiro
The Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS), a nation-wide, multicenter, prospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes, reported that hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), systolic blood pressure, and smoking were risk factors for the onset of macroalbuminuria. This study explored the risk factors for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline in the JDCS patients. We examined the 1407 JDCS patients (667 women, mean age 59years, 974 normoalbuminuria, 433 microalbuminuria) whose urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and estimated GFR (eGFR) were determined at baseline with an 8-year follow-up. We divided all the patients into four groups according to baseline eGFR: G1 (120≤eGFR), G2 (90≤eGFR<120), G3 (60≤eGFR<90), G4 (eGFR<60). The eGFRs in groups G1 and G2 decreased at follow-up compared to those at the baseline. The risk of annual eGFR decline rate≥3ml/min/1.73m 2 (rapid decliners) increased as the baseline eGFR increased. Advanced age, high HbA 1c , and UACR, or diabetic retinopathy at baseline were risk factors for the rapid decliners. Especially the G1 group had a significant risk for the rapid decliners. The frequency of the patients with GFR<60ml/min/1.73m 2 at the follow-up amounted to 31.1% in the rapid decliners, which was higher than 12% in the non-rapid decliners. In normo- and microalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes, extra careful attention should be paid to patients with eGFR ≥120ml/min/1.73m 2 to detect cases with rapidly decreased GFR under the normal range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina
To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.
Howard, Brandon; Trussell, James; Grubb, ElizaBeth; Lage, Maureen J
To evaluate pregnancy complication rates and related charges in users of 84/7, 21/7 and 24/4 combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Data were obtained from the i3 InVision Data Mart™ retrospective claims database. Subjects were aged 15-40 years, first prescribed a COC between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 and continuously insured for ≥1 year. 84/7 users were matched 1:1 to 21/7 and 24/4 users. Pregnancy-related complication rates and associated charges were significantly lower with 84/7 vs. 21/7 and 24/4 regimens. Preliminary data suggest 84/7 regimens may be associated with fewer pregnancy complications and lower related charges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Penny R.; Freedman, Gary; Nicolaou, Nicos
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the likelihood of complications and cosmetic results among breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and breast reconstruction followed by radiation therapy (RT) to either a temporary tissue expander (TTE) or permanent breast implant (PI). Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed of 74 patients with breast cancer who underwent MRM followed by breast reconstruction and RT. Reconstruction consisted of a TTE usually followed by exchange to a PI. RT was delivered to the TTE in 62 patients and to the PI in 12 patients. Dose to the reconstructed chestmore » wall was 50 Gy. Median follow-up was 48 months. The primary end point was the incidence of complications involving the reconstruction. Results: There was no significant difference in the rate of major complications in the PI group (0%) vs. 4.8% in the TTE group. No patients lost the reconstruction in the PI group. Three patients lost the reconstruction in the TTE group. There were excellent/good cosmetic scores in 90% of the TTE group and 80% of the PI group (p = 0.22). On multivariate regression models, the type of reconstruction irradiated had no statistically significant impact on complication rates. Conclusions: Patients treated with breast reconstruction and RT can experience low rates of major complications. We demonstrate no significant difference in the overall rate of major or minor complications between the TTE and PI groups. Postmastectomy RT to either the TTE or the PI should be considered as acceptable treatment options in all eligible patients.« less
Gershman, Boris; Van Houten, Holly K; Herrin, Jeph; Moreira, Daniel M; Kim, Simon P; Shah, Nilay D; Karnes, R Jeffrey
Prostate biopsy and postbiopsy complications represent important risks of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although landmark randomized trials and updated guidelines have challenged routine PSA screening, it is unclear whether these publications have affected rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications. To evaluate whether publication of the 2008 and 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations, the 2009 European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, or the 2013 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines was associated with changes in rates of biopsy or postbiopsy complications, and to identify predictors of postbiopsy complications. This quasiexperimental study used administrative claims of 5279315 commercially insured US men aged ≥40 yr from 2005 to 2014, of whom 104584 underwent biopsy. Publications on PSA screening. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the association of publications with rates of biopsy and 30-d complications. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of complications. From 2005 to 2014, biopsy rates fell 33% from 64.1 to 42.8 per 100000 person-months, with immediate reductions following the 2008 USPSTF recommendations (-10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -3.0; p<0.001), 2012 USPSTF recommendations (-13.8; 95% CI, -21.0 to -6.7; p<0 .001), and 2013 AUA guidelines (-8.8; 95% CI, -16.7 to -0.92; p=0.03). Concurrently, complication rates decreased 10% from 8.7 to 7.8 per 100000 person-months, with a reduction following the 2012 USPSTF recommendations (-2.5; 95% CI, -4.5 to -0.45; p=0.02). However, the proportion of men undergoing biopsy who experienced complications increased from 14% to 18%, driven by nonsepsis infectious complications (p<0.001). Predictors of complications included prior fluoroquinolone use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22-1.32; p<0.001), anticoagulant use (OR: 1
Preoperative exercise halves the postoperative complication rate in patients with lung cancer: a systematic review of the effect of exercise on complications, length of stay and quality of life in patients with cancer.
Steffens, Daniel; Beckenkamp, Paula R; Hancock, Mark; Solomon, Michael; Young, Jane
To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative exercises interventions in patients undergoing oncological surgery, on postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and quality of life. Intervention systematic review with meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase and PEDro. Trials investigating the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for any oncological patient undergoing surgery were included. The outcomes of interest were postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and quality of life. Relative risks (RRs), mean differences (MDs) and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects models. Seventeen articles (reporting on 13 different trials) involving 806 individual participants and 6 tumour types were included. There was moderate-quality evidence that preoperative exercise significantly reduced postoperative complication rates (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.74) and length of hospital stay (MD -2.86 days, 95% CI -5.40 to -0.33) in patients undergoing lung resection, compared with control. For patients with oesophageal cancer, preoperative exercise was not effective in reducing length of hospital stay (MD 2.00 days, 95% CI -2.35 to 6.35). Although only assessed in individual studies, preoperative exercise improved postoperative quality of life in patients with oral or prostate cancer. No effect was found in patients with colon and colorectal liver metastases. Preoperative exercise was effective in reducing postoperative complications and length of hospital stay in patients with lung cancer. Whether preoperative exercise reduces complications, length of hospital stay and improves quality of life in other groups of patients undergoing oncological surgery is uncertain as the quality of evidence is low. PROSPEROREGISTRATION NUMBER. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mills, M; Choi, J; El-Haddad, G; Sweeney, J; Biebel, B; Robinson, L; Antonia, S; Kumar, A; Kis, B
To investigate the technical success rate and procedure-related complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions and to identify the factors that are correlated with the occurrence of procedure-related complications. This was a single- institution retrospective study of 867 consecutive CT-guided needle biopsies of lung lesions performed on 772 patients in a tertiary cancer centre. The technical success rate and complications were correlated with patient, lung lesion, and procedure-related variables. The technical success rate was 87.2% and the mortality rate was 0.12%. Of the 867 total biopsies 25.7% were associated with pneumothorax, and 6.5% required chest tube drainage. The haemothorax rate was 1.8%. There was positive correlation between the development of pneumothorax and smaller lesion diameter (p<0.001), longer transparenchymal distance (p<0.001), and prone position (p=0.027). There was positive correlation between the need for chest tube placement and longer transparenchymal distance (p=0.007) and smaller lesion diameter (p=0.018). Lesions in the left lower lobe had the lowest rates of pneumothorax (p=0.008) and chest tube drainage (p=0.018). Patients whose pneumothoraces were diagnosed on the follow-up chest X-ray, but not on the immediate post-procedural CT scan had significantly higher requirement for chest tube drainage (p=0.039). CT-guided lung biopsy has a high rate of technical success and a low rate of major complications. The present study has revealed several variables that can be used to identify high-risk procedures. A post-procedural chest X-ray within hours after the procedure is highly recommended to identify high-risk patients who require chest tube placement. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Child Trends, 2010
This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…
Slump, J; Ferguson, P C; Wunder, J S; Griffin, A M; Hoekstra, H J; Liu, X; Hofer, S O P; O'Neill, A C
Flap reconstruction plays an essential role in the management of soft tissue sarcoma, facilitating wide resection while maximizing preservation of function. The addition of reconstruction increases the complexity of the surgery and identification of patients who are at high risk for post-operative complications is an important part of the preoperative assessment. This study examines predictors of complications in these patients. 294 patients undergoing flap reconstruction following sarcoma resection were evaluated. Data on patient, tumour and treatment variables as well as post-operative complications were collected. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of complications. Analysis of synergistic interaction between key patient and tumour risk factors was subsequently performed. A history of cerebrovascular events or cardiac disease were found to be the strongest independent predictors of post-operative complications (OR 14.84, p = 0.003 and OR 5.71, p = 0.001, respectively). Further strong independent tumour and treatment-related predictors were high grade tumours (OR 1.91, p = 0.038) and the need for additional reconstructive procedures (OR 2.78, p = 0.001). Obesity had significant synergistic interaction with tumour resection diameter (RERI 1.1, SI 1.99, p = 0.02) and high tumour grade (RERI 0.86, SI 1.5, p = 0.01). Comorbidities showed significant synergistic interaction with large tumour resections (RERI 0.91, SI 1.83, p = 0.02). Patient, tumour and treatment-related variables contribute to complications following flap reconstruction of sarcoma defects. This study highlights the importance of considering the combined effect of multiple risk factors when evaluating and counselling patients as significant synergistic interaction between variables can further increase the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society
Moskalenko, O V
The indexes of ultrasound wave absorption in the blood serum of patients with gastric cancer were studied using ultrasound spectroscopy method. The coefficient of absorption (CA) changes were registered 1-2 days before the first clinical signs occurrence. While inflammatory complications presence CA had lowered, the daily gradient of lowering had raised.
Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Capovilla, Gabriela Soledad; Perrig, Melina; Choque, Ana Gabriela Herrera; Marcipar, Iván; Bottasso, Oscar; Rodriguez, Celeste; Cuña, Washington
Objective The aim of the present research was to evaluate the correlation of vertically transmitted IgG antibodies induced by T. cruzi and newborn early outcome assessment, mainly birth weight and gestational age. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with 183 pregnant women (64 with asymptomatic Chagas disease) and their newborns. Both were subjected to complete clinical examination. Peripheral parasitemia was assessed in mother and neonates by parasite detection through microscopic examination of the buffycoat from mother's peripheral and cord blood. Antibodies induced by T. cruzi, such as anti-FRA, anti-B13, anti-p2β and anti-T. cruzi were assessed by immunoassay. Birth weight, general condition evaluation by APGAR Score and gestational age by Capurro Score, were determined in newborns. Results The rate of stillbirth background and pregnancy-induced hypertension were higher in patients with Chagas disease (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Parasitemia was detectable in 17 mothers and 4 newborns. The newborns of mothers with detectable parasitemia presented decreased gestational age (p = 0.006) and body weight (p = 0.04). Mostly all the mothers with Chagas disease and all their newborns have positive values of antibodies induced by T. cruzi; however, only anti-p2β showed to be related to the presence of complication during pregnancy (OR 2.35, p = 0.036), and to low birth weight (OR 1.55, p = 0.02). Conclusions Low birth weight and decreased postnatal estimation of maturity were related to detectable parasitemia in the mother. Also, vertical transmission of T. cruzi-induced autoantibodies might have clinical implication in newborns given the negative association between anti-p2β values and weight.
Jerlström, Tomas; Gårdmark, Truls; Carringer, Malcolm; Holmäng, Sten; Liedberg, Fredrik; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Malmström, Per-Uno; Ljungberg, Börje; Hagberg, Oskar; Jahnson, Staffan
Cystectomy combined with pelvic lymph-node dissection and urinary diversion entails high morbidity and mortality. Improvements are needed, and a first step is to collect information on the current situation. In 2011, this group took the initiative to start a population-based database in Sweden (population 9.5 million in 2011) with prospective registration of patients and complications until 90 days after cystectomy. This article reports findings from the first year of registration. Participation was voluntary, and data were reported by local urologists or research nurses. Perioperative parameters and early complications classified according to the modified Clavien system were registered, and selected variables of possible importance for complications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. During 2011, 285 (65%) of 435 cystectomies performed in Sweden were registered in the database, the majority reported by the seven academic centres. Median blood loss was 1000 ml, operating time 318 min, and length of hospital stay 15 days. Any complications were registered for 103 patients (36%). Clavien grades 1-2 and 3-5 were noted in 19% and 15%, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (13%) were reoperated on at least once. In logistic regression analysis elevated risk of complications was significantly associated with operating time exceeding 318 min in both univariate and multivariate analysis, and with age 76-89 years only in multivariate analysis. It was feasible to start a national population-based registry of radical cystectomies for bladder cancer. The evaluation of the first year shows an increased risk of complications in patients with longer operating time and higher age. The results agree with some previously published series but should be interpreted with caution considering the relatively low coverage, which is expected to be higher in the future.
Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S
Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P < .001) but did not significantly differ from abdominal procedures (9.75%; P = .530). Nearly 77% of combined cases were classified as low-risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bhasker, A; Gadgil, M; Muda, N H; Lotwala, V; Lakdawala, M A
In Asia, long-term weight loss results of gastric banding have been unsatisfactory. Bands are associated with higher complication rates, which result in a high reoperation rate. The aim of this paper is to discuss the choice of revisional procedure, operative technique and evaluate the postoperative complication rates. Between January 2007 and January 2010, we operated on 41 patients who were included retrospectively in this series. The most common reason for band removal was failure to lose adequate weight. Of those patients, 40 underwent band removal and conversion to a revisional bariatric surgery concomitantly; one patient's procedure was deferred to a later date. LSG was performed in 26 and LRYGB in 15. The highlights of the operative technique were meticulous dissection, complete removal of the pseudocapsule, choosing the right stapler cartridge, oversewing and inverting the entire staple line, and complete dissection of the left crus and pars flaccid. The median duration of surgery was 85 min (range, 55-180 min). There was no conversion to open surgery. The median stay in the hospital was 4 d (range, 2-7 d). There were no leaks or any other major complications in the postoperative period. Concomitant revisional procedure after removal of gastric band is safe and feasible. The operative technique followed at our center has had an extremely low postoperative morbidity rate and a 0% leak rate. © 2010 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Pan, Shuo; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Shi, Shuang; Ma, Xun; Song, Wen-Qian; Guan, Gong-Chang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shun-Ming; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Bo; Tang, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jun-Kui; Lv, Ying
The study was designed to investigate whether the hamilton rating scale for depression (24-items) (HAM-D 24 ) can be used to predict the diabetic microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. 288 hospitalized patients with T2DM were enrolled. Their diabetic microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic foot as well as demographic, clinical data, blood samples and echocardiography were documented. All the enrolled patients received HAM-D 24 evaluation. The HAM-D 24 score and incidence of depression in T2DM patients with each diabetic microvascular complication were significantly higher than those in T2DM patients without each diabetic microvascular complication. After the adjustment of use of insulin and hypoglycemic drug, duration of T2DM, mean platelet volume, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin type A1C, left ventricular ejection fraction, respectively, HAM-D 24 score was still significantly associated with diabetic microvascular complications (OR = 1.188-1.281, all P < 0.001). The AUC of HAM-D 24 score for the prediction of diabetic microvascular complication was 0.832 (0.761-0.902). 15 points of HAM-D 24 score was considered as the optimal cutoff with the sensitivity of 0.778 and specificity of 0.785. In summary, HAM-D 24 score may be used as a novel predictor of diabetic microvascular complications in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung
Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses showed that intensive gastroscopy for high risk patients of gastric cancer enhanced the detection rate of EGC in cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.
Retrospective Analysis on Survival Rate, Template-Related Complications, and Prevalence of Peri-implantitis of 694 Anodized Implants Placed Using Computer-Guided Surgery: Results Between 1 and 10 Years of Follow-Up.
Tallarico, Marco; Meloni, Silvio Mario
To report survival rate, early surgical template-related complications, and prevalence of peri-implantitis of dental implants placed in private practices using computer-guided, template-assisted surgery and followed between 1 and 10 years. The present retrospective multicenter study evaluated data collected from fully or partially edentulous patients, with anodized-surface implants placed using computer-guided, template-assisted surgery between January 2006 and December 2015. The outcome measures were implant cumulative survival rate (CSR), early surgical complications involving the surgical template, and prevalence of peri-implantitis. A total of 694 implants were placed in 141 patients. Ten patients (7.1%) with 48 implants (6.9%) dropped out during the study period. One hundred seventeen patients, who received 121 surgical and prosthetic procedures, were treated according to a double-scan protocol, while the remaining 24 patients were treated by using the integrated treatment workflow. Most of the implants were immediately loaded (528 implants, 76.1%; 112 patients, 79.4%). Overall, 107 complete full-arch restorations (supported by four to eight implants each) were delivered in 103 patients (73%) with 595 implants (85.7%), while 13 single and 30 partial restorations (two to five implants each) were delivered in 38 patients (27%) with 99 implants (14.3%). Patients were followed for up to 10 years (mean: 58.2 months, range: 12 to 120 months). Implant- and patient-level CSR (Kaplan-Meier estimation) at the 10-year follow-up was 97.4% (95% CI: 1.0309 to 0.9161) and 92.1% (95% CI: 1.1575 to 0.6836), respectively. All failed implants were lost before definitive prosthesis delivery (early failure). Ten (7.1%) minor template-related complications were experienced and resolved chairside. Over the entire follow-up period, four patients (2.8%) with 12 implants (1.7%) showed signs of peri-implantitis at the 1- (four implants), 2- (four implants), and 4-year (four implants
Wolff, Ingmar; May, Matthias; Hoschke, Bernd; Gilfrich, Christian; Peter, Julia; Ecke, Thorsten; Schostak, Martin; Lebentrau, Steffen
Following ureterorenoscopic stone removal (URS), patients are generally discharged after a short hospital stay, so that the estimation of complication rates is based on a narrow timeframe. Data derived from the so-called BUSTER-project (Evaluation of ureterorenoscopic stone management - results in terms of complications, quality of life and stone-free rates) were therefore analysed with respect to complication rates during hospital stay and patient-reported 30-day-complication rates and then correlated with quality of life (QoL) data. Data of 307 patients undergoing URS were recorded in 14 German centres 01/2015 - 04/2015. Complications (classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, CDG) and data on QoL were additionally assessed 30 days after surgery, using questionnaires which were completed by 169/307 patients. The subgroups were analysed: no increase in CDG 30 days after surgery (n = 128), increase in CDG without any additional intervention (n = 39), and increase in CDG with an additional intervention (n = 2). The correlation between this categorisation and data on QoL were analysed by bivariate correlations according to Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ). The impact of different clinic parameters on the endpoint "increase in CDG 30 days after surgery" was evaluated by a multivariate logistic regression model. During hospital stay, complications occurred in 13 patients (7.7 %, mostly CDG1). 30 days after surgery, 43 patients (25.4 %) reported complications (16 CDG2 and 2 CDG3). A statistically significant correlation was shown between an increase in CDG and all aspects of QoL, with the strongest correlation concerning pain (ρ = 0.425; p < 0.001). Stone size was the only factor associated with an independent impact on the endpoint "increase in CDG 30 days after surgery" (OR: 1.09; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.17; p = 0.040). Postoperative ureteral stenting had no significant impact on
Khanal, J; Poudyal, R R; Devkota, S; Thapa, S; Dhungana, R R
Permanent pacemaker implantation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in the management of patients with cardiac problems. However, complications during and after implantation are not uncommon. There is lack of evidences in rate of complications with the selection of pacemakers in Nepal. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the frequency of implantation and complication rate between single chamber and dual chamber pacemaker. The present study is based on all consecutive pacemaker implantations in a single centre between April 2014 and May 2015. A total of 116 patients were categorized into two cohorts according to the type of pacemaker implanted- single chamber or dual chamber. All patients had regular 2-weeks follow-up intervals with standardized documentation of all relevant patient data till 6-week after implantation. Data were presented as means ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables and as proportions for categorical variables. Comparison of continuous variables between the groups was made with independent Student's t-test. For discrete variables distribution between groups were compared with Chi-square test. The mean age (±SD) of total population at implant was 64.08 (± 15.09) years. Dual chamber units were implanted in 44 (37.93%) of patients, single chamber in 72 (62.06%). Only 14 women (31.81%) received dual chamber compared with 42 women (58.33%) who received single chamber (Chi-square=18, DF=1, P = 0.0084). Complete atrioventricular block was the commonest (56.03%) indication for permanent pacemaker insertion followed by sick sinus syndrome (33.62%), symptomatic high-grade AV block (11.20%). Hypertension (dual chamber 21.55%, single chamber 40.51%) was the most common comorbidity in both cohorts. Complications occurred in 11 (9.48%) patients. More proportion of complication occurred in single chamber group (9 patients, 12.50%) than in dual chamber (2 patients, 4.54%). Complications occurring in dual chamber group include
Machalski, T; Sikora, J; Bakon, I; Magnucki, J; Grzesiak-Kubica, E; Szkodny, E
Results of computerised analysis of cardiotocograms obtained in the group of 21 pregnancies complicated by idiopathic oligohydramnios are presented in the study. Amnioinfusion procedures were administered serially in local anesthesia with ultrasound and colour Doppler control on the base of oligohydramnios criteria by Phelan. The analysis was based on KOMPOR software created by ITAM Zabrze based on PC computer connected to Hewlett-Packard Series 50A cardiotocograph. Significant short-term variability increase just after amnioinfusion procedure from 5.55 ms to 8.24 ms and after 24 hours up to 7.25 ms was found, while significant long-term variability values changes were not observed.
Plastic in patient study: Prospective audit of adherence to peripheral intravenous cannula monitoring and documentation guidelines, with the aim of reducing future rates of intravenous cannula-related complications.
Yagnik, Lokesh; Graves, Angela; Thong, Ken
Peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) insertion is a universal intervention for inpatients and is associated with multiple complications. Effective, simple, reproducible interventions specific to PIVC complication prevention are few and often extrapolated from central venous catheter complication prevention strategies. The objective of this study is to improve compliance with documentation and monitoring PIVC guidelines in the medical ward of a secondary care center. This study is a prospective run-in audit of adherence to PIVC documentation and monitoring guidelines between the dates of August 30-November 14, 2014, with data recollection from December 25, 2014-January 30, 2015, after intervention implementation. Three interventions were implemented. The Plastic in Patient (PIP) strip is a dedicated column on the journey board, identifying inpatients with PIVCs, prompting assessment of indication at daily multidisciplinary meetings. PIP row is a prompt in the medical admission proforma to review PIVC indication. PIP poster is a visual cue on PIVC trolleys highlighting PIVC management practices. Baseline demographics were similar in the pre- and postintervention groups. Documentation significantly improved in the postintervention group (36.4 vs 50%, P = .025). Early identification of nonindicated PIVCs improved in the postintervention group (88.8% vs 97.1%, P = .018) and a trend toward a reduced PIVC-related early phlebitis rate (3.7% vs 0, P = .08). Simple, cost-effective interventions result in improvements in adherence to practice guidelines. Our results suggest a trend toward reduction in phlebitis rates. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tessier, Arnaud; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Audiffren, Michel; Allard, Michèle; Pfeuty, Micha
Early detection of poststroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains challenging. It is well documented that the function of autonomic nervous system is associated with depression and cognition. However, their relationship has never been investigated in the early poststroke phase. This pilot study aimed at determining whether resting heart rate (HR) parameters measured in early poststroke phase (1) are associated with early-phase measures of depression and cognition and (2) could be used as new tools for early objective prediction of PSD or PSCI, which could be applicable to patients unable to answer usual questionnaires. Fifty-four patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, without cardiac arrhythmia, were assessed for resting HR and heart rate variability (HRV) within the first week after stroke and for depression and cognition during the first week and at 3 months after stroke. Multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and stroke severity revealed that higher HR, lower HRV, and higher sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms within the first week after stroke. Furthermore, higher sympathovagal balance in early phase predicted higher severity of depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up, whereas higher HR and lower HRV in early phase predicted lower global cognitive functioning at the 3-month follow-up. Resting HR measurements obtained in early poststroke phase could serve as an objective tool, applicable to patients unable to complete questionnaires, to help in the early prediction of PSD and PSCI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Westreich, Daniel; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Kang, Gagandeep
Background: Antibiotic treatment of childhood illnesses is common in India. In addition to contributing to antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics might result in increased susceptibility to diarrhea through interactions with the gastrointestinal microbiota. Breast milk, which enriches the microbiota early in life, may increase the resilience of the microbiota against perturbations by antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, we assessed whether antibiotic exposures from birth to 6 months affected rates of diarrhea up to age 3 years among 465 children from Vellore, India. Adjusting for treatment indicators, we modeled diarrheal rates among children exposed and unexposed to antibiotics using negative binomial regression. We further assessed whether the effect of antibiotics on diarrheal rates was modified by exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. Results: More than half of the children (n = 267, 57.4%) were given at least one course of antibiotics in the first 6 months of life. The adjusted relative incidence rate of diarrhea was 33% higher among children who received antibiotics under 6 months of age compared with those who did not (incidence rate ratio: 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.57). Children who were exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age did not have increased diarrheal rates following antibiotic use. Conclusions: Antibiotic exposures early in life were associated with increased rates of diarrhea in early childhood. Exclusive breastfeeding might protect against this negative impact. PMID:25742244
Auston, Darryl A; Meiss, Jordan; Serrano, Rafael; Sellers, Thomas; Carlson, Gregory; Hoggard, Timothy; Beebe, Michael; Quade, Jonathan; Watson, David; Simpson, Robert Bruce; Kistler, Brian; Shah, Anjan; Sanders, Roy; Mir, Hassan R
To compare the incidence of complications (wound, infection, and nonunion) among those patients treated with closed, percutaneous, and open intramedullary nailing for closed tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective review. Multiple trauma centers. Skeletally mature patients with closed tibia fractures amenable to treatment with an intramedullary device. Intramedullary fixation with closed, percutaneous, or open reduction. Superficial wound complication, deep infection, nonunion. A total of 317 tibial shaft fractures in 315 patients were included in the study. Two-hundred fractures in 198 patients were treated with closed reduction, 61 fractures in 61 patients were treated with percutaneous reduction, and 56 fractures in 56 patients were treated with formal open reduction. The superficial wound complication rate was 1% (2/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 3.6% (2/56) for the open group with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.179). The deep infection rate was 2% (4/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group with no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.133). Nonunion rate was 5.0% (10/200) for the closed group, 4.9% (3/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group, with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.492). This is the largest reported series of closed tibial shaft fractures nailed with percutaneous and open reduction. Percutaneous or open reduction did not result in increased wound complications, infection, or nonunion rates. Carefully performed percutaneous or open approaches can be safely used in obtaining reduction of difficult tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary devices. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Gemignani, Francesco; Mayhew, Philipp D; Giuffrida, Michelle A; Palaigos, Jason; Runge, Jeffrey J; Holt, David E; Robertson, Nicholas A; Seguin, Bernard; Walker, Meaghan; Singh, Ameet; Liptak, Julius M; Romanelli, Giorgio; Martano, Marina; Boston, Sarah E; Lux, Cassie; Busetto, Roberto; Culp, William T N; Skorupski, Katherine A; Burton, Jenna H
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded. Outcome data were obtained, including postoperative complications, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time. RESULTS Complications occurred in 12 of 61 (19.7%) cats treated with unilateral mastectomy, 5 of 14 (35.7%) cats treated with staged bilateral mastectomy, and 13 of 32 (40.6%) cats treated with single-session bilateral mastectomy. Complications were significantly more likely to occur in cats undergoing bilateral versus unilateral mastectomy. Median progression-free survival time was longer for cats treated with bilateral mastectomy (542 days) than for cats treated with unilateral mastectomy (289 days). Significant risk factors for disease progression included unilateral mastectomy, tumor ulceration, lymph node metastasis, and tumors arising in the fourth mammary gland. Significant risk factors for disease-specific death included lymph node metastasis and development of regional or distant metastasis. Among cats that did not develop metastasis, unilateral mastectomy was a significant risk factor for disease-specific death. Treatment with chemotherapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease-specific death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported bilateral mastectomy for the treatment of mammary adenocarcinoma in cats to improve progression-free and disease-specific survival time. Performing bilateral mastectomy in a staged fashion
Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Mahmood, Shahid; Akmal, Muhammad; Waqas, Ahmed
To compare the difference in the rate of surgical wound infection, patient's convenience and length of hospital stay between Primary Closure and Delayed Primary Closure in cases of complicated appendicitis in adults. This randomised control trial was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Kharian and Malir from June 5, 2006, to September 10, 2009. Patients > or = 15 years of both gender who underwent appendectomy through grid iron or Lanz incision and having complicated appendicitis were included. The 100 patients who were included in the study out of the initial size of 393, were randomised into two equal groups of 50 each (Group A: Primary Closure; Group B: Delayed Primary Closure) using a computer-generated table. All the surgeries were done by the same surgeon and the operative steps and antibiotic coverage were standardised. The rate of surgical wound infection, patient's convenience (on visual analogue scale in mm) and the length of hospital stay were recorded. Data was analysed using SPSS version 11, and p value was calculated. Demographic data, comorbids and medication of both the groups was comparable. There was no significant difference in rate of surgical wound infection (p > 0.05). The difference in patient's convenience and length of hospital stay were significant (p < 0.05), showing superiority of Primary Closure over Delayed Primary Closure with no added morbidity/mortality. Primary Closure in complicated appendicitis not only reduces the cost of treatment, but is also more convenient and satisfying for the patients, with no added risk of surgical wound infection.
Kretschmer, Alexander; Hüsch, Tanja; Thomsen, Frauke; Kronlachner, Dominik; Obaje, Alice; Anding, Ralf; Pottek, Tobias; Rose, Achim; Olianas, Roberto; Friedl, Alexander; Hübner, Wilhelm; Homberg, Roland; Pfitzenmaier, Jesco; Grein, Ulrich; Queissert, Fabian; Naumann, Carsten Maik; Schweiger, Josef; Wotzka, Carola; Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne N; Hofmann, Torben; Seiler, Roland; Haferkamp, Axel; Bauer, Ricarda M
Background/Aims/Objectives: To analyze perioperative complication and short-term explantation rates after perineal or penoscrotal single-cuff and double-cuff artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation in a large middle European multi-institutional patient cohort. 467 male patients with stress urinary incontinence underwent implantation of a perineal single-cuff (n = 152), penoscrotal single-cuff (n = 99), or perineal double-cuff (n = 216) AUS between 2010 and 2012. Postoperative complications and 6-month explantation rates were assessed. For statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, and a multiple logistic regression model were used (p < 0.05). Compared to perineal single-cuff AUS, penoscrotal single-cuff implantation led to significantly increased short-term explantation rates (8.6% (perineal) vs. 19.2% (penoscrotal), p = 0.019). The postoperative infection rate was significantly higher after double-cuff compared to single-cuff implantation (6.0% (single-cuff) vs. 13.9% (double-cuff), p = 0.019). The short-term explantation rate after primary double-cuff placement was 6.5% (p = 0.543 vs. perineal single-cuff). In multivariate analysis, the penoscrotal approach (p = 0.004), intraoperative complications (p = 0.005), postoperative bleeding (p = 0.011), and perioperative infection (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for short-term explantation. Providing data from a large contemporary multi-institutional patient cohort from high-volume and low-volume institutions, our results reflect the current standard of care in middle Europe. We indicate that the penoscrotal approach is an independent risk factor for increased short-term explantation rates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Timmons, Vianne; Ostridge, Randy
Data analysis is critical to educational planning. Determining the number of school leavers is crucial for a school board when planning for interventions and supports. In researching the number of early school leavers in the province of Prince Edward Island, the method in which the data were reported affected the rates. Two critical considerations…
Warash, Barbara G.; Ward, Corina; Rotilie, Sally
This study examined whether attending a one day training on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) corresponded to pre-k classroom changes. Teachers attended an ECERS-R module training and six months later completed a questionnaire to report any classroom changes. The questionnaire consisted of listing the subscales and…
Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Liebfreund, Meghan D.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the challenge level of text and early readers' reading comprehension. This relationship was also examined with consideration to students' word recognition accuracy and reading rate. Participants included 636 students, in Grades 1-3, in a southeastern state. Results suggest that…
Galán, Chardée A; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S
Although resting heart rate (RHR) and empathy are independently and negatively associated with violent behavior, relatively little is known about the interplay between these psychophysiological and temperament-related risk factors. Using a sample of 160 low-income, racially diverse men followed prospectively from infancy through early adulthood, this study examined whether RHR and empathy during early adolescence independently and interactively predict violent behavior and related correlates in late adolescence and early adulthood. Controlling for child ethnicity, family income, and child antisocial behavior at age 12, empathy inversely predicted moral disengagement and juvenile petitions for violent crimes, while RHR was unrelated to all measures of violent behavior. Interactive effects were also evident such that among men with lower but not higher levels of RHR, lower empathy predicted increased violent behavior, as indexed by juvenile arrests for violent offenses, peer-reported violent behavior at age 17, self-reported moral disengagement at age 17, and self-reported violent behavior at age 20. Implications for prevention and intervention are considered. Specifically, targeting empathic skills among individuals at risk for violent behavior because of specific psychophysiological profiles may lead to more impactful interventions. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Samuelsson, Ulf; Anderzén, Johan; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Steineck, Isabelle; Åkesson, Karin; Hanberger, Lena
To compare metabolic control between males and females with type 1 diabetes during adolescence and as young adults, and relate it to microvascular complications. Data concerning 4000 adolescents with type 1 diabetes registered in the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, and above the age of 18years in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry was used. When dividing HbA1c values in three groups; < 7.4% (57mmol/mol), 7.4-9.3% (57-78mmol/mol) and >9.3% (78mmol/mol), there was a higher proportion of females in the highest group during adolescence. In the group with the highest HbA1c values during adolescence and as adults, 51.7% were females, expected value 46.2%; in the group with low HbA1c values in both registries, 34.2% were females, p<0.001. As adults, more females had retinopathy, p<0.05. Females had higher mean HbA1c values at diagnosis, 11.2 vs. 10.9% (99 vs. 96mmol/mol), p<0.03, during adolescence, 8.5 vs. 8.2% (69 vs. 66mmol/mol) p<0.01, but not as young adults. Worse glycaemic control was found in adolescent females, and they had a higher frequency of microvascular complications. Improved paediatric diabetes care is of great importance for increasing the likelihood of lower mortality and morbidity later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kern, Elizabeth O; Erhard, Penny; Sun, Wanjie; Genuth, Saul; Weiss, Miriam F
Background Urinary markers were tested as predictors of macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. Study Design Nested case:control of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Setting & Participants Eighty-seven cases of microalbuminuria were matched to 174 controls in a 1:2 ratio, while 4 cases were matched to 4 controls in a 1:1 ratio, resulting in 91 cases and 178 controls for microalbuminuria. Fifty-five cases of macroalbuminuria were matched to 110 controls in a 1:2 ratio. Controls were free of micro/macroalbuminuria when their matching case first developed micro/macroalbuminuria. Predictors Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine, AGE fluorescence, albumin excretion rate (AER) Outcomes Incident microalbuminuria (two consecutive annual AER > 40 but <= 300 mg/day), or macroalbuminuria (AER > 300 mg/day) Measurements Stored urine samples from DCCT entry, and 1–9 years later when macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria occurred, were measured for the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence. AER and adjustor variables were obtained from the DCCT. Results Sub-microalbuminuric levels of AER at baseline independently predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.83; p<.001) and macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.82; p<.001). Baseline N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase independently predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 2.26; p<.001), and microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.86; p<.001). Baseline pentosidine predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 6.89; p=.002). Baseline AGE fluorescence predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.68; p=.02). However, adjusted for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence lost predictive association with macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, respectively. Limitations Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors was not directly ascertained, although their use was proscribed during the
Xiao, Jian; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Guo, Liang
To discuss the curative effect of the early application of the antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) combined with the external fixation support in treating the open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defect. From December 2013 to January 2015, 36 cases of lower limb open comminuted fractures complicated with bone defects were treated by the vancomycin ALBC combined with the external fixation support, including 26 males and 10 females with an average age of 38.0 years old ranging from 19 to 65 years old. The included cases were all open fractures of lower limbs complicated with bone defects with different degree of soft tissue injuries. Among them, 25 cases were tibial fractures, 11 cases were femoral fractures. The radiographs indicated a presence of bone defects, which ranged from 3.0 to 6.1 cm with an average of 4.0 cm. The Gustilo classification of open fractures:24 cases were type IIIA, 12 cases were typr IIIB. The percentage of wound infection, bone grafting time, fracture healing time and postoperative joint function of lower limb were observed. The function of injured limbs was evaluated at 1 month after the clinical healing of fracture based on Paley evaluation criterion. All cases were followed up for 3 to 24 months with an average of (6.0±3.0) months. The wound surface was healed well, neither bone infections nor unhealed bone defects were presented. The reoperation of bone grafting was done at 6 weeks after the patients received an early treatment with ALBC, some of them were postponed to 8 weeks till the approximate healing of fractures, the treatment course lasted for 4 to 8 months with an average of(5.5±1.5) months. According to Paley and other grading evaluations of bone and function, there were 27 cases as excellent, 5 cases as good, 3 cases as ordinary. The ALBC combined with external fixation support was an effective method for early treatment to treat the traumatic lower limb open fractures complicated with bone defects. This method
Thangaratinam, Shakila; Allotey, John; Marlin, Nadine; Mol, Ben W; Von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Akkermans, Joost; Ahmed, Asif; Daniels, Jane; Deeks, Jon; Ismail, Khaled; Barnard, Ann Marie; Dodds, Julie; Kerry, Sally; Moons, Carl; Riley, Richard D; Khan, Khalid S
The prognosis of early-onset pre-eclampsia (before 34 weeks' gestation) is variable. Accurate prediction of complications is required to plan appropriate management in high-risk women. To develop and validate prediction models for outcomes in early-onset pre-eclampsia. Prospective cohort for model development, with validation in two external data sets. Model development: 53 obstetric units in the UK. Model transportability: PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk for mothers) and PETRA (Pre-Eclampsia TRial Amsterdam) studies. Pregnant women with early-onset pre-eclampsia. Nine hundred and forty-six women in the model development data set and 850 women (634 in PIERS, 216 in PETRA) in the transportability (external validation) data sets. The predictors were identified from systematic reviews of tests to predict complications in pre-eclampsia and were prioritised by Delphi survey. The primary outcome was the composite of adverse maternal outcomes established using Delphi surveys. The secondary outcome was the composite of fetal and neonatal complications. We developed two prediction models: a logistic regression model (PREP-L) to assess the overall risk of any maternal outcome until postnatal discharge and a survival analysis model (PREP-S) to obtain individual risk estimates at daily intervals from diagnosis until 34 weeks. Shrinkage was used to adjust for overoptimism of predictor effects. For internal validation (of the full models in the development data) and external validation (of the reduced models in the transportability data), we computed the ability of the models to discriminate between those with and without poor outcomes ( c -statistic), and the agreement between predicted and observed risk (calibration slope). The PREP-L model included maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, medical history, systolic blood pressure, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, platelet count, serum urea concentration, oxygen saturation, baseline treatment with
Quast, Michaela B; Sviggum, Hans P; Hanson, Andrew C; Stoike, David E; Martin, David P; Niesen, Adam D
Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery. Retrospective study. Postoperative recovery unit and inpatient hospital floor. 328 patients who received IC or AX nerve catheters and underwent elbow surgery were identified by retrospective query of our institution's database. Data collected included unplanned catheter dislodgement, catheter replacement rate, postoperative pain scores, and opioid administration on postoperative day 1. Catheter failure was defined as unplanned dislodging within 24 h of placement or requirement for catheter replacement and evaluated using a covariate adjusted model. 119 IC catheters and 209 AX catheters were evaluated. There were 8 (6.7%) failed IC catheters versus 13 (6.2%) failed AX catheters. After adjusting for age, BMI, and gender there was no difference in catheter failure rate between IC and AX nerve catheters (p = 0.449). These results suggest that IC and AX nerve catheters do not differ in the rate of early catheter failure, despite differences in anatomic location and catheter placement techniques. Both techniques provided effective postoperative analgesia with median pain scores < 3/10 for patients following elbow surgery. Reasons other than rate of early catheter failure should dictate which approach is performed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jiang, Shu; Li, Xiao; Cao, Jian; Wu, Di; Kong, Lingyan; Lin, Lu; Jin, Zhengyu; An, Jing; Wang, Yining
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized as chronic or recurrent mononucleosis-like symptoms and elevated EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) copies. Cardiovascular complications have high morbidity and mortality. The treatment regimen for CAEBV has not been established yet, resulting in poor prognoses. Herein, we present a case of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) evaluation with a series of sequences for CAEBV-associated cardiovascular involvement, which has never been reported. A 16-year-old female (body weight, 55 kg) developed a persistent fever and a positive EBV-DNA level of 28,000 copies/mL. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed aneurysms involving the aorta and its major branches, as well as multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary arteries. CMRI of the coronary arteries depicted the dilution and stenosis of the arterial lumen as well as the thickening of the arterial wall. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) showed subendocardial and transmural delayed enhancement of the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial infarction.CAEBV and associated cardiovascular complications were diagnosed. After treatment with Medrol and Leflunomide, the clinical manifestation and serological parameters reversed to normal. However, the EBV-DNA level increased again to 13,900 copies/mL 2 months later. A follow-up with aorta CTA showed that the arterial walls of the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms were thicker with new-onset mural thrombi. The aorta CTA also showed new-onset occlusion of the right coronary artery, but a follow-up of CMRI at the same day did not find new-onset delayed enhancement lesion. This case reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications. With cine imaging, coronary artery imaging, LGE imaging, and other novel techniques, CMRI can effectively and comprehensively reveal the early and dynamic changes, and
Babis, G C; Sakellariou, V I; Chatziantoniou, A N; Soucacos, P N; Megas, P
We report the results of 62 hips in 62 patients (17 males, 45 females) with mean age of 62.4 years (37 to 81), who underwent revision of the acetabular component of a total hip replacement due to aseptic loosening between May 2003 and November 2007. All hips had a Paprosky type IIIa acetabular defect. Acetabular revision was undertaken using a Procotyl E cementless oblong implant with modular side plates and a hook combined with impaction allografting. At a mean follow-up of 60.5 months (36 to 94) with no patients lost to follow-up and one died due to unrelated illness, the complication rate was 38.7%. Complications included aseptic loosening (19 hips), deep infection (3 hips), broken hook and side plate (one hip) and a femoral nerve palsy (one hip). Further revision of the acetabular component was required in 18 hips (29.0%) and a further four hips (6.4%) are currently loose and awaiting revision. We observed unacceptably high rates of complication and failure in our group of patients and cannot recommend this implant or technique.
Hu, Bi Ying
This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…
Colcuc, Christian; Blank, Marc; Stein, Thomas; Raimann, Florian; Weber-Spickschen, Sanjay; Fischer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Reinhard
Suture button devices for tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries provide semirigid dynamic stabilization, but complications including knot irritation have been reported. No randomized trials of the new knotless suture button devices have been performed. We hypothesized that knotless suture button devices eliminate knot irritation and facilitate quicker return to sports. This study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes, complication rates, and time to return to sports between a new knotless suture button device and syndesmotic screw fixation. This study included 54 patients treated for ankle syndesmotic injury from 2012 to 2014 with a knotless suture button device or syndesmotic screw fixation. Clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society score, Foot and Ankle Disability Index, Olerud and Molander score, and visual analog scale for pain and function. Secondary outcome measures were the complication rate and time required to return to sports. Patients underwent clinical and radiological evaluations preoperatively and three times during the 1-year postoperative follow-up. 54 of 62 eligible patients were analyzed, median age 37 (18-60) and underwent the 1-year follow-up. The screw fixation and knotless suture button groups comprised 26 and 28 patients, respectively. The complication rate was significantly lower (p = 0.03) and time to return to sports was significantly shorter in the knotless suture button than screw fixation group (average, 14 versus 19 weeks, respectively; p = 0.006). No significant differences were identified in clinical outcomes or visual analog scale scores for pain and function between the groups. Age, injury mechanism, and body mass index did not significantly affect the time required to return to sports activities. The type of fixation was the only independent variable that reached statistical significance (p = 0.006). Syndesmotic screw fixation and the new knotless suture button device
Morimoto, Susana; Albanesi, Rafael Borges; Sesma, Newton; Agra, Carlos Martins; Braga, Mariana Minatel
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis based on clinical trials that evaluated the main outcomes of glass-ceramic and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers. A systematic search was carried out in Cochrane and PubMed databases. From the selected studies, the survival rates for porcelain and glass-ceramic veneers were extracted, as were complication rates of clinical outcomes: debonding, fracture/chipping, secondary caries, endodontic problems, severe marginal discoloration, and influence of incisal coverage and enamel/dentin preparation. The Cochran Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to evaluate heterogeneity. Out of the 899 articles initially identified, 13 were included for analysis. Metaregression analysis showed that the types of ceramics and follow-up periods had no influence on failure rate. The estimated overall cumulative survival rate was 89% (95% CI: 84% to 94%) in a median follow-up period of 9 years. The estimated survival for glass-ceramic was 94% (95% CI: 87% to 100%), and for feldspathic porcelain veneers, 87% (95% CI: 82% to 93%). The meta-analysis showed rates for the following events: debonding: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 4%); fracture/chipping: 4% (95% CI: 3% to 6%); secondary caries: 1% (95% CI: 0% to 3%); severe marginal discoloration: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 10%); endodontic problems: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 3%); and incisal coverage odds ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.33 to 4.73). It was not possible to perform meta-analysis of the influence of enamel/dentin preparation on failure rates. Glass-ceramic and porcelain laminate veneers have high survival rates. Fracture/ chipping was the most frequent complication, providing evidence that ceramic veneers are a safe treatment option that preserve tooth structure.
Mostafa, S A; Coleman, R L; Agbaje, O F; Gray, A M; Holman, R R; Bethel, M A
Glucose-lowering interventions in Type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reductions in microvascular complications and modest reductions in macrovascular complications. However, the degree to which targeting different HbA 1c reductions might reduce risk is unclear. Participant-level data for Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) participants with established cardiovascular disease were used in a Type 2 diabetes-specific simulation model to quantify the likely impact of different HbA 1c decrements on complication rates. Ten-year micro- and macrovascular rates were estimated with HbA 1c levels fixed at 86, 75, 64, 53 and 42 mmol/mol (10%, 9%, 8%, 7% and 6%) while holding other risk factors constant at their baseline levels. Cumulative relative risk reductions for each outcome were derived for each HbA 1c decrement. Of 5717 participants studied, 72.0% were men and 74.2% White European, with a mean (sd) age of 66.2 (7.9) years, systolic blood pressure 134 (16.9) mmHg, LDL-cholesterol 2.3 (0.9) mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol 1.13 (0.3) mmol/l and median Type 2 diabetes duration 9.6 (5.1-15.6) years. Ten-year cumulative relative risk reductions for modelled HbA 1c values of 75, 64, 53 and 42 mmol/mol, relative to 86 mmol/mol, were 4.6%, 9.3%, 15.1% and 20.2% for myocardial infarction; 6.0%, 12.8%, 19.6% and 25.8% for stroke; 14.4%, 26.6%, 37.1% and 46.4% for diabetes-related ulcer; 21.5%, 39.0%, 52.3% and 63.1% for amputation; and 13.6%, 25.4%, 36.0% and 44.7 for single-eye blindness. These simulated complication rates might help inform the degree to which complications might be reduced by targeting particular HbA 1c reductions in Type 2 diabetes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.
Boynton, W. V.; DRAKE; HILDEBRAND; JONES; LEWIS; TREIMAN; WARK
The refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites were the subject of considerable interest since their discovery. These inclusions contain minerals that are predicted to be some of the earliest condensates from the solar nebula, and contain a plethora of isotopic anomalies of unknown origin. Of particular interest are those coarse-grained inclusions that contain refractory metal particles (Fe, Ni, Pt, Ru, Os Ir). Experimental studies of these inclusions in terrestrial laboratories are, however, complicated because the dense particles tend to settle out of a molten or partially molten silicate material. Heating experiments in the Space Station technology and microgravity in order to observe the effects of metal nuggets (which may act as heterogeneous nucleation sites) on nucleation rates in silicate systems and to measure simultaneously the relative volatilization rate of siderophile and lithophile species. Neither experiment is possible in the terrestrial environment.
Vouga, M; Greub, G; Prod'hom, G; Durussel, C; Roth-Kleiner, M; Vasilevsky, S; Baud, D
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and so the need to treat these organisms. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the treatment of genital mycoplasma in 5377 pregnant patients showing symptoms of potential obstetric complications at 25-37 weeks of gestation. Women presenting with symptoms were routinely screened by culture for the presence of these bacteria and treated with clindamycin when positive. Compared with uninfected untreated patients, women treated for genital mycoplasma demonstrated lower rates of premature labour. Indeed preterm birth rates were, respectively, 40.9% and 37.7% in women colonized with Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis, compared with 44.1% in uncolonized women (Ureaplasma spp., p 0.024; M. hominis, p 0.001). Moreover, a reduction of neonatal complications rates was observed, with 10.9% of newborns developing respiratory diseases in case of Ureaplasma spp. colonization and 5.9% in the presence of M. hominis, compared with 12.8% in the absence of those bacteria (Ureaplasma spp., p 0.050; M. hominis, p <0.001). Microbiological screening of Ureaplasma spp. and/or M. hominis and pre-emptive antibiotic therapy of symptomatic pregnant women in late pregnancy might represent a beneficial strategy to reduce premature labour and neonatal complications. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Maiorov, R V; Derbenov, D P
The article presents the results of clinical economic analysis of effect of different immune correcting preparations on rate of respiratory infections in 548 frequently ill children of early school age. It is established that preventive immune correction with lysates of bacteria or glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide in aggregate with vitamin mineral complex results in statistically significant decreasing of rate of respiratory infections and dramatic decreasing of direct and indirect costs of treatment of infectious diseases of respiratory ways. The preventive application of juice of cone-flower herb or interferon in aggregate with vitamnin mineral complex statistically significantly decreases rate of respiratory infections and negligibly decreases direct and indirect costs of their treatment.
Karppinen, S; Rapila, R; Mäkikallio, K; Hänninen, S L; Rysä, J; Vuolteenaho, O; Tavi, P
Spontaneous activity of embryonic cardiomyocytes originates from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release during early cardiogenesis. However, the regulation of heart rate during embryonic development is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine how endothelin-1 (ET-1) affects the heart rate of embryonic mice, as well as the pathway through which it exerts its effects. The effects of ET-1 and ET-1 receptor inhibition on cardiac contraction were studied using confocal Ca(2+) imaging of isolated mouse embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes and ultrasonographic examination of embryonic cardiac contractions in utero. In addition, the amount of ET-1 peptide and ET receptor a (ETa) and b (ETb) mRNA levels were measured during different stages of development of the cardiac muscle. High ET-1 concentration and expression of both ETa and ETb receptors was observed in early cardiac tissue. ET-1 was found to increase the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in E10.5 embryonic cardiomyocytes in vitro. Non-specific inhibition of ET receptors with tezosentan caused arrhythmia and bradycardia in isolated embryonic cardiomyocytes and in whole embryonic hearts both in vitro (E10.5) and in utero (E12.5). ET-1-mediated stimulation of early heart rate was found to occur via ETb receptors and subsequent inositol trisphosphate receptor activation and increased SR Ca(2+) leak. Endothelin-1 is required to maintain a sufficient heart rate, as well as to prevent arrhythmia during early development of the mouse heart. This is achieved through ETb receptor, which stimulates Ca(2+) leak through IP3 receptors. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benoit, Cecilia; Magnus, Samantha; Phillips, Rachel; Marcellus, Lenora; Charbonneau, Sinéad
Consumption of substances is a highly controversial behaviour, with those who do so commonly viewed as deviants, even criminals, or else as out of control addicts. In other work we showed that the use of substances by women who are pregnant or have recently become parents was mainly viewed by health and social care providers as morally wrong. Problematic substance use was framed through the narrow lens of gendered responsibilisation, resulting in women being seen primarily as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. In this follow-up paper we examine descriptive and qualitative data from a convenience sample of biological mothers and fathers (N = 34) recruited as part of a larger mixed methods study of the development and early implementation of an integrated primary maternity care program. We present a description of the participants' backgrounds, family circumstances, health status, and perception of drug-related stigma. This is succeeded by a thematic analysis of their personal views on substance use during both pregnancy and the transition to parenthood. Our results show that while many mothers and fathers hold abstinence as the ideal during pregnancy and early parenting, they simultaneously recognize the autonomy of women to judge substance use risk for themselves. Participants also call attention to social structural factors that increase/decrease harms associated with such substance use, and present an embodied knowledge of substance use based on their tacit knowledge of wellness and what causes harm. While these two main discourses brought forward by parents concerning the ideal of abstinence and the autonomy of women are not always reconcilable and are partially a reflection of the dissonance between dominant moral codes regarding motherhood and the lived experiences of people who use substances, service providers who are attuned to these competing discourses are likely to be more effective in their delivery of health and social services
Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh
Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood.
Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki
To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test ( P = 0.002). The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after RFA was significantly lower
Hao, Yoshiteru; Numata, Kazushi; Ishii, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Shin; Nakano, Masayuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki
AIM To evaluate whether pathologically early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibited local tumor progression after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) less often than typical HCC. METHODS Fifty pathologically early HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.8; range, 10-23; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1213; range, 216-2137] and 187 typical HCCs [tumor diameter (mm): mean, 15.6; range, 6-30; follow-up days after RFA: median, 1116; range, 190-2328] were enrolled in this retrospective study. The presence of stromal invasion (namely, tumor cell invasion into the intratumoral portal tracts) was considered to be the most important pathologic finding for the diagnosis of early HCCs. Typical HCC was defined as the presence of a hyper-vascular lesion accompanied by delayed washout using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3-mo intervals to monitor for signs of local tumor progression. The local tumor progression rates of pathologically early HCCs and typical HCCs were then determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS During the follow-up period for the 50 pathologically early HCCs, 49 (98%) of the nodules did not exhibit local tumor progression. However, 1 nodule (2%) was associated with a local tumor progression found 636 d after RFA. For the 187 typical HCCs, 46 (24.6%) of the nodules exhibited local recurrence after RFA. The follow-up period until the local tumor progression of typical HCC was a median of 605 d, ranging from 181 to 1741 d. Among the cases with typical HCCs, local tumor progression had occurred in 7.0% (7/187), 16.0% (30/187), 21.9% (41/187) and 24.6% (46/187) of the cases at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Pathologically early HCC was statistically associated with a lower rate of local tumor progression, compared with typical HCC, when evaluated using a log-rank test (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION The rate of local tumor progression for pathologically early HCCs after
Huh, Seung Jae; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Shin, Seong Soo; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Bokyung; Park, Won; Han, Youngyih
To investigate the correlation between late rectal complications and rectal dose in cervix cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary radiotherapy (HDR ICR) and to analyze factors reducing rectal complications. A total of 136 patients with cervix cancer who were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and HDR ICR from 1995 to 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Radiotherapy (RT) consisted of EBRT plus HDR ICR. The median EBRT dose was 50.4 Gy, and midline block was done after 30-50 Gy of EBRT. A total of six fractions of HDR ICR with 4 Gy fraction size each were applied twice per week to the A point. The rectal dose was calculated at the rectal reference point using the barium contrast criteria. In vivo measurement of the rectal dose was performed with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during HDR ICR. The median follow-up period was 26 months (range 6-60 months). A total of 16 patients (12%) experienced rectal bleeding, which occurred 4-33 months (median 11 months) after the completion of RT. The calculated rectal doses did not differ in patients with rectal bleeding and those without, but the measured rectal doses were higher in affected patients. The differences of the measured ICR fractional rectal dose, ICR total rectal dose, and total rectal biologically equivalent dose (BED) were statistically significant. When the measured ICR total rectal dose exceeded 16 Gy, the ratio of the measured rectal dose to A point dose was > 70%; when the measured rectal BED exceeded 110 Gy(3), a high possibility of late rectal complications could be found. In vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR ICR was a good predictor of late rectal complications. Hence, if data from in vivo dosimetry shows any possibility of rectal bleeding, efforts should be made to reduce the rectal dose.
Hirdes, Meike M C; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Wijrdeman, Harm K; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Fockens, Paul; Reerink, Onne; van Oijen, Martijn G H; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Vleggaar, Frank P; Siersema, Peter D
For the palliative treatment of dysphagia, esophageal stent placement provides immediate improvement, whereas brachytherapy offers better long-term relief. To evaluate safety and efficacy of concurrent brachytherapy and biodegradable stent placement. Prospective, single-arm study. Two tertiary-care referral centers. Nineteen consecutive patients with significant dysphagia resulting from unresectable esophageal cancer, with a life expectancy of more than 3 months. Single-dose brachytherapy (12 Gy) on day 1 followed by biodegradable stent placement on day 2. Intervention-related major complications (determined by an expert panel) and dysphagia. Nineteen patients (13 men, median age 66 years [interquartile range (IQR) 59-71] years) were included; 7 patients (37%) also received palliative chemotherapy. After inclusion of 19 patients, the study was ended prematurely because the safety threshold was exceeded. In total, 28 major complications occurred in 17 patients (89%). In 9 patients (47%), major complications were determined intervention-related (severe retrosternal pain with or without vomiting [n = 6], hematemesis [n = 1], recurrent dysphagia [n = 2]. Dysphagia scores decreased significantly from a median of 3 (IQR 3-4) to a median of 1 (IQR 0-3) after 1 month (P < .001). Despite adequate luminal patency in 17 patients (89%), normal diet could not be tolerated in 7 patients (37%) because of retrosternal pain and vomiting. Lack of routine endoscopy or contrast esophagram to evaluate recurrent dysphagia during follow-up. Despite restoration of luminal patency, a combined treatment of brachytherapy and biodegradable stent placement cannot be recommended for the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer because of an unacceptably high intervention-related major complication rate. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine
Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002) at 16(th) and 30(th) week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses), emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st) of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002) and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein
Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein
Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young’s questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. Results: More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student’s mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. Conclusion: The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty’ students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH. PMID:27493592
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are the early payment provisions, or interest... CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.8 Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? You are not subject to the early...
Vestergaard, Anne Sig; Skjøth, Flemming; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Ehlers, Lars Holger
\\Anticoagulation is used for stroke prophylaxis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, amongst other by use of the vitamin K antagonist, warfarin. Quality in warfarin therapy is often summarized by the time patients spend within the therapeutic range (percent time in therapeutic range, TTR). The correlation between TTR and the occurrence of complications during warfarin therapy has been established, but the influence of patient characteristics in that respect remains undetermined. The objective of the present papers was to examine the association between mean TTR and complication rates with adjustment for differences in relevant patient cohort characteristics. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase (2005-2015) to identify eligible studies reporting on use of warfarin therapy by patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and the occurrence of hemorrhage and thromboembolism. Both randomized controlled trials and observational cohort studies were included. The association between the reported mean TTR and major bleeding and stroke/systemic embolism was analyzed by random-effects meta-regression with and without adjustment for relevant clinical cohort characteristics. In the adjusted meta-regressions, the impact of mean TTR on the occurrence of hemorrhage was adjusted for the mean age and the proportion of populations with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack. In the adjusted analyses on thromboembolism, the proportion of females was, furthermore, included. Of 2169 papers, 35 papers met pre-specified inclusion criteria, holding relevant information on 31 patient cohorts. In univariable meta-regression, increasing mean TTR was significantly associated with a decreased rate of both major bleeding and stroke/systemic embolism. However, after adjustment mean TTR was no longer significantly associated with stroke/systemic embolism. The proportion of residual variance composed by between-study heterogeneity was substantial for all analyses
Primary fascial closure with biologic mesh reinforcement results in lesser complication and recurrence rates than bridged biologic mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction: A propensity score analysis.
Giordano, Salvatore; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E
Previous studies suggest that bridged mesh repair for abdominal wall reconstruction may result in worse outcomes than mesh-reinforced, primary fascial closure, particularly when acellular dermal matrix is used. We compared our outcomes of bridged versus reinforced repair using ADM in abdominal wall reconstruction procedures. This retrospective study included 535 consecutive patients at our cancer center who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction either for an incisional hernia or for abdominal wall defects left after excision of malignancies involving the abdominal wall with underlay mesh. A total of 484 (90%) patients underwent mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction and 51 (10%) underwent bridged repair abdominal wall reconstruction. Acellular dermal matrix was used, respectively, in 98% of bridged and 96% of reinforced repairs. We compared outcomes between these 2 groups using propensity score analysis for risk-adjustment in multivariate analysis and for 1-to-1 matching. Bridged repairs had a greater hernia recurrence rate (33.3% vs 6.2%, P < .001), a greater overall complication rate (59% vs 30%, P = .001), and worse freedom from hernia recurrence (log-rank P <.001) than reinforced repairs. Bridged repairs also had a greater rate of wound dehiscence (26% vs 14%, P = .034) and mesh exposure (10% vs 1%, P = .003) than mesh-reinforced abdominal wall reconstruction. When the treatment method was adjusted for propensity score in the propensity-score-matched pairs (n = 100), we found that the rates of hernia recurrence (32% vs 6%, P = .002), overall complications (32% vs 6%, P = .002), and freedom from hernia recurrence (68% vs 32%, P = .001) rates were worse after bridged repair. We did not observe differences in wound healing and mesh complications between the 2 groups. In our population of primarily cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center bridged repair for abdominal wall reconstruction is associated with worse outcomes than mesh
Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.
Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ∼20 to ∼50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given
Jiang, Shu; Li, Xiao; Cao, Jian; Wu, Di; Kong, Lingyan; Lin, Lu; Jin, Zhengyu; An, Jing; Wang, Yining
Abstract Introduction: Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is characterized as chronic or recurrent mononucleosis-like symptoms and elevated EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) copies. Cardiovascular complications have high morbidity and mortality. The treatment regimen for CAEBV has not been established yet, resulting in poor prognoses. Herein, we present a case of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) evaluation with a series of sequences for CAEBV-associated cardiovascular involvement, which has never been reported. Case presentation: A 16-year-old female (body weight, 55 kg) developed a persistent fever and a positive EBV-DNA level of 28,000 copies/mL. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed aneurysms involving the aorta and its major branches, as well as multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary arteries. CMRI of the coronary arteries depicted the dilution and stenosis of the arterial lumen as well as the thickening of the arterial wall. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) showed subendocardial and transmural delayed enhancement of the left ventricle, suggesting myocardial infarction. CAEBV and associated cardiovascular complications were diagnosed. After treatment with Medrol and Leflunomide, the clinical manifestation and serological parameters reversed to normal. However, the EBV-DNA level increased again to 13,900 copies/mL 2 months later. A follow-up with aorta CTA showed that the arterial walls of the bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms were thicker with new-onset mural thrombi. The aorta CTA also showed new-onset occlusion of the right coronary artery, but a follow-up of CMRI at the same day did not find new-onset delayed enhancement lesion. Conclusion: This case reminds clinicians of the vital importance of early diagnosis and close follow-up of CAEBV-associated cardiovascular complications. With cine imaging, coronary artery imaging, LGE imaging, and other novel techniques, CMRI can effectively and
Ahmed, Asmaa I; Soliman, Randa A; Samir, Shereif
Cell free DNA (cfDNA) was recently suggested as a new marker of sepsis and poor outcome in ICU patients. Procalcitonin has also been the focus of attention as an early marker for systemic inflammation and sepsis. cfDNA, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate levels were measured in 30 ICU patients with multiple trauma or after major surgery on the first day of admission and on 5th and 7th days for PCT, CRP, and lactate. cfDNA was measured by real-time PCR, PCT by ELISA, CRP immunoturbidimetrically, and lactate spectrophotometrically. SOFA score and Injury Severity Score (ISS) for trauma patients were calculated. Significantly higher levels of cfDNA were observed in non-survivor patients in comparison to survivors and in patients with sepsis in comparison to those without sepsis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). The ROC curve was calculated for cfDNA as a predictor of outcome, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.847 (95% CI: 0.669 - 0.952), at a cutoff value of 15500 ng/µL, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 77.8% (p < 0.0001). As a prognostic marker of sepsis, the AUC for cfDNA was 0.788 (95% CI: 0.601 - 0.915), sensitivity = 56.25%, specificity = 100% (p = 0.0007). Day 5 PCT levels significantly correlated with SOFA scores on day 5, ISS on admission (p < 0.001 and p = 0.028, respectively), and a significant elevation of its levels was observed in non-survivor patients compared to survivors (p = 0.001). As a predictor of sepsis, PCT showed a sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity of 100% on day 5, (AUC: 0.987, 95% CI: 0.955 - 1.00); at a cutoff value of 202.90 pg/mL (p = 0.001). As a predictor of outcome, PCT on day 5 showed a sensitivity of 94.0% and a specificity of 78.0% at a cutoff value of 194.40 pg/mL (p = 0.001). Day 1 CRP correlated with ISS on admission, and on day 5 it correlated with SOFA score 5, while lactate correlated with length of stay on days 1, 5, and 7, and its levels were significantly higher in non-survivors on days 5
Ahsan, Zahab S; Yao, Jeffrey
The purpose of this systematic review was to address the incidence of complications associated with wrist arthroscopy. Given the paucity of information published on this topic, an all-inclusive review of published wrist arthroscopy complications was sought. Two independent reviewers performed a literature search using PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and Academic Megasearch using the terms "wrist arthroscopy complications," "complications of wrist arthroscopy," "wrist arthroscopy injury," and "wrist arthroscopy." Inclusion criteria were (1) Levels I to V evidence, (2) "complication" defined as an adverse outcome directly related to the operative procedure, and (3) explicit description of operative complications in the study. Eleven multiple-patient studies addressing complications of wrist arthroscopy from 1994 to 2010 were identified, with 42 complications reported from 895 wrist arthroscopy procedures, a 4.7% complication rate. Four case reports were also found, identifying injury to the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve, injury to the posterior interosseous nerve, and extensor tendon sheath fistula formation. This systematic review suggests that the previously documented rate of wrist arthroscopy complications may be underestimating the true incidence. The report of various complications provides insight to surgeons for improving future surgical techniques. Level IV, systematic review of Levels I-V studies. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…
... provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? You are not subject to the early... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? 714.8 Section 714.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...
Moorman, J. Randall; Delos, John B.; Flower, Abigail A.; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Richman, Joshua S.; Lake, Douglas E.
We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and non-linear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician. PMID:22026974
Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik
Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.
Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar
To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (p<0.001). When the outcomes in anterior and posterior regions were compared feldspathic/silica-based ceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (p<0.0001), the other crown types performed similarly. Densely sintered zirconia SCs were more frequently lost due to veneering ceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (p<0.001), and had significantly more loss of retention (p<0.001). In total higher 5 year rates of framework fracture were reported for the all-ceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival
Campbell, Daniel J.; Chang, Joseph; Chawarska, Katarzyna
Objective Although early head and body overgrowth have been well-documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their prevalence and significance remain unclear. It is also unclear whether overgrowth affects males and females differentially, and whether it is associated with clinical outcomes later in life. Method To evaluate prevalence of somatic overgrowth, gender effects, and associations with clinical outcomes, head circumference, height, and weight measurements were collected retrospectively between birth and 2 years of age in toddlers with ASD (n=200) and typically developing (TD; n=147) community controls. Symptom severity, verbal, and nonverbal functioning were assessed at 4 years. Results Abnormalities in somatic growth in infants with ASD were consistent with early generalized overgrowth (EGO). Boys but not girls with ASD were larger and exhibited an increased rate of extreme EGO compared to community controls (18.0% versus 3.4%). Presence of a larger body at birth and postnatal overgrowth were associated independently with poorer social, verbal, and nonverbal skills at 4 years. Conclusion Although early growth abnormalities in ASD are less common than previously thought, their presence is predictive of lower social, verbal, and nonverbal skills at 4 years, suggesting that they may constitute a biomarker for identifying toddlers with ASD at risk for less-optimal outcomes. The results highlight that the search for mechanisms underlying atypical brain development in ASD should consider factors responsible for both neural and non-neural tissue development during prenatal and early postnatal periods, and can be informed by the finding that early overgrowth may be more readily observed in males than females with ASD. PMID:25245350
Szymanski, K M; Whittam, B; Misseri, R; Chan, K H; Flack, C K; Kaefer, M; Rink, R C; Cain, M P
Adolescents are considered to be at high risk of developing complications after lower genitourinary tract reconstruction. This perception may be due to base rate bias, where clinicians favor specific information (adolescents with complications), while ignoring more general information (number of total adolescents being followed). The goal of this study was to assess whether age was a true risk factor for subfascial and stomal revisions after continent catheterizable urinary (CCU) channel procedures. Consecutive patients aged <21 years and who underwent appendicovesicostomy and Monti surgery at the present institution were retrospectively reviewed; demographic and surgical data were collected. Time to subfascial or stomal revision was stratified by age at initial surgery (child: <8, preteen: 8-12, adolescent: 13-17, adult: ≥18 years old) and analyzed with Cox proportional-hazards regression. Secondary analyses included: different age categories at initial surgery (<8, 8-11, 12-15, 16-19, ≥20 years), analyzing age as a continuous and a time-varying covariate. Of the 510 patients with CCU channels (median age at surgery: 7.9 years), 63 (12.4%) had subfascial and 53 (10.4%) had stomal revision (median follow-up: 6.8 years). Median age at subfascial and stomal revision was 11.3 and 10.3 years, respectively. Preteens contributed 33.0% and adolescents contributed 29.3% of the total follow-up time (3263.9 person-years). Over 80% of revisions occurred within 5 years of surgery, regardless of age at initial surgery (P ≥ 0.57) (Summary table). On multivariate analysis, age at initial surgery was not associated with undergoing subfascial (P ≥ 0.62) or stomal revisions (P ≥ 0.69). Montis were 2.1 times more likely than appendicovesicostomies to undergo a subfascial revision (P = 0.03). No other variables were associated with the risk of subfascial or stomal revision (P ≥ 0.11). Secondary analyses provided similar results. Since the median age at surgery
Noonan, Sam H C; Kluibenschedl, Anna; Fabricius, Katharina E
Ocean acidification is expected to alter community composition on coral reefs, but its effects on reef community metabolism are poorly understood. Here we document how early successional benthic coral reef communities change in situ along gradients of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the consequences of these changes on rates of community photosynthesis, respiration, and light and dark calcification. Ninety standardised benthic communities were grown on PVC tiles deployed at two shallow-water volcanic CO2 seeps and two adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Along the CO2 gradient, both the upward facing phototrophic and the downward facing cryptic communities changed in their composition. Under ambient CO2, both communities were dominated by calcifying algae, but with increasing CO2 they were gradually replaced by non-calcifying algae (predominantly green filamentous algae, cyanobacteria and macroalgae, which increased from ~30% to ~80% cover). Responses were weaker in the invertebrate communities, however ascidians and tube-forming polychaetes declined with increasing CO2. Differences in the carbonate chemistry explained a far greater amount of change in communities than differences between the two reefs and successional changes from five to 13 months, suggesting community successions are established early and are under strong chemical control. As pH declined from 8.0 to 7.8, rates of gross photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 13-month old reef communities (upper and cryptic surfaces combined) significantly increased by 10% and 20%, respectively, in response to altered community composition. As a consequence, net production remained constant. Light and dark calcification rates both gradually declined by 20%, and low or negative daily net calcification rates were observed at an aragonite saturation state of <2.3. The study demonstrates that ocean acidification as predicted for the end of this century will strongly alter reef communities, and will significantly
Kluibenschedl, Anna; Fabricius, Katharina E.
Ocean acidification is expected to alter community composition on coral reefs, but its effects on reef community metabolism are poorly understood. Here we document how early successional benthic coral reef communities change in situ along gradients of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the consequences of these changes on rates of community photosynthesis, respiration, and light and dark calcification. Ninety standardised benthic communities were grown on PVC tiles deployed at two shallow-water volcanic CO2 seeps and two adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Along the CO2 gradient, both the upward facing phototrophic and the downward facing cryptic communities changed in their composition. Under ambient CO2, both communities were dominated by calcifying algae, but with increasing CO2 they were gradually replaced by non-calcifying algae (predominantly green filamentous algae, cyanobacteria and macroalgae, which increased from ~30% to ~80% cover). Responses were weaker in the invertebrate communities, however ascidians and tube-forming polychaetes declined with increasing CO2. Differences in the carbonate chemistry explained a far greater amount of change in communities than differences between the two reefs and successional changes from five to 13 months, suggesting community successions are established early and are under strong chemical control. As pH declined from 8.0 to 7.8, rates of gross photosynthesis and dark respiration of the 13-month old reef communities (upper and cryptic surfaces combined) significantly increased by 10% and 20%, respectively, in response to altered community composition. As a consequence, net production remained constant. Light and dark calcification rates both gradually declined by 20%, and low or negative daily net calcification rates were observed at an aragonite saturation state of <2.3. The study demonstrates that ocean acidification as predicted for the end of this century will strongly alter reef communities, and will significantly
Mirani, Gayatri; Williams, Paige L; Chernoff, Miriam; Abzug, Mark J; Levin, Myron J; Seage, George R; Oleske, James M; Purswani, Murli U; Hazra, Rohan; Traite, Shirley; Zimmer, Bonnie; Van Dyke, Russell B
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related opportunistic infections and deaths in US youth, but both continue to occur. We estimated the incidence of complications and deaths in IMPAACT P1074, a long-term US-based prospective multicenter cohort study conducted from April 2008 to June 2014. Incidence rates of selected diagnoses and trends over time were compared with those from a previous observational cohort study, P219C (2004-2007). Causes of death and relevant demographic and clinical features were reviewed. Among 1201 HIV-infected youth in P1074 (87% perinatally infected; mean [standard deviation] age at last chart review, 20.9 [5.4] years), psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, asthma, pneumonia, and genital tract infections were among the most common comorbid conditions. Compared with findings in P219C, conditions with significantly increased incidence included substance or alcohol abuse, latent tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, atypical mycobacterial infections, vitamin D deficiency or metabolic bone disorders, anxiety disorders, and fractures; the incidence of pneumonia decreased significantly. Twenty-eight deaths occurred, yielding a standardized mortality rate 31.5 times that of the US population. Those who died were older, less likely to be receiving cART, and had lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads. Most deaths (86%) were due to HIV-related medical conditions. Opportunistic infections and deaths are less common among HIV-infected youth in the US in the cART era, but the mortality rate remains elevated. Deaths were associated with poor HIV control and older age. Emerging complications, such as psychiatric, inflammatory, metabolic, and genital tract diseases, need to be addressed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mirani, Gayatri; Williams, Paige L.; Chernoff, Miriam; Abzug, Mark J.; Levin, Myron J.; Seage, George R.; Oleske, James M.; Purswani, Murli U.; Hazra, Rohan; Traite, Shirley; Zimmer, Bonnie; Van Dyke, Russell B.
Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–related opportunistic infections and deaths in US youth, but both continue to occur. Methods. We estimated the incidence of complications and deaths in IMPAACT P1074, a long-term US-based prospective multicenter cohort study conducted from April 2008 to June 2014. Incidence rates of selected diagnoses and trends over time were compared with those from a previous observational cohort study, P219C (2004–2007). Causes of death and relevant demographic and clinical features were reviewed. Results. Among 1201 HIV-infected youth in P1074 (87% perinatally infected; mean [standard deviation] age at last chart review, 20.9 [5.4] years), psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, asthma, pneumonia, and genital tract infections were among the most common comorbid conditions. Compared with findings in P219C, conditions with significantly increased incidence included substance or alcohol abuse, latent tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, atypical mycobacterial infections, vitamin D deficiency or metabolic bone disorders, anxiety disorders, and fractures; the incidence of pneumonia decreased significantly. Twenty-eight deaths occurred, yielding a standardized mortality rate 31.5 times that of the US population. Those who died were older, less likely to be receiving cART, and had lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads. Most deaths (86%) were due to HIV-related medical conditions. Conclusions. Opportunistic infections and deaths are less common among HIV-infected youth in the US in the cART era, but the mortality rate remains elevated. Deaths were associated with poor HIV control and older age. Emerging complications, such as psychiatric, inflammatory, metabolic, and genital tract diseases, need to be addressed. PMID:26270680
Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Shindoh, Junichi; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D.; Roses, Robert E.; Ribero, Dario; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Giuliante, Felice; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Aloia, Thomas A.
Objective After hepatectomy, bile leaks remain a major cause of morbidity, cost, and disability. This study was designed to determine if a novel intraoperative Air Leak Test (ALT) would reduce the incidence of post-hepatectomy biliary complications. Study design Rates of postoperative biliary complications were compared between 103 patients who underwent ALT and 120 matched patients operated on before ALT was utilized. All study patients underwent major hepatectomy without bile duct resection at 3 high-volume hepatobiliary centers between 2008 and 2012. ALT was performed by placement of a trans-cystic cholangiogram catheter to inject air into the biliary tree while the upper abdomen was filled with saline and the distal common bile duct was manually occluded. Uncontrolled bile ducts were identified by localization of air bubbles at the transection surface and were directly repaired. Results The 2 groups were similar in diagnosis, chemotherapy use, tumor number and size, resection extent, surgery duration, and blood loss (all p>0.05). Single or multiple uncontrolled bile ducts were intraoperatively detected and repaired in 62.1% of ALT vs. 8.3% of non-ALT patients (p<0.001). This resulted in a lower rate of postoperative bile leaks in ALT (1.9%) vs. non-ALT patients (10.8%, p=0.008). Independent risk factors for postoperative bile leaks included extended hepatectomy (p=0.031), caudate resection (p=0.02), and not performing ALT (p=0.002) [odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 3.8 (1.3–11.8), 4.0 (1.1–14.3), and 11.8 (2.4–58.8), respectively]. Conclusion ALT is an easily reproducible test that is highly effective for intraoperative detection and repair of open bile ducts, reducing the rate of postoperative bile leaks. PMID:24246619
Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Shindoh, Junichi; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Roses, Robert E; Ribero, Dario; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Giuliante, Felice; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Aloia, Thomas A
After hepatectomy, bile leaks remain a major cause of morbidity, cost, and disability. This study was designed to determine if a novel intraoperative air leak test (ALT) would reduce the incidence of post-hepatectomy biliary complications. Rates of postoperative biliary complications were compared among 103 patients who underwent ALT and 120 matched patients operated on before ALT was used. All study patients underwent major hepatectomy without bile duct resection at 3 high-volume hepatobiliary centers between 2008 and 2012. The ALT was performed by placement of a transcystic cholangiogram catheter to inject air into the biliary tree, the upper abdomen was filled with saline, and the distal common bile duct was manually occluded. Uncontrolled bile ducts were identified by localization of air bubbles at the transection surface and were directly repaired. The 2 groups were similar in diagnosis, chemotherapy use, tumor number and size, resection extent, surgery duration, and blood loss (all, p > 0.05). Single or multiple uncontrolled bile ducts were intraoperatively detected and repaired in 62.1% of ALT vs 8.3% of non-ALT patients (p < 0.001). This resulted in a lower rate of postoperative bile leaks in ALT (1.9%) vs non-ALT patients (10.8%; p = 0.008). Independent risk factors for postoperative bile leaks included extended hepatectomy (p = 0.031), caudate resection (p = 0.02), and not performing ALT (p = 0.002) (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.8; odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.3; and odds ratio = 11.8; 95% CI, 2.4-58.8, respectively). The ALT is an easily reproducible test that is highly effective for intraoperative detection and repair of open bile ducts, reducing the rate of postoperative bile leaks. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Ping, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Baumann, René; Dunst, Juergen
Purpose: To prospectively evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of therapy-resistant keloids and report first results, with emphasis on feasibility and early treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2014, 24 patients with 32 recurrent keloids were treated with immediate perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3 patients had been previously treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and presented with recurrences in the pretreated areas. Two or more different treatment modalities had been tried in all patients and had failed to achieve remission. After (re-)excision of the keloids, a single brachytherapy tube was placed subcutaneously before closing the wound. The target volumemore » covered the scar in total length. Brachytherapy was given in 3 fractions with a single dose of 6 Gy in 5 mm tissue depth. The first fraction was given within 6 hours after surgery, the other 2 fractions on the first postoperative day. Thus, a total dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions was administered within 36 hours after the resection. Results: The treatment was feasible in all patients. No procedure-related complications (eg, secondary infections) occurred. Nineteen patients had keloid-related symptoms before treatment like pain and pruritus; disappearance of symptoms was noticed in all patients after treatment. After a median follow-up of 29.4 months (range, 7.9-72.4 months), 2 keloid recurrences and 2 mildly hypertrophied scars were observed. The local control rate was 94%. Pigmentary abnormalities were detected in 3 patients, and an additional 6 patients had a mild delay in the wound-healing process. Conclusions: The early results of this study prove the feasibility and the efficacy of brachytherapy for the prevention of keloids. The results also suggest that brachytherapy may be advantageous in the management of high-risk keloids or as salvage treatment for failure after external beam therapy.« less
Pu, Yu-Wei; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong-You; Chen, Qiang; He, Teng-Fei; Xing, Chun-Gen
To compare proximal gastrectomy (PG) with total gastrectomy (TG) for proximal gastric carcinoma, through the 5-year survival rate, recurrence rate, postoperative complications, and long-term life quality. The meta-analysis was carried out in the General Surgery Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from June to November 2012. The literature searches were carried out using medical subject headings and free-text word: `proximal gastrectomy` `total gastrectomy` `partial gastrectomy` `stomach neoplasms` and `gastric cancer`. Two different reviewers carried out the search and evaluated studies independently. Two randomized controlled trials and 9 retrospective studies were included. A total of 1364 patients were included in our study. Our analysis showed that there is no statistically significant difference in 5-year survival rate between PG and TG (60.9% versus 64.4%). But, the recurrence is higher in the PG group than the TG (38.7% versus 24.4%). The anastomotic stenosis rate is also higher in the PG than the TG (27.4% versus 7.4%). Proximal gastrectomy is an option for upper third gastric cancer in terms of safety. However, it is associated with high risk of reflux symptoms and anastomotic stenosis. Therefore, TG should be the first choice for proximal gastric cancer to prevent reflux symptoms.
Dubois, Luc; Allen, Britney; Bray-Jenkyn, Krista; Power, Adam H; DeRose, Guy; Forbes, Thomas L; Duncan, Audra; Shariff, Salimah Z
Volume-outcome relationships for open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have received less attention in publicly funded health systems. Furthermore, the roles of surgeon seniority (years of experience) and composite volume (encompassing all major arterial cases) on outcomes after open AAA repair are less well known. We sought to determine the effects of surgeon volume, surgeon years of experience, and composite volume on outcomes after elective open AAA repairs performed in Ontario, Canada. Using a population-based, prospectively collected health administrative database, all elective open AAA repairs occurring in the province of Ontario from 2005 to 2014 were identified. Surgeon annual volume was classified by quintiles, with the highest volume quintile acting as the reference category. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used, adjusting for patient factors (age, sex, comorbidities, year of procedure, income) to investigate the relationship between surgeon annual volume and 30-day mortality, 30-day major complications, 30-day reoperations, 1-year mortality, and 1-year reoperations (related to index procedure). The potential effects of annual surgeon composite volume and surgeon years of experience on postoperative outcomes were also explored. A total of 7211 elective open AAA repairs performed by 101 surgeons were identified between 2005 and 2014. Most of the operations were performed by vascular surgeons (81.5%), followed by cardiac (12.1%) and general surgeons (6.1%). Median number of procedures in the lowest quintile group was 3 repairs/y, whereas the highest quintile group performed 54 repairs/y. Overall 30-day mortality was 3%. No difference in mortality was detected in comparing the lowest with the highest volume groups (1.89% vs 3.01%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.33). The lowest volume group exhibited a higher 30-day complication rate (28.0% vs 20.4%; OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15-2.06) and 30-day reoperation
Stover, Jessica T; Shaw, J Ryan; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Engemann, Ashley M
The addition of plerixafor to high-dose colony-stimulating growth factor has been shown to improve stem cell mobilization rates in autologous transplant patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study evaluates the change in administration time of plerixafor to determine if cell mobilization rates are similar between the US Food and Drug Administration-approved administration time of 11 hours before apheresis and an earlier administration time of 16 hours before apheresis. Medical records of patients age ≥ 18 years undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation requiring the use of plerixafor after at least 4 days of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy to complete stem cell mobilization from January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was CD34 + cell mobilization success rates when plerixafor was administered 11 ± 2 hours (standard administration group) compared with 16 ± 2 hours before cell apheresis (early administration group), as defined as collection of ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg. Secondary outcomes included the number of plerixafor therapy days required to collect a total of ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the number of apheresis cycles required to achieve ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg, the median CD34 + cells/kg collected in each apheresis session, and the rates of reported adverse events that occurred in the standard administration time group compared with the early administration time group. Of the 197 patients included, 114 patients received plerixafor 11 ± 2 hours before apheresis and 83 patients received plerixafor 16 hours ± 2 hours before apheresis. Ninety-four percent of patients in the early administration group achieved successful stem cell mobilization compared with 81.6% in the standard administration group (P = .0111). The median number of plerixafor days to reach the collection goal of ≥2 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg was 1 day for
Ozgor, Faruk; Yanaral, Fatih; Savun, Metin; Ozdemir, Harun; Sarilar, Omer; Binbay, Murat
In this study, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of STONE (stone size, tract length, obstruction, number of involved calyces, and essence/stone density), Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES), and Guy's nephrolithometry scoring systems (NSS) in obese patients. The charts of patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) between June 2008 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Calculations of the STONE, CROES, and Guy's NSS were performed by a resident who was well informed regarding each NSS. Patients were classified under nine scores according to STONE, four grades according to CROES, and four grades according to Guy's NSS. In total, 248 obese patients were enrolled in the study. Stone size was significantly higher in patients without stone-free status (p = 0.001). In patients who were stone-free and those with residual stones, the mean STONE score was 9.71 and 9.23 (p = 0.160), CROES was 172 and 129 (p = 0.001), and Guy's NSS was 1.67 and 2.75 (p = 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified the CROES and Guy's NSS were independent factors for PNL success in obese patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). The CROES and Guy's NSS showed good accuracy with PNL success (AUC = 0.777 and AUC = 0.844, respectively). None of the three NSS systems were statically associated with a complication rate (p = 0.23 for STONE, p = 0.14 for CROES, and p = 0.51 for Guy's NSS). Our study demonstrated that CROES and Guy's NSS were independent predictors of stone-free rate following PNL in obese patients. Our study also revealed that three of the NSSs were not useful for predicting PNL complications in obese patients.
Beavis, Anna L; Salazar-Marioni, Sergio; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Stone, Rebecca L; Fader, Amanda N; Santillan-Gomez, Antonio; Tanner, Edward J
Our study objective was to determine feasibility and mapping rates using indocyanine green (ICG) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in early-stage cervical cancer. We performed a retrospective review of all women who underwent SLN mapping with ICG during primary surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer by robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy (RA-RH) or fertility-sparing surgery. Patients were treated at two high-volume centers from 10/2012 to 02/2016. Completion pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed after SLN biopsy; additionally, removal of clinically enlarged/suspicious nodes was part of the SLN treatment algorithm. Thirty women with a median age of 42.5 and BMI of 26.5 were included. Most (90%) had stage IB disease, and 67% had squamous histology. RA-RH was performed in 86.7% of cases. One patient underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Median cervical tumor size was 2.0cm. At least one SLN was detected in all cases (100%), with bilateral mapping achieved in 87%. SLN detection was not impacted by tumor size and was most commonly identified in the hypogastric (40.3%), obturator (26.0%), and external iliac (20.8%) regions. Five cases of lymphatic metastasis were identified (16.7%): three in clinically enlarged SLNs, one in a clinically enlarged non-SLN, and one case with cytokeratin positive cells in an SLN. All metastatic disease would have been detected even if full lymphadenectomy had been omitted from our treatment algorithm, CONCLUSIONS: SLN mapping with ICG is feasible and results in high detection rates in women with early-stage cervical cancer. Prospective studies are needed to determine if SLN mapping can replace lymphadenectomy in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami
Hyperleukocytosis (HL) is defined as the clinical condition when the white blood cell (WBC) count is above 100,000/mm 3 in peripheral blood. It has been already shown in the literature that leukapheresis, a conventional technique to decrease the serum WBC level, is ineffective for long-term survival in cases of hyperleukocytotic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with leukostasis. However, the effect of leukapheresis on early mortality is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of leukapheresis on early mortality of patients with AML who have HL. Twenty-eight de novo patients with AML, diagnosed with HL between 2002 and 2015 at the Hacettepe Hematology Department, were analyzed retrospectively. Leukapheresis was performed in 10 patients, and the mean WBC decrease with leukapheresis was 57.4×10 3 /μl which accounts for 31% of the initial WBC count. The indications for leukapheresis were hyperviscosity and prophylaxis in four and six patients, respectively. In the group of patients who received leukapheresis, three of four patients who had hyperviscosity symptoms died, and three of six patients died who did not have symptoms. In our study, we observed that the leukapheresis procedure is highly effective in reducing plasma WBC levels. However, although it is statistically insignificant, our findings also revealed that there is a much higher rate of death in patients who were treated with leukapheresis. Therefore we conclude that leukapheresis does not lower rates of early death; nevertheless, this finding should be confirmed by prospective studies with larger cohorts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.
Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials
La Marca, Valeria; Fierabracci, Alessandra
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. Almost all cell types release EVs, thus they are naturally present in all body fluids. Among the several potential applications, EVs could be used as drug delivery vehicles in disease treatment, in immune therapy because of their immunomodulatory properties and in regenerative medicine. In addition to general markers, EVs are characterized by the presence of specific biomarkers (proteins and miRNAs) that allow the identification of their cell or tissue origin. For these features, they represent a potential powerful diagnostic tool to monitor state and progression of specific diseases. A large body of studies supports the idea that endothelial derived (EMPs) together with platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by micro- and macrovascular damages, including diabetes. Existing literature suggests that the detection of circulating EMPs and PMPs and their specific miRNA profile may represent a very useful non-invasive signature to achieve information on the onset of peculiar disease manifestations. In this review, we discuss the possible utility of EVs in the early diagnosis of diabetes-associated microvascular complications, specifically related to kidney.
Early-switch/early-discharge opportunities for hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections: proof of concept in the United Arab Emirates.
El Houfi, Ashraf; Javed, Nadeem; Solem, Caitlyn T; Macahilig, Cynthia; Stephens, Jennifer M; Raghubir, Nirvana; Chambers, Richard; Li, Jim Z; Haider, Seema
To describe real-world treatment patterns and health care resource use and to estimate opportunities for early-switch (ES) from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) antibiotics and early-discharge (ED) for patients hospitalized in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft tissue infections. This retrospective observational medical chart review study enrolled physicians from four UAE sites to collect data for 24 patients with documented MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2011, and discharged alive by July 2011. Data include clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay (LOS), MRSA-targeted IV and PO antibiotic use, and ES and ED eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria. Five included patients (20.8%) were switched from IV to PO antibiotics while being inpatients. Actual length of MRSA-active treatment was 10.8±7.0 days, with 9.8±6.6 days of IV therapy. Patients were hospitalized for a mean 13.9±9.3 days. The most frequent initial MRSA-active therapies used were vancomycin (37.5%), linezolid (16.7%), and clindamycin (16.7%). Eight patients were discharged with MRSA-active antibiotics, with linezolid prescribed most frequently (n=3; 37.5%). Fifteen patients (62.5%) met ES criteria and potentially could have discontinued IV therapy 8.3±6.0 days sooner, and eight (33.3%) met ED criteria and potentially could have been discharged 10.9±5.8 days earlier. While approximately one-fifth of patients were switched from IV to PO antibiotics in the UAE, there were clear opportunities for further optimization of health care resource use. Over half of UAE patients hospitalized for MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections could be eligible for ES, with one-third eligible for ED opportunities, resulting in substantial potential for reductions in IV days and bed days.
Tanski, Susanne E; Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D
The aim of this study was to determine if parental restriction regarding Restricted-rated movies (R movies) predicts lower rates of early-onset alcohol use. Students from 15 northern New England middle schools were surveyed in 1999, and never-drinkers were resurveyed 13-26 months later to determine alcohol use. Drinking was determined by the question, "Have you ever had beer, wine, or other drink with alcohol that your parents didn't know about?" R-movie restriction was assessed by the question, "How often do your parents allow you to watch movies that are rated R?" The sample included 2,406 baseline never-drinkers who were surveyed at follow-up, of whom 14.8% had initiated alcohol use. At baseline, 20% reported never being allowed to watch R movies, and 21% reported being allowed all the time. Adolescents allowed to watch R-rated movies had higher rates of alcohol initiation (2.9% initiation among never allowed, 12.5% once in a while, 18.8% sometimes, and 24.4% all the time). Controlling for sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and authoritative parenting style, the adjusted odds ratios for initiating alcohol use were 3.0 (95% CI [1.7, 5.1]) for those once in a while allowed, 3.3 [1.9, 5.6] for those sometimes allowed, and 3.5 [2.0, 6.0] for those always allowed to watch R-rated movies. Alcohol initiation was more likely if R-rated movie restriction relaxed over time; tightening of restriction had a protective effect (p < .001). A structural model was developed that modeled two latent parenting constructs: (a) authoritative parenting and (b) media parenting. Both constructs had direct inverse paths to trying alcohol and indirect paths through lower exposure to R-rated movies. After accounting for differences in authoritative parenting style, adolescents reporting lesser restrictions for R movies have higher odds of future alcohol use. The structural model suggests that media parenting operates independently from authoritative parenting and should be
Tanski, Susanne E.; Dal Cin, Sonya; Stoolmiller, Mike; Sargent, James D.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if parental restriction regarding Restricted-rated movies (R movies) predicts lower rates of early-onset alcohol use. Method: Students from 15 northern New England middle schools were surveyed in 1999, and never-drinkers were resurveyed 13–26 months later to determine alcohol use. Drinking was determined by the question, “Have you ever had beer, wine, or other drink with alcohol that your parents didn't know about?” R-movie restriction was assessed by the question, “How often do your parents allow you to watch movies that are rated R?” Results: The sample included 2,406 baseline never-drinkers who were surveyed at follow-up, of whom 14.8% had initiated alcohol use. At baseline, 20% reported never being allowed to watch R movies, and 21% reported being allowed all the time. Adolescents allowed to watch R-rated movies had higher rates of alcohol initiation (2.9% initiation among never allowed, 12.5% once in a while, 18.8% sometimes, and 24.4% all the time). Controlling for sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and authoritative parenting style, the adjusted odds ratios for initiating alcohol use were 3.0 (95% CI [1.7, 5.1]) for those once in a while allowed, 3.3 [1.9, 5.6] for those sometimes allowed, and 3.5 [2.0, 6.0] for those always allowed to watch R-rated movies. Alcohol initiation was more likely if R-rated movie restriction relaxed over time; tightening of restriction had a protective effect (p < .001). A structural model was developed that modeled two latent parenting constructs: (a) authoritative parenting and (b) media parenting. Both constructs had direct inverse paths to trying alcohol and indirect paths through lower exposure to R-rated movies. Conclusions: After accounting for differences in authoritative parenting style, adolescents reporting lesser restrictions for R movies have higher odds of future alcohol use. The structural model suggests that media parenting operates
Inaba, Kenji; Hauch, Adam; Branco, Bernardino C; Cohn, Stephen; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Recinos, Gustavo; Barmparas, Galinos; Demetriades, Demetrios
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of in-house attending surgeon supervision on the rate of preventable deaths (PD) and complications (PC) at the beginning of the academic year. All trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center over an 8-year period ending in December 2009 were reviewed. Morbidity and mortality reports were used to extract all PD/PC. Patients admitted in the first 2 months (July/August) of the academic year were compared with those admitted at the end of the year (May/June) for two distinct time periods: 2002 to 2006 (before in-house attending surgeon supervision) and 2007 to 2009 (after 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision). During 2002 to 2006, patients admitted at the beginning of the year had significantly higher rates of PC (1.1% for July/August vs 0.6% for May/June; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.2; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in mortality (6.5% for July/August vs 4.6% for May/June; adjusted OR, 1.1; 95% CI,0.8 to 1.5; P = 0.179). During 2007 to 2009, after institution of 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision of fellows and housestaff, there was no significant difference in the rates of PC (0.7% for July/August vs 0.6% for May/June; OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3; P = 0.870) or PD (4.6% for July/August vs 3.7% for May/June; OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.7; P = 0.250) seen at the beginning of the academic year. At an academic Level I trauma center, the institution of 24-hour/day in-house attending surgeon supervision significantly reduced the spike of preventable complications previously seen at the beginning of the academic year.
Futyma, Konrad; Nowakowski, Łukasz; Gałczyński, Krzysztof; Miotła, Paweł; Rechberger, Tomasz
Those patients who failed to achieve continence after a procedure aimed to correct it, require a special attitude and precise management due to the sophisticated anatomical and functional field of interest. The purpose of the present study was to assess long-term clinical efficacy and evaluate the frequency and severity of any complications related to recurrent stress urinary incontinence treatment with a non-absorbable bulking agent periurethral injections. Between February 2012-September 2013, 66 patients with recurrent stress urinary incontinence were treated with Urolastic in the tertiary referral gynecologic department. The efficacy of the procedure was assessed objectively at each follow-up visit, scheduled at two, six weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after primary procedure. Material was injected under local anesthesia according to the manufacturer's instructions, at 10, 2, 4 and 8 o'clock positions with 0.5-1.25ccm per spot. Statistical analyses were performed with Statistica package version 8.0 (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA). A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Objective success rate at 24 months was found in 32.7% of patients, including 22.4% patients who were completely dry. The efficacy of Urolastic, when considering the intention to treat, is 24.2% and 16.7%, respectively. In 4.5% patients an oval shaped material was found inside the bladder. Overall, complications were observed in 17 (25.8%) patients. Although only 30% of patients will benefit from Urolastic injection on the long-term basis it seems to be a safe procedure in the treatment of recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Michael N; Kufeldt, Johannes; Kisser, Ulrich; Hornung, Hans-Martin; Hoffmann, Jessica; Andraschko, Monika; Werner, Jens; Rittler, Peter
Malnutrition is known to independently affect patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of patients at risk for malnutrition in an elective surgery patient cohort and to analyze the effects of malnutrition on morbidity, mortality, and hospital length of hospital (LOS). Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the economic effect of a diligent coding of malnutrition, as a side diagnosis, in a simulation of the German Diagnosis-Related Group system. The nutritional status of 1244 patients undergoing elective surgery was standardized on the day of admission by the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002. To quantify the influence of malnutrition on revenue, the real DRGs of all patients were grouped. In simulation, an appropriate International Classification of Diseases code was used as a secondary diagnosis for all malnourished patients based on the NRS rating. A multivariate logistic regression analysis and a Cox regression were performed to identify potential confounders and to determine the adjusted effect of nutritional status on the occurrence of complications and hospital LOS. The prevalence of patients at risk for malnutrition (NRS ≥3) was 24.1% (300 of 1244). These patients showed a significant increase in hospital LOS (13 versus 7 d). Additionally, postoperative complications were significantly higher in this group (7.23% versus 6.91%). Including malnutrition in the Diagnosis-Related Group coding system resulted in a reimbursement of €1979.67 per patient at risk for malnutrition and a total reimbursement of €79,186.73 for all patients at risk for malnutrition in the present study. Establishment of a structured, comprehensive assessment of the nutritional status of hospitalized patients can repetitiously identify patients at risk for malnutrition. Additionally, the diligent codification of malnutrition can lead to cost compensation in the German Diagnosis-Related Group system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Twardzik, C.; Vergnolle, M.; Avallone, A.; Sladen, A.
Postseismic processes after an earthquake contribute to the redistribution of stresses in addition to that induced by the coseismic rupture. With the exception of very few studies (e.g., Miyazaki and Larson, 2008), most postseismic analyses only start one or two days following the mainshock. This leaves a critical part of postseismic phase unexplored, from a few minutes up to a few hours after the earthquake. In this study, we use kinematic precise point positioning (K-PPP) to analyze continuous GNSS data in order to obtain 30s position time series. These time series provide information on the surface displacements a soon as the dynamic response of the earthquake is over. Our first analysis focuses on the 2016 Pedernales, Ecuador, earthquake (Mw7.8). Using spectral analysis, we show that the typical logarithmic postseismic displacement trend can be detected as early as one to six hours after the earthquake depending on the station location and the level of noise. This analysis also allows to estimate the bias on the coseismic offsets usually based on daily pre- and post- earthquake positions. We use the early postseismic time series to test whether rate-and-state friction laws, traditionally used to explain postseismic processes days after the earthquake, still hold right after the mainshock. This study is being extended to two other subduction earthquakes: the 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake (Mw8.8) and the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake (Mw8.2).
Short-term and long-term prognostic outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated by profound cardiogenic shock undergoing early extracorporeal membrane oxygenator-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Chung, Sheng-Ying; Tong, Meng-Shen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Lee, Fan-Yen; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan
This study investigated the 30-day and long-term prognostic outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated with profound cardiogenic shock (CS) undergoing early routine extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO)-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Between December 2005 and December 2014, 65 consecutive STEMI patients with profound CS underwent routine ECMO-supported primary PCI. The incidences of acute pulmonary edema, respiratory failure with requirement of mechanical ventilatory support upon presentation, and 30-day mortality rate were 100%, 95.4%, and 43.1%, respectively. The duration of hospitalization, mean long-term follow-up, and survival rate were 32.1±53.1 (days), 733.6±986.7 (days), and 32.3%, respectively. The mean APACHE score (32.6±8.3 vs. 28.5±7.5), peak serum creatinine level (4.3±2.4 vs. 1.7±1.2mg/dL), incidences of failed ECMO weaning (57.1% vs. 0%), successful ECMO weaning but in-hospital death (40.0% vs. 0%) were significantly lower in 30-day survivors than those in non-survivors (all p<0.05), whereas final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow [53.6% vs. 91.9%] showed an opposite pattern compared to that of APACHE score in the two groups (p<0.02). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that unsuccessful reperfusion, failed ECMO weaning, and peak creatinine level were independent predictors of 30-day mortality (all p<0.01). Early ECMO-supported primary PCI in STEMI patients with profound CS was feasible as a life-saving strategy with acceptable 30-day and long-term prognostic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... care provider will likely test your urine in early pregnancy to see if this is the case and ... and body-mass index before pregnancy or in early pregnancy and found that obesity during pregnancy is associated ...
Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C
To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.
Abuanzeh, Razi; Hashmi, Faisal; Dimarakis, Ioannis; Khasati, Noman; Machaal, Ali; Yonan, Nizar; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer V
Organ donations continue to fall, failing to meet the clinical requirements for heart transplantation. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of brain stem death including hormonal and inflammatory changes may lead to significant donor heart injury. Early donor management may potentially alleviate these changes and therefore increase the number of available hearts for transplantation. We aimed to investigate whether early management of borderline donors can increase the heart retrieval rate. Between September 2011 and February 2013, we performed early donor management of 26 potential heart donors in the intensive care units of the respective donor hospitals. At the time of referral donors were considered as borderline based on high-dose inotrope requirements, history of hypertension and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Our management protocol included insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and performance of cardiac output studies, weaning noradrenaline and commencing arginine vasopressin, and administration of tri-iodothyronine, methylprednisolone and insulin. Our primary end-point was donor heart acceptance, depending collectively on the results of cardiac output studies, cardiac contractility and coronary artery patency at the time of retrieval operation. We retrieved 14 (56%) borderline hearts after donor management (Group A) with a 30-day survival rate of 86%. Twelve (44%) organs were declined due to poor heart function (n=8; 66.7%; P<0.001) and/or palpable coronary artery disease (n=4; 33.3%; P=0.018) (Group B). The mean age of Groups A and B was 42.77 and 47.78 years, respectively (P=0.19). Most of the female donors, i.e. 10 (83%), were declined, and only 4 (27%) were accepted (P=0.005). Majority of patients in both groups (Group A: 71.4%; n=10; and Group B: 66.7%; n=8) were on high-dose noradrenaline (>0.08 μg kg(-1) min(-2)) at the time of donor offer. Group A had a mean cardiac output of 6.29 and 3.09 l/min for Group B (P=0.01). A positive smoking history was
Harrison, Rosamund; Benton, Tonya; Everson-Stewart, Siobhan; Weinstein, Phil
The purposes of this randomized controlled trial were to: (1) test motivational interviewing (MI) to prevent early childhood caries; and (2) use Poisson regression for data analysis. A total of 240 South Asian children 6 to 18 months old were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the MI or control condition. Children had a dental exam, and their mothers completed pretested instruments at baseline and 1 and 2 years postintervention. Other covariates that might explain outcomes over and above treatment differences were modeled using Poisson regression. Hazard ratios were produced. Analyses included all participants whenever possible. Poisson regression supported a protective effect of MI (hazard ratio [HR]=0.54 (95%CI=035-0.84)-that is, the M/ group had about a 46% lower rate of dmfs at 2 years than did control children. Similar treatment effect estimates were obtained from models that included, as alternative outcomes, ds, dms, and dmfs, including "white spot lesions." Exploratory analyses revealed that rates of dmfs were higher in children whose mothers had: (1) prechewed their food; (2) been raised in a rural environment; and (3) a higher family income (P<.05). A motivational interviewing-style intervention shows promise to promote preventive behaviors in mothers of young children at high risk for caries.
Sarkut, Pmar; Gülcü, Bariş; Işçimen, Remzi; Kiyici, Murat; Türker, Gürkan; Topal, Naile Bolca; Ozen, Yilmaz; Kaya, Ekrem
To determine the effect of marginal donor livers on mortality and graft survival in liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Donors with any 1 of following were considered marginal donors: age ≥65 years, sodium level ≥ 165 mmol/L and cold ischemia time ≥ 12 h. Donors were classified according to the donor risk index (DRI) < 1.7 and ≥ 1.7. The transplant recipients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were considered low if < 20 and high if ≥ 20. Early graft dysfunction (EGD) and mortality rate were evaluated. During the study period 47 patients underwent cadaveric LT. The mean age of the donors and recipients was 45 years (range: 5-72 years) and 46 years (range: 4-66 years), respectively. In all, there were 15 marginal donors and 18 donors with a DRI > 1.7. In total, 4 LT patients that received livers from marginal donors and 5 that received livers from donors with a DRI ≥ 1.7 had EGD. Among the recipients of marginal livers, 5 died, versus 4 of the recipients of standard livers. There was no significant difference in EGD or mortality rate between the patients that received livers from marginal donors or those with a DRI ≥ 1.7 and patients that received standard donor livers. Marginal and DRI ≥ 1.7 donors negatively affected LT outcomes, but not significantly.
Luo, Lu; Gu, Fang; Jie, Huying; Ding, Chenhui; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Canquan
The early miscarriage rate is reported to be higher in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with non-PCOS patients. However, whether PCOS is an independent risk factor for early miscarriage is still controversial; to what extent embryonic aneuploidy accounts for miscarriages of PCOS is still unknown. In this 1:3 matched-pair study, 67 lean PCOS patients and 201 controls matched for age, body mass index (BMI) and embryo scores undergoing a single euploid blastocyst transfer in vitrified-warmed cycles were analysed. Clinical pregnancy, early miscarriage and live birth rates were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to further evaluate the factors associated with early miscarriage and live birth. Clinical pregnancy rates were 50.7% in PCOS and 55.2% in control groups. Early miscarriage rate was significantly (P = 0.029) increased in the PCOS group compared with controls; non-PCOS patients had a significantly higher live birth rate than PCOS patients, P < 0.001. Further regression analyses showed that PCOS was significantly associated with a higher risk of early miscarriage and decreased chance of live birth. In conclusion, PCOS in women undergoing pre-implantation genetic diagnosis may, independently from BMI and karyotype, increase the risk of miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla; Keller, Anna K.
Background Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion. Methods In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were randomised to stepwise venous occlusion, complete venous occlusion, complete arterial occlusion or controls. Results All parameters were stable through baseline measurements. Glutamate and lactate measured by microdialysis increased significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03 respectively) 30 minutes after a 2/3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular occlusions on the vessel it was placed. Conclusions We developed a new model for stepwise renal venous blood flow occlusion. Furthermore, the first comparison of the implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for detection of renal vascular occlusions was made. The implantable Doppler probe could only detect flow changes after a complete occlusion, whereas microdialysis detected changes earlier, and could detect both arterial and venous occlusion. Based on these results, the implantable Doppler probe for early detection of vascular occlusions cannot be recommended. PMID:28542429
Carling, Christopher; Bloomfield, Jonathan
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an early dismissal (after 5-min play) on work-rate in a professional soccer match. A computerised player tracking system was used to assess the work-rates of seven players who completed the match on a team with 10 players. A minute-by-minute analysis of the remaining 91min following the dismissal was performed for the total distance covered, the distance covered in five categories of movement intensity and the recovery time between high-intensity efforts for each player. The data were calculated for each half and for three equal intervals within each half and profiled against normative data for the same players obtained from the analysis of 15 games in the same season. Following the dismissal, the players covered a greater total distance than normal (p<0.025), particularly in moderate-intensity activities (p<0.01) and had shorter recovery times between high-intensity efforts (p<0.025). In contrast, there was a significant reduction between game halves for total distance covered at both the highest (p<0.025) and lowest running intensities (p<0.01). However, there were no differences in high-intensity activities across the three intervals in the second-half. These findings suggest that in 11 vs. 11, players may not always utilise their full physical potential as this match illustrated an increase in overall work-rate when reduced to 10 players. However, as a team with 10 players is likely to incur higher levels of fatigue, tactical alterations may be necessary and/or players may adopt a pacing strategy to endure the remainder of the match. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greene, Meredith; Ahalt, Cyrus; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Metzger, Lia; Williams, Brie
The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. This cross sectional study compared 238 older jail inmates age 55 or older to 6871 older adults in the national Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We used an age-adjusted analysis, accounting for the difference in age distributions between the two groups, to compare sociodemographics, chronic conditions, and geriatric conditions (functional, sensory, and mobility impairment). A second age-adjusted analysis compared those in jail to HRS participants in the lowest quintile of wealth. All geriatric conditions were significantly more common in jail-based participants than in HRS participants overall and HRS participants in the lowest quintile of net worth. Jail-based participants (average age of 59) experienced four out of six geriatric conditions at rates similar to those found in HRS participants age 75 or older. Geriatric conditions are prevalent in older adults in jail at significantly younger ages than non-incarcerated older adults suggesting that geriatric assessment and geriatric-focused care are needed for older adults cycling through jail in their 50s and that correctional clinicians require knowledge about geriatric assessment and care.
Chen, K.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y. T.
Recently, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been used for rapid earthquake source inversion towards tsunami early warning. In practice, two approaches, i.e., static finite source inversion based on permanent co-seismic offsets and kinematic finite source inversion using high-rate (>= 1 Hz) co-seismic displacement waveforms, are often employed to fulfill the task. The static inversion is relatively easy to be implemented and does not require additional constraints on rupture velocity, duration, and temporal variation. However, since most GNSS receivers are deployed onshore locating on one side of the subduction fault, there is very limited resolution on near-trench fault slip using GNSS in static finite source inversion. On the other hand, the high-rate GNSS displacement waveforms, which contain the timing information of earthquake rupture explicitly and static offsets implicitly, have the potential to improve near-trench resolution by reconciling with the depth-dependent megathrust rupture behaviors. In this contribution, we assess the performance of rapid kinematic finite source inversion using high-rate GNSS by three selected historical tsunamigenic cases: the 2010 Mentawai, 2011 Tohoku and 2015 Illapel events. With respect to the 2010 Mentawai case, it is a typical tsunami earthquake with most slip concentrating near the trench. The static inversion has little resolution there and incorrectly puts slip at greater depth (>10km). In contrast, the recorded GNSS displacement waveforms are deficit in high-frequency energy, the kinematic source inversion recovers a shallow slip patch (depth less than 6 km) and tsunami runups are predicted quite reasonably. For the other two events, slip from kinematic and static inversion show similar characteristics and comparable tsunami scenarios, which may be related to dense GNSS network and behavior of the rupture. Acknowledging the complexity of kinematic source inversion in real-time, we adopt the back
Hawkinson, Laura E.; Faria, Ann-Marie; Bouacha, Nora; Lee, Dong Hoon; Metzger, Ivan
This report describes the quality improvement efforts of early childhood education programs participating in Iowa's Quality Rating System (QRS). It identifies supports and barriers to quality improvement and examines how quality improvement supports and activities relate to changes in program quality ratings across time. The study team developed…
Ben Ameur, Hazem; Affes, Nejmeddine; Rejab, Haitham; Abid, Bassem; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam
The colostomy may be terminal or lateral, temporary or permanent. It may have psychological, medical or surgical complications. reporting the incidence of surgical complications of colostomies, their therapeutic management and trying to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A retrospective study for a period of 5 years in general surgery department, Habib Bourguiba hospital, Sfax, including all patients operated with confection of a colostomy. Were then studied patients reoperated for stoma complication. Among the 268 patients who have had a colostomy, 19 patients (7%) developed surgical stoma complications. They had a mean age of 59 years, a sex ratio of 5.3 and a 1-ASA score in 42% of cases. It was a prolapse in 9 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 6 cases, restoration of digestive continuity: 3 cases), a necrosis in 5 cases (reconfection of the colostomy), a plicature in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy) a peristomal abscess in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 1 case, restoration of digestive continuity: 1 case) and a strangulated parastomal hernia in 1 case (herniorrhaphy). The elective incision and the perineal disease were risk factors for the occurrence of prolapse stomial. Surgical complications of colostomies remain a rare event. Prolapse is the most common complication, and it is mainly related to elective approach. Reoperation is often required especially in cases of early complications, with usually uneventful postoperative course.
Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Yang, Gan; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Yue; Wang, Litao
This study aimed to apply an inverse-dispersion calculation method (IDM) to estimate the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the complicated industrial area sources, through a case study on a petroleum refinery in Northern China. The IDM was composed of on-site monitoring of ambient VOCs concentrations and meteorological parameters around the source, calculation of the relationship coefficient γ between the source's emission rate and the ambient VOCs concentration by the ISC3 model, and estimation of the actual VOCs emission rate from the source. Targeting the studied refinery, 10 tests and 8 tests were respectively conducted in March and in June of 2014. The monitoring showed large differences in VOCs concentrations between background and downwind receptors, reaching 59.7 ppbv in March and 248.6 ppbv in June, on average. The VOCs increases at receptors mainly consisted of ethane (3.1%-22.6%), propane (3.8%-11.3%), isobutane (8.5%-10.2%), n-butane (9.9%-13.2%), isopentane (6.1%-12.9%), n-pentane (5.1%-9.7%), propylene (6.1-11.1%) and 1-butylene (1.6%-5.4%). The chemical composition of the VOCs increases in this field monitoring was similar to that of VOCs emissions from China's refineries reported, which revealed that the ambient VOCs increases were predominantly contributed by this refinery. So, we used the ISC3 model to create the relationship coefficient γ for each receptor of each test. In result, the monthly VOCs emissions from this refinery were calculated to be 183.5 ± 89.0 ton in March and 538.3 ± 281.0 ton in June. The estimate in June was greatly higher than in March, chiefly because the higher environmental temperature in summer produced more VOCs emissions from evaporation and fugitive process of the refinery. Finally, the VOCs emission factors (g VOCs/kg crude oil refined) of 0.73 ± 0.34 (in March) and 2.15 ± 1.12 (in June) were deduced for this refinery, being in the same order with previous direct
Karoly, Lynn A.; Zellman, Gail L.
In 2010, the California Early Learning Quality Improvement System (CAEL QIS) Advisory Committee recommended a structure for a voluntary quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) that could apply to the state's 11,000 licensed centers and 36,600 licensed family child care homes (FCCHs). The proposed design consisted of an unweighted block system…
Pullan, Steven T; Allnutt, Jon C; Devine, Rebecca; Hatch, Kim A; Jeeves, Rose E; Hendon-Dunn, Charlotte L; Marsh, Philip D; Bacon, Joanna
Pyrazinamide (PZA) plays an essential part in the shortened six-month tuberculosis (TB) treatment course due to its activity against slow-growing and non-replicating organisms. We tested whether PZA preferentially targets slow growing cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that could be representative of bacteria that remain after the initial kill with isoniazid (INH), by observing the response of either slow growing or fast growing bacilli to differing concentrations of PZA. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was grown in continuous culture at either a constant fast growth rate (Mean Generation Time (MGT) of 23.1 h) or slow growth rate (69.3 h MGT) at a controlled dissolved oxygen tension of 10 % and a controlled acidity at pH 6.3 ± 0.1. Cultures were exposed to step-wise increases in the concentration of PZA (25 to 500 μgml(-1)) every two MGTs, and bacterial survival was measured. PZA-induced global gene expression was explored for each increase in PZA-concentration, using DNA microarray. At a constant pH 6.3, actively dividing mycobacteria were susceptible to PZA, with similar responses to increasing concentrations of PZA at both growth rates. Three distinct phases of drug response could be distingished for both slow growing (69.3 h MGT) and fast growing (23.1 h MGT) bacilli. A bacteriostatic phase at a low concentration of PZA was followed by a recovery period in which the culture adapted to the presence of PZA and bacteria were actively dividing in steady-state. In contrast, there was a rapid loss of viability at bactericidal concentrations. There was a notable delay in the onset of the recovery period in quickly dividing cells compared with those dividing more slowly. Fast growers and slow growers adapted to PZA-exposure via very similar mechanisms; through reduced gene expression of tRNA, 50S, and 30S ribosomal proteins. PZA had an equivalent level of activity against fast growing and slow growing M. tuberculosis. At both growth rates drug-tolerance to sub
Barco, Raul; Savvidou, Olga D.; Sperling, John W.; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Cofield, Robert H.
The reported rate of complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) seems to be higher than the complication rate of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty. The reported overall complication rate of primary RSA is approximately 15%; when RSA is used in the revision setting, the complication rate may approach 40%. The most common complications of RSA include instability, infection, notching, loosening, nerve injury, acromial and scapular spine fractures, intra-operative fractures and component disengagement. Careful attention to implant design and surgical technique, including implantation of components in the correct version and height, selection of the best glenosphere-humeral bearing match, avoidance of impingement, and adequate management of the soft tissues will hopefully translate in a decreasing number of complications in the future. Cite this article: Barco R, Savvidou OD, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:72-80. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160003. PMID:28461931
Barco, Raul; Savvidou, Olga D; Sperling, John W; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Cofield, Robert H
The reported rate of complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) seems to be higher than the complication rate of anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty.The reported overall complication rate of primary RSA is approximately 15%; when RSA is used in the revision setting, the complication rate may approach 40%.The most common complications of RSA include instability, infection, notching, loosening, nerve injury, acromial and scapular spine fractures, intra-operative fractures and component disengagement.Careful attention to implant design and surgical technique, including implantation of components in the correct version and height, selection of the best glenosphere-humeral bearing match, avoidance of impingement, and adequate management of the soft tissues will hopefully translate in a decreasing number of complications in the future. Cite this article: Barco R, Savvidou OD, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Cofield RH. Complications in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:72-80. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160003.
Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases. PMID:25685281
Suchecki, Jeanine K; Donshik, Peter; Ehlers, William H
Complications associated with contact lenses range from mild to severe and occur with all lens modalities. Contact lens wear can cause a change in corneal physiology, which can lead to epithelial, stromal, and endothelial compromise. Other complications include lens deposition, allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, peripheral infiltrates, microbial keratitis, and neovascularization. Pre-existing conditions can contribute to these complications, or they can occur in association with contact lens wear and care regimens. Patient-related factors, such as alteration of the recommended wearing or replacement schedules and noncompliance with recommended contact lens care regimens for economic reasons, convenience, or in error, contribute to contact lens-related complications and have led to difficulty in accurate determination of complication rates among the various lens wear modalities. Complications may require discontinuation of contact lenses, topical therapy, and changes in contact lens wearing schedules, materials, and care solutions. On initial lens fitting and follow-up evaluations, practitioners should review contact lens replacement and cleaning regimens with patients and discuss complications. To avoid serious complications, patients should be reminded to remove their contact lenses as soon as ocular irritation occurs, and to call their eye care practitioner immediately if symptoms persist.
Yue, Y.; Ritts, B.D.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Zhang, Z.
Determination of long-term slip rate for the Altyn Tagh fault is essential for testing whether Asian tectonics is dominated by lateral extrusion or distributed crustal shortening. Previous slip-history studies focused on either Quaternary slip-rate measurements or pre-Early Miocene total-offset estimates and do not allow a clear distinction between rates based on the two. The magmatic and metamorphic history revealed by SHRIMP zircon dating of clasts from Miocene conglomerate in the Xorkol basin north of the Altyn Tagh fault strikingly matches that of basement in the southern Qilian Shan and northern Qaidam regions south of the fault. This match requires that the post-Early Miocene long-term slip rate along the Altyn Tagh fault cannot exceed 10 mm/year, supporting the hypothesis of distributed crustal thickening for post-Early Miocene times. This low long-term slip rate and recently documented large pre-Early Miocene cumulative offset across the fault support a two-stage evolution, wherein Asian tectonics was dominated by lateral extrusion before the end of Early Miocene, and since then has been dominated by distributed crustal thickening and rapid plateau uplift. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Somia, I. K. A.
The mortality rate of tetanus is still high; it is because of various complications due to muscle spasms, autonomic dysfunction, as well as due to prolonged critical care. Management of tetanus with its complications is in intensive care facilities. Management goals include stopping toxin production, neutralization of unbound toxin, management of the airway, muscle spasm control, treatment of autonomic dysfunction and general supportive management. Currently, diazepam is still an effective medication to control of muscle spasm and rigidity. Therapy for autonomic dysfunction that supported by evidence is MgSO4. Also, general supportive management for long-term care remains necessary to prevent other complications such as thromboembolism, infection, malnutrition, and others.
Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos
Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing acclimation temperatures. The endpoint for CTMax was ink release and for CTMin was tentacles curled, respectively. A thermal tolerance polygon over the range of 18-30°C resulted in a calculated area of 210.0°C(2). The oxygen consumption rate increased significantly α=0.05 with increasing acclimation temperatures between 18 and 30°C. Maximum and minimum temperature quotients (Q10) were observed between 26-30°C and 22-26°C as 3.03 and 1.71, respectively. These results suggest that O. maya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dawson, John; Kiner, Dirk; Gardner, Warren; Swafford, Rachel; Nowotarski, Peter J
.1 (11-250) weeks. Forty-nine of 57 patients (86.0%) who received ICBG united in an average of 22.5 ± 13.2 weeks; 46 of 56 patients (82.1%) who received RIA healed in an average of 25.8 ± 17.0 weeks. Union rates and time to union were comparable between the 2 procedures. There was no difference in complications requiring reoperation for persistent nonunion or infection at the grafted site, nor there was any difference in donor-site complications. Postoperative follow-up showed that RIA patients had significantly lower donor-site pain scores throughout follow-up. When compared with autograft obtained from the iliac crest, autograft harvested using the RIA technique achieves similar union rates with significantly less donor-site pain. RIA also yields a greater volume of graft compared with anterior ICBG and has a shorter harvest time compared with posterior ICBG. For larger volume harvests, cost analysis favors using RIA. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Schmitt, Steven; MacIntyre, Ann T; Bleasdale, Susan C; Ritter, J Trees; Nelson, Sandra B; Berbari, Elie F; Burdette, Steven D; Hewlett, Angela; Miles, Matthew; Robinson, Philip A; Siddiqui, Javeed; Trotman, Robin; Martinelli, Lawrence; Zeitlin, Gary; Rodriguez, Andrés; Smith, Mark W; McQuillen, Daniel P
Intervention by infectious diseases (ID) physicians improves outcomes for inpatients in Medicare, but patients with other insurance types could fare differently. We assessed whether ID involvement leads to better outcomes among privately insured patients under age 65 hospitalized with common infections. We performed a retrospective analysis of administrative claims data from community hospital and post-discharge ambulatory care. Patients were privately insured individuals under 65 years old with an acute-care stay in 2014 for selected infections, classed as having early (by day 3) or late (after day 3) ID intervention, or none. Key outcomes were mortality, cost, length of the index stay; readmission rate, mortality and total cost of care over the first 30 days after discharge. Patients managed with early ID involvement had shorter length of stay, lower spending, and lower mortality in the index stay than those patients managed without ID involvement. Relative to late, early ID involvement was associated with shorter length of stay and lower cost. Individuals with early ID intervention during hospitalization had fewer readmissions and lower healthcare payments after discharge. Relative to late, those with early ID intervention experienced lower readmission, lower spending, and lower mortality. Among privately insured patients under 65 years old, treated in a hospital, early intervention with an ID physician was associated with lower mortality rate and shorter length of stay. Patients who received early ID intervention during their hospital stay were less likely to be readmitted after discharge and had lower total healthcare spending.
Tolppanen, Heli; Rivas-Lasarte, Mercedes; Lassus, Johan; Sadoune, Malha; Gayat, Etienne; Pulkki, Kari; Arrigo, Mattia; Krastinova, Evguenia; Sionis, Alessandro; Parissis, John; Spinar, Jindrich; Januzzi, James; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Mebazaa, Alexandre
Mortality in cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndrome is high, and objective risk stratification is needed for rational use of advanced therapies such as mechanical circulatory support. Traditionally, clinical variables have been used to judge risk in cardiogenic shock. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of serial measurement of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide to clinical parameters for risk stratification in cardiogenic shock. CardShock (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01374867) is a prospective European multinational study of cardiogenic shock. The main study introduced CardShock risk score, which is calculated from seven clinical variables at baseline, and was associated with short-term mortality. Nine tertiary care university hospitals. Patients with cardiogenic shock caused by acute coronary syndrome (n=145). In this substudy, plasma samples from the study patients were analyzed at eight time points during the ICU or cardiac care unit stay. Additional prognostic value of the biomarkers was assessed with incremental discrimination improvement. The combination of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide showed excellent discrimination for 30-day mortality (area under the curve, 0.77 at 12 hr up to 0.93 at 5-10 d after cardiogenic shock onset). At 12 hours, patients with both biomarkers elevated (soluble ST2, ≥ 500 ng/mL and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ≥ 4,500 ng/L) had higher 30-day mortality (79%) compared to those with one or neither biomarkers elevated (31% or 10%, respectively; p < 0.001). Combined measurement of soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide at 12 hours added value to CardShock risk score, correctly reclassifying 11% of patients. The combination of results for soluble ST2 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide provides early risk assessment beyond clinical variables in patients with acute coronary syndrome
Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.
Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor
We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.
Nakano, Naoki; Khanduja, Vikas
Summary Background Recent developments in hip arthroscopic techniques and technology have made it possible in many cases to avoid open surgical dislocation for treating a variety of pathology in the hip. Although early reports suggest favourable results’ using hip arthroscopy and it has been shown to be a relatively safe procedure, complications do exist and can sometimes lead to significant morbidity. Methods This is a review article. The aim of this manuscript is to present the most frequent and/or serious complications that could occur at or following hip arthroscopy and some guidelines to avoid these complications. Conclusion Most complications of hip arthroscopy are minor or transient but serious complications can occur as well. A lot of complication e.g. acetabular labral puncture go unreported. Appropriate education and training, precise and meticulous surgical technique with correct instrumentation, the right indication in the right patient and adherence to advice from mentors and experienced colleagues are all essential factors for a successful outcome. Level of evidence: V. PMID:28066747
Safa-Tisseront, V; Ponchon, P; Laude, D; Elghozi, J L
To study the interaction between autonomic nervous activity and thyroid hormones in the control of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Thyrotoxicosis was produced by injections of L-thyroxine (0.5 mg/kg/day for five days). Blockers were atropine (0.5 mg/kg), atenolol (1 mg/kg) or prazosin (1 mg/kg). Eight animals were studied in each group. Spectral analyses was performed using continuous BP time series obtained in conscious rats. Thyroxine treatment was sufficient to induce a significant degree of tachycardia (423+/-6 vs 353+/-4 bpm, P < 0.001, unpaired Student's t test), systolic BP elevation (142+/-3 vs 127+/-2 mmHg, P < 0.001) and cardiac hypertrophy (1.165+/-0.017 vs 1.006+/-0.012 g, P < 0.001). The intrinsic HR was markedly increased after treatment with thyroxine (497+/-16 vs 373+/-10 bpm, P < 0.05). Vagal tone was positively linearly related to intrinsic HR (r = 0.84, P< 0.01). Atenolol neither modified HR nor BP variability in rats with hyperthyroidism. The thyrotoxicosis was associated with a reduction of the 0.4 Hz component of BP variability (modulus 1.10+/-0.07 vs 1.41+/-0.06 mmHg, P < 0.01). Prazosin was without effect on this 0.4 Hz component in hyperthyroid animals. These data show a functional diminution of the vascular and cardiac sympathetic tone in early experimental hyperthyroidism. The marked rise in the intrinsic HR could be the main determinant of tachycardia. The BP elevation may reflexly induce vagal activation and sympathetic (vascular and cardiac) inhibition.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.
Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger
High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis ( p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT ( p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year ( p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.
Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin.
Maraví-Poma, Enrique; Gener, Joan; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Olaechea, Pedro; Blanco, Armando; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique
We compared two imipenem regimens for prevention of septic complications in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). Prospective, randomized open clinical trial involving intensive care units of 14 Spanish Hospitals. 92 patients with ANP. Imipenem/cilastatin was administered at 500 mg four times daily starting at the time of diagnosis of ANP, within the first 96 h from the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive antibiotic prophylaxis either for 14 days (group 1) or at least for 14 days and as long as major systemic complications of the disease persisted (group 2). Antibiotic was maintained in group 2 for 19.7+/-10.9 days. The incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic abscess, and extrapancreatic infections was 11%, 17%, and 28% in group 1 and 17.4%, 13%, and 35% in group 2 (n.s.). Pancreatic or extrapancreatic infection by Candida albicans occurred in 7% and 22% of patients. Global mortality was 18.5% (10.9% secondary to septic complications), without differences between groups. In patients with persisting systemic complications at day 14 mortality was almost always secondary to septic complications and decreased from 25% (group 1) to 8.8% (group 2) by maintaining antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared to a 14-day imipenem prophylaxis, a longer antibiotic administration in patients with ANP is not associated with a reduction in the incidence of septic complications of the disease. However, prolonged imipenem administration in patients with persisting systemic complications tends to reduce mortality in ANP compared to a 14-days regimen.
Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793
Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa
The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.
Barbu, Otilia C.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Marx, Ronald W.; Yaden, David B., Jr.
This study examined reliability and validity of the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA), based on samples of parents and teachers' ratings of 1,145 entering kindergartners in the Southwest. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that DECA presented good reliability and validity for manifest variables, corroborating previous findings. Three…
Although early postnatal nutrition can have long-term effects on developmental processes, the influence of infant diet on the maturation of cardiac development has not been documented. To study this relationship we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) in awake, healthy infants and toddlers exclusively b...
Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher
This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Parai, R.; Tucker, J.; Middleton, J. L.; Langmuir, C. H.
Noble gases, particularly xenon (Xe), in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. The combination of extinct and extant radioactive species in the I-Pu-U-Xe systems shed light on the degassing history of the early Earth throughout accretion, as well as the long-term degassing of the Earth's interior in association with plate tectonics. The ubiquitous presence of shallow-level air contamination, however, frequently obscures the mantle Xe signal. In a majority of the samples, shallow air contamination dominates the Xe budget. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Thus, the extent of variability in mantle source Xe composition is not well-constrained. Here, we present new MORB Xe data and explore constraints placed on mantle processing rates by the Xe data. Ten step-crushes were obtained on a depleted popping glass that was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval from between the Kane-Atlantis Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. 9 steps yielded 129Xe/130Xe of 7.50-7.67 and one yielded 7.3. The bulk 129Xe/130Xe of the sample is 7.6, nearly identical to the estimated mantle source value of 7.7 for the sample. Hence, the sample is virtually free of shallow-level air contamination. Because sealing the sample in N2upon dredge retrieval largely eliminated air contamination, for many samples, contamination must be added after sample retrieval from the ocean bottom. Our new high-precision Xe isotopic measurements in upper mantle-derived samples provide improved constraints on the Xe isotopic composition of the mantle source. We developed a forward model of mantle volatile evolution to identify solutions that satisfy our Xe isotopic data. We find that accretion timescales of ~10±5 Myr are consistent with I-Pu-Xe constraints, and the last
Zimmerman, Richard K.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Hannibal, Kristin; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Matambanadzo, Annamore; Troy, Judith; Allred, Norma J.; Gallik, Greg; Reis, Evelyn C.
Purpose To increase childhood influenza vaccination rates using a toolkit and early vaccine delivery in a randomized cluster trial. Methods Twenty primary care practices treating children (range for n=536-8,183) were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms to test the effectiveness of an evidence-based practice improvement toolkit (4 Pillars Toolkit) and early vaccine supplies for use among disadvantaged children on influenza vaccination rates among children 6 months-18 years. Follow-up staff meetings and surveys were used to assess use and acceptability of the intervention strategies in the Intervention arm. Rates for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons were compared. Two-level generalized linear mixed modeling was used to evaluate outcomes. Results Overall increases in influenza vaccination rates were significantly greater in the Intervention arm (7.9 percentage points) compared with the Control arm (4.4 percentage points; P<0.034). These rate changes represent 4522 additional doses in the Intervention arm vs. 1,390 additional doses in the Control arm. This effect of the intervention was observed despite the fact that rates increased significantly in both arms - 8/10 Intervention (P<0.001) and 7/10 Control sites (P-values 0.04 to <0.001). Rates in two Intervention sites with pre-intervention vaccination rates >58% did not significantly increase. In regression analyses, a child's likelihood of being vaccinated was significantly higher with: younger age, white race (Odds ratio [OR]=1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.34), having commercial insurance (OR=1.30; 95%CI=1.25-1.35), higher pre-intervention practice vaccination rate (OR=1.25; 95%CI=1.16-1.34), and being in the Intervention arm (OR=1.23; 95%CI=1.01-1.50). Early delivery of influenza vaccine was rated by Intervention practices as an effective strategy for raising rates. Conclusions Implementation of a multi-strategy toolkit and early vaccine supplies can significantly improve
Nguyen, Nga; Vandenbroucke, Laurent; Hernández, Alfredo; Pham, Tu; Beuchée, Alain; Pladys, Patrick
This study examined the heart rate variability characteristics associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis in a prospective, observational controlled study. Eligible patients were full-term neonates hospitalised with clinical signs that suggested early-onset sepsis and a C-reactive protein of >10 mg/L. Sepsis was considered proven in cases of symptomatic septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia or enterocolitis. Heart rate variability parameters (n = 16) were assessed from five-, 15- and 30-minute stationary sequences automatically selected from electrocardiographic recordings performed at admission and compared with a control group using the U-test with post hoc Benjamini-Yekutieli correction. Stationary sequences corresponded to the periods with the lowest changes of heart rate variability over time. A total of 40 full-term infants were enrolled, including 14 with proven sepsis. The mean duration of the cardiac cycle length was lower in the proven sepsis group than in the control group (n = 11), without other significant changes in heart rate variability parameters. These durations, measured in five-minute stationary periods, were 406 (367-433) ms in proven sepsis group versus 507 (463-522) ms in the control group (p < 0.05). Early-onset neonatal sepsis was associated with a high mean heart rate measured during automatically selected stationary periods. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Estrade, J-P; Agostini, A; Roger, V; Dallay, D; Blanc, B; Cravello, L
To evaluate complications of sacrospinous ligament fixation. Monocentric retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, La Conception University Hospital, Marcella. Between January 1991 and September 2002, 277 women (mean age 64.9 years, range 37 to 92 years) underwent a sacrospinous ligament fixation; 91% had a menopausal status, and 15.5% used hormone replacement therapy. 33.2% of the patients had prior hysterectomy, 28.9% had a history of surgery for prolapse, and 18.8% had associated symptoms of stress urinary incontinence. In all cases, sacrospinous ligament fixation was performed under visual control using conventional stitch. Sacrospinous ligament fixation was combined with the following procedures: anterior vaginal repair (N =137), additional incontinence surgery (N =31), vaginal hysterectomy (N =137), levator myorraphy (N =203). Intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, long-term painful symptoms. Intraoperative complications were represented by 1 case of vascular wound and four rectal injuries. Main postoperative complications were vaginal haematomas (N =6) and abscesses (N =2). Long-term symptoms were perineal pain, sciatic neuralgia, and dyspareunia. There was no surgical mortality, and we noted low rates of major complications. Sacrospinous ligament fixation assumes high priority in our therapeutic regimen.
Wang, M; Sun, X Z; Tang, S X; Tan, Z L; Pacheco, D
Water-soluble components of feedstuffs are mainly utilized during the early phase of microbial fermentation, which could be deemed an important determinant of gas production behavior in vitro. Many studies proposed that the fractional rate of degradation (FRD) estimated by fitting gas production curves to mathematical models might be used to characterize the early incubation for in vitro systems. In this study, the mathematical concept of FRD was developed on the basis of the Logistic-Exponential (LE) model, with initial gas volume being zero (LE0). The FRD of the LE0 model exhibits a continuous increase from initial (FRD 0) toward final asymptotic value (FRD F) with longer incubation time. The relationships between the FRD and gas production at incubation times 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h were compared for four models, in addition to LE0, Generalization of the Mitscherlich (GM), c th order Michaelis-Menten (MM) and Exponential with a discrete LAG (EXPLAG). A total of 94 in vitro gas curves from four subsets with a wide range of feedstuffs from different laboratories and incubation periods were used for model testing. Results indicated that compared with the GM, MM and EXPLAG models, the FRD of LE0 model consistently had stronger correlations with gas production across the four subsets, especially at incubation times 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h. Thus, the LE0 model was deemed to provide a better representation of the early fermentation rates. Furthermore, the FRD 0 also exhibited strong correlations (P < 0.05) with gas production at early incubation times 2, 4, 6 and 8 h across all four subsets. In summary, the FRD of LE0 model provides an alternative to quantify the rate of early stage incubation, and its initial value could be an important starting parameter of rate.
Horvat, Natally; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Horvat, Joao Vicente; Yamanari, Tássia Regina; Batista Araújo-Filho, Jose de Arimateia; Panizza, Pedro; Seda-Neto, Joao; Antunes da Fonseca, Eduardo; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Mendes de Oliveira Cerri, Luciana; Chapchap, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido
Liver transplant is considered to be the last-resort treatment approach for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite the remarkable advance in survival rates, liver transplant remains an intricate surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of complications is crucial for patient survival but is challenging given the lack of specificity in clinical presentation. Knowledge of the liver and vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient or recipients before surgery is also important to avoid complications