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Sample records for early copper-induced leakage

  1. Copper induces expression and methylation changes of early development genes in Crassostrea gigas embryos.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Lebreton, Morgane; Rouxel, Julien; Akcha, Farida; Rivière, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development. For that purpose, oyster embryos were exposed to 4 nominal copper concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 20 μg L -1 Cu 2+ ) during early development assays. Embryotoxicity was monitored through the oyster embryo-larval bioassay at the D-larva stage 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and genotoxicity at gastrulation 7 hpf. In parallel, the relative expression of 15 genes encoding putative homeotic, biomineralization and DNA methylation proteins was measured at three developmental stages (3 hpf morula stage, 7 hpf gastrula stage, 24 hpf D-larvae stage) using RT-qPCR. Global DNA content in methylcytosine and hydroxymethylcytosine were measured by HPLC and gene-specific DNA methylation levels were monitored using MeDIP-qPCR. A significant increase in larval abnormalities was observed from copper concentrations of 10 μg L -1 , while significant genotoxic effects were detected at 1 μg L -1 and above. All the selected genes presented a stage-dependent expression pattern, which was impaired for some homeobox and DNA methylation genes (Notochord, HOXA1, HOX2, Lox5, DNMT3b and CXXC-1) after copper exposure. While global DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) at gastrula stage didn't show significant changes between experimental conditions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, its degradation product, decreased upon copper treatment. The DNA methylation of exons and the transcript levels were correlated in control samples for HOXA1 but such

  2. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  3. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum.

    PubMed

    van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs

    2012-12-27

    There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair.

  4. Early Leakage Protection System of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Based on ATMega 16 Microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwati; Ikhsan Ilahi, Nur; Musrawati; Baco, Syarifuddin; Suyuti'Andani Achmad, Ansar; Umrianah, Ejah

    2018-04-01

    LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). LPG is a hydrocarbon gas production from refineries and gas refinery with the major components of propane gas (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Limit flame (Flammable Range) or also called gas with air. Value Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) is the minimum limit of the concentration of fuel vapor in the air which if there is no source of fire, the gas will be burned. While the value of the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL), which limits the maximum concentration of fuel vapor in the air, which if no source of fire, the gas will be burned. Protection system is a defend mechanism of human, equipment, and buildings around the protected area. Goals to be achieved in this research are to design a protection system against the consequences caused by the leakage of LPG gas based on ATmega16 microcontroller. The method used in this research is to reduce the levels of leaked LPG and turned off the power source when the leakage of LPG is on the verge of explosive limit. The design of this protection system works accurately between 200 ppm up to 10000 ppm, which is still below the threshold of explosive. Thus protecting the early result of that will result in the leakage of LPG gas.

  5. Carprofen for perioperative analgesia causes early anastomotic leakage in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that perioperative use of NSAIDs may compromise the integrity of intestinal anastomoses. This study aims to characterize the negative effects of carprofen on early anastomotic healing in the rat ileum. Results In 159 male Wistar rats an anastomosis was constructed in the ileum. In experiment 1 eighty-four rats were divided over control and experimental groups, which received daily buprenorphine or carprofen, respectively, as an analgesic and were killed on day 1, 2 or 3 after surgery. In experiment 2 three groups of 15 rats received carprofen either immediately after surgery or with a delay of 1 or 2 days. Animals were killed after 3 days of carprofen administration. In experiment 3 three groups of 10 rats received different doses (full, half or quarter) of carprofen from surgery. In significant contrast to buprenorphine, which never did so, carprofen induced frequent signs of anastomotic leakage, which were already present at day 1. If first administration was delayed for 48 hours, the leakage rate was significantly reduced (from 80 to 20%; p = 0.0028). Throughout the study, the anastomotic bursting pressure was lowest in animals who displayed signs of anastomotic leakage. Loss of anastomotic integrity did not coincide with reduced levels of hydroxyproline or increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Conclusions Carprofen interferes with wound healing in the rat ileum at a very early stage. Although the mechanisms responsible remain to be fully elucidated, one should be aware of the potential of NSAIDs to interfere with the early phase of wound repair. PMID:23270317

  6. Neopterin, kynurenine and tryptophan as new biomarkers for early detection of rectal anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Tomas; Orhalmi, Julius; Sotona, Otakar; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Javorska, Lenka; Dolejs, Josef; Paral, Jiri

    2018-03-01

    At present, there are no strong predictors, nor a useful scoring system, that clearly identifies patients at risk for anastomotic leakage. This study aimed to investigate a new method that assesses this risk by monitoring levels of neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine, in bodily fluids. This prospective study included patients who underwent elective rectal resection for carcinoma. The basic condition for inclusion was rectal anastomosis using the double-stapling technique. Preoperative levels of neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, and their ratios, were assessed with blood and urine samples. These levels were then monitored for 6 postoperative days in venous blood, urine, and abdominal drainage fluid. A total of 42 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six patients underwent a laparoscopic resection and 6 patients had an open procedure. No differences were found among neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine serum levels. However, the groups were observed to have significant differences in the urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio: the preoperative neopterin/creatinine ratio was 139.5 μmol/mol in the group with leakage, vs 114.8 μmol/mol in the group without complications, p = 0.037. The same results were observed during the postoperative period, p = 0.012. Additionally, the group with complications had a higher mean value of neopterin in drainage fluid, p = 0.048. Our study demonstrated that high preoperative levels of urinary neopterin could be interpreted as a risk for anastomotic leakage. Moreover, pathological levels of neopterin in urine and abdominal drainage fluid could be useful for early identification of anastomotic leakage during the postoperative period prior to its clinical development.

  7. Using provenance of terrigenous sediment to reconstruct the Agulhas Leakage during the Early and Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, B.; Franzese, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Agulhas Current, the strongest western boundary current in the southern hemisphere, is uniquely characterized by its strong retroflection. The current carries water southward from the Indian Ocean toward the cape of South Africa, before turning back on itself. At this point of retroflection, some of the current's flow escapes into the southern Atlantic Ocean. This transfer of water from the Indian Ocean to Atlantic Ocean makes up the Agulhas Leakage. The Leakage occurs in a series of eddies and rings located in the Cape Basin south of the African continent. Scientific literature demonstrates that relatively buoyant leakage water has been a determining factor varying strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Current (AMOC), during glacial-interglacial cycles. It has been demonstrated that radiogenic isotope, major, and trace element concentrations serve as a proxy for terrigenous sediment provenance in the Agulhas region. Current understanding is that terrigenous sediment provenance is older during warmer periods of deposition. This corresponds to more input from southeastern African end members, and thus a stronger Agulhas Current, during warming periods in the paleoclimate record. Conversely, younger terrigenous sediment deposited during colder periods, such as the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests a weaker Agulhas Current, and less Agulhas Leakage. In 2016, on the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361, sediment cores were drilled at 6 sites in the Greater Agulhas region. A major goal of the expedition was to expand knowledge of the relation between changes in the Agulhas System and changes in paleoclimate, southern African climate, and AMOC. We analyzed sediment from Expedition 361 Site U1479 (35°03.53'S; 17°24.06'E; 2615 mbsl) located where the Agulhas Leakage occurs. We measured Argon, strontium isotope ratios, ɛNd, trace and major element concentrations on the <2 micron clay fraction. Preliminary results foretell promising findings. For

  8. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, P.; Bolton, P.; Hirata, A.; Thurston, G.; McDonald, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626051

  9. Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Ling, Wencui; Liu, Suoxiang; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities. An integrated system for the detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing. A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks. Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data), and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals). The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used. Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed. These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system. In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e., 14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas, which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water. These results indicate the feasibility, efficiency and wider applicability of this system.

  10. C-reactive Protein is a Useful Marker for Early Prediction of Anastomotic Leakage after Esophageal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Eijiro; Matsuda, Yasunori; Gyobu, Ken; Lee, Shigeru; Kishida, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yushi; Hashiba, Ryoya; Osugi, Harushi; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2015-06-01

    Esophageal anastomotic leakage is one of the most fatal complications after esophagectomy and increases the hospitalization length. We aimed to identify a convenient clinical marker of anastomotic leakage in the early postoperative period. In total, 108 patients who underwent esophagectomy were retrospectively screened, and 96 were used to validate the overall results. All 108 patients underwent physical examinations and determination of their white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, platelet count, fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation product level, and antithrombin III level until postoperative day 6. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 21 of the 108 patients (median detection, 8 days). The C-reactive protein level on postoperative day 3 and fibrinogen level on postoperative day 4 in the leakage group were significantly higher than those in the nonleakage group. Receiver operating characteristic curves for detection of anastomotic leakage were constructed; the cutoff value of C-reactive protein on postoperative day 3 was 8.62 mg/dL, and that of fibrinogen on postoperative day 4 was 712 mg/dL. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 23 of the 96 patients in the validation group. There was a significant difference between the leakage and nonleakage groups when the C-reactive protein threshold on postoperative day 3 was set at 8.62 mg/dL. However, there was no difference between the groups when the fibrinogen threshold on postoperative day 4 was set at 712 mg/dL. The C-reactive protein level on postoperative day 3 is a valuable predictor of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and might allow for earlier management of this complication.

  11. Very Early Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage within 5 Post-operative Days: a More Severe Subtype Needs Relaparatomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Wei; Lian, Peng; Huang, Ben; Zheng, Hong-Tu; Wang, Ming-He; Gu, Wei-Lie; Li, Xin-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, San-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Early anastomotic leakage (AL), usually defined as leakage within 30 post-operative days, represents a severe entity. However, mounting evidence has indicated that majorities of leakage occur within one week after surgery, making late AL rarity. Here we analyzed 101 consecutive colorectal AL, all of which occurred within 30 post-operative days, during Jan 2013 and Dec 2015 in cancer hospital of Fudan University. AL occurring within 5 post-operative days was defined as very early AL (vE-AL). We evaluated risk factors of vE-AL compared with non-vEAL and correlated with post-leakage peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. We found that AL occurred at median time of 7 days after surgery. 23 cases were vE-AL. Reconstruction of post-peritoneum for mid-low rectal carcinoma significantly reduced incidence of vE-AL compared with non-vE-AL (p = 0.042). Patients with vE-AL was associated with presence of peritonitis (p = 0.031), the latter significantly correlated with increased re-operation rate (p = 6.8E-13). Besides, patients with vE-AL trended to correlate with increased re-operation rate after leakage (p = 0.088). In concludsion, vE-AL occurring within 5 post-operative days represents a severe subtype associated with general peritonitis and need of relaparatomy. PMID:28084305

  12. Amylase, lipase, and volume of drainage fluid in gastrectomy for the early detection of complications caused by pancreatic leakage.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Shin, Yeon Myung; Choi, Kyung Hyun; Hwang, Hyun Yong

    2011-12-01

    Pancreatic leakage is a serious complication of gastrectomy due to stomach cancer. Therefore, we analyzed amylase and lipase concentrations in blood and drainage fluid, and evaluated the volume of drainage fluid to discern their usefulness as markers for the early detection of serious pancreatic leakage requiring reoperation after gastrectomy. From January 2001 to December 2007, we retrospectively analyzed data from 24,072 patient samples. We divided patients into two groups; 1) complications with pancreatic leakage (CG), and 2) no complications associated with pancreatic leakage (NCG). Values of amylase and lipase in the blood and drainage fluid, volume of the drainage fluid, and relationships among the volumes, amylase values, and lipase values in the drainage fluid were evaluated, respectively in the two groups. The mean amylase values of CG were significantly higher than those of NCG in blood and drainage fluid (P < 0.05). For lipase, statistically significant differences were observed in drainage fluid (P < 0.05). The mean volume (standard deviation) of the drained fluid through the tube between CG (n = 22) and NCG (n = 236) on postoperative day 1 were 368.41 (266.25) and 299.26 (300.28), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.298). There was a correlation between the amylase and lipase values in the drainage fluid (r = 0.812, P = 0.000). Among postoperative amylase and lipase values in blood and drainage fluid, and the volume of drainage fluid, the amylase in drainage fluid was better differentiated between CG and NCG than other markers. The volume of the drainage fluid did not differ significantly between groups.

  13. The predictive value of plasma cytokines on gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage at an early stage in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie-Qiong; He, Yi-Zhou; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Zhong, Ming

    2017-08-01

    It's difficult to diagnose gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage (GAL) at early postoperative stage. This study was conducted to evaluate the early predictive value of plasma cytokines levels on GAL in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Consecutive esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy and admitted to Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) just after surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The baseline and postoperative 1 day plasma cytokine levels were collected and analyzed to evaluate the predictive value for clinically important anastomotic leakage. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis was also performed. A total of 183 patients were included. Sixteen patients (8.74%) experienced GAL (GAL group) and the others did not (non-GAL group). The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in plasma on the first postoperative day significantly increased in the GAL group than in the non-GAL group (P<0.05). IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were fair predictors of GAL (AUROC >0.7) and the other two cytokines were poorly predictive (AUROC <0.7). The mean length of ICU and hospital stay were significantly longer in the GAL group than in the non-GAL group (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 on the first postoperative day can predict clinically important GAL in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

  14. Blood–Brain Barrier Leakage during Early Epileptogenesis Is Associated with Rapid Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Heike; Leiter, Ina; Märkel, Martin; Bascuñana, Pablo; Michalski, Dominik; Bengel, Frank M.; Löscher, Wolfgang; Meier, Martin; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Härtig, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) following cerebral injury results in regional extravasation of plasma proteins and can critically contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Here, we comprehensively explore the spatiotemporal evolution of a main extravasation component, albumin, and illuminate associated responses of the neurovascular unit (NVU) contributing to early epileptogenic neuropathology. We applied translational in vivo MR imaging and complementary immunohistochemical analyses in the widely used rat pilocarpine post–status epilepticus (SE) model. The observed rapid BBB leakage affected major epileptogenesis-associated brain regions, peaked between 1 and 2 d post-SE, and rapidly declined thereafter, accompanied by cerebral edema generally following the same time course. At peak of BBB leakage, serum albumin colocalized with NVU constituents, such as vascular components, neurons, and brain immune cells. Surprisingly, astroglial markers did not colocalize with albumin, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) was clearly reduced in areas of leaky BBB, indicating a severe disturbance of astrocyte-mediated endothelial-neuronal coupling. In addition, a distinct adaptive reorganization process of the NVU vasculature apparently takes place at sites of albumin presence, substantiated by reduced immunoreactivity of endothelial and changes in vascular basement membrane markers. Taken together, degenerative events at the level of the NVU, affecting vessels, astrocytes, and neurons, seem to outweigh reconstructive processes. Considering the rapidly occurring BBB leakage and subsequent impairment of the NVU, our data support the necessity of a prompt BBB-restoring treatment as one component of rational therapeutic intervention to prevent epileptogenesis and the development of other detrimental sequelae of SE. PMID:29854942

  15. Support Vector Feature Selection for Early Detection of Anastomosis Leakage From Bag-of-Words in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Soguero-Ruiz, Cristina; Hindberg, Kristian; Rojo-Alvarez, Jose Luis; Skrovseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred; Mortensen, Kim; Revhaug, Arthur; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Augestad, Knut Magne; Jenssen, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The free text in electronic health records (EHRs) conveys a huge amount of clinical information about health state and patient history. Despite a rapidly growing literature on the use of machine learning techniques for extracting this information, little effort has been invested toward feature selection and the features' corresponding medical interpretation. In this study, we focus on the task of early detection of anastomosis leakage (AL), a severe complication after elective surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery, using free text extracted from EHRs. We use a bag-of-words model to investigate the potential for feature selection strategies. The purpose is earlier detection of AL and prediction of AL with data generated in the EHR before the actual complication occur. Due to the high dimensionality of the data, we derive feature selection strategies using the robust support vector machine linear maximum margin classifier, by investigating: 1) a simple statistical criterion (leave-one-out-based test); 2) an intensive-computation statistical criterion (Bootstrap resampling); and 3) an advanced statistical criterion (kernel entropy). Results reveal a discriminatory power for early detection of complications after CRC (sensitivity 100%; specificity 72%). These results can be used to develop prediction models, based on EHR data, that can support surgeons and patients in the preoperative decision making phase.

  16. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  17. Design Support of an Above Cap-rock Early Detection Monitoring System using Simulated Leakage Scenarios at the FutureGen2.0 Site

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Mark D.; USA, Richland Washington; Vermuel, Vince R.; ...

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO 2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to evaluate CO 2 mass balance and detect any unforeseen loss in CO 2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. This preliminary modeling study described here focuses on hypotheticalmore » leakage scenarios into the first permeable unit above the primary confining zone (Ironton Sandstone) and is used to support assessment of early-leak detection capabilities. Future updates of the model will be used to assess potential impacts on the lowermost underground source of drinking water (Saint Peter Sandstone) for a range of theoretical leakage scenarios. This preliminary modeling evaluation considers both pressure response and geochemical signals in the overlying Ironton Sandstone. This model is independent of the FutureGen 2.0 reservoir model in that it does not simulate caprock discontinuities, faults, or failure scenarios. Instead this modeling effort is based on theoretical, volumetric-rate based leakage scenarios. The scenarios include leakage of 1% of the total injected CO 2 mass, but spread out over different time periods (20, 100, and 500 years) with each case yielding a different mass flux (i.e., smaller mass fluxes for longer duration leakage cases]. A brine leakage scenario using a volumetric leakage similar to the 20 year 1% CO 2 case was also considered. A framework for the comparison of the various cases was developed based on the exceedance of selected pressure and geochemical thresholds at different distances from the point of leakage and

  18. Hydrochemical variations in selected geothermal groundwater and carbonated springs in Korea: a baseline study for early detection of CO2 leakage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hanna; Piao, Jize; Woo, Nam C; Cho, Heuynam

    2017-02-01

    A baseline hydrochemistry of the above zone aquifer was examined for the potential of CO 2 early detection monitoring. Among the major ionic components and stable isotope ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, components with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <10 % for the seasonal variation were selected as relatively stable. These components were tested for sensitivity to the introduction of 0.1 mol/L CO 2 (g) using the PHREEQC simulation results. If the relatively stable components were sensitive to the introduction of CO 2 , then they could be used as indicators of CO 2 leakage into the above zone. As an analog to the zone above CO 2 storage formation, we sampled deep groundwater, including geothermal groundwater from well depths of 400-700 m below the ground surface (bgs) and carbonated springs with a high CO 2 content in Korea. Under the natural conditions of inland geothermal groundwater, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and δ 13 C were relatively stable as well as sensitive to the introduction of CO 2 (g), thus showing good potential as monitoring parameters for early detection of CO 2 leakage. In carbonated springs, the parameters identified were pH, δ 18 O, and δ 2 H. Baseline hydrochemistry monitoring could provide information on parameters useful for detecting anomalies caused by CO 2 leakage as measures for early warning.

  19. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal surgery: pilot study in 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Lagoutte, N; Facy, O; Ravoire, A; Chalumeau, C; Jonval, L; Rat, P; Ortega-Deballon, P

    2012-10-01

    Anastomotic leakage is the most important complication after colorectal surgery. Its prognosis depends on its early diagnosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) has already shown its usefulness for the early detection of anastomotic leaks. Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely used in intensive care units and is more expensive, but its usefulness in the postoperative period of digestive surgery is not well established. Between May 2010 and June 2011, 100 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were prospectively included in a database. CRP and PCT were measured before surgery and daily until postoperative day 4. All intraabdominal infections were considered as anastomotic leaks, regardless of their clinical impact and their management. The kinetics of PCT and CRP were recorded, as well as their accuracy for the detection of anastomotic fistula. The incidence of fistula was 13% and the overall mortality rate was 2%. Both CRP and PCT were significantly higher in patients with leakage. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) for CRP were higher than those for PCT each day. The best accuracy was obtained for CRP on postoperative day 4 (areas under the ROC curve were 0.869 for CRP and 0.750 for PCT). Procalcitonin is neither earlier nor more accurate than CRP for the detection of anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of Geochemical Parameters for the Early Detection of CO2 Leakage from Sequestration Sites into Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Beers, S.; Thordsen, J.; Thomas, B.; Campbell, P.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Abedini, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    following CO2 injection. Geochemical modeling, sequential extractions of cations from the ZERT-aquifer sediments, and controlled laboratory CO2-groundwater-sediment interactions demonstrated that calcite dissolution and ion exchange on organic material and inorganic mineral surfaces are responsible for the observed chemical changes. Results from both the deep and shallow field tests show that geochemical methods have highly sensitive chemical and isotopic tracers that are needed at CO2 injection sites to monitor injection performance and for early detection of any CO2 and brine leakages.

  1. [Diagnostic value of dynamic monitoring of C-reactive protein in drain drainage to predict early anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia; Zheng, Lei; Li, Runtian; Hao, Chunmin; Gao, Wenbin; Feng, Ziwei; Yin, Guangya; Wang, Yue

    2017-09-25

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of dynamic monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP) in drainage fluid in predicting early anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This study enrolled 172 patients, who were diagnosed as colorectal cancer before operation and underwent radical surgery, without residual tumor tissues by postoperative pathology and perioperative infection, at the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital between July 2015 and January 2016. The C-reactive(CRP) protein level in drainage fluid was continuously monitored from postoperative days (POD) 1 to 5. CRP level was compared between anastomotic leakage (AL) group and non-anastomotic leakage (NAL) group. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to estimate the value of monitoring CRP in drainage fluid to predict anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. Among 172 patients, 101 cases were male and 71 cases were female, with age of (59.9±10.3) years. Anastomotic leakage occurred after colorectal surgery in 24 cases(14.0%, AL group ) and other 148 cases were defined as NAL group. Other than body mass index (BMI), differences in baseline data were not statistically significant between two groups. The CRP lever in AL group and NAL group showed rising trend from POD1 to POD4 [Day 1: (6.7±8.4) g/L vs. (8.0±10.6) g/L; Day 2: (24.8±14.6) g/L vs. (28.3±21.1) g/L, Day 3: (54.8±26.5) g/L vs. (53.8±27.6)g/L, Day 4: (62.0±32.2) g/L vs. (58.4±30.7) g/L], while the differences were not significant (all P>0.05). At POD 5, the CRP lever of AL group increased continuously, while that of NAL group decreased with significant difference [(65.3±38.9) g/L vs. (44.7±39.5) g/L, t=-2.85, P=0.005]. Further stratification analysis on AL group revealed CRP level in early AL (AL occurrence POD 10) showed rising trend from POD 1 to 4, then decreased slightly at POD 5, but whose differences were not significant

  2. Α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Protects Early Diabetic Retina from Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown and Vascular Leakage via MC4R.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siwei; Yang, Qianhui; Hou, Mengzhu; Han, Qian; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiantao; Qi, Chen; Bo, Qiyu; Ru, Yusha; Yang, Wei; Gu, Zhongxiu; Wei, Ruihua; Cao, Yunshan; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A). Sprague Dawley rats were injected through tail vein with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were intravitreally injected with α-MSH or saline at Week 1 and 3 after hyperglycemia. In another 2 weeks, Evans blue assay, transmission electron microscopy, electroretinogram (ERG), and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to examine the protective effects of α-MSH in diabetic retinas. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors and tight junction at mRNA and protein levels in retinas was analyzed. Finally, the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability was confirmed in a high glucose (HG)-treated RF6A cell monolayer transwell culture by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-Dextran assay. Universal or specific melanocortin receptor (MCR) blockers were also employed to elucidate the MCR subtype mediating α-MSH's protection. Evans blue assay showed that BRB breakdown and vascular leakage was detected, and rescued by α-MSH both qualitatively and quantitatively in early diabetic retinas; electron microscopy revealed substantially improved retinal and choroidal vessel ultrastructures in α-MSH-treated diabetic retinas; scotopic ERG suggested

  3. Is early detection of anastomotic leakage possible by intraperitoneal microdialysis and intraperitoneal cytokines after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer?

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter; Strand, Ida; Jansson, Kjell; Törnquist, Cathrine; Andersson, Magnus; Rutegård, Jörgen; Norgren, Lars

    2007-11-01

    This prospective study assessed methods of detecting intraperitoneal ischemia and inflammatory response in patients with and without postoperative complications after anterior resection of the rectum. In 23 patients operated on with anterior resection of the rectum for rectal carcinoma, intraperitoneal lactate, pyruvate, and glucose levels were monitored postoperatively for six days by using microdialysis with catheters applied in two locations: intraperitoneally near the anastomosis, and in the central abdominal cavity. A reference catheter was placed subcutaneously in the pectoral region. Cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, were measured in intraperitoneal fluid by means of a pelvic drain for two postoperative days. The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio near the anastomosis was higher on postoperative Day 5 (P = 0.029) and Day 6 (P = 0.009) in patients with clinical anastomotic leakage (n = 7) compared with patients without leakage (n = 16). The intraperitoneal levels of IL-6 (P = 0.002; P = 0.012, respectively) and IL-10 (P = 0.002; P = 0.041, respectively) were higher on postoperative Days 1 and 2 in the leakage group, and TNF-alpha was higher in the leakage group on Day 1 (P = 0.011). In-hospital clinical anastomotic leakage was diagnosed on median Day 6, and leakage after hospital discharge on median Day 20. The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, were increased in patients who developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage before clinical symptoms were evident.

  4. Characterization of the yeast copper-inducible promoter system in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Inducible promoters or gene-switches are used to both spatially and temporally regulate gene expression. Such regulation can provide information concerning the function of a gene in a developmental context as well as avoid potential harmful effects due to overexpression. A gfp construct under the control of a copper-inducible promoter was introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and the regulatory parameters of this inducible promoter were determined. Here, we describe the time-course of up- and down-regulation of GFP expression in response to copper level, the optimal regulatory levels of copper, and the tissue specificity of expression in three transgenic lines. We conclude that the copper-inducible promoter system may be useful in regulating the time and location of gene expression in A. thaliana.

  5. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    SciT

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ERmore » stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.« less

  6. A method for early diagnosis and treatment of intrathoracic esophageal anastomotic leakage: prophylactic placement of a drainage tube adjacent to the anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hua; Xue, Lei; Hong, Jiang; Tao, Xiandong; Xu, Zhifei; Wu, Bin

    2012-04-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a severe complication after esophagectomy, which results in high mortality and morbidity. In this study, we will preset a drainage tube adjacent to the anastomosis and evaluate its effect in the diagnosis and treatment of anastomotic leakage. We undertook a retrospective review of 414 patients who underwent partial esophageal resection or cardia resection with intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis. The patients were divided into two groups (Tube group and no-tube group) according to whether a drainage tube was placed adjacent to the anastomotic stoma during the surgical procedure. The leakage rate, time to diagnosis, time to flush, time to recovery, and patient outcome were analyzed. The leakage rate in the tube group was 5.35% (6/112) while it was 3.64% (11/302) in the no-tube group. The total mortality among patients with anastomotic leakage was 29.41%. In the tube group, all the patients were definitively diagnosed the same day on which suspicion of leakage occurs while the patients in the no-tube group required further examination to diagnose. In the no-tube group, the patients required placement of a drainage tube with the help of computed tomography or ultrasonic examination while there was no need for further procedures in the tube group. The days to flush and recovery in the tube group were 23.4 ± 5.94 and 32.2 ± 10.84, respectively, while, in the no-tube group, it was 80.71 ± 48.41 and 98.14 ± 56.24 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, prophylactic implantation of a drainage tube adjacent to the esophageal anastomosis is a good method for rapid diagnosis and treatment of leakage.

  7. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later. PMID:26664245

  8. Treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops in a patient who had early-onset bleb leakage after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Sagara, Hideto; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Noji, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kimihiro; Yago, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old man who had bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Schirmer I test revealed tear secretions of 5 mm and 3 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. Tear breakup times in the right and left eyes were 7 and 8 seconds, respectively. The ocular surface staining in both eyes was scored as Grade 1 as per the Oxford scheme. Retinal photocoagulation was performed for correction of the proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis, which resolved with treatment. However, the intraocular pressure in the left eye could not be adequately controlled. Therefore, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C using limbal-based conjunctival flap was performed. Three hours after the surgery, the patient developed a large and diffuse filtering bleb, but no leakage occurred from the conjunctival scar. However, on the first postoperative day, leakage was noted and the conjunctiva was at the leakage point. The leakage resolved transiently, but recurred the next day. Severe keratoconjunctival epithelial failure was detected, and the patient was administrated 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops six times daily. The epithelial failure improved, and many microcysts were detected on the bleb surface where the epithelial failure improved. The leakage resolved 2 days after initiation of the sodium hyaluronate eye drops. The microcysts disappeared and the bleb surface became smooth 1 month later.

  9. Chemical constituents of Baeckea frutescens leaves inhibit copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kohei; Satake, Toshiko

    2010-04-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL plays an important role in the genesis of arteriosclerosis. This study focused on the effects of the leaves of Baeckea frutescens in the prevention of arteriosclerosis. The leaves of B. frutescens have afforded, besides known flavonoid and chromone glycosides, a novel biflavonoid glycoside, characterized as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylmyricetinyl-(I-2'',II-2'')-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylmyricetin on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. This compound exhibited marked inhibition of copper-induced LDL oxidation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased sensitivity of apolipoprotein E knockout mice to copper-induced oxidative injury to the liver.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ran-ran; Zhang, Hui-feng; Zhen, Chao; Guo, Li

    2015-04-10

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes are related to clinical presentations in patients with Wilson's disease, indicating that ApoE may play an important role in the disease. However, our understanding of the role of ApoE in Wilson's disease is limited. High copper concentration in Wilson's disease induces excessive generation of free oxygen radicals. Meanwhile, ApoE proteins possess antioxidant effects. We therefore determined whether copper-induced oxidative damage differ in the liver of wild-type and ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Both wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with 0.2 mL of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mg/kg; a total dose of 4 mg/d) or the same volume of saline daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Copper and oxidative stress markers in the liver tissue and in the serum were assessed. Our results showed that, compared with the wild-type mice administered with copper, TBARS as a marker of lipid peroxidation, the expression of oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) significantly increased in the ApoE(-/-) mice administered with copper, meanwhile superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased. Thus, it is concluded that ApoE may protect the liver from copper-induced oxidative damage in Wilson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  12. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with a bowel control problem may leak gas or liquid or solid stool. Other symptoms may include the ... which can lead to leakage of solid or liquid stool (feces) or gas. Anoscopy: An exam of the anus using an ...

  13. Copper induces vasorelaxation and antagonizes noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hu, Chao-Wei; Liu, Ming-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chao; Huo, Rong; Dong, De-Li

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA) and high K(+) induced vasoconstriction. The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Copper did not blunt high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K(+)-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC) antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv) significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv) did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Copper blunted NA but not high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO), but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A copper-induced metallothionein gene from Exopalaemon carinicauda and its response to heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Gui, Tianshu; Sun, Zheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    A full-length copper-induced metallothionein (EcMT-Cu) cDNA was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis) and it contained a 198 bp open reading frame that encoded a peptide with 65 amino acid residues. Twenty-one cysteines were found in deduced amino acid sequence and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was also reported in different types of metallothioneins from other species. EcMT-Cu mRNA expression profile showed that it is the hepatopancreas specific gene. The expression of EcMT-Cu was extremely different when shrimp were exposed to seawater containing 50 μM CuSO4 or 2.5 μM CdCl2. The expression of EcMT-Cu in shrimp was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h after exposure to CuSO4, however, its expression was not induced compared to that of pretreatment (p>0.05) when shrimp were exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cu was found to be extremely low at gastrula and nauplius stage and expression of EcMT-Cu could be detected from egg protozoa stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nano Copper Induces Apoptosis in PK-15 Cells via a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chang, Zhenyu; Mehmood, Khalid; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Nabi, Fazul; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Wu, Xiaoxing; Tian, Xinxin; Yuan, Xiaodan; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Donghai

    2018-01-01

    Nano-sized copper particles are widely used in various chemical, physical, and biological fields. However, earlier studies have shown that nano copper particles (40-100 μg/mL) can induce cell toxicity and apoptosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the role of nano copper in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in PK-15 cells. The cells were treated with different doses of nano copper (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) to determine the effects of apoptosis using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining and a flow cytometry assay. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the PK-15 cells were examined using commercially available kits. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the Bax, Bid, Caspase-3, and CYCS genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The results revealed that nano copper exposure induced apoptosis and changed the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, nano copper significantly altered the levels of the Bax, Bid, Caspase-3, and CYCS genes at a concentration of 40 μg/mL. To summarize, nano copper significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the level of SOD and increased the level of MDA in PK-15 cells. Altogether, these results suggest that nano copper can play an important role in inducing the apoptotic pathway in PK-15 cells, which may be the mechanism by which nano copper induces nephrotoxicity.

  16. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  17. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  18. Rarity of late anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection of the rectum.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Okamoto, Ken; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Akimori, Toyokazu; Kamioka, Norihito; Shiga, Mai; Dabanaka, Ken; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2015-06-01

    Late anastomotic leakage is reported to account for half of all anastomotic leakages after low anterior resection of the rectum. An important clinical question is whether late and early anastomotic leakages are different entities. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who experienced anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection in two Japanese hospitals. The clinical characteristics were extracted and analyzed. During the study period, 179 patients underwent low anterior resection. A pelvic drainage tube was routinely utilized in all cases and was generally removed 4 to 6 days after the operation. Twenty-six patients had anastomotic leakage; the diagnosis was based on fecal contamination of the drainage in 24 cases. The median interval between operation and detection of anastomotic leakage was 3.5 days. Anastomotic leakage was diagnosed within 7 days of the operation in 25 cases and on postoperative day 20 (after hospital discharge) in one case. There was no instance of anastomotic leakage diagnosed more than 30 days after the operation. There was no relationship between clinical variables and days of leakage diagnosis. The rarity of late anastomotic leakage in our study, compared with previous studies, may relate to the relatively extended period of pelvic drainage tube usage in our institutes, which likely shortens the interval before leakage diagnosis. Our results suggest that late anastomotic leakage is a delayed symptom of subtle early anastomotic leakage rather than a separate entity.

  19. Martian neutron leakage spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1988-06-01

    A high-energy nucleon-meson transport code is used to calculate energy spectra of Martian leakage neutrons. Four calculations are used to simulate a uniform surface layer containing various amounts of water, different burial depths of a 50 percent water layer underneath a 1 percent water layer, changing atmospheric pressure, and a thick carbon dioxide ice sheet overlying a "dirty" water ice sheet. Calculated spectra at energies less than about 1000 eV were fitted by a superposition of thermal and epithermal functions having four free parameters, two of which (thermal and epithermal amplitudes) were found to vary systematically and to specify uniquely the configuration in each of the series. Parameter variations depend on the composition of the assumed surface layers through the average atomic mass and the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections. It is concluded that measurements of leakage neutron spectra should allow determination of the hydrogen content of surface layers buried to depths up to about 100 g/sq. cm and determination of the thickness of a polar dry ice cap up to a thickness of about 250 g/sq. cm.

  20. Copper-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes is inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of specific antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Gal, S; Lichtenberg, D; Bor, A; Pinchuk, I

    2007-12-01

    Copper-induced peroxidation of liposomal palmitoyllinoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) is inhibited by alpha-tocopherol at micromolar concentrations. In our previous study we found that when the liposomes contain phosphatidylserine (PS), nanomolar concentrations of Toc were sufficient to inhibit peroxidation. In an attempt to gain understanding of the origin of this extreme antioxidative potency, we tested the antioxidative potency of 36 additional antioxidants and the dependence of their potency on the presence of PS in the liposomes. The results of these studies reveal that only 11 of the tested antioxidants possess similar antioxidative potency to that of Toc. These include trolox, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), 2 of the 13 tested flavonoids (luteolin and 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone; T-414), alpha-naphthol, 1,5-, 1,6- and 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalenes (DHNs). Propyl gallate (PG), methyl syringate, rosmarinic acid, resveratrol, other flavonoids, as well as beta-naphthol, 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, 2,3-, 2,6-, and 2,7-DHNs were either moderately antioxidative or pro-oxidative. For liposomes made of PLPC (250 microM) and PS (25 microM) the "lag" preceding copper-induced peroxidation (5 microM copper) was doubled upon addition of 30-130nM of the "super-active" antioxidants. We propose that the mechanism responsible for the extreme antioxidative potency against copper-induced peroxidation in PS-containing liposomes involves replenishment of the antioxidant in a ternary PS-copper-antioxidant complex. Based on structure-activity relationship of the 37 tested antioxidants, the "super-antioxidative potency" is attributed to the recycling of relatively stable semiquinone or semiquinone-like radicals.

  1. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciT

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the twomore » duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.« less

  2. Comparative studies on the antioxidant activities of nine common food legumes against copper-induced human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, B J; Yuan, S H; Chang, S K C

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the consumption of dietary antioxidant was associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic extracts from 9 selected legumes based on copper-induced human LDL oxidation model in vitro. The antioxidant activities were assessed on the basis of the formation of conjugated dienes (lag time of oxidation) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as the early and later stage markers of LDL oxidation. The results showed that the extracts of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), black soybeans (Glycine max), and red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) had significant (P < 0.05) longer LDL oxidation lag times (128.8, 124.2, 107.7, and 111.1 min, respectively) than the LDL control group (94.9 min). No significant lag-time lengthening was observed in other tested legume extracts. On the other hand, black beans, lentils, black soybeans, red kidney beans, and pinto beans exhibited higher antioxidant capacities (Trolox equivalents) than yellow peas, green peas, chickpea, and yellow soybeans in both LDL-conjugated dienes assay and LDL-TBARS assay. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of these legumes against LDL-lipid peroxidation in the above assays were found to correlate very significantly (P < 0.01) with their phenolic substances, and DPPH radical scavenging activity and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity). These results suggest that consuming black beans, lentils, black soybeans, and red kidney beans may have potential in preventing the development of atherosclerosis from the perspective of inhibiting LDL oxidation.

  3. Method of detecting leakage from geologic formations used to sequester CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    White, Curt [Pittsburgh, PA; Wells, Arthur [Bridgeville, PA; Diehl, J Rodney [Pittsburgh, PA; Strazisar, Brian [Venetia, PA

    2010-04-27

    The invention provides methods for the measurement of carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs. Tracer moieties are injected along with carbon dioxide into geological formations. Leakage is monitored by gas chromatographic analyses of absorbents. The invention also provides a process for the early leak detection of possible carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs by measuring methane (CH.sub.4), ethane (C.sub.2H.sub.6), propane (C.sub.3H.sub.8), and/or radon (Rn) leakage rates from the reservoirs. The invention further provides a method for branding sequestered carbon dioxide using perfluorcarbon tracers (PFTs) to show ownership.

  4. Simulation of leakage through mechanical sealing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomorov, V. P.; Gorlenko, O. A.; Izmerov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The procedure of mathematical modeling of leakage through the mechanical seal taking into account waviness and roughness is considered. The percolation process is represented as the sum of leakages through a gap between wavy surfaces and percolation through gaps formed by fractal roughness, i.e. the total leakage is determined by the slot model and filtration leakage. Dependences of leaks on the contact pressure of corrugated and rough surfaces of the mechanical seal elements are presented.

  5. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling, and...

  6. 16 CFR 1507.5 - Pyrotechnic leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pyrotechnic leakage. 1507.5 Section 1507.5... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.5 Pyrotechnic leakage. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be sealed in a manner that prevents leakage of the pyrotechnic composition during shipping, handling, and...

  7. Development of a tightly regulated and highly responsive copper-inducible gene expression system and its application to control of flowering time.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Takanori; Nagasawa, Akitsu

    2014-01-01

    A newly developed copper-inducible gene expression system overcame the mixed results reported earlier, worked well both in cultured cells and a whole plant, and enabled to control flowering timing. Copper is one of the essential microelements and is readily taken up by plants. However, to date, it has rarely been used to control the expression of genes of interest, probably due to the inefficiency of the gene expression systems. In this study, we successfully developed a copper-inducible gene expression system that is based on the regulation of the yeast metallothionein gene. This system can be applied in the field and regulated at approximately one-hundredth of the rate used for registered copper-based fungicides. In the presence of copper, a translational fusion of the ACE1 transcription factor with the VP16 activation domain (VP16AD) of herpes simplex virus strongly activated transcription of the GFP gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. Interestingly, insertion of the To71 sequence, a 5'-untranslated region of the 130k/180k gene of tomato mosaic virus, upstream of the GFP gene reduced the basal expression of GFP in the absence of copper to almost negligible levels, even in soil-grown plants that were supplemented with ordinary liquid nutrients. Exposure of plants to 100 μM copper resulted in an over 1,000-fold induction ratio at the transcriptional level of GFP. This induction was copper-specific and dose-dependent with rapid and reversible responses. Using this expression system, we also succeeded in regulating floral transition by copper treatment. These results indicate that our newly developed copper-inducible system can accelerate gene functional analysis in model plants and can be used to generate novel agronomic traits in crop species.

  8. Zero leakage separable and semipermanent ducting joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischel, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    A study program has been conducted to explore new methods of achieving zero leakage, separable and semipermanent, ducting joints for space flight vehicles. The study consisted of a search of literature of existing zero leakage methods, the generation of concepts of new methods of achieving the desired zero leakage criteria and the development of detailed analysis and design of a selected concept. Other techniques of leak detection were explored with a view toward improving this area.

  9. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Roy H.; Mazzella, Andrew L.; Martikainen, Anu L.

    2015-01-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing PMID:26379366

  10. [Reflection on the present study of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhouqiao; Shi, Jinyao; Li, Ziyu; Ji, Jiafu

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most serious complications of colorectal surgery. Despite progress in available surgical techniques, the morbidity associated with anastomotic leakage remains high. In this review, we summarize the current clinical status of this complication, the problems it causes, and relevant research achievements. To date, a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis of anastomotic leakage has resulted in varying rates of diagnosis across countries and regions worldwide. Accurately predicting the occurrence of anastomotic leakage using the established risk factors and preoperative scoring systems remains difficult. Many of the described preventive measures, including defunctioning stoma creation, positive air leak testing, and use of effective tissue adhesives, remain controversial; more evidence-based medical information is urgently needed. Delayed diagnoses of anastomotic leakage also remain common in clinical practice. To prevent catastrophic outcomes, such as reoperations or deaths, early diagnosis is critically important. Parameters local to the area of the anastomosis may facilitate early detection of leakage, but their effectiveness is subject to clinical validation. Lastly, the pathological etiology of anastomotic leakage remains to be determined, and its elucidation may inspire innovative interventions that solve this critical surgical complication.

  11. Bag Test Measures Leakage From Insulated Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Kent D.; Easter, Barry P.

    1994-01-01

    Test quantifies leakage of gas from pipe even though pipe covered with insulation. Involves use of helium analyzer to measure concentration of helium in impermeable bag around pipe. Test administered after standard soap-solution bubble test indicates presence and general class of leakage.

  12. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciT

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, andmore » control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.« less

  13. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the...

  14. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square.... (b) Brake pipe leakage may not exceed 5 pounds per square inch per minute. (c) With a full service... pneumatically operated controls may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square inch per minute for 3 minutes...

  15. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square.... (b) Brake pipe leakage may not exceed 5 pounds per square inch per minute. (c) With a full service... pneumatically operated controls may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square inch per minute for 3 minutes...

  16. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square.... (b) Brake pipe leakage may not exceed 5 pounds per square inch per minute. (c) With a full service... pneumatically operated controls may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square inch per minute for 3 minutes...

  17. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square.... (b) Brake pipe leakage may not exceed 5 pounds per square inch per minute. (c) With a full service... pneumatically operated controls may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square inch per minute for 3 minutes...

  18. 49 CFR 229.59 - Leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Leakage from the main air reservoir and related piping may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square.... (b) Brake pipe leakage may not exceed 5 pounds per square inch per minute. (c) With a full service... pneumatically operated controls may not exceed an average of 3 pounds per square inch per minute for 3 minutes...

  19. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  20. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  1. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 49 CFR 236.735 - Current, leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Current, leakage. A stray electric current of relatively small value which flows through or across the... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current, leakage. 236.735 Section 236.735 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  3. Mission analysis report for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    SciT

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document provides an analysis of the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site`s 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall missions of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineers principles are being applied to this effort. Mission analysis supports early decision making by clearly defining program objectives. This documents identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and constraints, estimates the resources to carry outmore » the mission, and establishes measures of success. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work.« less

  4. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage remains a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. Patient and procedure related risk factors for anastomotic leakage have been identified. However, the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. Among these, ischemia and insufficient surgical technique have been suggested to play a central role. Animal models are valuable means to evaluate pathophysiological mechanisms and may be used to test preventive measures aiming at reducing the risk of anastomotic leakage, such as external anastomotic coating. The aim of this thesis was to: Clarify the best suited animal to model clinical anastomotic leakage in humans; Create animal models mimicking anastomotic leakage in humans induced by insufficient surgical technique and tissue ischemia; Determine the best suited coating materials to prevent anastomotic leakage. This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal physiology and anatomy of experimental animals were identified. The results indicated that the mouse and the pig are the best suited animals to evaluate clinical anastomotic leakage. However, the pig model is less validated and more costly to use compared with the mouse. Most frequently, rats are used as models. However, extreme interventions are needed to create clinical leakage in these animals. The knowledge from this study formed the basis for selecting the animal species most suited for the models in the next studies. STUDY 2: In this experimental study, technically insufficient colonic anastomoses were performed in 110 C57BL/6 mice. The number of sutures in the intervention group was reduced to produce a suitable leakage rate. Moreover, the analgesia and suture material were changed in order to optimize the

  5. Quantification and characterization of leakage errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.; Gambetta, Jay M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a general framework for the quantification and characterization of leakage errors that result when a quantum system is encoded in the subspace of a larger system. To do this we introduce metrics for quantifying the coherent and incoherent properties of the resulting errors and we illustrate this framework with several examples relevant to superconducting qubits. In particular, we propose two quantities, the leakage and seepage rates, which together with average gate fidelity allow for characterizing the average performance of quantum gates in the presence of leakage and show how the randomized benchmarking protocol can be modified to enable the robust estimation of all three quantities for a Clifford gate set.

  6. Liquid radwaste in-leakage reduction at TVA's Browns Ferry nuclear plant

    SciT

    Smith, A.C.; Roccasano, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Early in 1985, Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFNP) decided to initiate a liquid radwaste in-leakage reduction project as part of their chemistry improvement program. The purpose of this project was to reduce the overall volume of water processed by the radwaste system at BFNP by restricting uncontrolled in-leakage through the floor drain system. Impell Corporation was contracted to perform the project, which consisted of several tasks, each design to provide data for the reduction of in-leakage or to reduce the in-leakage directly. The program was begun in March 1985. Buy July of that same year, liquidmore » input to radwaste through the floor drain system had been reduced by --30%.« less

  7. Electroplating eliminates gas leakage in brazed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Electroplating method seals brazed or welded joints against gas leakage under high pressure. Any conventional electroplating process with many different metal anodes can be used, as well as the build up of layers of different metals to any required thickness.

  8. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  9. A new leakage measurement method for damaged seal material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Yang, Heng; Yuan, Li; Dong, Yi Feng

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, a new leakage measurement method based on the temperature field and temperature gradient field is proposed for detecting the leakage location and measuring the leakage rate in damaged seal material. First, a heat transfer leakage model is established, which can calculate the leakage rate based on the temperature gradient field near the damaged zone. Second, a finite element model of an infinite plate with a damaged zone is built to calculate the leakage rate, which fits the simulated leakage rate well. Finally, specimens in a tubular rubber seal with different damage shapes are used to conduct the leakage experiment, validating the correctness of this new measurement principle for the leakage rate and the leakage position. The results indicate the feasibility of the leakage measurement method for damaged seal material based on the temperature gradient field from infrared thermography.

  10. 40 CFR 264.222 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.222 Section... Impoundments § 264.222 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum...

  11. 40 CFR 264.252 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.252 Section... Piles § 264.252 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for waste pile units subject to § 264.251(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design...

  12. 40 CFR 264.302 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 264.302 Section... § 264.302 Action leakage rate. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for landfill units subject to § 264.301(c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that...

  13. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak detector...

  14. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak detector...

  15. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. 192.723... Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. (a) Each operator of a distribution system shall conduct periodic leakage surveys in accordance with this section. (b) The type and scope of the leakage control program...

  16. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak detector...

  17. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. 192.723... Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. (a) Each operator of a distribution system shall conduct periodic leakage surveys in accordance with this section. (b) The type and scope of the leakage control program...

  18. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. 192.723... Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. (a) Each operator of a distribution system shall conduct periodic leakage surveys in accordance with this section. (b) The type and scope of the leakage control program...

  19. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak detector...

  20. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. 192.723... Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. (a) Each operator of a distribution system shall conduct periodic leakage surveys in accordance with this section. (b) The type and scope of the leakage control program...

  1. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not... transports gas in conformity with § 192.625 without an odor or odorant, leakage surveys using leak detector...

  2. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. 192.723... Distribution systems: Leakage surveys. (a) Each operator of a distribution system shall conduct periodic leakage surveys in accordance with this section. (b) The type and scope of the leakage control program...

  3. Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, Peter; Thurston, Gavin; Murphy, Thomas J; Bunnett, Nigel W; McDonald, Donald M

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg−1, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg−1, i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg−1, i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg−1, i.v.). After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg−1, i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg−1, i.v.). Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature. PMID:10077247

  4. The concept of leakage in threat assessment.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Leakage in the context of threat assessment is the communication to a third party of an intent to do harm to a target. Third parties are usually other people, but the means of communication vary, and include letters, diaries, journals, blogs, videos on the internet, emails, voice mails, and other social media forms of transmission. Leakage is a type of warning behavior that typically infers a preoccupation with the target, and may signal the research, planning, and implementation of an attack. Nomothetic data suggest that leakage occurs in a majority of cases of attacks on and assassinations of public figures, adult mass murders, adolescent mass murders, and school or campus shootings: very low-frequency, but catastrophic acts of intended and targeted violence. Idiographic or case data illustrate the various permutations of leakage. We discuss the operational importance of the concept, place it in the context of other warning behaviors, emphasize the need for further research, and outline risk management strategies for the mitigation of such acts of violence in both law enforcement and clinical mental health settings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    SciT

    Keim, E.

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakagemore » areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.« less

  6. Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schützer, K M; Larsson, A; Risberg, B; Falk, A

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore lung microvascular leakage of protein and water in a feline model of septic shock, using a double isotope technique with external gamma camera detection and gravimetric lung water measurements. The experiments were performed on artificially ventilated cats. One group of cats (n = 8) was given an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria, and another group (n = 5) served as a control group receiving saline. Plasma transferrin was radiolabeled in vivo with indium-113m-chloride, and erythrocytes were labeled with technetium-99m. The distribution of these isotopes in the lungs was continuously measured with a gamma camera. A normalized slope index (NSI) was calculated, indicative of the transferrin accumulation corrected for changes in local blood volume that reflect protein leakage. In the septic group there was a protein leakage after bacterial infusion, with a NSI of 39 x 10(-4) +/- 5 x 10(-4) min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and the PaO2 diminished from 21 +/- 1 to 9.5 +/- 1 kPa. In control cats a slight protein leakage with a NSI of 9 +/- 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-4) min-1 was detected, probably caused by the operative procedure, but PaO2 did not change. Wet-to-dry-weight ratios of postmortem lungs were not significantly different between the groups. It was concluded that an intravenous infusion of live E. coli bacteria induces a lung capillary protein leakage without increased lung water and a concomitantly disturbed gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Energetic ion leakage from foreshock transient cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Terry Z.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Hietala, Heli

    2017-07-01

    Earth's foreshock is filled with backstreaming particles that can interact with the ambient solar wind and its discontinuities to form foreshock transients. Many foreshock transients have a core with low dynamic pressure that can significantly perturb the bow shock and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Foreshock transients have also been recently recognized as sites of particle acceleration, which may be important for seeding the parent shock with energetic particles. A relevant step of this seeding would be energetic ion leakage into the surrounding foreshock environment. On the other hand, such leakage would also suppress the energetic particle flux contrast across foreshock transients' boundaries masking their perceived contribution to ion energization. To further examine this hypothesis of ion leakage, we report on multipoint case studies of three foreshock transient events selected from a large database. The cases were selected to exemplify, in increasing complexity, the nature and consequences of energetic ion leakage. Ion energy dispersion, observed upstream and/or downstream of the foreshock transients, is explained with a simple, ballistic model of ions leaking from the foreshock transients. Larger energies are required for leaked ions to reach the spacecraft as the distance between the transient and spacecraft increases. Our model, which explains well the observed ion energy dispersion and velocity distributions, can also be used to reveal the shape of the foreshock transients in three dimensions. Our results suggest that ion leakage from foreshock transient cores needs to be accounted for both in statistical studies and in global models of ion acceleration under quasi-parallel foreshock conditions.

  8. Precursor Ion Scan Mode-Based Strategy for Fast Screening of Polyether Ionophores by Copper-Induced Gas-Phase Radical Fragmentation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Crevelin, Eduardo J; Possato, Bruna; Lopes, João L C; Lopes, Norberto P; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-04-04

    The potential of copper(II) to induce gas-phase fragmentation reactions in macrotetrolides, a class of polyether ionophores produced by Streptomyces species, was investigated by accurate-mass electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Copper(II)/copper(I) transition directly induced production of diagnostic acylium ions with m/z 199, 185, 181, and 167 from α-cleavages of [macrotetrolides + Cu] 2+ . A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodology based on the precursor ion scan of these acylium ions was developed and successfully used to identify isodinactin (1), trinactin (2), and tetranactin (3) in a crude extract of Streptomyces sp. AMC 23 in the precursor ion scan mode. In addition, copper(II) was also used to induce radical fragmentation reactions in the carboxylic acid polyether ionophore nigericin. The resulting product ions with m/z 755 and 585 helped to identify nigericin in a crude extract of Streptomyces sp. Eucal-26 by means of precursor ion scan experiments, demonstrating that copper-induced fragmentation reactions can potentially identify different classes of polyether ionophores rapidly and selectively.

  9. Abdominal Drainage and Amylase Measurement for Detection of Leakage After Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schots, Judith P M; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P

    2018-05-07

    To investigate the value of daily measurement of drain amylase for detecting leakage in gastric cancer surgery. This was a retrospective analysis including all patients who underwent a gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From January 2013 until December 2015, an intra-abdominal drain was routinely placed. Drain amylase was measured daily. Receiver operator characteristic curves were created to assess the ability of amylase to predict leakage. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value of amylase in drain fluid were determined. Leakage of the gastrojejunostomy or esophagojejunostomy, enteroenterostomy, duodenal stump, or pancreas was diagnosed by CT scan, endoscopy, or during re-operation. From January 2016 until April 2017, no drain was inserted. Surgical outcome and postoperative complications were compared between both groups. Median drain amylase concentrations were higher for each postoperative day in patients with leakage. The optimal cutoff value was 1000 IU/L (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 98.2%, negative predictive value 96.6%). Sixty-seven consecutive procedures were performed with a drain and 40 procedures without. No differences in group characteristics were observed except for gender. Fourteen patients (13.1%) had a leakage. The incidence and severity of leakage were not different between the patients with and without a drain. There was no significant difference in time to diagnosis (1 vs. 0 days; p 0.34), mortality rate (7.5 vs. 2.5%; p 0.41), and median length of hospital stay (9 days in both groups; p 0.46). Daily amylase measurement in drain fluid does not influence the early recognition and management of leakage in gastric cancer surgery.

  10. Temperature and leakage aware techniques to improve cache reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaaboune, Adil

    Decreasing power consumption in small devices such as handhelds, cell phones and high-performance processors is now one of the most critical design concerns. On-chip cache memories dominate the chip area in microprocessors and thus arises the need for power efficient cache memories. Cache is the simplest cost effective method to attain high speed memory hierarchy and, its performance is extremely critical for high speed computers. Cache is used by the microprocessor for channeling the performance gap between processor and main memory (RAM) hence the memory bandwidth is frequently a bottleneck which can affect the peak throughput significantly. In the design of any cache system, the tradeoffs of area/cost, performance, power consumption, and thermal management must be taken into consideration. Previous work has mainly concentrated on performance and area/cost constraints. More recent works have focused on low power design especially for portable devices and media-processing systems, however fewer research has been done on the relationship between heat management, Leakage power and cost per die. Lately, the focus of power dissipation in the new generations of microprocessors has shifted from dynamic power to idle power, a previously underestimated form of power loss that causes battery charge to drain and shutdown too early due the waste of energy. The problem has been aggravated by the aggressive scaling of process; device level method used originally by designers to enhance performance, conserve dissipation and reduces the sizes of digital circuits that are increasingly condensed. This dissertation studies the impact of hotspots, in the cache memory, on leakage consumption and microprocessor reliability and durability. The work will first prove that by eliminating hotspots in the cache memory, leakage power will be reduced and therefore, the reliability will be improved. The second technique studied is data quality management that improves the quality of the data

  11. Trending of Overboard Leakage of ISS Cabin Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.; Leonard, Daniel J.; Ghariani, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) overboard leakage of cabin atmosphere is continually tracked to identify new or aggravated leaks and to provide information for planning of nitrogen supply to the ISS. The overboard leakage is difficult to trend with various atmosphere constituents being added and removed. Changes to nitrogen partial pressure is the nominal means of trending the overboard leakage. This paper summarizes the method of the overboard leakage trending and presents findings from the trending.

  12. [Nursing Experience With a Patient With Gastrostomy Leakage Resulting in Moisture-Associated Skin Damage].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Lyu, Ji-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection. Simultaneously, the patient was required to conduct complex stoma care, which resulted in physical and psychological exhaustion. Changes in traditional tube and wound care were discussed on multiple occasions with an interdisciplinary healthcare team. Based on the evidence-based literature, we provide gastrostomy and MASD management strategies. Through team collaboration, we prevented gastric contents from contacting the patient's skin directly, improved patient comfort, controlled effluent and skin infections, maintained fluid and electrolyte balances, and acce-lerated the healing of the damaged skin. We recommend that healthcare professionals caring for patients with gastrostomy leakage be provided with early skin protection programs to learn the standard methods for identifying and correcting leakage factors, containing effluent, and adequately stabilizing the gastrostomy tube in order to reduce the impact on the patient's quality of life. In addition, patient education on tube and skin care should be provided to prevent the reoccurrence of complications.

  13. An analysis of blood specimen container leakage.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S M; Wardle, J M

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been designed to test specimen containers for leakage, using blood and aqueous fluorescein solution as indicators. They have been used in a trial evaluation of a number of commercially available containers intended for medical specimens. Glass bijou bottles, evacuated container systems, and several types of plastic container showed no significant leakage rate with either blood or aqueous solution when they were tested at room temperature, but a large proportion of the plastic containers leaked after being subjected to -20 degrees. C. These would thus be suitable and satisfactory for blood count specimens but not for specimens of serum and other body fluids, which are usually stored frozen. With all types of container tested there was spontaneous discharge of contents (blood or aqueous solution) on opening in a proportion of them; thus no container at present available seems to be entirely free from hazard. PMID:711921

  14. 40 CFR 265.255 - Action leakage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rates. 265.255 Section... FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.255 Action leakage rates. (a) The owner or operator of waste pile units subject to § 265.254 must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting...

  15. 40 CFR 265.302 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 265.302 Section... FACILITIES Landfills § 265.302 Action leakage rate. (a) The owner or operator of landfill units subject to § 265.301(a) must submit a proposed action leakage rate to the Regional Administrator when submitting...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure and leakage tests. 178.345-13 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and...

  17. 40 CFR 265.222 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to § 265.221(a). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action leakage rate. 265.222 Section... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.222 Action leakage rate. (a) The owner or operator of surface...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1803 - Signal leakage monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal leakage monitoring. 76.1803 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1803 Signal leakage monitoring. MVPDs... of the method by which compliance with basic signal leakage criteria is achieved and the method of...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1803 - Signal leakage monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal leakage monitoring. 76.1803 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1803 Signal leakage monitoring. MVPDs... of the method by which compliance with basic signal leakage criteria is achieved and the method of...

  20. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... entire cargo tank surface is inspected for leakage and other sign of defects. The inspection method must... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5, 178.347...

  1. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... entire cargo tank surface is inspected for leakage and other sign of defects. The inspection method must... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5, 178.347...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... entire cargo tank surface is inspected for leakage and other sign of defects. The inspection method must... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5, 178.347...

  3. 49 CFR 178.345-13 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... entire cargo tank surface is inspected for leakage and other sign of defects. The inspection method must... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-13 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§ 178.346-5, 178.347...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1803 - Signal leakage monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal leakage monitoring. 76.1803 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1803 Signal leakage monitoring. MVPDs... of the method by which compliance with basic signal leakage criteria is achieved and the method of...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1803 - Signal leakage monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal leakage monitoring. 76.1803 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1803 Signal leakage monitoring. MVPDs... of the method by which compliance with basic signal leakage criteria is achieved and the method of...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1803 - Signal leakage monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal leakage monitoring. 76.1803 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Reports and Filings § 76.1803 Signal leakage monitoring. MVPDs... of the method by which compliance with basic signal leakage criteria is achieved and the method of...

  7. Efficient quantum dialogue without information leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ai-Han; Tang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Dong

    2015-02-01

    A two-step quantum dialogue scheme is put forward with a class of three-qubit W state and quantum dense coding. Each W state can carry three bits of secret information and the measurement result is encrypted without information leakage. Furthermore, we utilize the entangle properties of W state and decoy photon checking technique to realize three-time channel detection, which can improve the efficiency and security of the scheme.

  8. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Seal Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, John R.; Underwood, Steve D.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1999-01-01

    Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM provides the structural interface between separate International Space Station (ISS) elements, such as the Laboratory and Node modules. The CBM consists of an active and a passive half that join together with structural bolts. The seal at this interface is the CBM-to-CBM molded seal. The CBM-to-CBM interface is assembled on orbit, thus the seals can be exposed to the space environment for up to 65 hours. Atomic Oxygen/Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation (AO/VUV) in space is a potential hazard to the seals. Testing was conducted to determine the effect on leakage of the CBM-to-CBM seal material exposed to AO/VUV. The sealing materials were S383 silicone and V835 fluorocarbon material. Control samples, which were not exposed to the AO/VUV environment, were used to ensure that ff any changes in leakage occurred, they could be attributed to the AO/VUV exposure. After exposure to the AO/VUV environment the leakage increase was dramatic for the fluorocarbon. This testing was a major contributing factor in selecting silicone as the CBM-to-CBM seal material.

  10. Colorectal anastomotic leakage: aspects of prevention, detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Daams, Freek; Luyer, Misha; Lange, Johan F

    2013-04-21

    All colorectal surgeons are faced from time to time with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This complication has been studied extensively without a significant reduction of incidence over the last 30 years. New techniques of prevention, by innovative anastomotic techniques should improve results in the future, but standardization and "teachability" should be guaranteed. Risk scoring enables intra-operative decision-making whether to restore continuity or deviate. Early detection can lead to reduction in delay of diagnosis as long as a standard system is used. For treatment options, no firm evidence is available, but future studies could focus on repair and saving of the anastomosis on the one hand or anastomotical breakdown and definitive colostomy on the other hand.

  11. A rare disease mimics postoperative bile leakage: Invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Urfalıoğlu, Aykut; Boran, Ömer Faruk; Sayar, Hamide; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Emre, Arif; Cengiz, Emrah; Bülbüloğlu, Ertan

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus fungi can cause serious infections, including intra-abdominal infection, particularly in patients with compromised immune system. Described in the present report is case of 46-year-old female patient who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at another healthcare facility. In early postoperative period, she had increasing complaints of swelling, nausea, and vomiting. On postoperative 19th day, she was referred to our clinic with diagnosis of acute abdomen. Surgery was performed with suspected possibility of bile leakage. However, pathological examination of soft, yellow-green mass found in subhepatic space determined it was fungus ball caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Patient was diagnosed postoperative intra-abdominal aspergillosis (IAA).

  12. Gas pipeline leakage detection based on PZT sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Ren, Liang; Ho, Siu-Chun; Jia, Ziguang; Song, Gangbing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for rapid detection and location determination of pipeline leakage utilizing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors is proposed. The negative pressure wave (NPW) is a stress wave generated by leakage in the pipeline, and propagates along the pipeline from the leakage point to both ends. Thus the NPW is associated with hoop strain variation along the pipe wall. PZT sensors mounted on the pipeline were used to measure the strain variation and allowed accurate (within 2% error) and repeatable location (within 4% variance) of five manually controlled leakage points. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the location accuracy for leakage in a 55 meter long model pipeline.

  13. FELERION: a new approach for leakage power reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Anjana; Somkuwar, Ajay

    2014-12-01

    The circuit proposed in this paper simultaneously reduces the sub threshold leakage power and saves the state of art aspect of the logic circuits. Sleep transistors and PMOS-only logic are used to further reduce the leakage power. Sleep transistors are used as the keepers to reduce the sub threshold leakage current providing the low resistance path to the output. PMOS-only logic is used between the pull up and pull down devices to mitigate the leakage power further. Our proposed fast efficient leakage reduction circuit not only reduces the leakage current but also reduces the power dissipation. Power and delay are analyzed at the 32 nm BSIM4 model for a chain of four inverters, NAND, NOR and ISCAS-85 c17 benchmark circuits using DSCH3 and the Microwind tool. The simulation results reveal that our proposed approach mitigates leakage power by 90%-94% as compared to the conventional approach.

  14. Indian Ocean sources of Agulhas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgadoo, Jonathan; Rühs, Siren; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We examine the mean pathways, transit timescales, and transformation of waters flowing from the Pacific and the marginal seas through the Indian Ocean (IO) on their way toward the South Atlantic within a high-resolution ocean/sea-ice model. The model fields are analysed from a Lagrangian perspective where water volumes are tracked as they enter the IO. The IO contributes 12.6 Sv to Agulhas leakage, which within the model is 14.1 ± 2.2 Sv, the rest originates from the South Atlantic. The Indonesian Through-flow constitutes about half of the IO contribution, is surface bound, cools and salinificates as it leaves the basin within 1-3 decades. Waters entering the IO south of Australia are at intermediate depths and maintain their temperature-salinity properties as they exit the basin within 1.5-3.5 decades. Of these waters, the contribution from Tasman leakage is 1.4 Sv. The rest stem from recirculation of Subantarctic Mode Water formed within the IO. The marginal seas export 1.0 Sv into the Atlantic within 1.5-4 decades, and the waters cool and freshen on-route. However, the model's simulation of waters from the Gulfs of Aden and Oman are too light and hence overly susceptible to upper ocean circulations. In the Cape Basin, Agulhas leakage is well mixed. On-route, temperature-salinity transformations occur predominantly in the Arabian Sea and within the greater Agulhas Current region. Overall, the IO communicates at least 7.9 Sv from the Pacific to the Atlantic, thereby quantifying the strength of the upper cell of the global conveyor belt.

  15. EVA Suit Microbial Leakage Investigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Baker, Christopher; Clayton, Ronald; Rucker, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect microbial samples from various EVA suits to determine how much microbial contamination is typically released during simulated planetary exploration activities. Data will be released to the planetary protection and science communities, and advanced EVA system designers. In the best case scenario, we will discover that very little microbial contamination leaks from our current or prototype suit designs, in the worst case scenario, we will identify leak paths, learn more about what affects leakage--and we'll have a new, flight-certified swab tool for our EVA toolbox.

  16. Litmus paper helps detect potential pancreatoenterostomy leakage.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Chijiwa, K; Shimizu, S; Yokohata, K; Tanaka, M

    1998-03-01

    Leakage of pancreatoenterostomy remains as a serious and fatal complication after pancreatectomy. Several risk factors have been reported, ie, normal pancreatic parenchyma, small pancreatic duct, a large amount of intraoperative blood loss, management of the cut surface of the pancreas, and the presence of preoperative jaundice. Transected pancreatic ductules on the cut surface of the pancreas that are not drained into the main pancreatic duct after pancreatectomy are one of the risks. The pancreatic juice is alkaline and turns red litmus to blue. In order to detect the transected pancreatic ductules on the cut surface of the pancreas, red litmus paper is applied to the cutting surface of the pancreas after stimulation of secretin. Nondrained, transected pancreatic ductules on the cut surface of the pancreas can be detected as blue spots on the red litmus paper. The corresponding areas to the blue spots can be transfixed with sutures to close the nondrained and transected pancreatic ductules. Litmus paper can be expected to detect pancreatoenterostomy leakage after pancreatectomy.

  17. Systematic review of methods to predict and detect anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hirst, N A; Tiernan, J P; Millner, P A; Jayne, D G

    2014-02-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication of gastrointestinal surgery resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, poor function and predisposing to cancer recurrence. Earlier diagnosis and intervention can minimize systemic complications but is hindered by current diagnostic methods that are non-specific and often uninformative. The purpose of this paper is to review current developments in the field and to identify strategies for early detection and treatment of anastomotic leakage. A systematic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included 'anastomosis' and 'leak' and 'diagnosis' or 'detection' and 'gastrointestinal' or 'colorectal'. Papers concentrating on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anastomotic leak were identified and further searches were performed by cross-referencing. Computerized tomography CT scanning and water-soluble contrast studies are the current preferred techniques for diagnosing anastomotic leakage but suffer from variable sensitivity and specificity, have logistical constraints and may delay timely intervention. Intra-operative endoscopy and imaging may offer certain advantages, but the ability to predict anastomotic leakage is unproven. Newer techniques involve measurement of biomarkers for anastomotic leakage and have the potential advantage of providing cheap real-time monitoring for postoperative complications. Current diagnostic tests often fail to diagnose anastomotic leak at an early stage that enables timely intervention and minimizes serious morbidity and mortality. Emerging technologies, based on detection of local biomarkers, have achieved proof of concept status but require further evaluation to determine whether they translate into improved patient outcomes. Further research is needed to address this important, yet relatively unrecognized, area of unmet clinical need. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain

  18. Systematic review on the value of CT scanning in the diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kornmann, Verena N N; Treskes, Nikki; Hoonhout, Lilian H F; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Boerma, Djamila

    2013-04-01

    Timely diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery and adequate treatment is important to reduce morbidity and mortality. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning is the diagnostic tool of preference, but its value may be questionable in the early postoperative period. The accuracy of CT scanning for the detection of anastomotic leakage and its role in timing of intervention was evaluated. A systematic literature search was performed. Relevant publications were identified from four electronic databases between 1990 and 2011. Inclusion criteria were human studies, studies published in English or Dutch, colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis, and abdominal CT scan with reported outcome for the detection of anastomotic leakage. Exclusion criteria were cohort of fewer than five patients, other gastrointestinal surgery, no anastomosis, and radiological imaging other than CT. Eight studies, including 221 abdominal CT scans, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor. The overall sensitivity of CT scanning to diagnose leakage was 0.68 (95 % confidence interval 0.59-0.75) for colonic resection. Data on the sequelae of false-negative CT scanning was not available. There is limited good-quality evidence to determine the value of CT scans in the detection of anastomotic leakage. To prevent delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment of anastomotic leakage, the relatively low sensitivity of CT scanning must be taken into account.

  19. Indocyanine green staining facilitates detection of bleb leakage during trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Teruhiko; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2007-03-01

    To report a new technique to visualize bleb leakage using indocyanine green (ICG) staining during trabeculectomy. The ICG solution was widely applied over the filtering bleb including the conjunctival wound before completion of trabeculectomy. This procedure was performed in 48 eyes of 44 consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy between December 2004 and October 2005. Without staining, bleb leakage was not identified by the direct observation under the operating microscope. ICG staining clearly visualized aqueous leakage from the bleb in 5 eyes (10.4%). The bleb leakage in these eyes was easily repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, and no eyes, including these 5 cases, showed bleb leakage after surgery. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications related to ICG application. The application of ICG during trabeculectomy is a simple and useful technique to facilitate detection and repair of the bleb leakage.

  20. Diffusive leakage of brine from aquifers during CO2 geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The area of investigation in this study is designed around an improved understanding of fundamentals of the diffusive leakage of brine from a storage aquifer into overlying and underlying low permeability layers during geosequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) through development of a theoretical model. Here, we consider a two-dimensional domain in cylindrical coordinates, comprised of an aquifer and an overburden, where the interaction between the two media is handled by imposing the continuities of pressures and fluid fluxes at the aquifer-overburden interface. This coupled problem is solved by successive implementation of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The developed solutions can be used to analyze diffusive leakage of brine from the aquifer into overburden and generate type curves for average pressures in the aquifer and overburden during injection and post injection periods. The results show that the leakage rate at early times is scaled with t1/2 while it remains constant at late times. It is also shown that the average pressure in the aquifer is scaled with t for short and long times. Moreover, the average pressure in the overburden is scaled with t at late times while it is scaled with t3/2 at early times. In addition, the results reveal that factors affecting diffusive leakage rate through intact overburden during CO2 storage are, in decreasing order of significance, thickness of overburden, thickness of aquifer, aquifer to overburden permeability ratio, and aquifer to overburden porosity ratio. However, thickness of aquifer has minimal effect on diffusive leakage of brine within post injection period. To evaluate the theoretical model, case studies for two potential sites in United Kingdom, one in Lincolnshire and the other one in the Firth of Forth, are conducted. The field studies show that the diffusive leakage from the aquifer into the overburden diminishes ∼40 years after the injection has ceased for Lincolnshire while it stops after

  1. Esophagojejunal anastomosis leakage after total gastrectomy for esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: options of treatment.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Fabio; Valle, Mario; Federici, Orietta; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Camperchioli, Ida; Lapenta, Rocco; Assisi, Daniela; Garofalo, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Esophagojejunal anastomosis leakage after total gastrectomy (TG) for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma (ADC) constitutes one of the most serious and sometimes life-threatening complications. Management remains controversial and still challenging. A total of 198 patients operated for type I and II EGJ ADC were reviewed. Diagnosis of leakage was based on a combination of clinical and radiological findings. It was classified including objective endoscopic and clinical parameters requiring different type of treatment. Anastomotic leakage was diagnosed in 14 patients (7%). Two cases recovered with conservative therapy. Six cases underwent endoscopy with clips placement in 2 and partially covered self-expandable metal stent placement in 4. Other two cases underwent reoperation with reconstruction of anastomosis and primary repair respectively. In the last four cases emergency surgery with total esophagectomy and diversion was required. Mortality occurred only in 3 of these patients and overall treatment was successful in 11 patients (78.5%). No consensus has been reached on the best method of esophagojejunal anastomosis leakage management and the rate of failure remains significant. Different options of treatment are available but early detection and multidisciplinary approaches are the keys to obtain successful results irrespective of the employed strategy.

  2. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2016-02-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal—applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics—show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again.

  3. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  4. Torque Transmission Device at Zero Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    In a few critical applications, mechanical transmission of power by rotation at low speed is required without leakage at an interface. Herein we examine a device that enables torque to be transmitted across a sealed environmental barrier. The barrier represents the restraint membrane through which the torque is transmitted. The power is transferred through elastic deformation of a circular tube into an elliptical cross-section. Rotation of the principle axis of the ellipse at one end results in a commensurate rotation of an elliptical cross section at the other end of the tube. This transfer requires no rigid body rotation of the tube allowing a membrane to seal one end from the other. Both computational and experimental models of the device are presented.

  5. Postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colorectal anastomotic leakage. NSAIDs and anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mads

    2012-03-01

    retrieved by individual searches in the patients' medical records. Based on these data, uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. These analyses identified NSAID treatment in the postoperative period as an individual risk factor for AL. Other risk factors identified were consistent with the available literature. The detrimental effect of the NSAIDs are possibly due to an effect on collagen metabolism leading to weakened tissue around the anastomosis and/or on the risk of thrombosis formation leading to more thromboses in the vessels supplying the anastomosis, thereby limiting anastomotic blood flow. In conclusion, the studies included in this thesis have elucidated some of the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in anastomotic healing and leakage, and furthermore have shown that the use of NSAIDs in the postoperative period increase the risk of AL in patients undergoing colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis. Based on the findings in these studies, and based on existing knowledge, it is recommended that NSAIDs be abandoned after colorectal resection with primary anastomosis. It should be investigated whether the NSAIDs are also harmful to other types of anastomoses and after other surgical procedures where early tissue healing is crucial.

  6. Biomembrane Permeabilization: Statistics of Individual Leakage Events Harmonize the Interpretation of Vesicle Leakage.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stefan; Pokorná, Šárka; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Heerklotz, Heiko; Hoernke, Maria

    2018-01-23

    The mode of action of membrane-active molecules, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, cell penetrating, and fusion peptides and their synthetic mimics, transfection agents, drug permeation enhancers, and biological signaling molecules (e.g., quorum sensing), involves either the general or local destabilization of the target membrane or the formation of defined, rather stable pores. Some effects aim at killing the cell, while others need to be limited in space and time to avoid serious damage. Biological tests reveal translocation of compounds and cell death but do not provide a detailed, mechanistic, and quantitative understanding of the modes of action and their molecular basis. Model membrane studies of membrane leakage have been used for decades to tackle this issue, but their interpretation in terms of biology has remained challenging and often quite limited. Here we compare two recent, powerful protocols to study model membrane leakage: the microscopic detection of dye influx into giant liposomes and time-correlated single photon counting experiments to characterize dye efflux from large unilamellar vesicles. A statistical treatment of both data sets does not only harmonize apparent discrepancies but also makes us aware of principal issues that have been confusing the interpretation of model membrane leakage data so far. Moreover, our study reveals a fundamental difference between nano- and microscale systems that needs to be taken into account when conclusions about microscale objects, such as cells, are drawn from nanoscale models.

  7. 47 CFR 76.1804 - Aeronautical frequencies: leakage monitoring (CLI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through 76.616 and § 76.1803; (d) Carrier frequency, tolerance, and type of modulation of all carriers in... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aeronautical frequencies: leakage monitoring... Aeronautical frequencies: leakage monitoring (CLI). An MVPD shall notify the Commission before transmitting any...

  8. Improved Steam Turbine Leakage Control with a Brush Seal Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Raymond E.; Pastrana, Ryan; Wolfe, Chris; Burnett, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents an improved steam turbine leakage control system with a brush seal design. The contents include: 1) Typical Design Characteristics; 2) Typical Brush Seal Locations; 3) Reduced Leakage Rates; 4) Performance Benefits; 5) System Considerations; 6) Rotor Dynamics; 7) Laboratory Tests and 8) Field Experience.

  9. Diagnostic value of drain amylase for detecting intrathoracic leakage after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Berkelmans, Gijs HK; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Smeets, Boudewijn JJ; Weijs, Teus J; Silva Corten, Luis C; van Det, Marc J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard AP; Luyer, Misha DP

    2015-01-01

    found in 9 of the 15 patients with AL. Five of these 9 patients had early elevations of their amylase levels, with a median of 2 d (IQR 2-5) before signs and symptoms occurred. CONCLUSION: Measurement of drain amylase levels is an inexpensive and easy tool that may be used to screen for anastomotic leakage soon after MI-ILE. However, clinical validation of this marker is necessary. PMID:26290638

  10. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    SciT

    None

    2013-11-01

    The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached housing, the single blower door test measures leakage to the outside. In attached housing, however, this “solo” test method measures both air leakage to the outside and air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces. In an attempt to create a simplified tool for predicting leakage to the outside, Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) performed a preliminary statistical analysis on blower door test results from 112 attached dwelling units in four apartment complexes. Althoughmore » the subject data set is limited in size and variety, the preliminary analyses suggest significant predictors are present and support the development of a predictive model. Further data collection is underway to create a more robust prediction tool for use across different construction types, climate zones, and unit configurations.« less

  12. Leakage current conduction in metal gate junctionless nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oproglidis, T. A.; Karatsori, T. A.; Barraud, S.; Ghibaudo, G.; Dimitriadis, C. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the experimental off-state drain leakage current behavior is systematically explored in n- and p-channel junctionless nanowire transistors with HfSiON/TiN/p+-polysilicon gate stack. The analysis of the drain leakage current is based on experimental data of the gate leakage current. It has been shown that the off-state drain leakage current in n-channel devices is negligible, whereas in p-channel devices it is significant and dramatically increases with drain voltage. The overall results indicate that the off-state drain leakage current in p-channel devices is mainly due to trap-assisted Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons through the gate oxide of electrons from the metal gate to the silicon layer near the drain region.

  13. A leakage-free resonance sparse decomposition technique for bearing fault detection in gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Shazali; Wang, Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Most of rotating machinery deficiencies are related to defects in rolling element bearings. Reliable bearing fault detection still remains a challenging task, especially for bearings in gearboxes as bearing-defect-related features are nonstationary and modulated by gear mesh vibration. A new leakage-free resonance sparse decomposition (LRSD) technique is proposed in this paper for early bearing fault detection of gearboxes. In the proposed LRSD technique, a leakage-free filter is suggested to remove strong gear mesh and shaft running signatures. A kurtosis and cosine distance measure is suggested to select appropriate redundancy r and quality factor Q. The signal residual is processed by signal sparse decomposition for highpass and lowpass resonance analysis to extract representative features for bearing fault detection. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by a succession of experimental tests corresponding to different gearbox and bearing conditions.

  14. Potential acidification impacts on zooplankton in CCS leakage scenarios.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Claudia; Kurihara, Haruko

    2013-08-30

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies involve localized acidification of significant volumes of seawater, inhabited mainly by planktonic species. Knowledge on potential impacts of these techniques on the survival and physiology of zooplankton, and subsequent consequences for ecosystem health in targeted areas, is scarce. The recent literature has a focus on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, leading to enhanced absorption of CO2 by the oceans and a lowered seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. These studies explore the effects of changes in seawater chemistry, as predicted by climate models for the end of this century, on marine biota. Early studies have used unrealistically severe CO2/pH values in this context, but are relevant for CCS leakage scenarios. Little studied meso- and bathypelagic species of the deep sea may be especially vulnerable, as well as vertically migrating zooplankton, which require significant residence times at great depths as part of their life cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal image analysis for detecting facemask leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdall, Jonathan B.; Pavlidis, Ioannis T.; Levine, James

    2005-03-01

    Due to the modern advent of near ubiquitous accessibility to rapid international transportation the epidemiologic trends of highly communicable diseases can be devastating. With the recent emergence of diseases matching this pattern, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), an area of overt concern has been the transmission of infection through respiratory droplets. Approved facemasks are typically effective physical barriers for preventing the spread of viruses through droplets, but breaches in a mask"s integrity can lead to an elevated risk of exposure and subsequent infection. Quality control mechanisms in place during the manufacturing process insure that masks are defect free when leaving the factory, but there remains little to detect damage caused by transportation or during usage. A system that could monitor masks in real-time while they were in use would facilitate a more secure environment for treatment and screening. To fulfill this necessity, we have devised a touchless method to detect mask breaches in real-time by utilizing the emissive properties of the mask in the thermal infrared spectrum. Specifically, we use a specialized thermal imaging system to detect minute air leakage in masks based on the principles of heat transfer and thermodynamics. The advantage of this passive modality is that thermal imaging does not require contact with the subject and can provide instant visualization and analysis. These capabilities can prove invaluable for protecting personnel in scenarios with elevated levels of transmission risk such as hospital clinics, border check points, and airports.

  16. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-12-10

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted.

  17. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted. PMID:26690435

  18. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    PubMed Central

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; van Sebille, Erik; Weijer, Wilbert; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage', forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. This is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic. PMID:26656850

  19. Copper ion as a new leakage tracer.

    PubMed

    Modaresi, J; Baharizade, M; Shareghi, A; Ahmadi, M; Daneshkazemi, A

    2013-12-01

    Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal. Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method. The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope. The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods. Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye penetration and the copper ion diffusion methods.

  20. Overview of CO2 Leakage Problems and Sealants for CO2 Leakage Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shudai

    Excessive Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission has become a serious issue and caused lots of environmental problems. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) program has been developed to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. CO2 storage has been targeted mainly on depleted oil or gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers. However, leakage could occur through wellbores, cap rocks, formation faults, and fractures during and after CO2 injection. To minimize the risk, different types of sealants have been investigated to prevent CO2 leaks. The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive review of the materials which could be used as CO2 sealants. Based on the difference of materials components, this research has classified the sealants into seven types, including cements, geopolymers, foams, gel systems, resin systems, biofilm barriers, and nanoparticles. For each type of sealants, its chemical components, physical properties, stabilities, impact factors, applied environments, advantages and limitations were summarized. The most commonly used sealant for CO2 leakage control from wellbore is still cement, and the aluminate-calcium based cement has the best properties. It is very challenging to seal the fractures and faults, far from wellbore due to the difficulty to deliver plugging materials into the in-depth of a reservoir. The thermo-stability is also a great challenge for most materials and should be evaluated under supercritical CO2 condition.

  1. Toward Understanding Tip Leakage Flows in Small Compressor Cores Including Stator Leakage Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work was to provide additional data to supplement the work reported in NASA/CR-2015-218868 (Berdanier and Key, 2015b). The aim of that project was to characterize the fundamental flow physics and the overall performance effects due to increased rotor tip clearance heights in axial compressors. Data have been collected in the three-stage axial research compressor at Purdue University with a specific focus on analyzing the multistage effects resulting from the tip leakage flow. Three separate rotor tip clearances were studied with nominal tip clearance gaps of 1.5 percent, 3.0 percent, and 4.0 percent based on a constant annulus height. Overall compressor performance was previously investigated at four corrected speedlines (100 percent, 90 percent, 80 percent, and 68 percent) for each of the three tip clearance configurations. This study extends the previously published results to include detailed steady and time-resolved pressure data at two loading conditions, nominal loading (NL) and high loading (HL), on the 100 percent corrected speedline for the intermediate clearance level (3.0 percent). Steady detailed radial traverses of total pressure at the exit of each stator row are supported by flow visualization techniques to identify regions of flow recirculation and separation. Furthermore, detailed radial traverses of time-resolved total pressures at the exit of each rotor row have been measured with a fast-response pressure probe. These data were combined with existing three-component velocity measurements to identify a novel technique for calculating blockage in a multistage compressor. Time-resolved static pressure measurements have been collected over the rotor tips for all rotors with each of the three tip clearance configurations for up to five loading conditions along the 100 percent corrected speedline using fast-response piezoresistive pressure sensors. These time-resolved static pressure measurements reveal new knowledge about the

  2. 40 CFR 265.222 - Action leakage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS... components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.). (c) To determine if the action leakage rate has been...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm if...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm if...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm if...

  6. Fractal modeling of fluidic leakage through metal sealing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the fluidic leak rate through metal sealing surfaces by developing fractal models for the contact process and leakage process. An improved model is established to describe the seal-contact interface of two metal rough surface. The contact model divides the deformed regions by classifying the asperities of different characteristic lengths into the elastic, elastic-plastic and plastic regimes. Using the improved contact model, the leakage channel under the contact surface is mathematically modeled based on the fractal theory. The leakage model obtains the leak rate using the fluid transport theory in porous media, considering that the pores-forming percolation channels can be treated as a combination of filled tortuous capillaries. The effects of fractal structure, surface material and gasket size on the contact process and leakage process are analyzed through numerical simulations for sealed ring gaskets.

  7. Potential impacts of leakage from deep CO2 geosequestration on overlying freshwater aquifers.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark G; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage may use deep saline aquifers for CO(2) sequestration, but small CO(2) leakage could pose a risk to overlying fresh groundwater. We performed laboratory incubations of CO(2) infiltration under oxidizing conditions for >300 days on samples from four freshwater aquifers to 1) understand how CO(2) leakage affects freshwater quality; 2) develop selection criteria for deep sequestration sites based on inorganic metal contamination caused by CO(2) leaks to shallow aquifers; and 3) identify geochemical signatures for early detection criteria. After exposure to CO(2), water pH declines of 1-2 units were apparent in all aquifer samples. CO(2) caused concentrations of the alkali and alkaline earths and manganese, cobalt, nickel, and iron to increase by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Potentially dangerous uranium and barium increased throughout the entire experiment in some samples. Solid-phase metal mobility, carbonate buffering capacity, and redox state in the shallow overlying aquifers influence the impact of CO(2) leakage and should be considered when selecting deep geosequestration sites. Manganese, iron, calcium, and pH could be used as geochemical markers of a CO(2) leak, as their concentrations increase within 2 weeks of exposure to CO(2).

  8. [Bile leakage after liver resection: A retrospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Menclová, K; Bělina, F; Pudil, J; Langer, D; Ryska, M

    2015-12-01

    Many previous reports have focused on bile leakage after liver resection. Despite the improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care the incidence of this complication rather keeps increasing. A number of predictive factors have been analyzed. There is still no consensus regarding their influence on the formation of bile leakage. The objective of our analysis was to evaluate the incidence of bile leakage, its impact on mortality and duration of hospitalization at our department. At the same time, we conducted an analysis of known predictive factors. The authors present a retrospective review of the set of 146 patients who underwent liver resection at the Department of Surgery of the 2nd Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University and Central Military Hospital Prague, performed between 20102013. We used the current ISGLS (International Study Group of Liver Surgery) classification to evaluate the bile leakage. The severity of this complication was determined according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Statistical significance of the predictive factors was determined using Fishers exact test and Students t-test. The incidence of bile leakage was 21%. According to ISGLS classification the A, B, and C rates were 6.5%, 61.2%, and 32.3%, respectively. The severity of bile leakage according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system - I-II, IIIa, IIIb, IV and V rates were 19.3%, 42%, 9.7%, 9.7%, and 19.3%, respectively. We determined the following predictive factors as statistically significant: surgery for malignancy (p<0.001), major hepatic resection (p=0.001), operative time (p<0.001), high intraoperative blood loss (p=0.02), construction of HJA (p=0.005), portal venous embolization/two-stage surgery (p=0.009) and ASA score (p=0.02). Bile leakage significantly prolonged hospitalization time (p<0.001). In the group of patients with bile leakage the perioperative mortality was 23 times higher (p<0.001) than in the group with no leakage. Bile

  9. Detectability of Wellbore CO2 Leakage using the Magnetotelluric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Buscheck, T. A.; Mansoor, K.; Carroll, S.

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the magnetotelluric (MT) method in detecting CO2 and brine leakage through a wellbore, which penetrates a CO2 storage reservoir, into overlying aquifers, 0 to 1720 m in depth, in support of the USDOE National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) monitoring program. Synthetic datasets based on the Kimberlina site in the southern San Joaquin Basin, California were created using CO2 storage reservoir models, wellbore leakage models, and groundwater/geochemical models of the overlying aquifers. The species concentrations simulated with the groundwater/geochemical models were converted into bulk electrical conductivity (EC) distributions as the MT model input. Brine and CO2 leakage into the overlying aquifers increases ion concentrations, and thus results in an EC increase, which may be detected by the MT method. Our objective was to estimate and maximize the probability of leakage detection using the MT method. The MT method is an electromagnetic geophysical technique that images the subsurface EC distribution by measuring natural electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.01 Hz to 1 kHz with sensors on the ground surface. The ModEM software was used to predict electromagnetic responses from brine and CO2 leakage and to invert synthetic MT data for recovery of subsurface conductivity distribution. We are in the process of building 1000 simulations for ranges of permeability, leakage flux, and hydraulic gradient to study leakage detectability and to develop an optimization method to answer when, where and how an MT monitoring system should be deployed to maximize the probability of leakage detection. This work was sponsored by the USDOE Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, managed by Traci Rodosta and Andrea McNemar. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL IM release number is LLNL-ABS-699276.

  10. Detecting the leakage source of a reservoir using isotopes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peng; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yongdong; Mugwanezal, Vincent de Paul; Chen, Li; Aldahan, Ala

    2018-07-01

    A good monitoring method is vital for understanding the sources of a water reservoir leakage and planning for effective restoring. Here we present a combination of several tracers ( 222 Rn, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, anions and temperature) for identification of water leakage sources in the Pushihe pumped storage power station which is in the Liaoning province, China. The results show an average 222 Rn activity of 6843 Bq/m 3 in the leakage water, 3034 Bq/m 3 in the reservoir water, and 41,759 Bq/m 3 in the groundwater. Considering that 222 Rn activity in surface water is typically less than 5000 Bq/m 3 , the low level average 222 Rn activity in the leakage water suggests the reservoir water as the main source of water. Results of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes show comparable ranges and values in the reservoir and the leakage water samples. However, important contribution of the groundwater (up to 36%) was present in some samples from the bottom and upper parts of the underground powerhouse, while the leakage water from some other parts indicate the reservoir water as the dominant source. The isotopic finding suggests that the reservoir water is the main source of the leakage water which is confirmed by the analysis of anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) in the water samples. The combination of these tracer methods for studying dam water leakage improves the accuracy of identifying the source of leaks and provide a scientific reference for engineering solutions to ensure the dam safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication-induced microvascular leakage.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Travis M; Breslin, Jerome W

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication increases microvascular permeability and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated albumin (FITC-albumin) from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation was assessed by ELISA assays. Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Our results suggest that

  12. Relevance of Micro-leakage to Orthodontic Bonding - a Review

    PubMed Central

    M, Karandish

    2016-01-01

    As it is seen, by passing the evolutionary process of banding of orthodontic attachments to the bonding ones, orthodontics have witnessed many developments, such as application of new adhesives, optimized base designs, new bracket materials, curing methods and more efficient primers. The studies often address the morphological, micro-leakage, and shear bond tests to evaluate bond efficacy. Among studies endeavored to develop the bond strength of brackets, some observed the reduction of micro-leakage of bracket-adhesive and enamel-adhesive interfaces. Owing to the importance of micro-leakage in orthodontics, this study aimed at reviewing the micro-leakage values directly relevant to the enamel decay and debonding of the brackets. To reach the best bond strength, the researchers tried to design different studies to evaluate the effect of variables and prevent any possible side effects in clinical situations. It is noticed that most studies have mainly focused on adhesives, enamel preparation and methods of curing which are discussed in this review. The literature was reviewed by searching databases, using micro-leakage and orthodontic bonding as the keywords . Having found the relevant studies, the researchers entered them into the database. After reviewing numerous studies conducted in this field, the type of adhesive or curing method was not found to have determinative role in the value of micro-leakage although more standardized studies are needed. PMID:28959751

  13. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vũ Bezin, Jérémi; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric; de Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies.

  14. Management and prevention of chylous leakage after laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Han, L-P; Zhang, H-M; Abha, H-D; Liu, T; Zhang, X-P

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the development and management of chylous leakage after laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. From July 2006 to September 2013, 13 cases of chylous leakage after the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (6 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 4 cases of gastric cancer, 2 cases of ovarian cancer, 1 case of endometrial cancer) were studied to analyze the occurrence, development and management of chylous leakage. In 3 cases (2 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 1 case of gastric cancer) massive amount of milky fluid drainage was be seen after the first two days post operation. Dietary intervention, TPN (total parenteral nutrition), somatostatin therapy, maintenance of continuous drainage helped to successfully manage the condition in about 1 month duration. In the remaining 10 cases, chylous leakage appeared after restoring normal diet. Managed with changes in diet and maintenance of unobstructed drainage, they were cured in about 2 weeks after treatment. There was significant reduction in drain output, ultrasonography did not reveal presence of free fluid collection in abdomen, and the patients were in good condition without signs and symptoms of infections. Chylous leakage is a rare complication of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Surgeons should be familiar with laparoscopic techniques, relevant anatomy and be aware of the fact that the effect of CO2 pressure and use of ultrasonic knife to occlude the lymphatic vessel can transiently block the leakage making the surgeon overlook them. Routine placement of indwelling drainage tube, immediate diagnosis, dietary modification, TPN, somatostatin and drainage are the modalities of conservative management.

  15. Energy Efficient High-Pressure Turbine Leakage Technology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The leakage test program was one of such supporting technology programs structured to provide guidance to the Energy Efficient Engine High Pressure Turbine Component Design Effort. Leakage reduction techniques were identified and evaluated. Test models were used to simulate component leak paths and to evaluate leakage reduction techniques. These models simulated the blade/disk attachment, the vane inner platform attachment, and the vane outer platform attachment combined with the blade outer airseal. Disk blade attachment testing indicated that leakage in this area could be reduced to very low levels by paying careful attention to the tolerances along the contact surface between the blade vibration damper and the blade platform contact surface. The aim of feather seal testing was to achieve a goal for an effective leakage gap of one mil (.001 inch) per inch of feather seal length. Results indicated that effective gaps even below the goal level were achievable by (1) maintaining close tolerances between feather seals and their slots to minimize end gaps and limit seal rotation, (2) avoiding feather seal overlap, and (3) minimizing feather seal intersections. W seals were shown to be effective leakage control devices. Wire rope, in its present state of development, was shown not to be an effective sealing concept for application to the component design.

  16. Acoustical Detection Of Leakage In A Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, Richard L.; Petty, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    Abnormal combustion excites characteristic standing wave. Acoustical leak-detection system gives early warning of failure, enabling operating personnel to stop combustion process and repair spray bar before leak grows large enough to cause damage. Applicable to engines, gas turbines, furnaces, and other machines in which acoustic emissions at known frequencies signify onset of damage. Bearings in rotating machines monitored for emergence of characteristic frequencies shown in previous tests associated with incipient failure. Also possible to monitor for signs of trouble at multiple frequencies by feeding output of transducer simultaneously to multiple band-pass filters and associated circuitry, including separate trigger circuit set to appropriate level for each frequency.

  17. An objective comparison of leakage between commonly used earplugs.

    PubMed

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Collins, William O

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the efficacy of commonly used earplugs using an anatomically correct ear model. The total volume and rate of water that leaked past the earplug and subsequent defect in the tympanic membrane over separately measured 30, 60, 120, and 180-second intervals were recorded. Scenarios tested included a control with no earplug, custom molded earplug (Precision Laboratories, Orlando, FL), Mack's plug (Warren, MI), Doc's plug (Santa Cruz, CA), and cotton balls coated with petroleum jelly. All plugs tested resulted in less leakage at all time points when compared with no plug (P < .05). At 30 seconds, the custom molded, Mack's and Doc's plugs all showed significantly less leakage when compared with the cotton ball coated with petroleum jelly (P < .05). At 60, 120, and 180 seconds, Mack's, Doc's, and the cotton plugs all showed significantly less leakage compared with the customized plug (P < .05). At 120 and 180 seconds, Mack's plugs had significant less leakage than the cotton plug (P < .05). Among the types of plugs, the molded variety (Mack's) showed the least volume and lowest leakage rate (f(4,45) = 94 [P < .001]). In addition, Doc's and cotton balls coated with petroleum jelly were more effective than the customized earplugs. If the clinician feels that middle ear and external canal water exposure should be minimized, then use of earplugs, particularly the moldable variety, merits further consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    SciT

    Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38)more » after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.« less

  19. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.E.; Dinc, O.S.; Bagepalli, B.S.; Correia, V.H.; Aksit, M.F.

    1996-04-23

    A gas-path leakage seal is described for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the ``plane`` of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member. 4 figs.

  20. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Christopher E.; Dinc, Osman S.; Bagepalli, Bharat S.; Correia, Victor H.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    1996-01-01

    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the "plane" of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member.

  1. Fully Automatic Segmentation of Fluorescein Leakage in Subjects With Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Hossein; Allingham, Michael J.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To create and validate software to automatically segment leakage area in real-world clinical fluorescein angiography (FA) images of subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods. Fluorescein angiography images obtained from 24 eyes of 24 subjects with DME were retrospectively analyzed. Both video and still-frame images were obtained using a Heidelberg Spectralis 6-mode HRA/OCT unit. We aligned early and late FA frames in the video by a two-step nonrigid registration method. To remove background artifacts, we subtracted early and late FA frames. Finally, after postprocessing steps, including detection and inpainting of the vessels, a robust active contour method was utilized to obtain leakage area in a 1500-μm-radius circular region centered at the fovea. Images were captured at different fields of view (FOVs) and were often contaminated with outliers, as is the case in real-world clinical imaging. Our algorithm was applied to these images with no manual input. Separately, all images were manually segmented by two retina specialists. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of manual interobserver, manual intraobserver, and automatic methods were calculated. Results. The mean accuracy was 0.86 ± 0.08 for automatic versus manual, 0.83 ± 0.16 for manual interobserver, and 0.90 ± 0.08 for manual intraobserver segmentation methods. Conclusions. Our fully automated algorithm can reproducibly and accurately quantify the area of leakage of clinical-grade FA video and is congruent with expert manual segmentation. The performance was reliable for different DME subtypes. This approach has the potential to reduce time and labor costs and may yield objective and reproducible quantitative measurements of DME imaging biomarkers. PMID:25634978

  2. Fully automatic segmentation of fluorescein leakage in subjects with diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Hossein; Allingham, Michael J; Mettu, Priyatham S; Cousins, Scott W; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-29

    To create and validate software to automatically segment leakage area in real-world clinical fluorescein angiography (FA) images of subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME). Fluorescein angiography images obtained from 24 eyes of 24 subjects with DME were retrospectively analyzed. Both video and still-frame images were obtained using a Heidelberg Spectralis 6-mode HRA/OCT unit. We aligned early and late FA frames in the video by a two-step nonrigid registration method. To remove background artifacts, we subtracted early and late FA frames. Finally, after postprocessing steps, including detection and inpainting of the vessels, a robust active contour method was utilized to obtain leakage area in a 1500-μm-radius circular region centered at the fovea. Images were captured at different fields of view (FOVs) and were often contaminated with outliers, as is the case in real-world clinical imaging. Our algorithm was applied to these images with no manual input. Separately, all images were manually segmented by two retina specialists. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of manual interobserver, manual intraobserver, and automatic methods were calculated. The mean accuracy was 0.86 ± 0.08 for automatic versus manual, 0.83 ± 0.16 for manual interobserver, and 0.90 ± 0.08 for manual intraobserver segmentation methods. Our fully automated algorithm can reproducibly and accurately quantify the area of leakage of clinical-grade FA video and is congruent with expert manual segmentation. The performance was reliable for different DME subtypes. This approach has the potential to reduce time and labor costs and may yield objective and reproducible quantitative measurements of DME imaging biomarkers. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage in intracranial hypotension syndrome: usefulness of indirect findings in radionuclide cisternography for detection and treatment monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Tomoaki; Aoki, Takatoshi; Tomoda, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Takeshita, Iwao; Ohno, Masato; Korogi, Yukunori

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate indirect findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage on radionuclide cisternography and their changes after treatment. This study was approved by the hospital's institutional review board and informed consent was obtained before each examination. A total of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) syndrome underwent radionuclide cisternography, and 27 patients who had direct findings of CSF leakage on radionuclide cisternography were selected for this evaluation. They were 16 males and 11 females, aged between 26 and 58 years. Sequential images of radionuclide cisternography were acquired at 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after injection. We assessed the presence or absence of 4 indirect findings; early visualization of bladder activity, no visualization of activity over the brain convexities, rapid disappearance of spinal activity, and abnormal visualization of the root sleeves. Changes of the direct and indirect findings after treatment were also evaluated in 14 patients who underwent epidural blood patch treatment. Early visualization of bladder activity was found in all 27 patients. Seven of 27 (25.9%) patients showed no activity over the brain convexities. Rapid disappearance of spinal activity and abnormal root sleeve visualization were present in 2 (7.4%) and 5 (18.5%) patients, respectively. After epidural blood patch, both direct CSF leakage findings and indirect findings of early visualization of bladder activity had disappeared or improved in 12 of 14 patients (85.7%). The other indirect findings also disappeared after treatment in all cases. Indirect findings of radionuclide cisternography, especially early visualization of bladder activity, may be useful in the diagnosis and posttreatment follow-up of CSF leakage.

  4. Hydrogeology from 10,000 ft below: lessons learned in applying pulse testing for leakage detection in a carbon sequestration formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.; Freifeld, B. M.; Islam, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring techniques capable of deep subsurface detection are desirable for early warning and leakage pathway identification in geologic carbon storage formations. This work investigates the feasibility of a leakage detection technique based on pulse testing, which is a traditional hydrogeological characterization tool. In pulse testing, the monitoring reservoir is stimulated at a fixed frequency and the acquired pressure perturbation signals are analyzed in the frequency domain to detect potential deviations in the reservoir's frequency domain response function. Unlike traditional time-domain analyses, the frequency-domain analysis aims to minimize the interference of reservoir noise by imposing coded injection patterns such that the reservoir responses to injection can be uniquely determined. We have established the theoretical basis of the approach in previous work. Recently, field validation of this pressure-based, leakage detection technique was conducted at a CO2-EOR site located in Mississippi, USA. During the demonstration, two sets of experiments were performed using 90-min and 150-min pulsing periods, for both with and without leak scenarios. Because of the lack of pre-existing leakage pathways, artificial leakage CO2 was simulated by rate-controlled venting from one of the monitoring wells. Our results show that leakage events caused a significant deviation in the amplitude of the frequency response function, indicating that pulse testing may be used as a cost-effective monitoring technique with a strong potential for automation.

  5. Using the Bongwana natural CO2 release to understand leakage processes and develop monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David; Johnson, Gareth; Hicks, Nigel; Bond, Clare; Gilfillan, Stuart; Kremer, Yannick; Lister, Bob; Nkwane, Mzikayise; Maupa, Thulani; Munyangane, Portia; Robey, Kate; Saunders, Ian; Shipton, Zoe; Pearce, Jonathan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Natural CO2 leakage along the Bongwana Fault in South Africa is being studied to help understand processes of CO2 leakage and develop monitoring protocols. The Bongwana Fault crops out over approximately 80 km in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. In outcrop the fault is expressed as a broad fracture corridor in Dwyka Tillite, with fractures oriented approximately N-S. Natural emissions of CO2 occur at various points along the fault, manifest as travertine cones and terraces, bubbling in the rivers and as gas fluxes through soil. Exposed rock outcrop shows evidence for Fe-staining around fractures and is locally extensively kaolinitised. The gas has also been released through a shallow water well, and was exploited commercially in the past. Preliminary studies have been carried out to better document the surface emissions using near surface gas monitoring, understand the origin of the gas through major gas composition and stable and noble gas isotopes and improve understanding of the structural controls on gas leakage through mapping. In addition the impact of the leaking CO2 on local water sources (surface and ground) is being investigated, along with the seismic activity of the fault. The investigation will help to build technical capacity in South Africa and to develop monitoring techniques and plans for a future CO2 storage pilot there. Early results suggest that CO2 leakage is confined to a relatively small number of spatially-restricted locations along the weakly seismically active fault. Fracture permeability appears to be the main method by which the CO2 migrates to the surface. The bulk of the CO2 is of deep origin with a minor contribution from near surface biogenic processes as determined by major gas composition. Water chemistry, including pH, DO and TDS is notably different between CO2-rich and CO2-poor sites. Soil gas content and flux effectively delineates the fault trace in active leakage sites. The fault provides an effective testing ground for

  6. Crack detection and leakage monitoring on reinforced concrete pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qian; Kong, Qingzhao; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2015-11-01

    Reinforced concrete underground pipelines are some of the most widely used types of structures in water transportation systems. Cracks and leakage are the leading causes of pipeline structural failures which directly results in economic losses and environmental hazards. In this paper, the authors propose a piezoceramic based active sensing approach to detect the cracks and the further leakage of concrete pipelines. Due to the piezoelectric properties, piezoceramic material can be utilized as both the actuator and the sensor in the active sensing approach. The piezoceramic patch, which is sandwiched between protective materials called ‘smart aggregates,’ can be safely embedded into concrete structures. Circumferential and axial cracks were investigated. A wavelet packet-based energy analysis was developed to distinguish the type of crack and determine the further leakage based on different stress wave energy attenuation propagated through the cracks.

  7. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    SciT

    Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1999-07-05

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of themore » tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.« less

  8. Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Both used feedwater -supplied buffer water as required by advanced combined cycle steam turbomachinery. It was shown to be advantageous, at least from...RD-fi149 372 LOW LEAKAGE’TURBINE SHAFT SEALS FOR ADVANCED COMBINED 1/2- CYCLE SYSTEMS(U) SOLAR TURBINES INC SAN DIEGO CA G W HOSANG NOV 84 SR84-R...4622-36 N88824-7B-C-5345 UNCLASSIFIED F/1 i/i NL AIONA L RUEA OF B 20NADS16 Final Report N 4 <Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle

  9. Evaluation of leakage flux out of a dental magnetic attachment.

    PubMed

    Nishida, M; Tegawa, Y; Kinouchi, Y

    2007-01-01

    A dental magnetic attachment is a device to retain dental prostheses such as overdentures by magnetic attraction. As compared with mechanical attachments, the magnetic attachment has a superior retention properties due to less lateral pressure to its abutment tooth, and hence it has come to be widely used, particularly for retaining overdentures. Because the dental magnetic attachments are a device used in the mouth, the tissues in the mouth are exposed to the magnetic fields leaking out of the magnetic attachments for a long time. It may therefore be important to discuss biological effects of the leakage magnetic fields. It is required at first to evaluate the strength of the leakage magnetic fields.

  10. Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation covaries with Agulhas leakage

    DOE PAGES

    Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Morrison, Adele K.; ...

    2015-12-10

    The interoceanic transfer of seawater between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic, ‘Agulhas leakage’, forms a choke point for the overturning circulation in the global ocean. Here, by combining output from a series of high-resolution ocean and climate models with in situ and satellite observations, we construct a time series of Agulhas leakage for the period 1870–2014. The time series demonstrates the impact of Southern Hemisphere westerlies on decadal timescales. Agulhas leakage shows a correlation with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation on multi-decadal timescales; the former leading by 15 years. Lastly, this is relevant for climate in the North Atlantic.

  11. Anastomotic leakage after side-to-end anastomosis for rectal cancer: does leakage location matter?

    PubMed

    Hain, Elisabeth; Maggiori, Léon; Zappa, Magaly; Prost À la Denise, Justine; Panis, Yves

    2018-01-06

    To assess outcome according to location of anastomotic leakage (AL) after side-to-end stapler or manual low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis following laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. All patients presenting with symptomatic or asymptomatic AL after TME and side-to-end low anastomosis for rectal cancer performed from 2005 to 2014 were identified from our prospective database. CT-scans with contrast enema were reviewed to assess location of AL origin. Among 279 patients who underwent TME with side-to-end anastomosis from 2005 to 2014, 70 patients presented with AL and were included: 43 (61%) patients with AL on the circular anastomosis (CAL) were compared to 27 (39%) with AL on the transverse stapling line of the colonic stump (TAL). CAL and TAL were associated with similar rates of symptomatic AL (63% versus 48%, respectively; p=0.339), severe postoperative morbidity rate (33% versus 18%; p=0.313), and long-term outcomes, including definitive stoma rate (10 versus 11%; p=0.622), and major low anterior resection syndrome rate (56% vs 57%; p=0.961). Our study showed that whatever the location of AL on a side-to-end low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis after TME for cancer, both short and long-term outcomes are similar. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Valve leakage inspection, testing, and maintenance process

    SciT

    Aikin, J.A.; Reinwald, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-Research Company (AECL-RC), Chalk River, has more than 50 person-years dedicated toward the leak-free valve. In the early 1970s, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) developed valve stem live-loading and recently completed the packing tests for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-funded Valve Packing Improvement Study. Current safety concerns with asbestos-based valve packings and the difficulty in removing newer graphite packings prompted CRNL to investigate methods to improve valve repacking procedures. The present practice of valve packing replacement is very labor-intensive, requiring use of hand tools such as corkscrew devices and special packing picks. Use ofmore » water jets to cut or fragment the packing for withdrawal from the stuffing box does improve the process, but removal of the lantern or junk rings is still difficult. To address these problems, AECL-RC has developed a unique valve maintenance process designed to reduce person-rem exposures, the risk of scoring the stem or stuffing box, and maintenance costs and to improve the engineering quality of valve repair.« less

  13. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  14. Osmotic Stressing, Membrane Leakage, and Fluorescence: An Introductory Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seu, Kalani J.

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence demonstration is described that incorporates several fundamental aspects of an introductory biochemistry course. A variation of a known leakage assay is utilized to prepare vesicles containing a quenched fluorophore. The vesicles are exposed to several osmotic environments ranging from isotonic to hypotonic. The degree of vesicle…

  15. Leakage of fluid around endotracheal tube cuffs: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Ewald, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the leakage of liquid past the cuffs of tracheal tubes in fresh frozen human heads. Methods Six truncated fresh frozen heads were used and intubated with 8.0 mm endotracheal tubes. The intracuff pressures tested were 30 and 100 cmH2O. Subsequently, 20 ml of each of two oral antiseptic rinses (0.2% chlorhexidine and octenidine [octenidol®, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany]) was applied for thirty seconds in the mouth. During the trial, leakage of the cuffs was examined. Results The sealing between the tracheal cuff and tracheal wall was leakage-proof for all tested intracuff pressures and all tested antiseptic rinses. However, approximately 5.6 ml and 1.8 ml leaked into the esophagus and remained as a cuff-puddle, respectively. Conclusions The sealing between an endotracheal tube cuff with an intracuff pressure of 30 cmH2O and the tracheal wall is leakage-proof during oral care with antiseptic rinsing. An increase of intracuff pressure to 100 cmH2O does not appear to be required. PMID:24363847

  16. Leakage of fluid in different types of tracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Winklmaier, U; Wüst, K; Schiller, S; Wallner, F

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate leakage of liquids, i.e., water and saliva, past low-pressure cuffs of tracheostomy tubes. Three different types of tracheostomy tubes, TRACOE vario (TRACOE Medical GmbH, Germany), Rüsch Ultra-Tracheoflex (Rüsch GmbH, Germany), and Portex Blue Line Ultra (Smiths Medical, UK) were tested in isolated pig tracheas. Sixty samples (10 tubes each of 7- and 8-mm inner diameter of each type) were used. Four different experiments were devised: type 1 (water and artificial ventilation), type 2 (water and no artificial ventilation), type 3 (saliva and artificial ventilation), and type 4 (saliva and no artificial ventilation). Six milliliters of water or artificial saliva were infused over the cuff and the volume of fluid that leaked past the cuff was measured after 5, 10, and 15 min. Intracuff pressure was also measured three times. The saliva experiments resulted in less leakage than the water experiments. Leakage after treatment with water or artificial saliva is higher without artificial ventilation than with ventilation. The amount of leakage among the tubes with respect to manufacturer showed statistically significant results. However, there were no differences among tracheostomy tubes with respect to internal diameter.

  17. Thresholds of information leakage for speech security outside meeting rooms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew; Hopkins, Carl; Worrall, Ken; Jackson, Tim

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes an approach to provide speech security outside meeting rooms where a covert listener might attempt to extract confidential information. Decision-based experiments are used to establish a relationship between an objective measurement of the Speech Transmission Index (STI) and a subjective assessment relating to the threshold of information leakage. This threshold is defined for a specific percentage of English words that are identifiable with a maximum safe vocal effort (e.g., "normal" speech) used by the meeting participants. The results demonstrate that it is possible to quantify an offset that links STI with a specific threshold of information leakage which describes the percentage of words identified. The offsets for male talkers are shown to be approximately 10 dB larger than for female talkers. Hence for speech security it is possible to determine offsets for the threshold of information leakage using male talkers as the "worst case scenario." To define a suitable threshold of information leakage, the results show that a robust definition can be based upon 1%, 2%, or 5% of words identified. For these percentages, results are presented for offset values corresponding to different STI values in a range from 0.1 to 0.3.

  18. Renal tubular leakage complicating microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism.

    PubMed Central

    Eason, J; Hall, C M; Trounce, J Q

    1995-01-01

    We describe a male infant with phenotypic and radiological features of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III. He showed severe osteoporosis and biochemical derangement owing to renal tubular leakage, which has not previously been reported in this condition. He died aged 5 months. Images PMID:7783178

  19. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section 870.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable...

  20. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure must be... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-5 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test...

  1. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test... pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection pressure is tank...

  2. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test... pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection pressure is tank...

  3. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure..., the test pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection...

  4. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test pressure must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-5 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure...

  5. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test... pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection pressure is tank...

  6. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure must be... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-5 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test...

  7. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure must be... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-5 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test...

  8. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test..., and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP. [Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by...

  9. 49 CFR 178.347-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test... pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection pressure is tank...

  10. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test..., and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP. [Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by...

  11. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test..., and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP. [Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by...

  12. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test..., and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP. [Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by...

  13. 49 CFR 178.346-5 - Pressure and leakage tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure must be... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-5 Pressure and leakage tests. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure test. Test...

  14. 49 CFR 178.348-5 - Pressure and leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-5 Pressure and leakage test. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with § 178.345-13 and this section. (b) Pressure....5 times tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP. [Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section 870.2640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4102 Spillage and leakage. Flammable or combustible...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... liquid spillage or leakage shall be removed in a timely manner or controlled to prevent a fire hazard. ...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4102 - Spillage and leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... liquid spillage or leakage shall be removed in a timely manner or controlled to prevent a fire hazard. ...

  6. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  7. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  8. Neurogenic airway microvascular leakage induced by toluene inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tatsuo; Kamijima, Michihiro; Miyake, Mio

    2012-06-15

    Toluene is a representative airborne occupational and domestic pollutant that causes eye and respiratory tract irritation. We investigated whether a single inhalation of toluene elicits microvascular leakage in the rat airway. We also evaluated the effects of CP-99,994, a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, and ketotifen, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist with mast cell-stabilizing properties, on the airway response. The content of Evans blue dye that extravasated into the tissues was measured as an index of plasma leakage. Toluene (18-450 ppm, 10 min) concentration-dependently induced dye leakage into the trachea and main bronchi of anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats. Toluene at concentrations of ≥ 50 and ≥ 30 ppm caused significant responses in the trachea and main bronchi, respectively, which both peaked after exposure to 135 ppm toluene for 10 min. This response was abolished by CP-99,994 (5 mg/kg i.v.), but not by ketotifen (1mg/kg i.v.). Nebulized phosphoramidon (1 mM, 1 min), a neutral endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, significantly enhanced the response induced by toluene (135 ppm, 10 min) compared with nebulized 0.9% saline (1 min). These results show that toluene can rapidly increase airway plasma leakage that is predominantly mediated by tachykinins endogenously released from airway sensory nerves. However, mast cell activation might not be important in this airway response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84...

  10. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84...

  11. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84...

  12. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84...

  13. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84...

  14. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  15. 75 FR 29699 - Total Inward Leakage Requirements for Respirators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... or other half-mask respirator inward leakage measurement, and offer any additional comments on the..., facsimile (412) 386-4089, e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of... order to conduct tests and prepare responses. On April 20, 2010, NIOSH responded by reopening the docket...

  16. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  17. Factors related to ostomy leakage in the community setting.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe demographic and clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage from those discharged from a major medical center during a 2-year period. A convenience sample of 198 persons with an ostomy was obtained using the ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes for colostomy, ileostomy, and ileal conduit for patients who were discharged from the medical center within the time frame of July 2009 to July 2011. One hundred seven participants (55%) returned a completed survey. Respondents included 57 men (53%) and 50 women (47%). The mean age was 60 years with age range from 23 to 91 years. Fecal ostomies made up the majority of the stomas representing 71 patients (66%). A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used to describe clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage for those discharged from a major academic medical center over a 2-year period of time. Participants were mailed an introductory letter from the principal investigator, a self-administered questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Ninety-three patients (87%) reported leakage; however, 48 patients (45%) stated that they did not leak often. A logistic regression was estimated to determine which variables were significant predictors of the dependent variable of leaking status (no/seldom leaking vs more frequent leaking). Two variables were individually significant predictors, sex (P = .021) and 2-piece pouch (P = .015). Women were 4 times more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group than were men. Those who were wearing 2-piece pouches were 78% less likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Participants with ileostomies or urostomies were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group and those with peristomal skin irritation were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Findings from this study reveal that women were more likely to experience leakage than men and that wearing a 2-piece

  18. Breakdown of equipartition in diffuse fields caused by energy leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerin, L.

    2017-05-01

    Equipartition is a central concept in the analysis of random wavefields which stipulates that in an infinite scattering medium all modes and propagation directions become equally probable at long lapse time in the coda. The objective of this work is to examine quantitatively how this conclusion is affected in an open waveguide geometry, with a particular emphasis on seismological applications. To carry our this task, the problem is recast as a spectral analysis of the radiative transfer equation. Using a discrete ordinate approach, the smallest eigenvalue and associated eigenfunction of the transfer equation, which control the asymptotic intensity distribution in the waveguide, are determined numerically with the aid of a shooting algorithm. The inverse of this eigenvalue may be interpreted as the leakage time of the diffuse waves out of the waveguide. The associated eigenfunction provides the depth and angular distribution of the specific intensity. The effect of boundary conditions and scattering anisotropy is investigated in a series of numerical experiments. Two propagation regimes are identified, depending on the ratio H∗ between the thickness of the waveguide and the transport mean path in the layer. The thick layer regime H∗ > 1 has been thoroughly studied in the literature in the framework of diffusion theory and is briefly considered. In the thin layer regime H∗ < 1, we find that both boundary conditions and scattering anisotropy leave a strong imprint on the leakage effect. A parametric study reveals that in the presence of a flat free surface, the leakage time is essentially controlled by the mean free time of the waves in the layer in the limit H∗ → 0. By contrast, when the free surface is rough, the travel time of ballistic waves propagating through the crust becomes the limiting factor. For fixed H∗, the efficacy of leakage, as quantified by the inverse coda quality factor, increases with scattering anisotropy. For sufficiently thin layers

  19. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Reduces Vascular Leakage and Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castillo, Nuria; Zandi, Souska; Nakao, Shintaro; Ito, Yasuhiro; Noda, Kousuke; She, Haicheng; Ahmed, Muna; Frimmel, Sonja; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone with diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilatory properties. ANP blocks vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and signaling in vitro; however, its role in vascular leakage and angiogenesis is unknown. In vitro, retinal barrier permeability (transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)) was measured in cultured retinal endothelial (HuREC) and retinal epithelial (ARPE-19) cells with VEGF (10 ng/ml), ANP (1 pM to 1 μmol/L), and/or isatin, an ANP receptor antagonist. In vivo, blood-retinal barrier (BRB) leakage was studied using the Evans Blue dye technique in rats treated with intravitreal injections of ANP, VEGF, or vehicle. Choroidal neovascularization was generated by laser injury, and 7 days later, lesion size and leakage was quantitated. ANP significantly reversed VEGF-induced BRB TEER reduction in both HuREC and ARPE-19 cells, modeling the inner and the outer BRB, respectively. Isatin, a specific ANP receptor antagonist, reversed ANP’s effect. ANP reduced the response of ARPE-19 cells to VEGF apically but not basolaterally, suggesting polarized expression of the ANP receptors in these cells. ANP’s TEER response was concentration but not time dependent. In vivo, ANP significantly reduced VEGF-induced BRB leakage and the size of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization lesions. In sum, ANP is an effective inhibitor of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and angiogenesis in vivo. These results may lead to new treatments for ocular diseases where VEGF plays a central role, such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. PMID:19910509

  20. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system

    PubMed Central

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Carver, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out‐of field leakage dose. Specifically, off‐axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out‐of‐field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out‐of‐field dose profiles. Off‐axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in‐plane, cross‐plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10×10 and 20×20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in‐field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (±3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out‐of‐field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross‐plane out‐of‐field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in‐plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X‐ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10×10 and 20×20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding modeling of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as

  1. Evaluation of particulate filtering respirators using inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing--Korean experience.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Lee, Jinheon

    2005-10-01

    Korean certification regulation for particulate filtering respirators requires inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing according to European Standard EN 13274-1, and the standard levels of compliance are similar to those of the European Standard. This study was conducted to evaluate particulate filtering respirators being commercially used in the Korean market using an IL or TIL test and the validity of standard level in Korea. Three half masks and 10 filtering facepieces (two top class, four 1st class and four 2nd class)-a total of 13 brand name respirators-were selected for the test with panels of 10 subjects. Each subject was classified with nine facial dimension grid squares in accordance with face length and lip length. IL or TIL testing was conducted at the laboratory of the 3M Innovation Center in which the experimental instruments and systems were established in compliance with European standards. The testing procedure followed EN 13274-1 (2001). As expected, leakages of half masks were less than those of filtering facepieces and the latter were significantly different among brands. TILs of the 1st class filtering facepieces were found to be much more than those of the 2nd class and the result may cause a wearer to get confused when selecting a mask. The main route leakage for filtering facepieces may not be the filter medium but the face seal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop well-fitting filtering facepieces for Koreans. Because leakages were significantly different for different facial dimensions, a defined test panel for IL or TIL testing according to country or race should be developed. A more precise method to demonstrate fit, for example, fit testing such as in the US regulations, will be needed before IL or TIL testing or when selecting a respirator. Another finding implies that geometric mean of five exercises for IL or TIL may be better than arithmetic mean to establish a standard individual subject mean.

  2. External validation of the NUn score for predicting anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection.

    PubMed

    Paireder, Matthias; Jomrich, Gerd; Asari, Reza; Kristo, Ivan; Gleiss, Andreas; Preusser, Matthias; Schoppmann, Sebastian F

    2017-08-29

    Early detection of anastomotic leakage (AL) after oesophageal resection for malignancy is crucial. This retrospective study validates a risk score, predicting AL, which includes C-reactive protein, albumin and white cell count in patients undergoing oesophageal resection between 2003 and 2014. For validation of the NUn score a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is estimated. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) is reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). Among 258 patients (79.5% male) 32 patients showed signs of anastomotic leakage (12.4%). NUn score in our data has a median of 9.3 (range 6.2-17.6). The odds ratio for AL was 1.31 (CI 1.03-1.67; p = 0.028). AUC for AL was 0.59 (CI 0.47-0.72). Using the original cutoff value of 10, the sensitivity was 45.2% an the specificity was 73.8%. This results in a positive predictive value of 19.4% and a negative predictive value of 90.6%. The proportion of variation in AL occurrence, which is explained by the NUn score, was 2.5% (PEV = 0.025). This study provides evidence for an external validation of a simple risk score for AL after oesophageal resection. In this cohort, the NUn score is not useful due to its poor discrimination.

  3. LEAKAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTI-CONDUCTOR CABLES AND CONDUIT SEALS

    SciT

    Nelson, C.; Becker, S.

    1962-12-12

    Pipe threads in conduit seal-offs can be made air tight by use of a two- part thiokol-epoxy sealant such as Sika.'' This material bonds to metal but does not harden; thus, threaded parts can be separated. Gas seals in conduit sealoffs can be made by use of Chico, Type A'' sealant. This material is hard and can withstand high pressure differentials. However, there is a detectable leakage through Chico, Type A.'' Sika'' can be used to make a suitable gas- tight seal. However, this material is flexible and will not support long cable lengths. A dual pour method is suggestedmore » of first casting Chico'' around the connectors to obtain strength in the seal and then using either Sika'' or Micro-Preg'' to produce a tight seal. Leakage through the cable, between strands of conductor, can be reduced by either soldering the ends or dipping the ends in conductive epoxy paint. (auth)« less

  4. Turbocharger with sliding piston, and having vanes and leakage dams

    SciT

    Roberts, Quentin; Alnega, Ahmed

    2011-12-06

    A turbocharger having a sliding piston for regulating exhaust gas flow into the turbine wheel includes a set of first vanes mounted on a fixed first wall of the turbine nozzle and projecting axially toward an opposite second wall of the nozzle, and/or a set of second vanes mounted on the end of the piston and projecting in an opposite axial direction toward the first wall of the nozzle. For the/each set of vanes, there are leakage dams formed on the wall that is adjacent the vane tips when the piston is closed. The leakage dams are closely adjacent themore » vane tips and discourage exhaust gas from leaking in a generally radial direction past the vane tips as the piston just begins to open from its fully closed position.« less

  5. Gas-path leakage seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Aksit, M.F.; Farrell, T.R.

    1999-08-10

    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a turbine (such as combustor casing segments of a gas turbine). The seal includes a flexible and generally imperforate metal sheet assemblage having opposing first and second surfaces and two opposing raised edges extending a generally identical distance above and below the surfaces. A first cloth layer assemblage has a thickness generally equal to the previously-defined identical distance and is superimposed on the first surface between the raised edges. A second cloth layer assemblage is generally identical to the first cloth layer assemblage and is superimposed on the second surface between the raised edges. 5 figs.

  6. Microvascular leakage of plasma proteins after PUVA and UVA

    SciT

    Staberg, B.; Worm, A.M.; Rossing, N.

    1982-04-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), is a parameter of the leakage of macromolecules from the total microvasculature. In patients with psoriasis short-term PUVA treatment induces an increase in TERalb. In this study TERalb was measured in 3 groups of normal humans treated with PUVA, UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen. Treatment with PUVA and UVA caused a statistically significant increase in TERalb, whereas treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen did not induce any measurable changes. It is concluded that the UVA irradiation causes the abnormal leakage of macromolecules, whereas psoralen is not the responsible component. Furthermore the phenomenon can be elicited in normals andmore » is not based on a preexisting psoriasis.« less

  7. Simulating reservoir leakage in ground-water models

    Fenske, J.P.; Leake, S.A.; Prudic, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Leakage to ground water resulting from the expansion and contraction of reservoirs cannot be easily simulated by most ground-water flow models. An algorithm, entitled the Reservoir Package, was developed for the United States Geological Survey (USGS) three-dimensional finite-difference modular ground-water flow model MODFLOW. The Reservoir Package automates the process of specifying head-dependent boundary cells, eliminating the need to divide a simulation into many stress periods while improving accuracy in simulating changes in ground-water levels resulting from transient reservoir stage. Leakage between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer is simulated for each model cell corrresponding to the inundated area by multiplying the head difference between the reservoir and the aquifer with the hydraulic conductance of the reservoir-bed sediments.

  8. Gas-path leakage seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Farrell, Thomas Raymond

    1999-01-01

    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a turbine (such as combustor casing segments of a gas turbine). The seal includes a flexible and generally imperforate metal sheet assemblage having opposing first and second surfaces and two opposing raised edges extending a generally identical distance above and below the surfaces. A first cloth layer assemblage has a thickness generally equal to the previously-defined identical distance and is superimposed on the first surface between the raised edges. A second cloth layer assemblage is generally identical to the first cloth layer assemblage and is superimposed on the second surface between the raised edges.

  9. Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage-Resilient Code Randomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-30

    Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage -Resilient Code Randomization Robert Rudd MIT Lincoln Laboratory Thomas Hobson MIT Lincoln Laboratory...Irvine Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi TU Darmstadt Hamed Okhravi MIT Lincoln Laboratory Abstract Information leakage vulnerabilities can allow adversaries to...bypass mitigations based on code randomization. This discovery motivates numerous techniques that diminish direct and indirect information leakage : (i

  10. Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage-Resilient Code Randomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage -Resilient Code Randomization Robert Rudd MIT Lincoln Laboratory Thomas Hobson MIT Lincoln Laboratory...Irvine Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi TU Darmstadt Hamed Okhravi MIT Lincoln Laboratory Abstract Information leakage vulnerabilities can allow adversaries to...bypass mitigations based on code randomization. This discovery motivates numerous techniques that diminish direct and indirect information leakage : (i

  11. 47 CFR 76.611 - Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television basic signal leakage... television basic signal leakage performance criteria. (a) No cable television system shall commence or... one of the following cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria: (1) prior to carriage...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1706 - Signal leakage logs and repair records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the probable cause of the leakage. The log shall be kept on file for a period of two years and shall... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal leakage logs and repair records. 76.1706... leakage logs and repair records. Cable operators shall maintain a log showing the date and location of...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1706 - Signal leakage logs and repair records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the probable cause of the leakage. The log shall be kept on file for a period of two years and shall... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal leakage logs and repair records. 76.1706... leakage logs and repair records. Cable operators shall maintain a log showing the date and location of...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... annual rate of refrigerant leakage from an air conditioning system in grams per year according to the... to the nearest tenth of a gram per year. The procedures of SAE J2727 may be used to determine leakage... nearest tenth of a gram per year. (b) The CO2-equivalent gram per mile leakage reduction used to calculate...

  15. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0045] Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of..., ``Leakage Tests on Packages for Radioactive Material.'' ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available... Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment'' approved February 1998. The NRC staff developed and...

  16. Relating Agulhas Leakage to the Agulhas Current Retroflection Location

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-03

    branch return flow of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Gordon, 1986; Weijer et al., 1999; Peeters et al., 2004; Biastoch et al., 2008a...demonstrated that the mesoscale dynamics reflected in the decadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Biastoch et al...Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturn - ing circulation , Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008a. Biastoch, A

  17. Thermogenic Wet Gas in Immature Caprock Sections: Leakage or Generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrakasa, Selegha; Beka, Francis; Ndukauba, Egesi

    2017-04-01

    Gas geochemistry, an aspect of Petroleum Geoscience is a growing science, various concepts has been used to evaluation potential source rock for shale gas while in conventional petroleum exploration similar concepts have been used to determine potential productive formation for liquid hydrocarbons. Prior to the present times, headspace gas data had been used to recognize by pass pays, serve as indicators of petroleum accumulations, evaluate maturity and productive capacity of corresponding formations, evaluate the maturity and source of gas accumulations. Integrating studies in bid to achieve high degree of accuracy, data on direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) such as oil stains, oil shows and seeps have been employed. Currently popular among professionals is the use of gas clouds on seismic cross sections. In contemporary times, advancement in gas geochemistry has witnessed the application of concepts on headspace gas to expound the efficiency of petroleum caprocks whose major role is to foster accumulation and preservation. This enables extricating potential leakage mechanism via caprock reservoir interface and unravel its corresponding migrational pathways. In this study thermogenic wet gas has been used as a dependable tool for delineating caprock leakage by discriminating migrant from indigenous hydrocarbons in caprock rock sections overlying the reservoirs. The thermogenic gas profile in corroboration with the thermogenic signature and maturity data were used. Summary statistics indicates that 60% of the 50 wells studied has wet gas up to 500m above the reservoir-caprock interface and 10% of the leaking wells are fracture prone leakage.The amount of wet gas ranges of up to 200,000 ppm in the caprock sections, this indicates pervasive leakage. Log view plots were modelled using Schlumbergers' Techlog, while descriptive lithologies were modeled using Zetawares' genesis.

  18. Binding and Leakage of Barium in Alginate Microbeads

    PubMed Central

    Mørch, Yrr A.; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M.; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Microbeads of alginate cross-linked with Ca2+ and/or Ba2+ are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared to high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. In order to reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. PMID:22700168

  19. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alternative magnetic flux leakage modalities for pipeline inspection

    SciT

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.; Sun, Y.S.

    1996-05-01

    Increasing quality consciousness is placing higher demands on the accuracy and reliability of inspection systems used in defect detection and characterization. Nondestructive testing techniques often rely on using multi-transducer approaches to obtain greater defect sensitivity. This paper investigates the possibility of taking advantage of alternative modalities associated with the standard magnetic flux leakage tool to obtain additional defect information, while still using a single excitation source.

  1. The Effect of Unsteady Wakes on Turbine Tip Gap Leakage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    low speed wind tunnel. The turbine blade shape for the experiment was the GE E 3 high pressure turbine stage 1 blade (Halila et al. 1982). The E 3...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Effect of Unsteady Wakes on Turbine Tip Gap Leakage...Gas turbines are found in military and civilian aircraft, ships, and power plants. Because of this widespread use, relatively small improvements

  2. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    U.S. Defense Science Board Task Force examined the effects and risks of outsourcing high performance microchip production to foreign countries [Off05...mapping methodology is developed and demon- strated to comprehensively assess the information leakage of arbitrary block cipher implementations. The...engineering poses a serious threat since it can en- able competitors or adversaries to bypass years of research and development through counterfeiting or

  3. Diagnosis and conservative management of intrathoracic leakage after oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Sauvanet, A; Baltar, J; Le Mee, J; Belghiti, J

    1998-10-01

    Although intrathoracic leakage is a major complication of oesophagectomy, precise data concerning diagnostic features and results of conservative treatment are lacking. From 1986 to 1994, 409 oesophagectomies with stapled oesophagogastrostomy were performed, including 358 Lewis-Tanner and 51 Sweet procedures. A water-soluble contrast swallow was routinely performed on day 7 or later, before oral intake was begun. All patients except one received conservative non-surgical treatment, including nutritional support and perianastomotic drainage. Leaks were diagnosed in 38 patients (9.3 per cent). The leakage rate was 7.8 per cent after the Lewis-Tanner procedure and 20 per cent after the Sweet procedure (P < 0.01). Eleven patients had no symptoms. Seven of the 27 patients with symptoms had a contrast swallow that was normal, and subsequently developed a confirmed fistula after the onset of oral intake. Five patients had to undergo reoperation. All asymptomatic patients and 18 symptomatic patients recovered. Nine patients died, mainly from multiple organ failure, including three who had reoperation for resection of the gastroplasty. The potential presence of clinically silent fistula and the deleterious role of oral intake still justify routine detection of leakage after oesophageal resection. Conservative treatment results in survival with preservation of the gastroplasty in most patients, unless multiple organ failure occurs.

  4. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    SciT

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematicmore » variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.« less

  5. Cholesterol suppresses membrane leakage by decreasing water penetrability.

    PubMed

    Bu, Bing; Crowe, Michael; Diao, Jiajie; Ji, Baohua; Li, Dechang

    2018-06-13

    Membrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that lies at the heart of enveloped virus infection, synaptic signaling, intracellular vesicle trafficking, gamete fertilization, and cell-cell fusion. Membrane fusion is initiated as two apposed membranes merge to a single bilayer called a hemifusion diaphragm. It is believed that the contents of the two fusing membranes are released through a fusion pore formed at the hemifusion diaphragm, and yet another possible pathway has been proposed in which an undefined pore may form outside the hemifusion diaphragm at the apposed membranes, leading to the so-called leaky fusion. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the evolution of the hemifusion diaphragm structure with various lipid compositions. We found that the lipid cholesterol decreased water penetrability to inhibit leakage pore formation. Biochemical leakage experiments support these simulation results. This study may shed light on the underlying mechanism of the evolution pathways of the hemifusion structure, especially the understanding of content leakage during membrane fusion.

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciT

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressuremore » relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.« less

  7. Pilot study on preventing anastomotic leakage in stapled gastroesophageal anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiming; Liu, Xiangzheng; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background This study explored how to improve the surgical technique to reduce or avoid anastomotic leakage. Methods From January 2012 to December 2016, 101 consecutive patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction underwent stapled gastroesophageal anastomosis. The procedure included creating a tube‐type stomach, fixing an inserted anvil, inspecting mucosa‐to‐mucosa alignment in the lumen under direct vision after firing the stapler, and, if found, manually repairing a rupture of the mucous membrane of the anastomosis. Results A rupture of the mucous membrane of the anastomosis was found in four out of the 101 patients and manually repaired. No postsurgical anastomotic leakage occurred. All patients recovered well and the average postoperative stay was 10.4 days. There was no mortality within 30 days after surgery. Conclusion It is critical to inspect the integrality of the luminal mucous membrane of the anastomosis under direct vision in order to prevent anastomotic leakage in surgical resection of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction malignancies. PMID:29130643

  8. Leakage flow simulation in a specific pump model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, P.; Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Dazin, A.; Bois, G.; Roussette, O.; Si, Q.

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the influence of leakage flow existing in SHF pump model on the analysis of internal flow behaviour inside the vane diffuser of the pump model performance using both experiments and calculations. PIV measurements have been performed at different hub to shroud planes inside one diffuser channel passage for a given speed of rotation and various flow rates. For each operating condition, the PIV measurements have been trigged with different angular impeller positions. The performances and the static pressure rise of the diffuser were also measured using a three-hole probe. The numerical simulations were carried out with Star CCM+ 8.06 code (RANS frozen and unsteady calculations). Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented and discussed for three flow rates. The performances of the diffuser obtained by numerical simulation results are compared to the performances obtained by three-hole probe indications. The comparisons show few influence of fluid leakage on global performances but a real improvement concerning the efficiency of the impeller, the pump and the velocity distributions. These results show that leakage is an important parameter that has to be taken into account in order to make improved comparisons between numerical approaches and experiments in such a specific model set up.

  9. SENSITIVITY OF THE HOUSE PRESSURE TEST FOR DUCT LEAKAGE TO VARIATIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF AIR LEAKAGE IN THE HOUSE ENVELOPE

    SciT

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    The house pressure test for air leakage in ducts calculates the signed difference between the supply and return leakage from the response of the air pressure in the house to operation of the system fan. The currently accepted version of this calculation was based on particular assumptions about how the house envelope leakage is distributed between the walls, ceiling, and floor. This report generalizes the equation to account for an arbitrary distribution of envelope leakage. It concludes that the currently accepted equation is usually accurate to within {+-}5%, but in a small proportion of cases the results may diverge bymore » 50% or more.« less

  10. Copper-induced activation of TRP channels promotes extracellular calcium entry and activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ectocarpus siliculosus.

    PubMed

    González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2018-05-01

    The existence of functional Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels was analyzed in Ectocarpus siliculosus using agonists of human TRPs and specific antagonists of TRPA1, TRPC5, TRPM8 and TRPV; intracellular calcium was detected for 60 min. Increases in intracellular calcium were observed at 13, 29, 39 and 50-52 min, which appeared to be mediated by the activation of TRPM8/V1 at 13 min, TRPV1 at 29 min, TRPA1/V1 at 39 min and TRPA1/C5 at 50-52 min. In addition, intracellular calcium increases appear to be due to extracellular calcium entry, not requiring protein kinase activation. On the other hand, 2.5 μM copper exposure induced increased intracellular calcium at 13, 29, 39 and 51 min, likely due to the activation of a TRPA1/V1 at 13 min, TRPA1/C5/M8 at 29 min, TRPC5/M8 at 39 min, and a TRPC5/V1 at 51 min. The increases in intracellular calcium induced by copper were due to extracellular calcium entry and required protein kinase activation. Furthermore, from 3 to 24 h, copper exposure induced an increase in the level of transcripts encoding antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and peroxiredoxin. The described upregulation decreased with inhibitors of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK, as well as with a mixture of TRP inhibitors. Thus, copper induces the activation of TRP channels allowing extracellular calcium entry as well as the activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in E. siliculosus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Copper-induced overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant system enzymes and metallothioneins involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in the marine alga Ulva compressa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Daniel; Valdés, Natalia; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A; Zúñiga, Antonio; Navarrete, Axel; Meneses, Claudio; Moenne, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the green macroalga Ulva compressa cultivated with 10μM copper for 24h. Nucleotide sequences encoding antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (ap), dehydroascorbate reductase (dhar) and glutathione reductase (gr), enzymes involved in ascorbate (ASC) synthesis l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-gdh) and l-galactono lactone dehydrogenase (l-gldh), in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-gcl) and glutathione synthase (gs), and metal-chelating proteins metallothioneins (mt) were identified. Amino acid sequences encoded by transcripts identified in U. compressa corresponding to antioxidant system enzymes showed homology mainly to plant and green alga enzymes but those corresponding to MTs displayed homology to animal and plant MTs. Level of transcripts encoding the latter proteins were quantified in the alga cultivated with 10μM copper for 0-12 days. Transcripts encoding enzymes of the antioxidant system increased with maximal levels at day 7, 9 or 12, and for MTs at day 3, 7 or 12. In addition, the involvement of calmodulins (CaMs), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) in the increase of the level of the latter transcripts was analyzed using inhibitors. Transcript levels decreased with inhibitors of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2. Thus, copper induces overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, enzymes involved in ASC and GSH syntheses and MTs. The increase in transcript levels may involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in U. compressa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors, treatment and impact on outcomes of bile leakage after hemihepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Ming; Li, Hong; Li, Gen-Cong; Yu, Dan-Song; Ying, Dong-Jian; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Cai-De; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Risk factors for bile leakage after hemihepatectomy are unknown. A prospectively maintained database review identified patients undergoing hemihepatectomy between 1 January 2009 and 30 September 2014. Patients were divided into B/C and non-B/C bile leakage groups. Risk factors for bile leakage were predicted and assessments of their impact on patients were made. Bile leakage occurred in 91 of the 297 patients (30.6%); 64 cases were classified as grade B bile leakage (21.5%) and three cases as grade C bile leakage (1.0%). Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated preoperative alanine transaminase (ALT), positive bile culture during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery were risk factors for B/C grade bile leakage (P < 0.05). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) were protective factors for B/C grade bile leakage (P < 0.05). PTBD, ENBD and Kehr's T-tube drainage could reduce the drainage volume and duration of drainage after bile leakage (P < 0.05). The incidence of wound infection, abdominal infection, major complications and the Clavien classification system score in the B/C bile leakage group were higher than those in the non-B/C bile leakage group (P < 0.05). Patients in the B/C bile leakage group also required prolonged hospitalization (P < 0.05). The mortality of two groups was similar (P > 0.05). Patient with elevated preoperative ALT, positive bile cultures during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery are more likely to complicate bile leakage. We should use biliary drainage such as preoperative PTBD, ENBD or intraoperative Kehr's T-tube drainage to reduce and treat bile leakage in patients with high risk of bile leakage. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Geologic Storage of CO2: Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.; Bachu, S.

    2002-05-01

    Geologic storage of CO2 appears to be an attractive option for carbon mitigation because it offers sufficient capacity to solve the problem, and it can be implemented with existing technology. Among the list of options for storage sites, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers are two major categories. While injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs offers immediate possibilities, especially in the context of enhanced oil recovery, it appears that deep saline aquifers provide the extensive capacity necessary to solve the problem over the decade to century time scale. Capacity and technology argue favorably for this option, but remaining obstacles to implementation include capture technologies, overall economic considerations, and potential environmental consequences of the injection. Of these, the environmental questions may be most difficult to solve. Experience from CO2 floods for enhanced oil recovery and from CO2 and acid gas disposal operations indicates that geological storage of CO2 is safe over the short term for comparatively small amounts of CO2. However, there is no experience to date regarding the long-term fate and safety of the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected to significantly reduce atmospheric emissions. In order to make proper evaluation of environmental risks, the full range of possible environmental consequences must be considered. Most of these environmental concerns involve migration and leakage of CO2 into shallow portions of the subsurface and eventually into the atmosphere. In shallow subsurface zones, elevated levels of carbon dioxide can cause pH changes, leading to possible mobilization of ground-water contaminants including metals. In the unsaturated zone, vegetation can be adversely affected, as can other ecosystem components. At the land surface, elevated levels of CO2 can lead to asphyxiation in humans and other animals. And finally, in the atmosphere, CO2 that leaks from underground diminishes the effectiveness

  14. Bile leakage test in liver resection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess systematically the safety and efficacy of bile leakage test in liver resection. METHODS : Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving the bile leakage test were included in a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate postoperative bile leakage, intraoperative positive bile leakage, and complications. We used either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies involving a total of 1253 patients were included and they all involved the bile leakage test in liver resection. The bile leakage test group was associated with a significant reduction in bile leakage compared with the non-bile leakage test group (RR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.23-0.67; I2 = 3%). The white test had superiority for detection of intraoperative bile leakage compared with the saline solution test (RR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.24-4.56, P = 0.009). No significant intergroup differences were observed in total number of complications, ileus, liver failure, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, pulmonary disorder, abdominal infection, and wound infection. CONCLUSION: The bile leakage test reduced postoperative bile leakage and did not increase incidence of complications. Fat emulsion is the best choice of solution for the test. PMID:24363535

  15. Bile leakage test in liver resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2013-12-07

    To assess systematically the safety and efficacy of bile leakage test in liver resection. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving the bile leakage test were included in a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate postoperative bile leakage, intraoperative positive bile leakage, and complications. We used either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eight studies involving a total of 1253 patients were included and they all involved the bile leakage test in liver resection. The bile leakage test group was associated with a significant reduction in bile leakage compared with the non-bile leakage test group (RR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.23-0.67; I (2) = 3%). The white test had superiority for detection of intraoperative bile leakage compared with the saline solution test (RR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.24-4.56, P = 0.009). No significant intergroup differences were observed in total number of complications, ileus, liver failure, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, pulmonary disorder, abdominal infection, and wound infection. The bile leakage test reduced postoperative bile leakage and did not increase incidence of complications. Fat emulsion is the best choice of solution for the test. © 2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated Detection of Leakage in Fluorescein Angiography Images with Application to Malarial Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yitian; J. C. MacCormick, Ian; G. Parry, David; Leach, Sophie; A. V. Beare, Nicholas; P. Harding, Simon; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The detection and assessment of leakage in retinal fluorescein angiogram images is important for the management of a wide range of retinal diseases. We have developed a framework that can automatically detect three types of leakage (large focal, punctate focal, and vessel segment leakage) and validated it on images from patients with malarial retinopathy. This framework comprises three steps: vessel segmentation, saliency feature generation and leakage detection. We tested the effectiveness of this framework by applying it to images from 20 patients with large focal leak, 10 patients with punctate focal leak, and 5,846 vessel segments from 10 patients with vessel leakage. The sensitivity in detecting large focal, punctate focal and vessel segment leakage are 95%, 82% and 81%, respectively, when compared to manual annotation by expert human observers. Our framework has the potential to become a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy, and other conditions involving retinal leakage. PMID:26030010

  17. Automated detection of leakage in fluorescein angiography images with application to malarial retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yitian; MacCormick, Ian J C; Parry, David G; Leach, Sophie; Beare, Nicholas A V; Harding, Simon P; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The detection and assessment of leakage in retinal fluorescein angiogram images is important for the management of a wide range of retinal diseases. We have developed a framework that can automatically detect three types of leakage (large focal, punctate focal, and vessel segment leakage) and validated it on images from patients with malarial retinopathy. This framework comprises three steps: vessel segmentation, saliency feature generation and leakage detection. We tested the effectiveness of this framework by applying it to images from 20 patients with large focal leak, 10 patients with punctate focal leak, and 5,846 vessel segments from 10 patients with vessel leakage. The sensitivity in detecting large focal, punctate focal and vessel segment leakage are 95%, 82% and 81%, respectively, when compared to manual annotation by expert human observers. Our framework has the potential to become a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy, and other conditions involving retinal leakage.

  18. Leakage characterization of top select transistor for program disturbance optimization in 3D NAND flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Dandan; Zou, Xingqi; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Ming; Zhou, Wenbin; Tang, Zhaoyun; Huo, Zongliang

    2018-03-01

    In order to optimize program disturbance characteristics effectively, a characterization approach that measures top select transistor (TSG) leakage from bit-line is proposed to quantify TSG leakage under program inhibit condition in 3D NAND flash memory. Based on this approach, the effect of Vth modulation of two-cell TSG on leakage is evaluated. By checking the dependence of leakage and corresponding program disturbance on upper and lower TSG Vth, this approach is validated. The optimal Vth pattern with high upper TSG Vth and low lower TSG Vth has been suggested for low leakage current and high boosted channel potential. It is found that upper TSG plays dominant role in preventing drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) leakage from boosted channel to bit-line, while lower TSG assists to further suppress TSG leakage by providing smooth potential drop from dummy WL to edge of TSG, consequently suppressing trap assisted band-to-band tunneling current (BTBT) between dummy WL and TSG.

  19. A coupled approach for the three-dimensional simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Graf, Thomas; Fuchs, Lothar; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-12-01

    In urban water pipe networks, pipe leakage may lead to subsurface contamination or to reduced waste water treatment efficiency. The quantification of pipe leakage is challenging due to inaccessibility and unknown hydraulic properties of the soil. A novel physically-based model for three-dimensional numerical simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil is presented. We describe the newly implemented coupling between the pipe flow simulator HYSTEM-EXTRAN and the groundwater flow simulator OpenGeoSys and its validation. We further describe a novel upscaling of leakage using transfer functions derived from numerical simulations. This upscaling enables the simulation of numerous pipe defects with the benefit of reduced computation times. Finally, we investigate the response of leakage to different time-dependent pipe flow events and conclude that larger pipe flow volume and duration lead to larger leakage while the peak position in time has a small effect on leakage.

  20. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Zhu, Qianlin; Feng, Qiyan; Chen, Fu

    2017-01-01

    The technology of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO 2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO 2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO 2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m -2 day -1 to 2,000 g m -2 day -1 ) on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO 2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO 2 concentrations. Increasing CO 2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 ( p < 0.05). Nitrate nitrogen content varied from 1.01 to 4.03 mg/Kg, while Olsen-phosphorus and total phosphorus demonstrated less regular downtrends. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic enzyme activity was inhibited by the increasing CO 2 flux, with the average content varying from 22.69 to 11.25 mg/(Kg h) ( p < 0.05). However, the increasing activity amplitude of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme approached 230%, while the urease activity presented a similar rising trend. Alpha diversity results showed that the Shannon index decreased from 7.66 ± 0.13 to 5.23 ± 0.35 as the soil CO 2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria , whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% ( p < 0.01). Moreover, the abundances of genera Methylophilus , Methylobacillus , and Methylovorus increased, while GP4 , GP6 and GP7 decreased. Canonical correlation analysis

  1. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage and leak-related mortality after colonic cancer surgery in a nationwide audit.

    PubMed

    Bakker, I S; Grossmann, I; Henneman, D; Havenga, K; Wiggers, T

    2014-03-01

    Surgical resection with restoration of bowel continuity is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with colonic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) and subsequent death after colonic cancer surgery. Data were retrieved from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colonic cancer resection with creation of an anastomosis between January 2009 to December 2011 were included. Outcomes were AL requiring reintervention and postoperative mortality following AL. AL occurred in 7·5 per cent of 15 667 patients. Multivariable analyses identified male sex, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) fitness grade, extensive tumour resection, emergency surgery, and surgical resection types such as transverse resection, left colectomy and subtotal colectomy as independent risk factors for AL. A defunctioning stoma was created in a small group of patients, leading to a lower risk of leakage. The mortality rate was 4·1 per cent overall, and was significantly higher in patients with AL than in those without leakage (16·4 versus 3·1 per cent; P < 0·001). Multivariable analyses identified older age, high ASA grade, high Charlson score and emergency surgery as independent risk factors for death after AL. The adjusted risk of death after AL was twice as high following right compared with left colectomy. The elderly and patients with co-morbidity have a higher risk of death after AL. Accurate preoperative patient selection, intensive postoperative surveillance for AL, and early and aggressive treatment of suspected leakage is important, especially in patients undergoing right colectomy. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  3. Power Beaming Leakage Radiation as A SETI Observable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, James N.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    The most observable leakage radiation from an advanced civilization may well be from the use of power beam-ing to transfer energy and accelerate spacecraft. Applications suggested for power beaming involve launching spacecraft to orbit, raising satellites to a higher orbit, and interplanetary concepts involving space-to-space transfers of cargo or passengers. We also quantify beam-driven launch to the outer solar system, interstellar precursors and ultimately starships. We estimate the principal observable parameters of power beaming leak-age. Extraterrestrial civilizations would know their power beams could be observed, and so could put a message on the power beam and broadcast it for our receipt at little additional energy or cost. By observing leakage from power beams we may find a message embedded on the beam. Recent observations of the anomalous star KIC8462852 by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) set some limits on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system.We show that most power beaming applications commensurate with those suggested for our solar system would be detectable if using the frequency range monitored by the ATA, and so the lack of detection is a meaningful,if modest, constraint on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. Until more extensive observations are made, the limited observation time and frequency coverage are not sufficiently broad in frequency and duration to produce firm conclusions. Such beams would be visible over large interstellar distances. This implies a new approach to the SETI search: Instead of focusing on narrowband beacon transmissions generated by another civilization, look for more powerful beams with much wider bandwidth. This requires a new approach for their discovery by telescopes on Earth. Further studies of power beaming applications should be done, which could broaden the parameter space of observable features we have discussed here.

  4. Impeller leakage flow modeling for mechanical vibration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.

    1996-01-01

    HPOTP and HPFTP vibration test results have exhibited transient and steady characteristics which may be due to impeller leakage path (ILP) related forces. For example, an axial shift in the rotor could suddenly change the ILP clearances and lengths yielding dynamic coefficient and subsequent vibration changes. ILP models are more complicated than conventional-single component-annular seal models due to their radial flow component (coriolis and centrifugal acceleration), complex geometry (axial/radial clearance coupling), internal boundary (transition) flow conditions between mechanical components along the ILP and longer length, requiring moment as well as force coefficients. Flow coupling between mechanical components results from mass and energy conservation applied at their interfaces. Typical components along the ILP include an inlet seal, curved shroud, and an exit seal, which may be a stepped labyrinth type. Von Pragenau (MSFC) has modeled labyrinth seals as a series of plain annular seals for leakage and dynamic coefficient prediction. These multi-tooth components increase the total number of 'flow coupled' components in the ILP. Childs developed an analysis for an ILP consisting of a single, constant clearance shroud with an exit seal represented by a lumped flow-loss coefficient. This same geometry was later extended to include compressible flow. The objective of the current work is to: supply ILP leakage-force impedance-dynamic coefficient modeling software to MSFC engineers, base on incompressible/compressible bulk flow theory; design the software to model a generic geometry ILP described by a series of components lying along an arbitrarily directed path; validate the software by comparison to available test data, CFD and bulk models; and develop a hybrid CFD-bulk flow model of an ILP to improve modeling accuracy within practical run time constraints.

  5. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciT

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressuremore » relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.« less

  6. An iterative method for airway segmentation using multiscale leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Syed Ahmed; Jin, Dakai; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.

    2017-02-01

    There are growing applications of quantitative computed tomography for assessment of pulmonary diseases by characterizing lung parenchyma as well as the bronchial tree. Many large multi-center studies incorporating lung imaging as a study component are interested in phenotypes relating airway branching patterns, wall-thickness, and other morphological measures. To our knowledge, there are no fully automated airway tree segmentation methods, free of the need for user review. Even when there are failures in a small fraction of segmentation results, the airway tree masks must be manually reviewed for all results which is laborious considering that several thousands of image data sets are evaluated in large studies. In this paper, we present a CT-based novel airway tree segmentation algorithm using iterative multi-scale leakage detection, freezing, and active seed detection. The method is fully automated requiring no manual inputs or post-segmentation editing. It uses simple intensity based connectivity and a new leakage detection algorithm to iteratively grow an airway tree starting from an initial seed inside the trachea. It begins with a conservative threshold and then, iteratively shifts toward generous values. The method was applied on chest CT scans of ten non-smoking subjects at total lung capacity and ten at functional residual capacity. Airway segmentation results were compared to an expert's manually edited segmentations. Branch level accuracy of the new segmentation method was examined along five standardized segmental airway paths (RB1, RB4, RB10, LB1, LB10) and two generations beyond these branches. The method successfully detected all branches up to two generations beyond these segmental bronchi with no visual leakages.

  7. Power Beaming Leakage Radiation as a SETI Observable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, James N.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2016-07-01

    The most observable leakage radiation from an advanced civilization may well be from the use of power beaming to transfer energy and accelerate spacecraft. Applications suggested for power beaming involve launching spacecraft to orbit, raising satellites to a higher orbit, and interplanetary concepts involving space-to-space transfers of cargo or passengers. We also quantify beam-driven launch to the outer solar system, interstellar precursors, and ultimately starships. We estimate the principal observable parameters of power beaming leakage. Extraterrestrial civilizations would know their power beams could be observed, and so could put a message on the power beam and broadcast it for our receipt at little additional energy or cost. By observing leakage from power beams we may find a message embedded on the beam. Recent observations of the anomalous star KIC 8462852 by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) set some limits on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. We show that most power beaming applications commensurate with those suggested for our solar system would be detectable if using the frequency range monitored by the ATA, and so the lack of detection is a meaningful, if modest, constraint on extraterrestrial power beaming in that system. Until more extensive observations are made, the limited observation time and frequency coverage are not sufficiently broad in frequency and duration to produce firm conclusions. Such beams would be visible over large interstellar distances. This implies a new approach to the SETI search: instead of focusing on narrowband beacon transmissions generated by another civilization, look for more powerful beams with much wider bandwidth. This requires a new approach for their discovery by telescopes on Earth. Further studies of power beaming applications should be performed, potentially broadening the parameter space of the observable features that we have discussed here.

  8. [Endoscopic endonasal detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage with topical fluorescein].

    PubMed

    Sato, Taku; Kishida, Yugo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tani, Akiko; Tada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takamitsu; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sakuma, Jun; Omori, Koichi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of intraoperative topical application of fluorescein to detect the leakage point of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)rhinorrhea. Three patients with CSF rhinorrhea were treated with an endoscopic endonasal technique. Ten percent fluorescein was topically used for intraoperative localization of the leak site. A change of the fluorescein color from brown to green due to dilation of CSF were recognized as evidence of CSF rhinorrhea. We repeated the procedure to detect any small defects. All CSF rhinorrheas were successfully repaired by this endoscopic endonasal approach. Topical application of fluorescein is simple and sensitive for identifying intraoperative CSF rhinorrhea.

  9. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  10. Advanced CO 2 Leakage Mitigation using Engineered Biomineralization Sealing Technologies

    SciT

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Phillips, Adrienne

    2015-03-31

    This research project addresses one of the goals of the DOE Carbon Sequestration Program (CSP). The CSP core R&D effort is driven by technology and is accomplished through laboratory and pilot scale research aimed at new technologies for greenhouse gas mitigation. Accordingly, this project was directed at developing novel technologies for mitigating unwanted upward leakage of carbon dioxide (CO 2) injected into the subsurface as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) activities. The technology developed by way of this research project is referred to as microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP).

  11. In vitro leakage susceptibility of tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses in the absence and presence of a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Janine J H; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Free, Rolien H; Kaper, Hans J; van Weissenbruch, Ranny; Albers, Frans W J

    2005-04-01

    Although leakage through a tracheoesophageal shunt prosthesis is the main cause of prosthesis failure in a laryngectomy patient, this has never been the subject of in vitro evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare three commercially available voice prostheses by comparison of their in vitro leakage patterns, in absence or presence of a biofilm. To compare in vitro leakage patterns, a model comprised of an artificial throat equipped with a single prosthesis coupled to a water reservoir was developed. By varying the height of the water reservoir, different pressures on the voice prosthesis can be obtained. Both in absence and presence of a biofilm, the Blom Singer voice prosthesis demonstrated the lowest leakage, followed by Groningen Low Resistance. The Provox2 showed significantly the most leakage, however, in presence of a biofilm the leakage of the Provox2 significantly decreased. Regular airflow during biofilm formation significantly increased leakage through the Provox2. Out of 746 clinical replacements, Provox2 showed 76% and Groningen Low Resistance 57% replacements due to leakage. The model used in this study showed significant differences in leakage of the three types of voice prostheses used. Leakage occurred more readily through Provox2 than through Groningen Low Resistance and Blom Singer prostheses, which is in line with clinical observations and enforces the model. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Water Leakage Diagnosis in Metro Tunnels by Intergration of Laser Point Cloud and Infrared Thermal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Wu, H.; Liu, C.; Xu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Diagnosis of water leakage in metro tunnels is of great significance to the metro tunnel construction and the safety of metro operation. A method that integrates laser scanning and infrared thermal imaging is proposed for the diagnosis of water leakage. The diagnosis of water leakage in this paper is mainly divided into two parts: extraction of water leakage geometry information and extraction of water leakage attribute information. Firstly, the suspected water leakage is obtained by threshold segmentation based on the point cloud of tunnel. And the real water leakage is obtained by the auxiliary interpretation of infrared thermal images. Then, the characteristic of isotherm outline is expressed by solving Centroid Distance Function to determine the type of water leakage. Similarly, the location of leakage silt and the direction of crack are calculated by finding coordinates of feature points on Centroid Distance Function. Finally, a metro tunnel part in Shanghai was selected as the case area to make experiment and the result shown that the proposed method in this paper can be used to diagnosis water leakage disease completely and accurately.

  13. A novel method to determine air leakage in heat pump clothes dryers

    SciT

    Bansal, Pradeep; Mohabir, Amar; Miller, William

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage areamore » in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.« less

  14. A novel method to determine air leakage in heat pump clothes dryers

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Mohabir, Amar; Miller, William

    2016-01-06

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage areamore » in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.« less

  15. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the main factors influencing bone cement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are

  16. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  17. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  18. Flying After Conducting an Aircraft Excessive Cabin Leakage Test.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Wilkinson, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Aviation medical specialists should be aware that commercial airline aircraft engineers may undertake a 'dive equivalent' operation while conducting maintenance activities on the ground. We present a worked example of an occupational risk assessment to determine a minimum safe preflight surface interval (PFSI) for an engineer before flying home to base after conducting an Excessive Cabin Leakage Test (ECLT) on an unserviceable aircraft overseas. We use published dive tables to determine the minimum safe PFSI. The estimated maximum depth acquired during the procedure varies between 10 and 20 fsw and the typical estimated bottom time varies between 26 and 53 min for the aircraft types operated by the airline. Published dive tables suggest that no minimum PFSI is required for such a dive profile. Diving tables suggest that no minimum PFSI is required for the typical ECLT dive profile within the airline; however, having conducted a risk assessment, which considered peak altitude exposure during commercial flight, the worst-case scenario test dive profile, the variability of interindividual inert gas retention, and our existing policy among other occupational groups within the airline, we advised that, in the absence of a bespoke assessment of the particular circumstances on the day, the minimum PFSI after conducting ECLT should be 24 h. Houston S, Wilkinson E. Flying after conducting an aircraft excessive cabin leakage test. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):816-820.

  19. Factors Influencing the Duration of Urine Leakage following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Dagistan, Emine; Yildiz, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Burak; Metin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The duration of urine leakage following the removal of the nephrostomy tube after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) shows significant variations depending on the techniques used. We aimed to assess the factors likely to influence the duration of urine leakage. Material and Methods. In total, 103 patients who underwent PCNL were reviewed retrospectively. DUL was evaluated regarding patient characteristics, thickness of the access line, presence of hydronephrosis, and residual stones. Results. DUL was significantly prolonged in accordance with a decrease in the thickness of parenchyma tissue (R = -0.716, P < 0.001). DUL was prolonged as the degree of hydronephrosis (R = 0.526, P < 0.001) and the number of patients with residual stones (R = 0.273, P = 0.005) increased. Median DUL was significantly longer in patients with residual stones than those without residual stones (P = 0.002). In the receiving operating curve analysis, the optimum cut-off value of parenchymal thickness for hospitalization ≤12 h was 17.2 mm (sensitivity, 90.2%; specificity, 69.4%; P = 0.001). Conclusions. We found that parenchymal thickness of the access line, hydronephrosis, and residual stones were the most influential factors determining DUL following PCNL, respectively.

  20. Albumin microvascular leakage in brains with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Ryuji; Chiba, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Nishi, Nozomu; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Ueno, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    Their aim was to examine whether microvascular leakage of endogenous albumin, a representative marker for blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, was induced in the periventricular area of diabetic db/db mice because periventricular white matter hyperintensity formation in magnetic resonance images was accelerating in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Using light and electron microscopes, and semi-quantitative analysis techniques, immunoreactivity of endogenous albumin, indicating vascular permeability, was examined in the periventricular area and spinal cord of db/db mice and db/+m control mice. Greater immunoreactivity of albumin was observed in the vessel wall of the periventricular area of db/db mice than in controls. Additionally, weak immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal cord of both db/db mice and controls. The number of gold particles, indicating immunoreactivity of albumin, in the perivascular area of db/db mice was significantly higher than that of control mice, but there was no significant difference in the number of particles in the spinal cord between db/db mice and controls. These findings suggest that albumin microvascular leakage, or BBB breakdown, is induced in the periventricular area of diabetic mice. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:833-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endoscopic management of bile leakage after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Wook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2015-05-23

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients.

  2. Development of monitoring system of helium leakage from canister

    SciT

    Toriu, D.; Ushijima, S.; Takeda, H.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a computational method for the helium leakage from a canister. The governing equations for compressible fluids consist of mass conservation equation in Eulerian description, momentum equations and energy equation. The numerical procedures are divided into three phases, advection, diffusion and acoustic phases, and the equations of compressible fluids are discretized with a finite volume method. Thus, the mass conservation law is sufficiently satisfied in the calculation region. In particular, our computational method enables us to predict the change of the temperature distributions around the canister boundaries by calculating the governing equations for the compressible gas flows, whichmore » are leaked out from a slight crack on the canister boundary. In order to confirm the validity of our method, it was applied to the basic problem, 2-dimensional natural convection flows in a rectangular cavity. As a result, it was shown that the naturally convected flows can be reasonably simulated by our method. Furthermore, numerical experiments were conducted for the helium leakage from canister and we derived a close relationship between the inner pressure and the boundary temperature distributions.« less

  3. Endoscopic Management of Bile Leakage after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongwook; Lee, Sung Koo; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be an effective treatment for bile leakage after liver transplantation. We evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic treatment in liver transplantation in patients who developed bile leaks. Methods Forty-two patients who developed bile leaks after liver transplantation were included in the study. If a bile leak was observed on ERCP, a sphincterotomy was performed, and a nasobiliary catheter was then inserted. If a bile leak was accompanied by a bile duct stricture, either the stricture was dilated with balloons, followed by nasobiliary catheter insertion across the bile duct stricture, or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage was performed. Results In the bile leakage alone group (22 patients), endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 19 (86.4%) and clinically successful in 17 (77.3%) cases. Among the 20 patients with bile leaks with bile duct strictures, endoscopic treatment was technically successful in 13 (65.0%) and clinically successful in 10 (50.0%) cases. Among the 42 patients who underwent ERCP, technical success was achieved in 32 (76.2%) cases and clinical success was achieved in 27 (64.3%) cases. Conclusions ERCP is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for bile leaks after liver transplantation. ERCP should be considered as an initial therapeutic modality in post-liver transplantation patients. PMID:25717048

  4. AN ADVANCED LEAKAGE SCHEME FOR NEUTRINO TREATMENT IN ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciT

    Perego, A.; Cabezón, R. M.; Käppeli, R., E-mail: albino.perego@physik.tu-darmstadt.de

    We present an Advanced Spectral Leakage (ASL) scheme to model neutrinos in the context of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and compact binary mergers. Based on previous gray leakage schemes, the ASL scheme computes the neutrino cooling rates by interpolating local production and diffusion rates (relevant in optically thin and thick regimes, respectively) separately for discretized values of the neutrino energy. Neutrino trapped components are also modeled, based on equilibrium and timescale arguments. The better accuracy achieved by the spectral treatment allows a more reliable computation of neutrino heating rates in optically thin conditions. The scheme has been calibrated and tested against Boltzmannmore » transport in the context of Newtonian spherically symmetric models of CCSNe. ASL shows a very good qualitative and a partial quantitative agreement for key quantities from collapse to a few hundreds of milliseconds after core bounce. We have proved the adaptability and flexibility of our ASL scheme, coupling it to an axisymmetric Eulerian and to a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to simulate core collapse. Therefore, the neutrino treatment presented here is ideal for large parameter-space explorations, parametric studies, high-resolution tests, code developments, and long-term modeling of asymmetric configurations, where more detailed neutrino treatments are not available or are currently computationally too expensive.« less

  5. Changing surface water conditions for the last 500 ka in the Southeast Atlantic:Tracking Agulhas leakage using UK37' and δD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Benjamin; McClymont, Erin; van der Meer, Marcel; Marret, Fabienne

    2015-04-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important component of global ocean circulation, as it includes heat and salt transfer into the Atlantic through Agulhas Leakage. Here, we reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea surface salinity from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1087 in the Southeast Atlantic to investigate surface ocean circulation patterns during the late Pleistocene (0-500 ka). The alkenone-derived U37K'index and assemblages of dinoflagellate cysts are used to reconstruct SSTs. The hydrogen isotope composition of the alkenones (δDalkenone) is used to reconstruct changes in sea-surface salinity. The greatest amplitude of SST warming precedes decreases in benthic δ18O and therefore occurs early in the transition from glacials to interglacials. The timing of the early warming is consistent with previously published foraminifera reconstructions from the same site (Caley et al., 2012). However, δDalkenone decreases at the start of interglacials, suggesting that sea surface salinity increased earlier than the deglacial warmings, and indicating that the pattern of Agulhas leakage is more complex than suggested by SST proxies alone. Furthermore, the δDalkenonevalues indicate a strong salinity increases occurred before both MIS 11 and MIS 1, which are both periods where there is evidence of connection between increased Agulhas Leakage and a stronger Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Finally, the ODP site 1087 record shows an overall trend of increasing SSTs and δDalkenone towards the present day, suggesting that Agulhas leakage has strengthened since 500 ka, which may have impacted the intensity of the AMOC. Caley, T., Giraudeau, J., Malaize, B., Rossignol, L., Pierre, C., 2012. Agulhas leakage as a key process in the modes of Quaternary climate changes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109, 6835-6839. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115545109

  6. The SSME seal test program: Leakage tests for helically-grooved seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Helically grooved annular seal configurations were tested in highly turbulent flow to determine if reduced leakage and enhanced stability would result from the pumping action of the seal. It was found that: (1) leakage of a helically grooved seals decreases with running speed; (2) leakage reduction due to increased running speed is greater at lower values of R sub a; (3) an asymptote for leakage reduction is indicated with increasing running speed; (4) leakage is reduced by reducing the ridge (minimum) and average clearances; (5) leakage increases with increasing pitch angles and with increasing groove depth. Plain seals with smooth rotors and stators will leak more than a helically grooved seal. It was also found that plain seals with a rough rotor and a rough stator leak less than a properly designed helically grooved seal. A properly designed helically grooved seal consumes at least twice as much power as a conventional annular seal.

  7. Incidental Detection of Urinary Leakage on FDG PET/CT Imaging for Staging of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2016-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with right flank pain and dysuria. An abdominal CT scan detected a gastric malignancy and hydronephrosis with urinary leakage of the right kidney. Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed on the right kidney. F-FDG PET/CT for staging the gastric malignancy revealed additional urinary leakage of the contralateral kidney. The interest in this case is the incidental detection of unexpected urinary leakage during an oncologic assessment with FDG PET/CT.

  8. Passive electrical monitoring and localization of fluid leakages from wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Mao, D.; Haas, A. K.; Karaoulis, M.; Frash, L.

    2015-02-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena are a class of cross-coupling phenomena involving the relative displacement between the pore water (together with the electrical diffuse layer) with respect to the solid phase of a porous material. We demonstrate that electrical fields of electrokinetic nature can be associated with fluid leakages from wells. These leakages can be remotely monitored and the resulting signals used to localize their causative source distribution both in the laboratory and in field conditions. The first laboratory experiment (Experiment #1) shows how these electrical fields can be recorded at the surface of a cement block during the leakage of a brine from a well. The measurements were performed with a research-grade medical electroencephalograph and were inverted using a genetic algorithm to localize the causative source of electrical current and therefore, localize the leak in the block. Two snapshots of electrical signals were used to show how the leak evolved over time. The second experiment (Experiment #2) was performed to see if we could localize a pulse water injection from a shallow well in field conditions in the case of a heterogeneous subsurface. We used the same equipment as in Experiment #1 and processed the data with a trend removal algorithm, picking the amplitude from 24 receiver channels just after the water injection. The amplitude of the electric signals changed from the background level indicating that a volume of water was indeed flowing inside the well into the surrounding soil and then along the well. We used a least-square inversion algorithm to invert a snapshot of the electrical potential data at the injection time to localize the source of the self-potential signals. The inversion results show positive potential anomalies in the vicinity of the well. For both experiments, forward numerical simulations of the problem using a finite element package were performed in order to assess the underlying physics of the causative source of the

  9. Feasibility of Locating Leakages in Sewage Pressure Pipes Using the Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Apperl, Benjamin; Pressl, Alexander; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective sheathing of the pipe; this paper aims at testing the feasibility of detecting leakages with temporary introduced fiber optic cable inside the pipe. The detection and localization were tested in a laboratory experiment. The intrusion of water from leakages into the pipe, producing a local temperature drop, served as indicator for leakages. Measurements were taken under varying measurement conditions, including the number of leakages as well as the positioning of the fiber optic cable. Experiments showed that leakages could be detected accurately with the proposed methodology, when measuring resolution, temperature gradient and measurement time were properly selected. Despite the successful application of DTS for leakage detection in this lab environment, challenges in real system applications may arise from temperature gradients within the pipe system over longer distances and the placement of the cable into the real pipe system.

  10. A study of leakage rates through mine seals in underground coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Krog, Robert B.; Mazzella, Andrew; Hollerich, Cynthia; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study on leakage rates through underground coal mine seals. Leakage rates of coal bed gas into active workings have not been well established. New seal construction standards have exacerbated the knowledge gap in our understanding of how well these seals isolate active workings near a seal line. At a western US underground coal mine, we determined seal leakage rates ranged from about 0 to 0.036 m3/s for seven 340 kPa seals. The seal leakage rate varied in essentially a linear manner with variations in head pressure at the mine seals. PMID:26322119

  11. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows - II. Primary beam model and direction-dependent calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, K. M. B.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Jelić, V.; Ghosh, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Brentjens, M. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Ciardi, B.; Gehlot, B. K.; Iliev, I. T.; Mevius, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of Low Frequency ARray (LOFAR) in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C 295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of ≤10 per cent on the predicted levels of leakage of ˜1 per cent within the field of view, I.e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to 10-3 of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam model would ensure that the leakage is well below the expected EoR signal in almost the whole instrumental k-space of the cylindrical power spectrum. We have also shown here that direction-dependent calibration can remove instrumentally polarized compact sources, given an unpolarized sky model, very close to the local noise level.

  12. [A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Li-ming; Yu, Dian-qiang; Dong, Jin-ting; Han, Xiao-lei; Cui, Yi-ben; Liu, Jian-guo

    2012-02-01

    The detection of natural gas pipeline leak becomes a significant issue for body security, environmental protection and security of state property. However, the leak detection is difficult, because of the pipeline's covering many areas, operating conditions and complicated environment. A mobile sensor for remote detection of natural gas leakage based on scanning wavelength differential absorption spectroscopy (SWDAS) is introduced. The improved soft threshold wavelet denoising was proposed by analyzing the characteristics of reflection spectrum. And the results showed that the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was increased three times. When light intensity is 530 nA, the minimum remote sensitivity will be 80 ppm x m. A widely used SWDAS can make quantitative remote sensing of natural gas leak and locate the leak source precisely in a faster, safer and more intelligent way.

  13. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage].

    PubMed

    Creutzig, H; Sturm, J A; Schober, O; Nerlich, M L; Kant, C J

    1984-10-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extravasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation of abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques.

  14. Greenhouse gases: low methane leakage from gas pipelines.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Lechtenböhmer, S; Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Dienst, C; Fischedick, M; Hanke, T

    2005-04-14

    Using natural gas for fuel releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than burning oil or coal, but its production and transport are accompanied by emissions of methane, which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide in the short term. This calls into question whether climate forcing could be reduced by switching from coal and oil to natural gas. We have made measurements in Russia along the world's largest gas-transport system and find that methane leakage is in the region of 1.4%, which is considerably less than expected and comparable to that from systems in the United States. Our calculations indicate that using natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels could be useful in the short term for mitigating climate change.

  15. Out-of-focal plane imaging by leakage radiation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangfu; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Ruxue; Wen, Xiaolei; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2017-09-01

    Leakage radiation microscopy (LRM) is used to investigate the optical properties of surfaces. The front-focal plane (FFP) image with LRM reveals the structural features on the surfaces. A back-focal plane (BFP) image with LRM reveals the angular distribution of the radiation. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate that the out-of-focal plane (OFP) images present a link between the FFP and BFP images and provide optical information that cannot be resolved by either FFP or BFP images. The OFP image provides a link between the spatial location of the emission and the angular distribution from the same location, and thus information about the film’s discontinuity, nonuniformity or variable thickness can be uncovered. The use of OFP imaging will extend the scope and applications of the LRM and coupled emission imaging, which are powerful tools in nanophotonics and high throughput fluorescence screening.

  16. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciT

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated withmore » this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.« less

  17. A Study of Neutron Leakage in Finite Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for simple shielded objects. Monte Carlo (MC) benchmarks were used to verify the 3DHZETRN methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with MC codes to the degree that various MC codes agree among themselves. One limitation in the verification process is that all of the codes (3DHZETRN and three MC codes) utilize different nuclear models/databases. In the present report, the new algorithm, with well-defined convergence criteria, is used to quantify the neutron leakage from simple geometries to provide means of verifying 3D effects and to provide guidance for further code development.

  18. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  19. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, M.; Decaix, J.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Farhat, M.

    2014-03-01

    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex.

  20. SETI via Leakage from Light Sails in Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    The primary challenge of rocket propulsion is the burden of needing to accelerate the spacecraft’s own fuel, resulting in only a logarithmic gain in maximum speed as propellant is added to the spacecraft. Light sails offer an attractive alternative in which fuel is not carried by the spacecraft, with acceleration being provided by an external source of light. By artificially illuminating the spacecraft with beamed radiation, speeds are only limited by the area of the sail, heat resistance of its material, and power use of the accelerating apparatus. In this paper, we show that leakage from a light sail propulsion apparatus in operation around a solar system analogue would be detectable. To demonstrate this, we model the launch and arrival of a microwave beam-driven light sail constructed for transit between planets in orbit around a single star, and find an optimal beam frequency on the order of tens of GHz. Leakage from these beams yields transients with flux densities of Jy and durations of tens of seconds at 100 pc. Because most travel within a planetary system would be conducted between the habitable worlds within that system, multiply transiting exoplanetary systems offer the greatest chance of detection, especially when the planets are in projected conjunction as viewed from Earth. If interplanetary travel via beam-driven light sails is commonly employed in our galaxy, this activity could be revealed by radio follow-up of nearby transiting exoplanetary systems. The expected signal properties define a new strategy in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

  1. SETI VIA LEAKAGE FROM LIGHT SAILS IN EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciT

    Guillochon, James; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: jguillochon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    The primary challenge of rocket propulsion is the burden of needing to accelerate the spacecraft’s own fuel, resulting in only a logarithmic gain in maximum speed as propellant is added to the spacecraft. Light sails offer an attractive alternative in which fuel is not carried by the spacecraft, with acceleration being provided by an external source of light. By artificially illuminating the spacecraft with beamed radiation, speeds are only limited by the area of the sail, heat resistance of its material, and power use of the accelerating apparatus. In this paper, we show that leakage from a light sail propulsionmore » apparatus in operation around a solar system analogue would be detectable. To demonstrate this, we model the launch and arrival of a microwave beam-driven light sail constructed for transit between planets in orbit around a single star, and find an optimal beam frequency on the order of tens of GHz. Leakage from these beams yields transients with flux densities of Jy and durations of tens of seconds at 100 pc. Because most travel within a planetary system would be conducted between the habitable worlds within that system, multiply transiting exoplanetary systems offer the greatest chance of detection, especially when the planets are in projected conjunction as viewed from Earth. If interplanetary travel via beam-driven light sails is commonly employed in our galaxy, this activity could be revealed by radio follow-up of nearby transiting exoplanetary systems. The expected signal properties define a new strategy in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI)« less

  2. Experimental determination of methane dissolution from simulated subsurface oil leakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, W.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Subsurface oil leakages and increased offshore drilling efforts have raised concern over the fate of hydrocarbon mixtures of oil and gas in ocean environments. Recent wellhead and pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico are extreme examples of this problem. Understanding the mechanism and rate of vertical transport of hydrocarbon chemical species is necessary to predict the environmental impact of subsurface leakages. In a series of controlled experiments, we carried out a deep-sea field experiment in Monterey Canyon to investigate the behavior of a gas-saturated liquid hydrocarbon mass rising from the seafloor. Aboard the R/V Rachel Carson, we used the ROV Ventana to transport a laboratory prepared volume of decane (C10H22) saturated with methane gas (CH4) to mimic a subsurface seafloor discharge. We released the oil and gas mixture into a vertically oriented open bottom glass tube followed by methane loss rate measurements both at discrete depths, and during rapid, continuous vehicle ascent from 800 to 100 m water depth to monitor changes in dissolution and bubble nucleation. Using laser Raman techniques and HD video we quantified the chemical state of the hydrocarbon fluid, including rate of methane gas dissolution. The primary methane Raman peak was readily observable within the decane C-H stretching complex. Variation in the amount of gas dissolved in the oil greatly influences oil plume density and in turn oil plume vertical rise rate. Our results show that the rise rate of the hydrocarbon mass significantly exceeds the rate at which the excess methane was lost by dissolution. This result implies that vertical transport of methane in the saturated hydrocarbon liquid phase can greatly exceed a gas bubble plume ascending the water column from a seafloor source. These results and observations may be applicable to improved understanding of the composition, distribution, and environmental fate of leaked hydrocarbon mixtures and inform remediation efforts.

  3. [Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-CT].

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin-juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; Li, Shi-bao

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and superiority of micro-CT in marginal leakage assessment of Class V restorations. Class V preparations with gingival margins in dentin and occlusal in enamel were made in sixteen extracted non-carious human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and composite resin. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammonia-silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by developing solution for 8 hours. Each restoration was scanned by a micro-CT and silver leakage was measured and three-dimensional image of the silver leakage alone cavity wall were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were sectioned and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by micro-CT and microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depths in gingival wall obtained with micro-CT (0.78 mm) and microscope (0.74 mm) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), while the judgment of leakage depths in occlusal wall in micro-CT image (0.40 mm) was affected by adjacent enamel structure, giving less leakage depths compared to microscope (0.72 mm)(P < 0.01). The three-dimensional shapes of the microleakages displayed clearly by micro-CT alone wall of Class V restorations were multiform and some leakages showed channels on their way to spreading. Micro-CT can detect precisely the silver leakage in the dentin wall of a restoration and display its three-dimensional shape fully. Enamel structure affects the detection of the silver leakage next to it.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring Resolutions for CO2 Leakage Detection at Carbon Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. M.; Dilmore, R. M.; Daley, T. M.; Carroll, S.; Mansoor, K.; Gasperikova, E.; Harbert, W.; Wang, Z.; Bromhal, G. S.; Small, M.

    2016-12-01

    Different leakage monitoring techniques offer different strengths in detection sensitivity, coverage, feedback time, cost, and technology availability, such that they may complement each other when applied together. This research focuses on quantifying the spatial coverage and temporal resolution of detection response for several geophysical remote monitoring and direct groundwater monitoring techniques for an optimal monitoring plan for CO2 leakage detection. Various monitoring techniques with different monitoring depths are selected: 3D time-lapse seismic survey, wellbore pressure, groundwater chemistry and soil gas. The spatial resolution in terms of leakage detectability is quantified through the effective detection distance between two adjacent monitors, given the magnitude of leakage and specified detection probability. The effective detection distances are obtained either from leakage simulations with various monitoring densities or from information garnered from field test data. These spatial leakage detection resolutions are affected by physically feasible monitoring design and detection limits. Similarly, the temporal resolution, in terms of leakage detectability, is quantified through the effective time to positive detection of a given size of leak and a specified detection probability, again obtained either from representative leakage simulations with various monitoring densities or from field test data. The effective time to positive detection is also affected by operational feedback time (associated with sampling, sample analysis and data interpretation), with values obtained mainly through expert interviews and literature review. In additional to the spatial and temporal resolutions of these monitoring techniques, the impact of CO2 plume migration speed and leakage detection sensitivity of each monitoring technique are also discussed with consideration of how much monitoring is necessary for effective leakage detection and how these monitoring

  5. Influence of optic disc leakage on objective optic nerve head assessment in patients with uveitis.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Carsten; Kogelboom, Katy; Heiligenhaus, Arnd

    2016-02-01

    Secondary glaucoma is a common complication in patients with uveitis. Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) are widely used for examining optic nerve head changes. We evaluated these parameters in patients with uveitis and secondary glaucoma and with inflammatory papillary leakage on fluorescein angiography. Prospective single-center analysis of patients with uveitis, evaluating the impact of optic disc leakage on objective optic disc imaging parameters. Overall, 96 eyes of 59 patients were included. Papillary leakage was found in 42 eyes (43.8 %), and secondary glaucoma was found in 41 eyes (42.7 %). Glaucoma and papillary leakage were present in 12 (29 %) eyes with leakage and in 29 (54 %) eyes without leakage (p = 0.023). Neuroretinal rim area (p = 0.004), rim volume on HRT (p = 0.004), and RNFL thickness on OCT (p = 0.0008) were significantly increased in eyes with papillary leakage, while RNFL on HRT was unchanged (p = 0.255). When only eyes with normal IOP were examined, all objective parameters on OCT and HRT were significantly increased, whereas in eyes with secondary glaucoma, there was only a trend in the same direction, which did not reach significance. A comparison of eyes with secondary glaucoma and optic disc leakage to normal eyes with no glaucoma or leakage revealed no difference in any of the parameters. The objective parameters of optic nerve head imaging tools are significantly influenced by papillary leakage. In patients with secondary glaucoma and papillary leakage, these techniques are unable to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage.

  6. Numerical studies on the performance of an aerosol respirator with faceseal leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaripov, S. K.; Mukhametzanov, I. T.; Grinshpun, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the efficiency of a facepiece filtering respirator (FFR) in presence of a measurable faceseal leakage using the previously developed model of a spherical sampler with porous layer. In our earlier study, the model was validated for a specific filter permeability value. In this follow-up study, we investigated the effect of permeability on the overall respirator performance accounting for the faceseal leakage. The Total Inward Leakage (TIL) was calculated as a function of the leakage-to-filter surface ratio and the particle diameter. A good correlation was found between the theoretical and experimental TIL values. The TIL value was shown to increase and the effect of particle size on TIL to decrease as the leakage-to- filter surface ratio grows. The model confirmed that within the most penetrating particle size range (∼50 nm) and at relatively low leakage-to-filter surface ratios, an FFR performs better (TIL is lower) when the filter has a lower permeability which should be anticipated as long as the flow through the filter represents the dominant particle penetration pathway. An increase in leak size causes the TIL to rise; furthermore, under certain leakage-to-filter surface ratios, TIL for ultrafine particles becomes essentially independent on the filter properties due to a greater contribution of the aerosol flow through the faceseal leakage. In contrast to the ultrafine fraction, the larger particles (e.g., 800 nm) entering a typical high- or medium-quality respirator filter are almost fully collected by the filter medium regardless of its permeability; at the same time, the fraction penetrated through the leakage appears to be permeability- dependent: higher permeability generally results in a lower pressure drop through the filter which increases the air flow through the filter at the expense of the leakage flow. The latter reduces the leakage effect thus improving the overall respiratory protection level. The findings of this study provide

  7. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    sites along its length. Calculated leakage rates from the mass-balance approach varied from year to year and were generally dependent on local climatic conditions, and the timing and magnitude of the initial seasonal diversion into the Tri-State Canal. Leakage rates ranged from 0.98 meter per day (m/d) on June 22, 2007, to about to 0 m/d during July 2009. Drier conditions generally resulted in higher leakage rates because of reduced flow from Spottedtail Creek, lower groundwater levels near Spottedtail Creek, and no unmeasured flow entering the reach. Of the three years studied (2007-09), 2007 was the driest, and therefore had the highest canal leakage rates. The moderately low leakage potential study reach of Interstate Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and one temperature monitoring site along its length. Excluding the leakage calculations from early May 2007, leakage rates ranged from 0.08 to 0.7 m/d. Less variability in leakage from year to year indicates that climatic conditions may have less of an effect for Interstate Canal compared to Tri-State Canal. This may be because Interstate Canal was cut into the northern edge of the North Platte alluvial valley and consequently the canal bed is well above the local groundwater table resulting in a constant (1 meter per meter [m/m]) hydraulic gradient. Interstate Canal also does not receive any captured flow that can vary substantially year to year. Two temperature monitoring sites were installed within the high-leakage potential reach of Tri-State Canal. Site TCTEMP1 was established in 2007 where the water table was well below the canal bed surface. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the poorly sorted sand and gravel beneath site TCTEMP1 was estimated using a calibrated one-dimensional VS2DH model. Using a trial-and-error approach, the best-fit vertical hydraulic conductivity for the site TCTEMP1 model domain was 1.1 m/d. Site TCTEMP2 was established at the mouth of Spottedtail Creek where a shallow

  8. Changing surface water conditions for the last 500 ka in the Southeast Atlantic: Implications for variable influences of Agulhas leakage and Benguela upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Benjamin F.; McClymont, Erin L.; Marret, Fabienne; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important component of global ocean circulation, as it includes heat and salt transfer into the Atlantic through the Agulhas leakage as well as the highly productive Benguela upwelling system. Here we reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1087 in the Southeast Atlantic to investigate surface ocean circulation patterns during the late Pleistocene (0-500 ka). The UK'37 index and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are used to reconstruct SSTs, δDalkenone is used to reconstruct changes in sea surface salinity, and mass accumulation rates of alkenones and chlorine pigments are quantified to detect changing marine export productivity. The greatest amplitude of SST warming precedes decreases in benthic δ18O and therefore occurs early in the transition from glacials to interglacials. The δDalkenone, as a salinity indicator, increases before SSTs, suggesting that the pattern of Agulhas leakage is more complex than suggested by SST proxies. Marine isotope stage (MIS) 10 shows an anomalous pattern: it is marked by a pronounced increase in chlorine concentration, which may be related to enhanced/expanded Benguela upwelling reaching the core site. We find no evidence of an absence of Agulhas leakage throughout the record, suggesting that there is no Agulhas cutoff even during MIS 10. Finally, the ODP Site 1087 record shows an increasing strength of Agulhas leakage towards the present day, which may have impacted the intensity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. As a result, the new analyses from ODP Site 1087 demonstrate a complex interaction between influences of the Benguela upwelling and the Agulhas leakage through the late Pleistocene, which are inferred here to reflect changing circulation patterns in the Southern Ocean and in the atmosphere.

  9. Evaluation of the White Test for the Intraoperative Detection of Bile Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Leelawat, Kawin; Chaiyabutr, Kittipong; Subwongcharoen, Somboon; Treepongkaruna, Sa-ad

    2012-01-01

    We assess whether the White test is better than the conventional bile leakage test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage in hepatectomized patients. This study included 30 patients who received elective liver resection. Both the conventional bile leakage test (injecting an isotonic sodium chloride solution through the cystic duct) and the White test (injecting a fat emulsion solution through the cystic duct) were carried out in the same patients. The detection of bile leakage was compared between the conventional method and the White test. A bile leak was demonstrated in 8 patients (26.7%) by the conventional method and in 19 patients (63.3%) by the White test. In addition, the White test detected a significantly higher number of bile leakage sites compared with the conventional method (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P < 0.001). The White test is better than the conventional test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage. Based on our study, we recommend that surgeons investigating bile leakage sites during liver resections should use the White test instead of the conventional bile leakage test. PMID:22547901

  10. Evaluation of the white test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage.

    PubMed

    Leelawat, Kawin; Chaiyabutr, Kittipong; Subwongcharoen, Somboon; Treepongkaruna, Sa-Ad

    2012-01-01

    We assess whether the White test is better than the conventional bile leakage test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage in hepatectomized patients. This study included 30 patients who received elective liver resection. Both the conventional bile leakage test (injecting an isotonic sodium chloride solution through the cystic duct) and the White test (injecting a fat emulsion solution through the cystic duct) were carried out in the same patients. The detection of bile leakage was compared between the conventional method and the White test. A bile leak was demonstrated in 8 patients (26.7%) by the conventional method and in 19 patients (63.3%) by the White test. In addition, the White test detected a significantly higher number of bile leakage sites compared with the conventional method (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P < 0.001). The White test is better than the conventional test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage. Based on our study, we recommend that surgeons investigating bile leakage sites during liver resections should use the White test instead of the conventional bile leakage test.

  11. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall calculate an annual rate of refrigerant leakage from an air conditioning system in grams per year... shall be rounded to the nearest tenth of a gram per year. The procedures of SAE J2727 may be used to... be rounded to the nearest tenth of a gram per year. (b) The CO2-equivalent gram per mile leakage...

  14. A conservation planning approach to mitigate the impacts of leakage from protected area networks.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mills, Morena; Venter, Oscar; Ando, Amy W

    2015-06-01

    Protected area networks are designed to restrict anthropogenic pressures in areas of high biodiversity. Resource users respond by seeking to replace some or all of the lost resources from locations elsewhere in the landscape. Protected area networks thereby perturb the pattern of human pressures by displacing extractive effort from within protected areas into the broader landscape, a process known as leakage. The negative effects of leakage on conservation outcomes have been empirically documented and modeled using homogeneous descriptions of conservation landscapes. Human resource use and biodiversity vary greatly in space, however, and a theory of leakage must describe how this heterogeneity affects the magnitude, pattern, and biodiversity impacts of leakage. We combined models of household utility, adaptive human foraging, and biodiversity conservation to provide a bioeconomic model of leakage that accounts for spatial heterogeneity. Leakage had strong and divergent impacts on the performance of protected area networks, undermining biodiversity benefits but mitigating the negative impacts on local resource users. When leakage was present, our model showed that poorly designed protected area networks resulted in a substantial net loss of biodiversity. However, the effects of leakage can be mitigated if they are incorporated ex-ante into the conservation planning process. If protected areas are coupled with nonreserve policy instruments such as market subsidies, our model shows that the trade-offs between biodiversity and human well-being can be further and more directly reduced. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Developments in Impeller/Seal Secondary Flow Path Modeling for Dynamic Force Coefficients and Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Bhattacharya, Avijit; Athavale, Mahesh; Venkataraman, Balaji; Ryan, Steve; Funston, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    This paper highlights bulk flow and CFD-based models prepared to calculate force and leakage properties for seals and shrouded impeller leakage paths. The bulk flow approach uses a Hir's based friction model and the CFD approach solves the Navier Stoke's (NS) equation with a finite whirl orbit or via analytical perturbation. The results show good agreement in most instances with available benchmarks.

  16. Large eddy simulation of tip-leakage flow in an axial flow fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol; Kwon, Oh-Kyoung

    2016-11-01

    An axial flow fan with a shroud generates a complicated tip-leakage flow by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. In this study, large eddy simulation is performed for tip-leakage flow in a forward-swept axial flow fan inside an outdoor unit of an air-conditioner, operating at the design condition of the Reynolds number of 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame is adopted. The present simulation clearly reveals the generation and evolution of tip-leakage vortex near the blade tip by the leakage flow. At the inception of the leakage vortex near the leading edge of the suction-side of the blade tip, the leakage vortex is composed of unsteady multiple vortices containing high-frequency fluctuations. As the leakage vortex develops downstream along a slant line toward the following blade, large and meandering movements of the leakage vortex are observed. Thus low-frequency broad peaks of velocity and pressure occur near the pressure surface. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2016-C3-0027).

  17. AIRFIX: the first digital postoperative chest tube airflowmetry--a novel method to quantify air leakage after lung resection.

    PubMed

    Anegg, Udo; Lindenmann, Jorg; Matzi, Veronika; Mujkic, Dzenana; Maier, Alfred; Fritz, Lukas; Smolle-Jüttner, Freyja Maria

    2006-06-01

    Prolonged air leak after pulmonary resection is a common complication and a major limiting factor for early discharge from hospital. Currently there is little consensus on its management. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a measuring device which allows a simple digital bed-side quantification of air-leaks compatible to standard thoracic drainage systems. The measuring device (AIRFIX) is based upon a 'mass airflow' sensor with a specially designed software package that is connected to a thoracic suction drainage system. Its efficacy in detecting pulmonary air-leaks was evaluated in a series of 204 patients; all postoperative measurements were done under standardized conditions; the patients were asked to cough, to take a deep breath, to breathe out against the resistance of a flutter valve, to keep breath and to breathe normally. As standard parameters, the leakage per breath or cough (ml/b) as well as the leakage per minute (ml/min) were displayed and recorded on the computer. Air-leaks within a range of 0.25-45 ml/b and 5-900 ml/min were found. Removal of the chest tubes was done when leakage volume on Heimlich valve was less than 1.0 ml/b or 20 ml/min. After drain removal based upon the data from chest tube airflowmetry none of the patients needed re-drainage due to pneumothorax. The AIRFIX device for bed-side quantification of air-leaks has proved to be very simple and helpful in diagnosis and management of air-leaks after lung surgery, permitting drain removal without tentative clamping.

  18. Insulation Resistance and Leakage Currents in Low-Voltage Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of insulation resistance (IR) in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is considered a screening technique that ensures the dielectric is defect-free. This work analyzes the effectiveness of this technique for revealing cracks in ceramic capacitors. It is shown that absorption currents prevail over the intrinsic leakage currents during standard IR measurements at room temperature. Absorption currents, and consequently IR, have a weak temperature dependence, increase linearly with voltage (before saturation), and are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects. In contrary, intrinsic leakage currents increase super-linearly with voltage and exponentially with temperature (activation energy is in the range from 0.6 eV to 1.1 eV). Leakage currents associated with the presence of cracks have a weaker dependence on temperature and voltage compared to the intrinsic leakage currents. For this reason, intrinsic leakage currents prevail at high temperatures and voltages, thus masking the presence of defects.

  19. Investigative techniques used to locate the liquid hydrogen leakage on the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, William R., Jr.; Cota, Phillip E., Jr.; Rosenbaum, Bernard J.; Barrett, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Standard leak detection methods at ambient temperature have been developed in order to prevent excessive leakage from the Space Shuttle liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen Main Propulsion System. Unacceptable hydrogen leakage was encountered on the Columbia and Atlantis flight vehicles in the summer of 1990 after the standard leak check requirements had been satisfied. The leakage was only detectable when the fuel system was exposed to subcooled liquid hydrogen during External Tank loading operations. Special instrumentation and analytical tools were utilized during a series of propellant tanking tests in order to identify the sources of the hydrogen leakage. After the leaks were located and corrected, the physical characteristics of the leak sources were analyzed in an effort to understand how the discrepancies were introduced and why the leakage had evaded the standard leak detection methods. As a result of the post-leak analysis, corrective actions and leak detection improvements have been implemented in order to preclude a similar incident.

  20. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Conversion efficiency of an energy harvester based on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with heat leakage.

    PubMed

    Kano, Shinya; Fujii, Minoru

    2017-03-03

    We study the conversion efficiency of an energy harvester based on resonant tunneling through quantum dots with heat leakage. Heat leakage current from a hot electrode to a cold electrode is taken into account in the analysis of the harvester operation. Modeling of electrical output indicates that a maximum heat leakage current is not negligible because it is larger than that of the heat current harvested into electrical power. A reduction of heat leakage is required in this energy harvester in order to obtain efficient heat-to-electrical conversion. Multiple energy levels of a quantum dot can increase the output power of the harvester. Heavily doped colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are a possible candidate for a quantum-dot monolayer in the energy harvester to reduce heat leakage, scaling down device size, and increasing electrical output via multiple discrete energy levels.

  2. Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit

    SciT

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Joh, Jeffrey; Sherman, Max H.

    2012-08-01

    LBNL Residential Diagnostics Database (ResDB) contains blower door measurements and other diagnostic test results of homes in United States. Of these, approximately 134,000 single-family detached homes have sufficient information for the analysis of air leakage in relation to a number of housing characteristics. We performed regression analysis to consider the correlation between normalized leakage and a number of explanatory variables: IECC climate zone, floor area, height, year built, foundation type, duct location, and other characteristics. The regression model explains 68% of the observed variability in normalized leakage. ResDB also contains the before and after retrofit air leakage measurements of approximatelymore » 23,000 homes that participated in weatherization assistant programs (WAPs) or residential energy efficiency programs. The two types of programs achieve rather similar reductions in normalized leakage: 30% for WAPs and 20% for other energy programs.« less

  3. Pumping‐induced leakage in a bounded aquifer: An example of a scale‐invariant phenomenon

    Butler, James J.; Tsou, Ming‐shu

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for calculation of the volume of pumping‐induced leakage entering an aquifer as a function of time. This approach simplifies the total leakage calculation by extending analytical‐based methods developed for infinite systems to bounded aquifers of any size. The simplification is possible because of the relationship between drawdown and leakage in aquifers laterally bounded by impermeable formations. This relationship produces a scale‐invariant total leakage; i.e., the volume of leakage as a function of time does not change with the size of the aquifer or with the location of the pumping well. Two examples and image well theory are used to demonstrate and prove, respectively, the generality of this interesting phenomenon.

  4. Insulation Resistance and Leakage Currents in Low-Voltage Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of insulation resistance (IR) in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is considered a screening technique that ensures the dielectric is defect-free. This work analyzes the effectiveness of this technique for revealing cracks in ceramic capacitors. It is shown that absorption currents prevail over the intrinsic leakage currents during standard IR measurements at room temperature. Absorption currents, and consequently IR, have a weak temperature dependence, increase linearly with voltage (before saturation), and are not sensitive to the presence of mechanical defects. In contrary, intrinsic leakage currents increase super-linearly with voltage and exponentially with temperature (activation energy is in the range from 0.6 eV to 1.1 eV). Leakage currents associated with the presence of cracks have a weaker dependence on temperature and voltage compared to the intrinsic leakage currents. For this reason, intrinsic leakage currents prevail at high temperatures and voltages, thus masking the presence of defects.

  5. Prevention through policy: Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-11-15

    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic leakage is extremely pertinent. Here, we explore why and how coastal cities can reduce macroplastic leakages during extreme rainfall events. Using nine global cities as a basis, we establish that while cities actively create policies that reduce plastic leakages, more needs to be done. Nonetheless, these policies are economically, socially and environmentally cobeneficial to the city environment. While the lack of political engagement and economic concerns limit these policies, lacking social motivation and engagement is the largest limitation towards implementing policy. We recommend cities to incentivize citizen and municipal engagement with responsible usage of plastics, cleaning the environment and preparing for future extreme rainfall events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Y; Li, S B; Gu, L J; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of micro-computed tomography (CT) in marginal leakage detection of Class V restorations. Standardized Class V preparations with cervical margins in dentin and occlusal margins in enamel were made in 20 extracted human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and resin composite. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by a developing solution for eight hours. Each restoration was scanned by micro-CT, the depth of marginal silver leakage in the central scanning section was measured, and the three-dimensional images of the silver leakage around each restoration were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were cut through the center and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by the micro-CT and the microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depth in cervical walls observed by micro-CT and microscope showed no significant difference; however, in certain cases the judgment of leakage depth in the occlusal wall in micro-CT image was affected by adjacent enamel structure, providing less leakage depth than was observed with the microscope (p<0.01). Micro-CT displayed the three-dimensional image of the leakage around the Class V restorations with clear borders only in the dentin region. It can be concluded that micro-CT can detect nondestructively the leakage around a resin composite restoration in two and three dimensions, with accuracy comparable to that of the conventional microscope method in the dentin region but with inferior accuracy in the enamel region.

  7. Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Biastoch, A; Böning, C W; Lutjeharms, J R E

    2008-11-27

    Predicting the evolution of climate over decadal timescales requires a quantitative understanding of the dynamics that govern the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Comprehensive ocean measurement programmes aiming to monitor MOC variations have been established in the subtropical North Atlantic (RAPID, at latitude 26.5 degrees N, and MOVE, at latitude 16 degrees N) and show strong variability on intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Observational evidence of longer-term changes in MOC transport remains scarce, owing to infrequent sampling of transoceanic sections over past decades. Inferences based on long-term sea surface temperature records, however, supported by model simulations, suggest a variability with an amplitude of +/-1.5-3 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) on decadal timescales in the subtropics. Such variability has been attributed to variations of deep water formation in the sub-arctic Atlantic, particularly the renewal rate of Labrador Sea Water. Here we present results from a model simulation that suggest an additional influence on decadal MOC variability having a Southern Hemisphere origin: dynamic signals originating in the Agulhas leakage region at the southern tip of Africa. These contribute a MOC signal in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic that is of the same order of magnitude as the northern source. A complete rationalization of observed MOC changes therefore also requires consideration of signals arriving from the south.

  8. Adiabatic leakage elimination operator in an experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Byrd, Mark S.; Jing, Jun; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2018-06-01

    Adiabatic evolution is used in a variety of quantum information processing tasks. However, the elimination of errors is not as well developed as it is for circuit model processing. Here, we present a strategy to improve the performance of a quantum adiabatic process by adding leakage elimination operators (LEOs) to the evolution. These are a sequence of pulse controls acting in an adiabatic subspace to eliminate errors by suppressing unwanted transitions. Using the Feshbach P Q partitioning technique, we obtain an analytical solution for a set of pulse controls. The effectiveness of the LEO is independent of the specific form of the pulse but depends on the average frequency of the control function. By observing that the evolution of the target eigenstate is governed by a periodic function appearing in the integral of the control function, we show that control parameters can be chosen in such a way that the instantaneous eigenstates of the system are unchanged, yet a speedup can be achieved by suppressing transitions. Furthermore, we give the exact expression of the control function for a counter unitary transformation to be used in experiments which provides a clear physical meaning for the LEO, aiding in the implementation.

  9. Investigation of Underground Hydrocarbon Leakage using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona; Agustine, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in several petroleum plants to investigate hydrocarbon contamination beneath the surface. The hydrocarbon spills are generally recognized as Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) if the plume of leakage is distributed in the capillary fringe above the water table and as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) if it is below the water table. GPR antennas of 200 MHz and 400 MHz were deployed to obtain clear radargrams until 4 m deep. In general, the interpreted radargram sections indicate the presence of surface concrete layer, the compacted silty soill followed by sand layer and the original clayey soil as well as the water table. The presence of hydrocarbon plumes are identified as shadow zones (radar velocity and intensity contrasts) in the radargram that blur the layering pattern with different intensity of reflected signal. Based on our results, the characteristic of the shadow zones in the radargram is controlled by several factors: types of hydrocarbon (fresh or bio-degraded), water moisture in the soil, and clay content which contribute variation in electrical conductivity and dielectric constants of the soil.

  10. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    SciT

    Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.

    1994-09-21

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulatingmore » air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report.« less

  11. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days. PMID:22493615

  12. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  13. Data Leakage Prevention: E-Mail Protection via Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kamaljeet; Gupta, Ishu; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Protection of digital assets and intellectual property is becoming a challenge for most of the companies. Due to increasing availability of database services on internet, data may be insecure after passing through precarious networks. To protect intellectual property (IP) is a major concern for today's organizations, because a leakage that compromises IP means, sensitive information of a company is in the hands of biggest competitors. Electronic information processing and communication is replacing paper in many applications increasingly. Instead of paper, an email is being used for communication at workplace and from social media logins to bank accounts. Nowadays an email is becoming a mainstream business tool. An email can be misused to leave company’s sensitive data open to compromise. So, it may be of little surprise that attacks on emails are common. So, here we need an email protection system (EPS) that will protect information to leave organization via mail. In this paper, we developed an algorithm that will offer email protection via gateway during data transfer. This algorithm matches the patterns with the keywords stored in the database and then takes the actions accordingly to protect the data. This paper describes why email protection is important? How companies can protect their confidential information from being leaked by insiders.

  14. Electrical leakage phenomenon in heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Zielinski, Marcin; Bosi, Matteo; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Iacopi, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films on silicon substrates are of technological interest as enablers to integrate the excellent electrical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and epitaxial properties of bulk silicon carbide into well-established silicon technologies. One critical bottleneck of this integration is the establishment of a stable and reliable electronic junction at the heteroepitaxial interface of the n-type SiC with the silicon substrate. We have thus investigated in detail the electrical and transport properties of heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide films grown via different methods on low-doped and high-resistivity silicon substrates by using van der Pauw Hall and transfer length measurements as test vehicles. We have found that Si and C intermixing upon or after growth, particularly by the diffusion of carbon into the silicon matrix, creates extensive interstitial carbon traps and hampers the formation of a stable rectifying or insulating junction at the SiC/Si interface. Although a reliable p-n junction may not be realistic in the SiC/Si system, we can achieve, from a point of view of the electrical isolation of in-plane SiC structures, leakage suppression through the substrate by using a high-resistivity silicon substrate coupled with deep recess etching in between the SiC structures.

  15. Neurogenic vasodilatation and plasma leakage in the skin.

    PubMed

    Holzer, P

    1998-01-01

    1. Primary afferent nerve fibers control cutaneous blood flow and vascular permeability by releasing vasoactive peptides. These vascular reactions and the additional recruitment of leukocytes are commonly embodied in the term neurogenic inflammation. 2. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) acting via CGRP1 receptors is the principal transmitter of neurogenic dilatation of arterioles whereas substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) acting via NK1 receptors mediate the increase in venular permeability. 3. Neurogenic vasodilatation and plasma protein leakage play a role in inflammation because many inflammatory and immune mediators including interleukin-1 beta, nitric oxide, prostanoids, protons, bradykinin, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine can stimulate peptidergic afferent nerve fibers or enhance their excitability. 4. Neurogenic inflammatory reactions can be suppressed by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, histamine acting via H1 receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine acting via 5-HT1B receptors, opioid peptides, and somatostatin through prejunctional inhibition of peptide release from vasoactive afferent nerve fibers. CGRP, SP, and NKA receptor antagonists are powerful pharmacological tools to inhibit neurogenic inflammation at the postjunctional level. 5. Imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory influences on afferent nerve activity has a bearing on chronic inflammatory disease. Impaired nerve function represents a deficit in skin homeostasis while neuronal overactivity is a factor in allergic and hyperreactive disorders of the skin.

  16. Structural and leakage integrity of tubes affected by circumferential cracking

    SciT

    Hernalsteen, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author deals with the notion that circumferential cracks are generally considered unacceptable. He argues for the need to differentiate two facets of such cracks: the issue of the size and growth rate of a crack; and the issue of the structural strength and leakage potential of the tube in the presence of the crack. In this paper the author tries to show that the second point is not a major concern for such cracks. The paper presents data on the structural strength or burst pressure characteristics of steam generator tubes derived from models and data basesmore » of experimental work. He also presents a leak rate model, and compares the performance of circumferential and axial cracks as far as burst strength and leak rate. The final conclusion is that subject to improvement in NDE capabilities (sizing, detection, growth), that Steam Generator Defect Specific Management can be used to allow circumferentially degraded tubes to remain in service.« less

  17. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciT

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated withmore » this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.« less

  18. Airborne Detection and Tracking of Geologic Leakage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Jamey; Allamraju, Rakshit; Axelrod, Allan; Brown, Calvin; Chowdhary, Girish; Mitchell, Taylor

    2014-11-01

    Safe storage of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely affecting energy use or hindering economic growth requires development of monitoring technology that is capable of validating storage permanence while ensuring the integrity of sequestration operations. Soil gas monitoring has difficulty accurately distinguishing gas flux signals related to leakage from those associated with meteorologically driven changes of soil moisture and temperature. Integrated ground and airborne monitoring systems are being deployed capable of directly detecting CO2 concentration in storage sites. Two complimentary approaches to detecting leaks in the carbon sequestration fields are presented. The first approach focuses on reducing the requisite network communication for fusing individual Gaussian Process (GP) CO2 sensing models into a global GP CO2 model. The GP fusion approach learns how to optimally allocate the static and mobile sensors. The second approach leverages a hierarchical GP-Sigmoidal Gaussian Cox Process for airborne predictive mission planning to optimally reducing the entropy of the global CO2 model. Results from the approaches will be presented.

  19. Solar power generation system for reducing leakage current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Hung, Chih-Yi

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a transformer-less multi-level solar power generation system. This solar power generation system is composed of a solar cell array, a boost power converter, an isolation switch set and a full-bridge inverter. A unipolar pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy is used in the full-bridge inverter to attenuate the output ripple current. Circuit isolation is accomplished by integrating the isolation switch set between the solar cell array and the utility, to suppress the leakage current. The isolation switch set also determines the DC bus voltage for the full-bridge inverter connecting to the solar cell array or the output of the boost power converter. Accordingly, the proposed transformer-less multi-level solar power generation system generates a five-level voltage, and the partial power of the solar cell array is also converted to AC power using only the full-bridge inverter, so the power efficiency is increased. A prototype is developed to validate the performance of the proposed transformer-less multi-level solar power generation system.

  20. Characteristics of tip-leakage flow in an axial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keuntae; Choi, Haecheon; Choi, Seokho; Sa, Yongcheol

    2014-11-01

    An axial fan with a shroud generates complicated vortical structures by the interaction of the axial flow with the fan blades and shroud near the blade tips. Large eddy simulation (LES) is performed for flow through a forward-swept axial fan, operating at the design condition of Re = 547,000 based on the radius of blade tip and the tip velocity. A dynamic global model (Lee et al. 2010) is used for a subgrid-scale model, and an immersed boundary method in a non-inertial reference frame (Kim & Choi 2006) is adopted for the present simulation. It is found that two vortical structures are formed near the blade tip: the main tip leakage vortex (TLV) and the auxiliary TLV. The main TLV is initiated near the leading edge, develops downstream, and impinges on the pressure surface of the next blade, where the pressure fluctuations and turbulence intensity become high. On the other hand, the auxiliary TLV is initiated at the aft part of the blade but is relatively weak such that it merges with the main TLV. Supported by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2014-C2-014).

  1. Degradation of Leakage Currents and Reliability Prediction for Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Two types of failures in solid tantalum capacitors, catastrophic and parametric, and their mechanisms are described. Analysis of voltage and temperature reliability acceleration factors reported in literature shows a wide spread of results and requires more investigation. In this work, leakage currents in two types of chip tantalum capacitors were monitored during highly accelerated life testing (HALT) at different temperatures and voltages. Distributions of degradation rates were approximated using a general log-linear Weibull model and yielded voltage acceleration constants B = 9.8 +/- 0.5 and 5.5. The activation energies were Ea = 1.65 eV and 1.42 eV. The model allows for conservative estimations of times to failure and was validated by long-term life test data. Parametric degradation and failures are reversible and can be annealed at high temperatures. The process is attributed to migration of charged oxygen vacancies that reduce the barrier height at the MnO2/Ta2O5 interface and increase injection of electrons from the MnO2 cathode. Analysis showed that the activation energy of the vacancies' migration is 1.1 eV.

  2. Clinical score to predict the risk of bile leakage after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Takahiro; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Shintaro; Higaki, Tokio; Nakayama, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Masamichi; Tsuji, Shingo; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2016-05-06

    In liver resection, bile leakage remains the most common cause of operative morbidity. In order to predict the risk of this complication on the basis of various factors, we developed a clinical score system to predict the potential risk of bile leakage after liver resection. We analyzed the postoperative course in 518 patients who underwent liver resection for malignancy to identify independent predictors of bile leakage, which was defined as "a drain fluid bilirubin concentration at least three times the serum bilirubin concentration on or after postoperative day 3," as proposed by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery. To confirm the robustness of the risk score system for bile leakage, we analyzed the independent series of 289 patients undergoing liver resection for malignancy. Among 81 (15.6 %) patients with bile leakage, 76 had grade A bile leakage, and five had grade C leakage and underwent reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with bile leakage (median, 14 days; range, 8 to 34) than in those without bile leakage (11 days; 5 to 62; P = 0.001). There was no hepatic insufficiency or in-hospital death. The risk score model was based on the four independent predictors of postoperative bile leakage: non-anatomical resection (odds ratio, 3.16; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 6.07; P < 0.001), indocyanine green clearance rate (2.43; 1.32 to 7.76; P = 0.004), albumin level (2.29; 1.23 to 4.22; P = 0.01), and weight of resected specimen (1.97; 1.11 to 3.51; P = 0.02). When this risk score system was used to assign patients to low-, middle-, and high-risk groups, the frequency of bile leakage in the high-risk group was 2.64 (95 % CI, 1.12 to 6.41; P = 0.04) than that in the low-risk group. Among the independent series for validation, 4 (5.7 %), 16 (10.0 %), and 10 (16.6 %) patients in low-, middle, and high-risk groups were given a diagnosis of bile leakage after

  3. In vitro and ex vivo microbial leakage assessment in endodontics: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Savadkouhi, Sohrab Tour; Bakhtiar, Hengameh; Ardestani, Safoura Emami

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a literature review of published in-vitro and ex-vivo studies, which evaluated microbial leakage in endodontics in the past 10 years. A comprehensive electronic literature search was carried out in PubMed database for English articles published from 2005 to 2016 using the keywords "endodontics," " in vitro ," " ex vivo ," "microbial leakage," "microbial penetration," "saliva," " Enterococcus faecalis ," " E. faecalis ," "endodontic sealers," "temporary filling material," "apical plug," "mineral trioxide aggregate," and "MTA." The keywords were combined using Boolean operators AND/OR. Based on our search strategy, 33 relevant articles were included in the study. There are three main methods for assessment of bacterial microleakage, namely, (A) the dual-chamber leakage model, (B) detection of bacteria using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and (C) polymerase chain reaction. All bacterial leakage models have some limitations and may yield different results compared to other microleakage evaluation techniques (i.e., dye penetration, fluid filtration, or electrochemical tests). The results of SEM correlated with those of microbial leakage test in most studies. Microbial leakage test using saliva better simulates the clinical setting for assessment of the leakage of single or mixed bacterial species.

  4. Novel dural closure technique using polyglactin acid sheet prevents cerebrospinal fluid leakage after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku; Itoh, Yasunobu; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Higashiyama, Naoki; Shimada, Yoichi; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Extradural or subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a common complication after spinal surgery and is associated with the risks of poor wound healing, meningitis, and pseudomeningocele. Numerous methods to prevent postoperative CSF leakage are available, but pressure-tight dural closure remains difficult, especially with synthetic surgical membranes. The efficacy of a novel dural closure technique was assessed by detecting extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging. The novel dural closure technique using absorbable polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue and the conventional procedure using only fibrin glue were evaluated retrospectively by identifying extradural or subcutaneous CSF leakage on magnetic resonance imaging scans in the acute (2-7 d) and chronic (3-6 mo) postoperative stages after spinal intradural surgery in 53 patients. The incidence of extradural and subcutaneous CSF leakage was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the acute (20%) and chronic (0%) stages using polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue in 15 patients compared with that in the acute (81%) and chronic (24%) stages using only fibrin glue in 38 patients. One patient in the fibrin glue-only group required repair surgery for cutaneous CSF leakage. The combination of polyglactin acid sheet and fibrin glue can achieve water-tight closure after spinal intradural surgery and can minimize the risk of intractable postoperative CSF leakage. This simple, economical technique is recommended for dural closure after spinal intradural surgery.

  5. Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde

    2018-02-01

    The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling and analysis of sub-surface leakage current in nano-MOSFET under cutoff regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Yashu; Rai, Sanjeev

    2017-02-01

    The high leakage current in nano-meter regimes is becoming a significant portion of power dissipation in nano-MOSFET circuits as threshold voltage, channel length, and gate oxide thickness are scaled down to nano-meter range. Precise leakage current valuation and meticulous modeling of the same at nano-meter technology scale is an increasingly a critical work in designing the low power nano-MOSFET circuits. We present a specific compact model for sub-threshold regime leakage current in bulk driven nano-MOSFETs. The proposed logical model is instigated and executed into the latest updated PTM bulk nano-MOSFET model and is found to be in decent accord with technology-CAD simulation data. This paper also reviews various transistor intrinsic leakage mechanisms for nano-MOSFET exclusively in weak inversion, like drain-induced barricade lowering (DIBL), gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL), gate oxide tunneling (GOT) leakage etc. The root cause of the sub-surface leakage current is mainly due to the nano-scale short channel length causing source-drain coupling even in sub-threshold domain. Consequences leading to carriers triumphing the barricade between the source and drain. The enhanced model effectively considers the following parameter dependence in the account for better-quality value-added results like drain-to-source bias (VDS), gate-to-source bias (VGS), channel length (LG), source/drain junction depth (Xj), bulk doping concentration (NBULK), and operating temperature (Top).

  7. Leakage and sweet spots in triple-quantum-dot spin qubits: A molecular-orbital study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengxian; Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin

    2018-04-01

    A triple-quantum-dot system can be operated as either an exchange-only qubit or a resonant-exchange qubit. While it is generally believed that the decisive advantage of the resonant-exchange qubit is the suppression of charge noise because it is operated at a sweet spot, we show that the leakage is also an important factor. Through molecular-orbital-theoretic calculations, we show that when the system is operated in the exchange-only scheme, the leakage to states with double electron occupancy in quantum dots is severe when rotations around the axis 120∘ from z ̂ is performed. While this leakage can be reduced by either shrinking the dots or separating them further, the exchange interactions are also suppressed at the same time, making the gate operations unfavorably slow. When the system is operated as a resonant-exchange qubit, the leakage is three to five orders of magnitude smaller. We have also calculated the optimal detuning point which minimizes the leakage for the resonant-exchange qubit, and have found that although it does not coincide with the double sweet spot for the charge noise, they are rather close. Our results suggest that the resonant-exchange qubit has another advantage, that leakage can be greatly suppressed compared to the exchange-only qubit, and operating at the double sweet spot point should be optimal both for reducing charge noise and suppressing leakage.

  8. Can the intraoperative leak test prevent postoperative leakage of esophagojejunal anastomosis after total gastrectomy?

    PubMed

    Kanaji, Shingo; Ohyama, Masato; Yasuda, Takashi; Sendo, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Kentaro; Tanaka, Kenichi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Anastomotic failures that cannot be detected during surgery often lead to postoperative leakage. There have been no detailed reports on the intraoperative leak test for esophagojejunal anastomosis. Our purpose was to investigate the utility of routine intraoperative leak testing to prevent postoperative anastomotic leakage after performing esophagojejunostomy. We prospectively performed routine air leak tests and reviewed the records of 185 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent open total gastrectomy followed by esophagojejunostomy. A positive leak test was found for six patients (3.2 %). These patients with positive leak tests were subsequently treated with additional suturing, and they developed no postoperative anastomotic leakage. However, anastomotic leakage occurred in nine patients (4.9 %) with negative leak tests. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that a patient age >75 years and the surgeon's experience <30 cases were risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Intraoperative leak testing can detect some physical dehiscence, and additional suturing may prevent anastomotic leakage. However, it cannot prevent all anastomotic leakage caused by other factors, such as the surgeons' experience and patients' age.

  9. Enhanced ground bounce noise reduction in a low-leakage CMOS multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Bipin Kumar; Akashe, Shyam; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, various parameters are used to reduce leakage power, leakage current and noise margin of circuits to enhance their performance. A multiplier is proposed with low-leakage current and low ground bounce noise for the microprocessor, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics engines. The ground bounce noise problem appears when a conventional power-gating circuit transits from sleep-to-active mode. This paper discusses a reduction in leakage current in the stacking power-gating technique by three modes - sleep, active and sleep-to-active. The simulation results are performed on a 4 × 4 carry-save multiplier for leakage current, active power, leakage power and ground bounce noise, and comparison made for different nanoscales. Ground bounce noise is limited to 90%. The leakage current of the circuit is decimated up to 80% and the active power is reduced to 31%. We performed simulations using cadence virtuoso 180 and 45 nm at room temperature at various supply voltages.

  10. Rectal tube drainage reduces major anastomotic leakage after minimally invasive rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-S; Choi, G-S; Park, J S; Park, S Y; Kim, H J; Choi, J-I; Han, K S

    2016-12-01

    Anastomotic leakage is the most serious complication following low anterior resection for rectal cancer and is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The object of the present study was to investigate whether rectal tube drainage can reduce anastomotic leakage after minimally invasive rectal cancer surgery. Three hundred and seventy-four patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic LAR for tumours located ≤ 15 cm above the anal verge between 1 April 2012 and 31 October 2014 were assessed retrospectively. Of these, 107 with intermediate risk of anastomotic leakage received transanal rectal tube drainage. The rectal tube group was matched by propensity score analysis with patients not having rectal tube drainage, giving 204 patients in the study. Covariates for propensity score analysis included age, sex, body mass index, tumour height from the anal verge and preoperative chemoradiation. Patient demographics, tumour location, preoperative chemoradiation and operative results were similar between the two groups. The overall leakage rate was 10.8% (22/204), with no significant difference between the rectal tube group (9.8%) and the nonrectal tube group (11.8%, P = 0.652). Of the patients with anastomotic leakage, major leakage requiring reoperation developed in 11.8% of those without and 3.9% of those with a rectal tube. On multivariate analysis, age over 65 years and nonuse of a rectal tube were found to be independent risk factors for major anastomotic leakage. Rectal tube placement may be a safe and effective method of reducing the rate of major anastomotic leakage, alleviating the clinical course of leakage following minimally invasive rectal cancer surgery. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Non-invasive dynamic near-infrared imaging and quantification of vascular leakage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Steven T; Luciani, Paola; Alitalo, Annamari; Mumprecht, Viviane; Christiansen, Ailsa J; Huggenberger, Reto; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Detmar, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Preclinical vascular research has been hindered by a lack of methods that can sensitively image and quantify vascular perfusion and leakage in vivo. In this study, we have developed dynamic near-infrared imaging methods to repeatedly visualize and quantify vascular leakage in mouse skin in vivo, and we have applied these methods to transgenic mice with overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-A or -C. Near-infrared dye conjugates were developed to identify a suitable vascular tracer that had a prolonged circulation lifetime and slow leakage into normal tissue after intravenous injection. Dynamic simultaneous imaging of ear skin and a large blood vessel in the leg enabled determination of the intravascular signal (blood volume fraction) from the tissue signal shortly after injection and quantifications of vascular leakage into the extravascular tissue over time. This method allowed for the sensitive detection of increased blood vascularity and leakage rates in K14-VEGF-A transgenic mice and also reliably measured inflammation-induced changes of vascularity and leakage over time in the same mice. Measurements after injection of recombinant VEGF-A surprisingly revealed increased blood vascular leakage and lymphatic clearance in K14-VEGF-C transgenic mice which have an expanded cutaneous lymphatic vessel network, potentially indicating unanticipated effects of lymphatic drainage on vascular leakage. Increased vascular leakage was also detected in subcutaneous tumors, confirming that the method can also be applied to deeper tissues. This new imaging method might facilitate longitudinal investigations of the in vivo effects of drug candidates, including angiogenesis inhibitors, in preclinical disease models.

  12. Non-invasive dynamic near-infrared imaging and quantification of vascular leakage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Steven T.; Luciani, Paola; Alitalo, Annamari; Mumprecht, Viviane; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Huggenberger, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical vascular research has been hindered by a lack of methods that can sensitively image and quantify vascular perfusion and leakage in vivo. In this study, we have developed dynamic near-infrared imaging methods to repeatedly visualize and quantify vascular leakage in mouse skin in vivo, and we have applied these methods to transgenic mice with overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-A or -C. Near-infrared dye conjugates were developed to identify a suitable vascular tracer that had a prolonged circulation lifetime and slow leakage into normal tissue after intravenous injection. Dynamic simultaneous imaging of ear skin and a large blood vessel in the leg enabled determination of the intravascular signal (blood volume fraction) from the tissue signal shortly after injection and quantifications of vascular leakage into the extravascular tissue over time. This method allowed for the sensitive detection of increased blood vascularity and leakage rates in K14-VEGF-A transgenic mice and also reliably measured inflammation-induced changes of vascularity and leakage over time in the same mice. Measurements after injection of recombinant VEGF-A surprisingly revealed increased blood vascular leakage and lymphatic clearance in K14-VEGF-C transgenic mice which have an expanded cutaneous lymphatic vessel network, potentially indicating unanticipated effects of lymphatic drainage on vascular leakage. Increased vascular leakage was also detected in subcutaneous tumors, confirming that the method can also be applied to deeper tissues. This new imaging method might facilitate longitudinal investigations of the in vivo effects of drug candidates, including angiogenesis inhibitors, in preclinical disease models. PMID:23325334

  13. A retrospective analysis of endoscopic treatment outcomes in patients with postoperative bile leakage.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Suleyman; Olmez, Sehmus; Avcioglu, Ufuk; Tenlik, Ilyas; Saritas, Bunyamin; Ozdil, Kamil; Altiparmak, Emin; Ozaslan, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    Bile leakage, while rare, can be a complication seen after cholecystectomy. It may also occur after hepatic or biliary surgical procedures. Etiology may be underlying pathology or surgical complication. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can play major role in diagnosis and treatment of bile leakage. Present study was a retrospective analysis of outcomes of ERCP procedure in patients with bile leakage. Patients who underwent ERCP for bile leakage after surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in the study. Etiology, clinical and radiological characteristics, and endoscopic treatment outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Total of 31 patients (10 male, 21 female) were included in the study. ERCP was performed for bile leakage after cholecystectomy in 20 patients, after hydatid cyst operation in 10 patients, and after hepatic resection in 1 patient. Clinical signs and symptoms of bile leakage included abdominal pain, bile drainage from percutaneous drain, peritonitis, jaundice, and bilioma. Twelve (60%) patients were treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and nasobiliary drainage (NBD) catheter, 7 patients (35%) were treated with ES and biliary stent (BS), and 1 patient (5%) was treated with ES alone. Treatment efficiency was 100% in bile leakage cases after cholecystectomy. Ten (32%) cases of hydatid cyst surgery had subsequent cystobiliary fistula. Of these patients, 7 were treated with ES and NBD, 2 were treated with ES and BS, and 1 patient (8%) with ES alone. Treatment was successful in 90% of these cases. ERCP is an effective method to diagnose and treat bile leakage. Endoscopic treatment of postoperative bile leakage should be individualized based on etiological and other factors, such as accompanying fistula.

  14. A retrospective analysis of endoscopic treatment outcomes in patients with postoperative bile leakage

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Suleyman; Olmez, Sehmus; Avcioglu, Ufuk; Tenlik, Ilyas; Saritas, Bunyamin; Ozdil, Kamil; Altiparmak, Emin; Ozaslan, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bile leakage, while rare, can be a complication seen after cholecystectomy. It may also occur after hepatic or biliary surgical procedures. Etiology may be underlying pathology or surgical complication. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can play major role in diagnosis and treatment of bile leakage. Present study was a retrospective analysis of outcomes of ERCP procedure in patients with bile leakage. METHODS: Patients who underwent ERCP for bile leakage after surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in the study. Etiology, clinical and radiological characteristics, and endoscopic treatment outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Total of 31 patients (10 male, 21 female) were included in the study. ERCP was performed for bile leakage after cholecystectomy in 20 patients, after hydatid cyst operation in 10 patients, and after hepatic resection in 1 patient. Clinical signs and symptoms of bile leakage included abdominal pain, bile drainage from percutaneous drain, peritonitis, jaundice, and bilioma. Twelve (60%) patients were treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and nasobiliary drainage (NBD) catheter, 7 patients (35%) were treated with ES and biliary stent (BS), and 1 patient (5%) was treated with ES alone. Treatment efficiency was 100% in bile leakage cases after cholecystectomy. Ten (32%) cases of hydatid cyst surgery had subsequent cystobiliary fistula. Of these patients, 7 were treated with ES and NBD, 2 were treated with ES and BS, and 1 patient (8%) with ES alone. Treatment was successful in 90% of these cases. CONCLUSION: ERCP is an effective method to diagnose and treat bile leakage. Endoscopic treatment of postoperative bile leakage should be individualized based on etiological and other factors, such as accompanying fistula. PMID:28058396

  15. A Nomogram to Predict Anastomotic Leakage in Open Rectal Surgery-Hope or Hype?

    PubMed

    Klose, Johannes; Tarantino, Ignazio; von Fournier, Armin; Stowitzki, Moritz J; Kulu, Yakup; Bruckner, Thomas; Volz, Claudia; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Martin; Büchler, Markus W; Ulrich, Alexis

    2018-05-18

    Anastomotic leakage is the most dreaded complication after rectal resection and total mesorectal excision, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Formation of a diverting ileostomy is generally performed to protect anastomotic healing. Identification of variables predicting anastomotic leakage might help to select patients who are under increased risk for the development of anastomotic leakage prior to surgery. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of a nomogram as prognostic model for the occurrence of anastomotic leakage after rectal resection in a cohort of rectal cancer patients. Nine hundred seventy-two consecutive patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to determine independent risk factors associated with anastomotic leakage. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall model correctness of a recently published nomogram and an adopted risk score based on the variables identified in this study as a predictive model. Male sex (p = 0.042), obesity (p = 0.017), smoking (p = 0.012), postoperative bleeding (p = 0.024), and total protein level ≤ 5.6 g/dl (p = 0.007) were identified as independent risk factors for anastomotic leakage. The investigated nomogram and the adopted risk score failed to reach relevant areas under the ROC curve greater than 0.700 for the prediction of anastomotic leakage. The proposed nomogram and the adopted risk score failed to reliably predict the occurrence of anastomotic leakage after rectal resection. Risk scores as prognostic models for the prediction of anastomotic leakage, independently of the study population, still need to be identified.

  16. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2018-03-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  17. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in its...

  18. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in its...

  19. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in its...

  20. 19 CFR 158.7 - Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a natural force or by leakage. 158.7 Section 158.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... § 158.7 Allowance for reduction or loss of merchandise by a natural force or by leakage. Merchandise... or diminished by a natural force, such as evaporation, or by leakage, shall be appraised in its...

  1. SU-F-J-144: Scatter and Leakage Survey of An Integrated MR-Linac System

    SciT

    Wang, J; Bosco, G; Darenbourg, B

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the scatter and leakage radiation of an integrated 1.5T MRI-Linac system. Methods: A 150cc chamber (model 96020C, Inovision) was used in all the scatter and leakage measurements, after being recalibrated for MV energy by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory at MD Anderson. The scatter radiation was measured by placing a 25 cm stack of solid-water materials at iso-center on the patient couch to simulate patient scatter. Gantry angles were positioned at 0 degree (beam pointing downward) and 270 (beam pointing laterally). Scatter radiation was measured at selective locations inside the RF room. Beam stopper leakage was measuredmore » at the exterior panel of the gantry. The head leakage was measured at 1 meter away from the Linac head in the direction which was determined to be the area of maximum leakage by wrapped films test. All measurements were repeated with the 1.5T magnetic field turned off to study the effect of magnetic field. Results: When the magnet was on (B=1.5T), the maximum head leakage at 1 meter was 191.6mR/1000MU. The scatter radiation at 1 meter from the iso-center was 1.091R/1000MU when the radiation beam was pointing downward, 1.296R/1000MU when the beam pointed laterally. The beam stopper leakage was measured as 299.4 mR/1000MU at the exterior panel of the gantry. When magnet was off (B=0), the head leakage was measured as 198.6mR/1000MU. The scatter radiation at 1 meter was 1.153R/1000MU when beam pointed downward, 1.287R/1000MU when beam pointed laterally. The beam stopper leakage was measured as 309.4 mR/1000MU at the exterior panel of the gantry. Conclusion: The measurements indicate that the scatter and leakage radiation from the integrated MR-Linac system are in-line with the expected values. The beam stopper leakage is approximately 300 mR/1000MU. The leakage and scatter difference with the magnetic field ON and OFF was within 5%. The authors received a corporate sponsored grant from Elekta which is the

  2. Anticardiolipin antibodies from syphilis and systemic lupus erythematosus induce leakage in cardiolipin vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gremião, M P; Celli, C M; Chaimovich, H

    1996-04-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies from sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or syphilis induced leakage of entrapped carboxyfluorescein (CF) from cardiolipin (CL)/phosphatidylcholine(PC) vesicles prepared by sonication of equimolar mixtures of CL:PC. The sera dilution used here was 1:7500. IgG (5-20 micrograms/ml) from the same sera, not containing beta 2GPI, also produced a concentration-dependent leak. Vesicle leakage was inhibited by salt and was not detected with vesicles prepared exclusively with phosphatidylcholine. The demonstration of antibody-induced vesicle leakage offers a convenient system to investigate the mechanism of antibody-lipid binding as well as a potential diagnostic tool.

  3. Pulse sequences for suppressing leakage in single-qubit gate operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Joydip; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Many realizations of solid-state qubits involve couplings to leakage states lying outside the computational subspace, posing a threat to high-fidelity quantum gate operations. Mitigating leakage errors is especially challenging when the coupling strength is unknown, e.g., when it is caused by noise. Here we show that simple pulse sequences can be used to strongly suppress leakage errors for a qubit embedded in a three-level system. As an example, we apply our scheme to the recently proposed charge quadrupole (CQ) qubit for quantum dots. These results provide a solution to a key challenge for fault-tolerant quantum computing with solid-state elements.

  4. Anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery: diagnostic accuracy of CT.

    PubMed

    Kauv, Paul; Benadjaoud, Samir; Curis, Emmanuel; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Loriau, Jerome; Zins, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT in postoperative colorectal anastomotic leakage (AL). Two independent blinded radiologists reviewed 153 CTs performed for suspected AL within 60 days after surgery in 131 consecutive patients, with (n = 58) or without (n = 95) retrograde contrast enema (RCE). Results were compared to original interpretations. The reference standard was reoperation or consensus (a radiologist and a surgeon) regarding clinical, laboratory, radiological, and follow-up data after medical treatment. AL was confirmed in 34/131 patients. For the two reviewers and original interpretation, sensitivity of CT was 82 %, 87 %, and 71 %, respectively; specificity was 84 %, 84 %, and 92 %. RCE significantly increased the positive predictive value (from 40 % to 88 %, P = 0.0009; 41 % to 92 %, P = 0.0016; and 40 % to 100 %, P = 0.0006). Contrast extravasation was the most sensitive (reviewers, 83 % and 83 %) and specific (97 % and 97 %) sign and was significantly associated with AL by univariate analysis (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001). By multivariate analysis with recursive partitioning, CT with RCE was accurate to confirm or rule out AL with contrast extravasation. CT with RCE is accurate for diagnosing postoperative colorectal AL. Contrast extravasation is the most reliable sign. RCE should be performed during CT for suspected AL. • CT accurately diagnosed clinically suspected colorectal AL and showed good interobserver agreement • Contrast extravasation was the most sensitive and specific CT sign • Retrograde contrast enema during CT improved positive predictive value • Retrograde contrast enema decreased false-negative or indeterminate original CT interpretations.

  5. Diabetes and risk of anastomotic leakage after gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoti; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Weiyu; Wei, Fengqin; Ying, Mingang; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-06-15

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most common and lethal complications in gastrointestinal surgery. However, the relationship between AL risk and diabetes mellitus (DM) remains ambiguous. This meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between DM and AL risk in patients after gastrointestinal resection. Odds ratios (OR) estimate with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined and weighted to produce pooled OR using the fixed-effects model. Relative risks were calculated in subgroup analysis of prospective studies. We calculated publication bias by Begg rank correlation test and Egger linear regression test. DM was significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of AL morbidity in colorectal patients, 1.661 times in total patients (95% CIs = 1.266-2.178), 1.995 times in a subgroup of case-control studies, 1.581 times in cohort investigations, 1.688 times in retrospective trials, and 1.562 times in prospective designs. After adjusting for the factor of obesity and/or body mass index in the subgroup analyses of colorectal surgery, DM patients without obesity experienced a significantly increased risk of AL (OR = 1.572, 95% CIs = 1.112-2.222). Furthermore, when obesity had not been adjusted, DM patients endured a dramatical increase of AL incidence (OR = 1.812, 95% CIs = 1.171-2.804). Perforation incidence after gastric resection showed borderline association with DM (OR = 2.170, 95% CIs = 0.956-4.926). The present meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the first time that DM is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of AL mortality in colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leakage Account for Radial Face Contact Seal in Aircraft Engine Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, A. S.; Sergeeva, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the development of a methodology for the radial face contact seal design taking into consideration the supporting elements deformations in different aircraft engine operating modes. Radial face contact seals are popular in the aircraft engines bearing support. However, there are no published leakage calculation methodologies of these seals. Radial face contact seal leakage is determined by the gap clearance in the carbon seal ring split. In turn, the size gap clearance depends on the deformation of the seal assembly parts and from the engine operation. The article shows the leakage detection sequence in the intershaft radial face contact seal of the compressor support for take-off and cruising modes. Evaluated calculated leakage values (2.4 g/s at takeoff and 0.75 g/s at cruising) go with experience in designing seals.

  7. Low leakage current gate dielectrics prepared by ion beam assisted deposition for organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Su; Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong; Kim, Youn Sang

    2007-12-01

    This communication reports on the fabrication of low operating voltage pentacene thin-film transistors with high-k gate dielectrics by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). These densely packed dielectric layers by IBAD show a much lower level of leakage current than those created by e-beam evaporation. These results, from the fact that those thin films deposited with low adatom mobility, have an open structure, consisting of spherical grains with pores in between, that acts as a significant path for leakage current. By contrast, our results demonstrate the potential to limit this leakage. The field effect mobility, on/off current ratio, and subthreshold slope obtained from pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were 1.14 cm2/V s, 105, and 0.41 V/dec, respectively. Thus, the high-k gate dielectrics obtained by IBAD show promise in realizing low leakage current, low voltage, and high mobility pentacene TFTs.

  8. Biliary leakage due to a rapidly growing post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Keiji; Kosuge, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi

    2004-01-01

    Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms are rare. We report a very unusual case of bile duct injury complicated with an asymptomatic post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysm. A previously healthy 17-year-old man sustained multiple traumas after a motorcycle accident. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms were detected after blunt liver injury. The rapid growth of the pseudoaneurysms in the hepatic hilus compressed the common hepatic bile duct and caused extrahepatic bile leakage at the lateral lobe. At first, the hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysms were embolized and bile leakage at the left lobe was treated conservatively. Finally, however, segment 2 and 3 partial liver resection should have been performed to stop the bile leakage. Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm should be ruled out, in addition to the presence of biliary tract injury, if the intraperitoneal bile leakage appears after liver injury.

  9. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  10. Understanding Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) Signals from Mechanical Damage in Pipelines - Phase I

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-18

    Pipeline inspection tools based on Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) principles represent the most cost-effective method for in-line detection and monitoring of pipeline corrosion defects. Mechanical damage also produces MFL signals, but as yet these signa...

  11. Development of dual field magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection technology to detect mechanical damage.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    This report details the development and testing of a dual magnetization in-line inspection (ILI) : tool for detecting mechanical damage in operating pipelines, including the first field trials of a : fully operational dual-field magnetic flux leakage...

  12. Ray-leakage-free discal solar concentrators of a novel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng; Xu, Xiping; Jiang, Zhaoguo; Hai, Yina

    2017-12-01

    For high concentration ratio of the planar concentrator which is mainly used for photovoltaic or solar-thermal applications, the ray-leakage must be prevented during rays propagated in the lightguide. In this paper, the design of a ray-leakage-free discal solar concentrator is proposed which provides a high concentration ratio while acquiring a high optical efficiency. The design structure of the coupling structure is a straightforward hemisphere instead of complicated structure in other concentrators because the emergent rays from the hybrid collectors have any tilt angle, which prompts the ray-leakage-free propagating length can be raised greatly. A mathematical model between geometrical concentration ratio, reflection times and the corresponding parameters is established, where the corresponding parameters include the parabola coefficient, outermost collector width, collector height, the expanding angle and the collector quantity. Numerical simulation results show that more than 1200x geometrical concentration ratio of the proposed concentrator is achieved without any leakage from the lightguide.

  13. Continued Investigation of Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2007-01-01

    Seal leakage decreases with increasing surface speed due to reduced clearances from disk centrifugal growth. Annular and labyrinth seal leakage are 2-3 times greater than brush and finger seal leakage. Seal leakage rates increase with increasing temperature because of seal clearance growth due to different coefficients of thermal expansion between the seal and test disk. Seal power loss is not strongly affected by inlet temperature. Seal power loss increases with increasing surface speed, seal pressure differential, mass flow rate or flow factor, and radial clearance. The brush and finger seals had nearly the same power loss. Annular and labyrinth seal power loss were higher than finger or brush seal power loss. The brush seal power loss was the lowest and 15-30% lower than annular and labyrinth seal power loss.

  14. Suppression of TFT leakage current effect on active matrix displays by employing a new circular switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Sang; Jeon, Jae-Hong; Han, Min-Koo

    2008-03-01

    We have proposed a new poly-Si TFT pixel, which can suppress TFT leakage current effect on active matrix organic diode (AMOLED) displays, by employing a new circular switching TFT and additional signal line for compensating the leakage current. When the leakage current of switching TFT is increased, the VGS of the current driving TFT in the proposed pixel is not altered by the variable data voltages due to the circular switching TFT. Our simulation results show that OLED current variation of the proposed pixel can be suppressed less than 3%, while that of conventional pixel exceeds 30%. The proposed pixel may be suitable to suppress the leakage current effect on AMOLED display.

  15. A computer simulation of the plasma leakage through a vascular prosthesis made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Tabata, R; Kobayashi, T; Mori, A; Matsuno, S; Watarida, S; Onoe, M; Sugita, T; Shiraisi, S; Nojima, T

    1993-04-01

    We explored the blood-retaining mechanism of a vascular prosthesis made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene through analysis of its structure and physicochemical properties. Plasma leakage through this vascular prosthesis was simulated by computer to explore its etiology. These examinations disclosed that leakage is dependent upon the inner pressure and the density of fibers. In other words, the study revealed that the mean distance between fibers constituting the wall of the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prosthesis is increased by tension (that is, inner pressure), resulting in an increased probability of leakage. It was additionally found that a thin membrane is formed on the polytetrafluoroethylene surface if blood in contact with the surface is dried. This membrane was found to reduce the water-repelling property of polytetrafluoroethylene and to make it impossible to preserve the inter-fiber liquid surface, thus causing leakage through the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prosthesis.

  16. Modeling the Fate of Groundwater Contaminants Resulting from Leakage of Butanol-blended Fuel

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster demonstrates the integration of MODFLOW2000 and modified RT3D, simulating flow and transport of remediation process results from leakage of Butanol and Benzene contained in alternative fuels.

  17. Correlating antimicrobial activity and model membrane leakage induced by nylon-3 polymers and detergents

    PubMed Central

    Hovakeemian, Sara G.; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H.; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Most antimicrobial peptides act upon target microorganisms by permeabilizing their membranes. The mode of action is often assessed by vesicle leakage experiments that use model membranes, with the assumption that biological activity arises from permeabilization of the lipid bilayer. The current work aims to extend the interpretation of vesicle leakage results and examine the correlation between vesicle leakage and antimicrobial activity. To this end, we used a lifetime-based leakage assay with calcein-loaded vesicles to study the membrane permeabilizing properties of a novel antifungal polymer poly-NM, two of its analogs, and a series of detergents. In conjunction, the biological activities of these compounds against Candida albicans were assessed and correlated with data from vesicle leakage. Poly-NM induces all-or-none leakage in polar yeast lipid vesicles at the polymer’s MIC, 3 μg/mL. At this and higher concentrations, complete leakage after an initial lag time was observed. Concerted activity tests imply that this polymer acts independently of the detergent octyl glucoside (OG) for both vesicle leakage and activity against C. albicans spheroplasts. In addition, Poly-NM was found to have negligible activity against zwitterionic vesicles and red blood cells. Our results provide a consistent, detailed picture of the mode of action of Poly-NM: this polymer induces membrane leakage by electrostatic lipid clustering. In contrast, Poly-MM:CO, a nylon-3 polymer comprised of both cationic and hydrophobic segments, seems to act by a different mechanism that involves membrane asymmetry stress. Vesicle leakage for this polymer is transient (limited to <100%) and graded, non-specific among zwitterionic and polar yeast lipid vesicles, additive with detergent action, and correlates poorly with biological activity. Based on these results, we conclude that comprehensive leakage experiments can provide a detailed description of the mode of action of membrane permeabilizing

  18. Correlating antimicrobial activity and model membrane leakage induced by nylon-3 polymers and detergents.

    PubMed

    Hovakeemian, Sara G; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H; Heerklotz, Heiko

    2015-09-14

    Most antimicrobial peptides act upon target microorganisms by permeabilizing their membranes. The mode of action is often assessed by vesicle leakage experiments that use model membranes, with the assumption that biological activity correlates with the permeabilization of the lipid bilayer. The current work aims to extend the interpretation of vesicle leakage results and examine the correlation between vesicle leakage and antimicrobial activity. To this end, we used a lifetime-based leakage assay with calcein-loaded vesicles to study the membrane permeabilizing properties of a novel antifungal polymer poly-NM, two of its analogs, and a series of detergents. In conjunction, the biological activities of these compounds against Candida albicans were assessed and correlated with data from vesicle leakage. Poly-NM induces all-or-none leakage in polar yeast lipid vesicles at the polymer's MIC, 3 μg mL(-1). At this and higher concentrations, complete leakage after an initial lag time was observed. Concerted activity tests imply that this polymer acts independently of the detergent octyl glucoside (OG) for both vesicle leakage and activity against C. albicans spheroplasts. In addition, poly-NM was found to have negligible activity against zwitterionic vesicles and red blood cells. Our results provide a consistent, detailed picture of the mode of action of poly-NM: this polymer induces membrane leakage by electrostatic lipid clustering. In contrast, poly-MM:CO, a nylon-3 polymer comprised of both cationic and hydrophobic segments, seems to act by a different mechanism that involves membrane asymmetry stress. Vesicle leakage for this polymer is transient (limited to <100%) and graded, non-specific among zwitterionic and polar yeast lipid vesicles, additive with detergent action, and correlates poorly with biological activity. Based on these results, we conclude that comprehensive leakage experiments can provide a detailed description of the mode of action of membrane

  19. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  20. T-drain reduces the incidence of biliary leakage after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Eurich, Dennis; Henze, S; Boas-Knoop, S; Pratschke, J; Seehofer, D

    2016-12-01

    Biliary leakage is a serious complication after liver resection and represents the major cause of post-operative morbidity. In spite of already identified risk factors, little is known about the role of intra-biliary pressure following liver surgery in the development of biliary leakage. Biliary decompression may have a positive impact and reduce the incidence of biliary leakage at the parenchymal resection site. 397 patients undergoing liver resection without bilioenteric anastomosis were included in the retrospective analysis of the risk factors for the development of biliary leakage focusing on the intra-operative reduction of the biliary pressure by T-tube and liver histology. Among 397 analyzed patients after parenchymal resection, biliary leakage occurred in 39 cases (9.8 %). The extent of parenchymal resection was not associated with the total occurrence of biliary leak (p = 0.626). Lower incidence of biliary leakage from the resection surface was significantly associated with the use of T-tube (4.9 vs. 13.2 %; p = 0.006). In the subgroup analysis, insertion of a T-tube was not associated with a reduction of biliary leakage after anatomical hemihepatectomies (p = 0.103) and extraanatomical liver resection (p = 0.676). However, a high statistical significance could be detected in patients with extended hemihepatectomies (58.3 vs. 3.8 %; p < 0.001). Once biliary leak occurred without T-tube, median hospitalization duration significantly increased compared to patients with biliary decompression and without biliary leak (p < 0.001). The results of our retrospective data analysis suggest a significant beneficial impact of the T-tube on the development of biliary leakage in patients undergoing extended liver surgery.

  1. Clear corneal incision leakage after phacoemulsification--detection using povidone iodine 5%.

    PubMed

    Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the incidence of clear corneal wound leakage at the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification in a prospective observational series of 100 consecutive cataract cases in a single surgeon's institutional practice. At the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification using a 2.75 mm temporal single plane clear corneal incision with a 1 mm clear corneal side-port incision, the wounds were hydrated and checked for water-tightness. Povidone iodine 5% (P-I) was then evenly dripped over the cornea and the wounds were inspected visually. Any leakage of aqueous observed was recorded. The amount of leakage was graded as small or large from each wound. Leaky wounds were further hydrated and retested with P-I until sealed. Wound integrity was reassessed on the first postoperative day by use of fluorescein. Of the 100 cases, wound leakage was observed for 31 eyes (31%)-ten main incisions, nineteen side-port incisions, and both incisions in two cases. Wound leakage was easily detected as a ribbon of clear fluid streaming from the incision amid a pool of brown solution. Povidone iodine was not observed within the tract in any incision. All wound leakage was small except for one from the main incision and two from the side-port incision. None of the eyes developed wound leakage the day after surgery and none developed endophthalmitis. In conclusion, leakage from clear corneal incisions at the conclusion of phacoemulsification occurs in almost a third of cases, predominantly from the side incision. It is easily detected by use of the P-I test.

  2. Multicenter Analysis of Long-Term Oncologic Impact of Anastomotic Leakage After Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Nam Kyu; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Kang Young; Baik, Seung Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to validate the oncologic outcomes of anastomotic leakage (AL) after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) in a large multicenter cohort. The impact of AL after laparoscopic TME for rectal cancer surgery has not yet been clearly described. This was a multicenter retrospective study of 1083 patients who underwent laparoscopic TME for nonmetastatic rectal cancer (stage 0–III). AL was defined as an anastomotic complication within 30 days of surgery irrespective of requiring a reoperation or interventional radiology. Estimated local recurrence (LR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the leakage group and the no leakage group using the log-rank method. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis was used to adjust confounding for survival. The incidence of AL was 6.4%. Mortality within 30 days of surgery occurred in 1 patient (1.4%) in the leakage group and 2 patients (0.2%) in the no leakage group. The leakage group showed a higher LR rate (6.4% vs 1.8%, P = 0.011). Five-year DFS and OS were significantly lower in the leakage group than the no leakage group (DFS 71.7% vs 82.1%, P = 0.016, OS 81.8% vs 93.5%, P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that AL was an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.0–2.6; P = 0.042, HR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0–4.2; P = 0.028, respectively). AL after laparoscopic TME was significantly associated with an increased rate of LR, systemic recurrence and poor OS. PMID:26200636

  3. Analysis for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of surface-roughened tapered annular gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    The present analysis calculates the leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients for tapered annular gas seals whose rotor and stator have been subjected to different surface roughness treatments. The analysis is demonstrated for the effects of changes in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump's turbine interstage seal length, taper, clearance, and fluid prerotation. It is noted that changes in these parameters generally resulted in major changes in leakage and rotordynamic coefficients.

  4. Preliminary fabrication and characterization of low-leakage hybrid coaxial cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitsky, Arkady; Elbaz, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and the initial characterization of a new type of coaxial cable having reduced leakage characteristics and the capability of transmitting optical signals, in additional to the RF signal, through the glass medium between the metallic conductors. The suggested decreased leakage and material loss is obtained by using different metallic shield geometry. The suggested model is composed of a central conductor surrounded by plurality of metallic wires circularly disposed.

  5. [Anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy: reason analysis and management].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Lin, Guole; Qiu, Huizhong; Xiao, Yi; Wu, Bin

    2017-06-25

    To analyze the clinical features, possible reasons and management of anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy. Clinical data of 546 patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted radical right hemicolectomy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2010 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The occurrence of anastomotic leakage and its countermeasures were evaluated. Among 546 patients, 8(1.5%) cases developed anastomotic leakage, including 7 males and 1 female with mean age of (54.3±10.3) years. Six cases of ascending colon cancer, 1 case of phlegmon and 1 case of arterior-venous malformation were confirmed after operation. The incidence of anastomotic leakage after D3 and D2 lymphadenectomy was 2.1%(6/290) and 0.8%(2/256). The time from operation to the diagnosis of anastomotic leakage was (6.6±3.6) days. The clinical manifestation of anastomotic leakage were stool-like drainage in 7 patients, fever in 4 and abdominal pain in 3. Amylase and bilirubin in drainage of 4 patients increased obviously. All the 8 patients underwent secondary ileostomy, including 4 with laparoscopy and 4 with laparotomy. One patient suffered from respiratory failure after re-operation because of severe abdominal infection and was cured by ventilator support treatment. Another one had pelvic encapsulated effusion and was treated by puncture drainage. All the patients discharged from hospital smoothly. Anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy is a quite rare but serious complication, which may be associated with over-cleaning of lymph fatty tissues. Ileostomy should be the first choice of anastomotic leakage after laparoscopy-assisted right hemicolectomy and its efficacy is satisfactory.

  6. Wet-chemical fabrication of a single leakage-channel grating coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenbach, Lori; Zelinski, Brian J. J.; Roncone, Ronald L.; Burke, James J.

    1995-04-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a unique optical device, the single leakage-channel grating coupler, using sol-gel techniques. Design specifications are outlined to establish the material criteria for the sol-gel compositions. Material choice and preparation are described. We evaluate the characteristics and performance of the single leakage-channel grating coupler by comparing the predicted and the measured branching ratios. The branching ratio of the solution-derived device is within 3% of the theoretically predicted value.

  7. Embolization for Thoracic Duct Collateral Leakage in High-Output Chylothorax After Thoracic Surgery

    SciT

    Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate thoracic duct collateral leakage and the supply route of lymphatic fluid by lymphangiography and transcatheter thoracic ductography and to evaluate the results of embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage performed to cut off this supply route.MethodsData were retrospectively collected from five patients who underwent embolization for thoracic duct collateral leakage in persistent high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery. Extravasation of lipiodol at the ruptured thoracic duct collaterals was confirmed in all patients on lymphangiography. Transcatheter thoracic ductography was used to identify extravasation of iodinated contrast agent and to identify communication between the thoracic duct andmore » leakage site. Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) was performed using the percutaneous transabdominal approach to cut off the supply route using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) mixed with lipiodol (1:5–1:20).ResultsClinical success (drainage volume ≤10 mL/kg/day within 7 days after TDE) was achieved in all patients. The collateral routes developed as consequence of surgical thoracic duct ligation. In three patients, NBCA-Lipiodol reached the leakage site through direct communication between the thoracic duct and the ruptured lymphatic duct. In the other two patients, direct communication and extravasation was not detected on thoracic ductography, and NBCA-Lipiodol did not reach the leakage site. However, NBCA-Lipiodol did reach the cisterna chyli, lumbar trunks, and some collateral routes via the cisterna chyli or lumbar lymphatics. As a result, leakage was stopped.ConclusionsTDE was effective for the management of leakage of the collaterals in high-output chylothorax after thoracic surgery.« less

  8. Comparison of the Standard of Air Leakage in Current Metal Duct Systems in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yuhui; Wang, Jiqian; Feng, Lu; Li, Xingwu; Hu, Chunlin; Shi, Junshe; Xu, Qingsong; Qiao, Leilei

    2018-01-01

    Based on the requirements of air leakage of metal ducts in Chinese design standards, technical measures and construction standards, this paper compares the development history, the classification of air pressure levels and the air tightness levels of air leakage standards of current Chinese and international metal ducts, sums up the differences, finds shortage by investigating the design and construction status and access to information, and makes recommendations, hoping to help the majority of engineering and technical personnel.

  9. Passivity of memristive BAM neural networks with leakage and additive time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiping; Wang, Meiqi; Luo, Xiong; Li, Lixiang; Zhao, Wenbing; Liu, Linlin; Ping, Yuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the passivity of memristive bidirectional associate memory neural networks (MBAMNNs) with leakage and additive time-varying delays. Based on some useful inequalities and appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs), several delay-dependent conditions for passivity performance are obtained in linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Moreover, the leakage delays as well as additive delays are considered separately. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the theoretical results.

  10. Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.

  11. Air Leakage Measurements in Navy Family Housing Units at Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    80-4233), Prepared for Naval Construction Battalion Center (1980). 17. Lagus, P.L., "Air Leakage Measurements in Support of the Johns Manville Corporation...in the Advanced Energy Utilization Test Bed, Pt. Hueneme, California," Systems, Science and Software Report (SSS-R-78-3533), Prepared for Johns ... Manville Corporation (1978). 18. Weidt, J.L., J. Weidt, S. Selkowitz, "Field Air Leakage of Newly Installed Residential Windows," Proceedings of ASHRAE

  12. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciT

    Houseworth, J.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Mazzoldi, A.

    2011-05-01

    A CO{sub 2} sequestration project is being considered to (1) capture CO{sub 2} emissions from the Consumers Cooperative Refineries Limited at Regina, Saskatchewan and (2) geologically sequester the captured CO{sub 2} locally in a deep saline aquifer. This project is a collaboration of several industrial and governmental organizations, including the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), SaskEnvironment Go Green Fund, SaskPower, CCRL, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Enbridge. The project objective is to sequester 600 tonnes CO{sub 2}/day. Injection is planned to start in 2012 or 2013 for a period of 25 years for a total storagemore » of approximately 5.5 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. This report presents an assessment of the leakage risk of the proposed project using a methodology known as the Certification Framework (CF). The CF is used for evaluating CO{sub 2} leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), as well as brine leakage risk owing to displacement and pressurization of brine by the injected CO{sub 2}. We follow the CF methodology by defining the entities (so-called Compartments) that could be impacted by CO{sub 2} leakage, the CO{sub 2} storage region, the potential for leakage along well and fault pathways, and the consequences of such leakage. An understanding of the likelihood and consequences of leakage forms the basis for understanding CO{sub 2} leakage risk, and forms the basis for recommendations of additional data collection and analysis to increase confidence in the risk assessment.« less

  13. Potential for the Use of Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring of CO2 Leakage Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Han, Q.; Jayasumana, A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of supercritical CO2 in deep saline geologic formation is under study as a means to mitigate potential global climate change from green house gas loading to the atmosphere. Leakage of CO2 from these formations poses risk to the storage permanence goal of 99% of injected CO2 remaining sequestered from the atmosphere,. Leaked CO2 that migrates into overlying groundwater aquifers may cause changes in groundwater quality that pose risks to environmental and human health. For these reasons, technologies for monitoring, measuring and accounting of injected CO2 are necessary for permitting of CO2 sequestration projects under EPA's class VI CO2 injection well regulations. While the probability of leakage related to CO2 injection is thought to be small at characterized and permitted sites, it is still very important to protect the groundwater resources and develop methods that can efficiently and accurately detect CO2 leakage. Methods that have been proposed for leakage detection include remote sensing, soil gas monitoring, geophysical techniques, pressure monitoring, vegetation stress and eddy covariance measurements. We have demonstrated the use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) for monitoring of subsurface contaminant plumes. The adaptability of this technology for leakage monitoring of CO2 through geochemical changes in the shallow subsurface is explored. For this technology to be viable, it is necessary to identify geochemical indicators such as pH or electrical conductivity that have high potential for significant change in groundwater in the event of CO2 leakage. This talk presents a conceptual approach to use WSNs for CO2 leakage monitoring. Based on our past work on the use of WSN for subsurface monitoring, some of the challenges that need to be over come for this technology to be viable for leakage detection will be discussed.

  14. Solid oxidized fuel cells seals leakage setup and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.

    2004-01-01

    As the world s reserves of fossil fuels are depleted, the U.S. Government, as well as other countries and private industries, is researching solutions for obtaining power, answers that would be more efficient and environmentally friendly. For a long time engineers have been trying to obtain the benefits of clean electric power without heavy batteries or pollution-producing engines. While some of the inventions proved to be effective (i.e. solar panels or windmills) their applications are limited due to dependency on the energy source (i.e. sun or wind). Currently, as energy concerns increase, research is being carried out on the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The United States government is taking a proactive role in expanding the technology through the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, which is coordinated by the Department of Energy. into an electrical energy. This occurs by the means of natural tendency of oxygen and hydrogen to chemically react. While controlling the process, it is possible to harvest the energy given off by the reaction. SOFCs use currently available fossil fuels and convert a variety of those fuels with very high efficiency (about 40% more efficient than modem thermal power plants). At the same time they are almost entirely nonpolluting and due to their size they can be placed in remote areas. The main fields where the application of the fuel cells appears to be the most useful for are stationary energy sources, transportation, and military applications. structure and materials must be resolved. All the components must be operational in harsh environments including temperatures reaching 800 C and cyclic thermal- mechanical loading. Under these conditions, the main concern is the requirement for hermetic seals to: (1) prevent mixing of the fuel and oxidant within the stack, (2) prevent parasitic leakage of the fuel from the stack, (3) prevent contamination of the anode by air leaking into the stack, (4

  15. Correlation between dislocations and leakage current of p-n diodes on a free-standing GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Shigeyoshi; Ando, Yuto; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Deki, Manato; Kushimoto, Maki; Nitta, Shugo; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Yao, Yong-Zhao; Ishikawa, Yukari

    2018-04-01

    Dislocations that cause a reverse leakage current in vertical p-n diodes on a GaN free-standing substrate were investigated. Under a high reverse bias, dot-like leakage spots were observed using an emission microscope. Subsequent cathodoluminescence (CL) observations revealed that the leakage spots coincided with part of the CL dark spots, indicating that some types of dislocation cause reverse leakage. When etch pits were formed on the dislocations by KOH etching, three sizes of etch pits were obtained (large, medium, and small). Among these etch pits, only the medium pits coincided with leakage spots. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that pure screw dislocations are present under the leakage spots. The results revealed that 1c pure screw dislocations are related to the reverse leakage in vertical p-n diodes.

  16. Monitoring underground water leakage pattern by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 800 MHz antenna frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, T. S. T.; Ismail, M. P.; Ahmad, M. R.; Amin, M. S. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sani, S.; Masenwat, N. A.; Basri, N. S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most treasure natural resources, however, a huge amount of water are lost during its distribution that leads to water leakage problem. The leaks meant the waste of money and created more economic loss to treat and fix the damaged pipe. Researchers and engineers have put tremendous attempts and effort, to solve the water leakage problem especially in water leakage of buried pipeline. An advanced technology of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been established as one of the non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect the underground water pipe leaking. This paper focuses on the ability of GPR in water utility field especially on detection of water leaks in the underground pipeline distribution. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out using 800-MHz antenna, where the performance of GPR on detecting underground pipeline and locating water leakage was investigated and validated. A prototype to recreate water-leaking system was constructed using a 4-inch PVC pipe. Different diameter of holes, i.e. ¼ inch, ½ inch, and ¾ inch, were drilled into the pipe to simulate the water leaking. The PVC pipe was buried at the depth of 60 cm into the test bed that was filled with dry sand. 15 litres of water was injected into the PVC pipe. The water leakage patterns in term of radargram data were gathered. The effectiveness of the GPR in locating the underground water leakage was ascertained, after the results were collected and verified.

  17. Effect of Post-HALT Annealing on Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents is often observed during life testing of tantalum capacitors and is sometimes attributed to the field-induced crystallization in amorphous anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. However, degradation of leakage currents and the possibility of annealing of degraded capacitors have not been investigated yet. In this work the effect of annealing after highly accelerated life testing (HALT) on leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors was analyzed. Variations of leakage currents with time during annealing at temperatures from 125 oC to 180 oC, thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD) currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. Annealing resulted in a gradual decrease of leakage currents and restored their initial values. Repeat HALT after annealing resulted in reproducible degradation of leakage currents. The observed results are explained based on ionic charge instability (drift/diffusion of oxygen vacancies) in the tantalum pentoxide dielectrics using a modified Schottky conduction mechanism.

  18. Leakage evaluation of original and compatible implant–abutment connections: In vitro study using Rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Tehini, George; Rifai, Khaldoun; Bou Nasser Eddine, Farah; Badran, Bassam; Akl, Haidar

    2014-01-01

    Leakage has been addressed as a major contributing factor to inflammatory reactions at the implant–abutment connection, leading to problems such as oral malodor, inflammation, and marginal bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the leakage at implant–abutment interface of OsseoSpeed™ implants connected to original and compatible abutments. A total of 28 OsseoSpeed implants were divided into four groups (n = 7). Each group was connected to four different abutments according to manufacturers’ recommendations: group A (TiDesign™); group B (Natea™); group C (Dual™); and group D (Implanet™) abutments. The inner volume of each implant–abutment combination was calculated and leakage was detected for each group with spectrophotometric analysis at 1 h (D0) and 48 h (D1) of incubation time using Rhodamine B. At 1 h, leakage volume was significantly lower in TiDesign and Dual than in Natea and Implanet (P < 0.001). At 48 h, however, leakage was significantly lower between TiDesign and all other systems (P < 0.005). Compatible abutments do not fit internal connection of OsseoSpeed implants perfectly, which increases the leakage of the final assembly. PMID:25342984

  19. Reinforced glass-ionomer cements: the influence of conditioners on marginal leakage.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U; Mok, B Y

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of conditioners on the enamel and dentine margin sealing ability of three different reinforced glass-ionomer cements. Two Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 36 freshly extracted molar teeth. Preparations were solely in enamel or dentine/cementum. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 and restored with either Ketac Silver (KS), Hi-Dense (HD) or Miracle-Mix (MM) with and without (-C) their respective conditioners. All materials were capsulated and were manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. The restorations were finished as recommended by the manufacturers and then stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 1 week, polished, thermally stressed, subjected to dye penetration, sectioned and scored. Rankings in the order of decreasing leakage were as follows: enamel margin KS > KS-C > HD-C > HD > MM > MM-C; dentine margin KS > HD-C > KS-C > HD > MM-C > MM. At the enamel margins, only HD showed a significant increase in leakage when conditioner was not used. At the dentine margin, however, KS had significantly more leakage than KS-C and HD-C had significantly more leakage than HD. There was no significant difference in leakage for MM both with and without conditioner. The influence of conditioners on marginal leakage appears to be both product and tissue specific.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) Engine Propellant Leakage Ball-Valve Shaft Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathy; Buntain, Nick; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of propellant leakage across ball-valve shaft seals has been noted during the disassembly of five flight engines and one test engine at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, White Sands Test Facility. Based on data collected during the disassembly of these five engines, the consequences of propellant leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals can be divided into four primary areas of concern: Damage to the ball-valve pinion shafts, damage to sleeved bearings inside the ball-valve and actuator assemblies, degradation of the synthetic rubber o-rings used in the actuator assemblies, and corrosion and degradation to the interior of the actuator assemblies. The exact time at which leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals occurs has not been determined, however, the leakage most likely occurs during engine firings when, depending on the specification used, ball-valve cavity pressures range as high as 453 to 550 psia. This potential pressure range for the ball-valve cavities greatly exceeds the acceptance leakage test pressure of 332 psia. Since redesign and replacement of the ball-valve shaft seals is unlikely, the near term solution to prevent damage that occurs from shaft-seal leakage is to implement a routine overhaul and maintenance program for engines in the fleet. Recommended repair, verification, and possible preventative maintenance measures are discussed in the paper.

  1. Application of the Booth-Kautzmann method for the determination of N-2 packing leakage

    SciT

    Burkhart, D.M.; Milton, J.W.; Fawcett, S.T.

    1995-06-01

    To accurately determine turbine cycle heat rate, leakage past the N-2 steam seal packing must be determined on turbines with both HP and IP turbines contained within a common high pressure casing. N-2 packing leakage can be determined by the Booth-Kautzmann Method with instrumentation commonly used to determine the HP and IP turbine efficiency. The only additional requirements are changes to the main steam and/or hot reheat steam conditions. This paper discusses the actual test results using the Booth-Kautzmann test procedure on three natural gas fired units. The test results demonstrate the added advantage of having at least three N-2more » test runs, stability requirements for repeatable test runs and test procedures used to determine leakage results. Discussion of the sensitivity of the assumed N-2 enthalpy are also addressed. Utilizing Martins Formula with a series of N-2 Leakage test runs is shown to be a leakage prediction tool and a packing clearance approximation tool. It is concluded that the Booth-Kautzmann Method for determination of N-2 packing leakage should be utilized whenever HP and Ip turbine efficiency is determined. The two or three additional hours invested in the test runs is well worth the information gained on the performance of the N-2 packing.« less

  2. Influence of thermal aging on AC leakage current in XLPE insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Pulong; Song, Jiancheng; Tian, Muqin; Lei, Zhipeng; Du, Yakun

    2018-02-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been widely used as cable insulation material because of its excellent dielectric properties, thermal stability and solvent resistance. To understand the influence of thermal aging on AC leakage current in XLPE insulation, all XLPE specimens were aged in oven in temperature range from 120 °C to 150 °C, and a series of tests were conducted on these XLPE specimens in different aging stages to measure the characteristic parameters, such as complex permittivity, leakage current and complex dielectric modulus. In the experiments, the effects of thermal aging, temperature and frequency on the AC leakage current in XLPE insulation were studied by analyzing complex dielectric constant and dielectric relaxation modulus spectrum, the change of relaxation peak and activation energy. It has been found that the active part of leakage current increases sharply with the increase of aging degree, and the test temperature and frequency have an influence on AC leakage current but the influence of test temperature is mainly reflected in the low frequency region. In addition, it has been shown by the experiments that the reactive part of leakage current exhibits a strong frequency dependent characteristic in the testing frequency range from 10-2 Hz to 105 Hz, but the influence of test temperature and thermal aging on it is relatively small.

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration Leakage Detection: A Physics-Guided Machine Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Harp, D. R.; Chen, B.; Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    One of the risks of large-scale geologic carbon sequestration is the potential migration of fluids out of the storage formations. Accurate and fast detection of this fluids migration is not only important but also challenging, due to the large subsurface uncertainty and complex governing physics. Traditional leakage detection and monitoring techniques rely on geophysical observations including pressure. However, the resulting accuracy of these methods is limited because of indirect information they provide requiring expert interpretation, therefore yielding in-accurate estimates of leakage rates and locations. In this work, we develop a novel machine-learning technique based on support vector regression to effectively and efficiently predict the leakage locations and leakage rates based on limited number of pressure observations. Compared to the conventional data-driven approaches, which can be usually seem as a "black box" procedure, we develop a physics-guided machine learning method to incorporate the governing physics into the learning procedure. To validate the performance of our proposed leakage detection method, we employ our method to both 2D and 3D synthetic subsurface models. Our novel CO2 leakage detection method has shown high detection accuracy in the example problems.

  4. Simulation and experimental research of heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. C.; Xie, X. J.; Pan, W.; Jiang, R. X.; Li, J.; Yang, S. Q.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines directly influences the performance of large-scale helium refrigerator. In this paper, a thermal model of cryogenic transfer line considering numerical simulation of support coupled with MLI was established. To validate the model, test platform of cryogenic transfer lines with the merits of disassembly outer pipe and changeable easily multi-layer insulation has been built. The experimental results of heat leakage through overall length of cryogenic transfer lines, support and multi-layer insulation were obtained. The heat leakages of multi-layer insulation, a support and the overall leakage are 1.02 W/m, 0.44 W and 1.46 W/m from experimental data, respectively. The difference of heat leakage of MLI between experiment and simulation were less than 5%. The temperature distribution of support and MLI obtained in presented model in good agreement with experimental data. It is expected to reduce the overall heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines further by optimizing structure of support based on the above thermal model and test platform in this paper.

  5. Assessment Of Carbon Leakage In Multiple Carbon-Sink Projects: ACase Study In Jambi Province, Indonesia

    SciT

    Boer, Rizaldi; Wasrin, Upik R.; Hendri, Perdinan

    2007-06-01

    Rehabilitation of degraded forest land throughimplementation of carbon sink projects can increase terrestrial carbonstock. However, carbon emissions outside the project boundary, which iscommonly referred to as leakage, may reduce or negate the sequestrationbenefits. This study assessed leakage from carbon sink projects thatcould potentially be implemented in the study area comprised of elevensub-districts in the Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Sumatra,Indonesia. The study estimates the probability of a given land use/coverbeing converted into other uses/cover, by applying a logit model. Thepredictor variables were: proximity to the center of the land use area,distance to transportation channel (road or river), area of agriculturalland, unemploymentmore » (number of job seekers), job opportunities, populationdensity and income. Leakage was estimated by analyzing with and withoutcarbon sink projects scenarios. Most of the predictors were estimated asbeing significant in their contribution to land use cover change. Theresults of the analysis show that leakage in the study area can be largeenough to more than offset the project's carbon sequestration benefitsduring the period 2002-2012. However, leakage results are very sensitiveto changes of carbon density of the land uses in the study area. Byreducing C-density of lowland and hill forest by about 10 percent for thebaseline scenario, the leakage becomes positive. Further data collectionand refinement is therefore required. Nevertheless, this study hasdemonstrated that regional analysis is a useful approach to assessleakage.« less

  6. Leakage and spillover effects of forest management on carbon storage: theoretical insights from a simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, Federico; Dewar, Roderick C.; Borghetti, Marco

    2009-04-01

    Leakage (spillover) refers to the unintended negative (positive) consequences of forest carbon (C) management in one area on C storage elsewhere. For example, the local C storage benefit of less intensive harvesting in one area may be offset, partly or completely, by intensified harvesting elsewhere in order to meet global timber demand. We present the results of a theoretical study aimed at identifying the key factors determining leakage and spillover, as a prerequisite for more realistic numerical studies. We use a simple model of C storage in managed forest ecosystems and their wood products to derive approximate analytical expressions for the leakage induced by decreasing the harvesting frequency of existing forest, and the spillover induced by establishing new plantations, assuming a fixed total wood production from local and remote (non-local) forests combined. We find that leakage and spillover depend crucially on the growth rates, wood product lifetimes and woody litter decomposition rates of local and remote forests. In particular, our results reveal critical thresholds for leakage and spillover, beyond which effects of forest management on remote C storage exceed local effects. Order of magnitude estimates of leakage indicate its potential importance at global scales.

  7. Assessment of MMP-2/-9 expression by fluorescence endoscopy for evaluation of anastomotic healing in a murine model of anastomotic leakage

    PubMed Central

    Twardy, Vanessa; Becker, Felix; Geyer, Christiane; Schwegmann, Katrin; Mohr, Annika; Faust, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Background Disturbance of intestinal wound closure leads to insufficient anastomotic healing and is associated with considerable morbidity following colorectal resections. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in regulation of wound closure. Here fluorescence endoscopy was evaluated for assessment of MMP-2/-9 expression during failed intestinal anastomotic healing. Methods Distal colonic anastomoses were performed as a model for disturbed healing in 36 Balb/c mice. Healing was evaluated endoscopically, macroscopically, and histologically after 1, 3 and 5 days. For detection of MMP-2/-9 expression fluorescence endoscopy (FE) was used following i.v.-administration of a Cy5.5-labeled MMP-2/-9 specific tracer. FE was complemented by quantification of the fluorescence signal using the MS-FX PRO Optical Imaging System. An overall leakage score was calculated and correlated with the results of FE. Results With increasing incidence of anastomotic leakage from POD1 (17%) to POD5 (83%) the uptake of the MMP tracer gradually increased (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), POD1: 17.91 ± 1.251 vs. POD3: 30.56 ± 3.03 vs. POD5: 44.8 ± 4.473, P<0.0001). Mice with defective anastomotic healing showed significantly higher uptake compared to non-defective (SNR: 37.37± 3.63 vs. 26.16± 3.635, P = 0.0369). White light endoscopy and FE allowed evaluation of anastomotic healing and visualization of mucosal MMPs in vivo. Using FE based detection of MMPs in the anastomosis, an overall positive predictive value of 71.4% and negative predictive value of 66.6% was calculated for detection of anastomotic leakage. Conclusion During disturbed anastomotic healing increased expression of MMP-2/-9 was observed in the anastomotic tissue. Fluorescence endoscopy for detection of MMP-2/-9 during the healing process might be a promising tool for early identification of anastomotic leakage. PMID:29566031

  8. Assessment of MMP-2/-9 expression by fluorescence endoscopy for evaluation of anastomotic healing in a murine model of anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Twardy, Vanessa; Becker, Felix; Geyer, Christiane; Schwegmann, Katrin; Mohr, Annika; Faust, Andreas; Lenz, Philipp; Rijcken, Emile

    2018-01-01

    Disturbance of intestinal wound closure leads to insufficient anastomotic healing and is associated with considerable morbidity following colorectal resections. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in regulation of wound closure. Here fluorescence endoscopy was evaluated for assessment of MMP-2/-9 expression during failed intestinal anastomotic healing. Distal colonic anastomoses were performed as a model for disturbed healing in 36 Balb/c mice. Healing was evaluated endoscopically, macroscopically, and histologically after 1, 3 and 5 days. For detection of MMP-2/-9 expression fluorescence endoscopy (FE) was used following i.v.-administration of a Cy5.5-labeled MMP-2/-9 specific tracer. FE was complemented by quantification of the fluorescence signal using the MS-FX PRO Optical Imaging System. An overall leakage score was calculated and correlated with the results of FE. With increasing incidence of anastomotic leakage from POD1 (17%) to POD5 (83%) the uptake of the MMP tracer gradually increased (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), POD1: 17.91 ± 1.251 vs. POD3: 30.56 ± 3.03 vs. POD5: 44.8 ± 4.473, P<0.0001). Mice with defective anastomotic healing showed significantly higher uptake compared to non-defective (SNR: 37.37± 3.63 vs. 26.16± 3.635, P = 0.0369). White light endoscopy and FE allowed evaluation of anastomotic healing and visualization of mucosal MMPs in vivo. Using FE based detection of MMPs in the anastomosis, an overall positive predictive value of 71.4% and negative predictive value of 66.6% was calculated for detection of anastomotic leakage. During disturbed anastomotic healing increased expression of MMP-2/-9 was observed in the anastomotic tissue. Fluorescence endoscopy for detection of MMP-2/-9 during the healing process might be a promising tool for early identification of anastomotic leakage.

  9. [Use of C response protein in predicting postoperative anastomotic leakage in patients with rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zejian; Wu, Deqing; Cai, Guanfu; Luo, Yuwen; Yang, Zifeng; Zhai, Yanyun; Yao, Chuli; Hu, Weixian; Wang, Junjiang; Li, Yong

    To investigate the value and feasibility of C reactive protein (CRP) in predicting postoperative anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer patients with enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) for safer implementation of this ERAS. A cohort study on serum CRP of 455 rectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical resection according to the ERAS procedure at Gastrointestinal Unit of General Surgery Department, Guangdong General Hospital from August 2014 to June 2017 was retrospectively carried out. The serum CRP level was measured before operation and at postoperative days 1-7, and the serum CRP level of the groups with and without anastomotic leakage was compared to analyze its prediction for anastomotic leakage. Diagnostic standard of anastomotic leakage was based on the definition of postoperative anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer from International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISREC): (1) Postoperative localized or diffuse peritonitis occurred, or fecal liquid was found from the abdominal drainage tube; (2) When anastomotic leakage was uncertain, peritoneal or pelvic computed tomography scan should be used to confirm. All the 455 patients underwent surgery successfully, and 41 patients (9.0%) had anastomotic leakage postoperatively. Patients with anastomotic leakage were diagnosed (4.0±2.0) days postoperatively, of whom 8 cases (19.5%) were diagnosed more than 5 days postoperatively. Serum CRP levels in patients with anastomotic leakage continued to increase within 1-4 days postoperatively [(50.04±27.98) mg/L to (122.75±52.98) mg/L] and decreased 5 days postoperatively [(92.02±58.26) mg/L], both were higher than those of non-anastomotic leakage group, and the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.05, except postoperative day 2). The serum CRP level of non-anastomotic leakage group reached the peak on the second postoperative day [(83.10±37.45) mg/L] and decreased 3 days postoperatively [(48.01±27.59) mg/L]. The ROC curve was drawn with the

  10. Radon isotope measurements as a monitoring tool for CO2 leakage in geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandia, F.; Mazadiego, L. F.; de Elío, J.; Ortega, M.; Bruno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of the failure of the seal integrity is fundamental in the monitoring plan of a deep geological CO2 storage. A number of methods of leakage control are based on changes in fluid geochemistry (shallow water, soil gases) providing valuable indicators. Among them, the measurement of CO2 fluxes in the soil-atmosphere interface is commonly used since it can be easily done using portable infra-red analyzers (i.e., accumulation chambers). However, initial emission of CO2 from storage horizon could be masked by fluxes from biological activity, limiting its applicability as an early alarm system. The measurement of fluxes of trace gas (Rn, He, VOC) that are virtually absent in the pre-injection baseline turns out a promising complementary method. The measurement of radon isotopes has been long used for the observation of mass transport from deep reservoirs to surface despite the flux of 222Rn and 220Rn is usually very limited in sedimentary basins due to the short half-life of these isotopes. The enhanced transport of radon in CO2 fluxes has been reported from natural systems, resulting in concentration in air up to several thousands of Bq/m3. In the frame of the Compostilla pilot plant project in Spain, a number of methodologies to measure radon emission are being tested in natural systems to select of the most reliable and cost-effective method to be used in leakage control. These methods are (1) Scintillation detector EDA RD-200, (2) Track Etch °, (3) Ionization Chamber and (4) alpha spectroscopy SARAD RTM 200. Some of them are capable of measuring the isotopes separately (SARAD) whereas others just detect the bulk radon concentration. Also, these methods follow distinct procedures and acquisition times. The studied natural sites are located in central and NE Spain (Campo de Calatrava and La Selva basins), and in central Italy (Arezzo basin). Apparently, radon isotopes (up 200000 Bq/m3) are measured far from parent isotopes, and they are coupled to

  11. Gold-rush in a forested El Dorado: deforestation leakages and the need for regional cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezécache, Camille; Faure, Emmanuel; Gond, Valéry; Salles, Jean-Michel; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Tropical forests of the Guiana Shield are the most affected by gold-mining in South America, experiencing an exponential increase in deforestation since the early 2000’s. Using yearly deforestation data encompassing Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and the Brazilian State of Amapá, we demonstrated a strong relationship between deforestation due to gold-mining and gold-prices at the regional scale. In order to assess additional drivers of deforestation due to gold-mining, we focused on the national scale and highlighted the heterogeneity of the response to gold-prices under different political contexts. Deforestation due to gold-mining over the Guiana Shield occurs mainly in Guyana and Suriname. On the contrary, past and current repressive policies in Amapá and French Guiana likely contribute to the decorrelation of deforestation and gold prices. In this work, we finally present a case study focusing on French Guiana and Suriname, two neighbouring countries with very different levels of law enforcement against illegal gold-mining. We developed a modelling framework to estimate potential deforestation leakages from French Guiana to Suriname in the border areas. Based on our assumptions, we estimated a decrease in deforestation due to gold-mining of approx. 4300 hectares in French Guiana and an increase of approx. 12 100 hectares in Suriname in response to the active military repression of illegal gold-mining launched in French Guiana. Gold-mining in the Guiana Shield provides challenging questions regarding REDD+ implementation. These questions are discussed at the end of this study and are important to policy makers who need to provide sustainable alternative employment to local populations in order to ensure the effectiveness of environmental policies.

  12. Prevalence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty: procedural documentation versus CT detection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas J; Rad, Arash Ehteshami; Kallmes, David F

    2012-06-01

    Reported incidence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty varies widely across studies. To retrospectively compare the relative detection rates of extravertebral leakage noted under intra-procedural fluoroscopic surveillance, postprocedure plain radiographs, and postprocedure computed tomography (CT) in a cohort of patients undergoing vertebroplasty. With IRB approval, we retrospectively identified 181 patients with 277 levels treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty among a total of 1255 patients undergoing vertebroplasty between 1999 and 2010 who had subsequently undergone a CT examination that included the treated level(s). Categories of leakage were paravertebral, end plate, epidural, and prevertebral venous leakage. CT-detected leak rates were then compared to those noted on the vertebroplasty procedure reports and the archived fluoroscopic images for this same cohort using Pearson's χ(2) test. One hundred and forty-nine (82%, 95% CI 76-87%) of 181 patients demonstrated evidence of some type of leakage on CT at one or more treated levels. Sixty-two (34%, 95% CI 28-42%) and seventy-seven (50%, 95% CI 43-57%) of 149 CT-detected leaks were reported in the procedural dictation or detected on plain radiography (P = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). The most common type of leakage noted on CT was end plate (n = 81, 45%, 95% CI 38-52%), followed by paravertebral (n = 64, 35%, 95% CI 29-43%), epidural (n = 36, 20%, 95% CI 15-26%), and prevertebral venous (n = 32, 18%, 95% CI 13-24%). Cement leakage after vertebroplasty is common and is often not reported by operators in procedural dictations. CT detects substantially more leaks than plain radiography.

  13. Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with trivial paravalvular leakage

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant paravalvular leakage after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) correlates with increased morbidity and mortality, but adverse consequences of trivial paravalvular leakage have stimulated few investigations. Using a unique method distinctly different from other diagnostic approaches, we previously reported elevated backflow velocities of short duration (transients) in mechanical valve closure. In this study, similar transients were found in a transcatheter valve paravalvular leakage avatar. Methods Paravalvular leakage rate (zero to 58 mL/second) and aortic valve incompetence (volumetric back flow/forward flow; zero to 32%) were made adjustable using a mock transcatheter aortic valve device and tested in quasi-steady and pulsatile flow test systems. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) from the back illuminated mock transcatheter aortic valve device was measured and regional backflow velocities were derived by dividing volumetric flow rate by the PDVA over the open and closing valve phase and the total closed valve area derived from backflow leakage. Results Aortic incompetence from 1-32% generated negative backflow transients from 8 to 267 meters/second, a range not dissimilar to that measured in mechanical valves with zero paravalvular leakage. Optimal paravalvular leakage was identified; not too small generating high backflow transients, not too large considering volume overload and cardiac energy loss caused by defective valve behavior and fluid motion. Conclusions Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valves with trivial aortic incompetence and high magnitude regional backflow velocity transients was comparable to mechanical valves. This may have relevance to stroke rate, asymptomatic microembolic episodes and indications for anticoagulation therapy after transcatheter valve insertion. PMID:25333018

  14. Feasibility of Autonomous Monitoring of CO2 Leakage in Aquifers: Results From Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R.; Leger, E.; Dafflon, B.

    2016-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is one of the primary proposed approaches for reducing total atmospheric CO2 concentrations. MVAA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting and Assessment) of CO2 sequestration is an essential part of the geologic CO2 sequestration cycle. MVAA activities need to meet multiple operational, regulatory and environmental objectives, including ensuring the protection of underground sources of drinking water. Anticipated negative consequences of CO2 leakage into groundwater, besides possible brine contamination and release of gaseous CO2, include a significant increase of dissolved CO2 into shallow groundwater systems, which will decrease groundwater pH and can potentially mobilize naturally occurring trace metals and ions that are commonly absorbed to or contained in sediments. Autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring in aquifers has the potential of allowing for rapid and automated detection of CO2 leakage. However, while the feasibility of such monitoring has been demonstrated by a number of different field experiments, automated interpretation of complex electrical resistivity data requires the development of quantitative relationships between complex electrical resistivity signatures and dissolved CO2 in the aquifer resulting from leakage Under a DOE SBIR funded effort we performed multiple tank scale experiments in which we investigated complex electrical resistivity signatures associated with dissolved CO2 plumes in saturated sediments. We also investigated the feasibility of distinguishing CO2 leakage signatures from signatures associated with other processes such as salt water movement, temperature variations and other variations in chemical or physical conditions. In addition to these experiments we also numerically modeled the tank experiments. These experiments showed that (a) we can distinguish CO2 leakage signatures from other signatures, (b) CO2 leakage signatures have a consistent characteristic, (c) laboratory experiments

  15. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  16. Application of a diffusion model to measure ion leakage of resurrection plant leaves undergoing desiccation.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, Gergana; Kocheva, Konstantina; Goltsev, Vasilij; Kalaji, Hazem M; Georgieva, Katya

    2018-04-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, which can survive desiccation to air dry state under both low light and sunny environments. Maintaining the integrity of the membrane during dehydration of resurrection plants is extremely important. In the present study, the diffusion model was improved and used for a first time to evaluate the changes in ion leakage through different cellular compartments upon desiccation of H. rhodopensis and to clarify the reasons for significant increase of electrolyte leakage from dry leaves. The applied diffusion approach allowed us to distinguish the performance of plants subjected to dehydration and subsequent rehydration under different light intensities. Well-hydrated (control) shade plants had lower and slower electrolyte leakage compared to control sun plants as revealed by lower values of phase amplitudes, lower rate constants and ion concentration. In well-hydrated and moderately dehydrated plants (50% relative water content, RWC) ion efflux was mainly due to leakage from apoplast. The electrolyte leakage sharply increased in severely desiccated leaves (8% RWC) from both sun and shade plants mainly due to ion efflux from symplast. After 1 day of rehydration the electrolyte leakage was close to control values, indicating fast recovery of plants. We suggest that the enhanced leakage in air-dried leaves should not be considered as damage but rather as a survival mechanism based on a reversible modification in the structure of cell wall, plasma membrane and alterations in vacuolar system of the cells. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate the changes in cell wall/plasma membrane to support this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Goense, L; van Rossum, P S N; Tromp, M; Joore, H C; van Dijk, D; Kroese, A C; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2017-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality after esophagectomy are often related to anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. This study aimed to assess the relationship of intraoperative and postoperative vital parameters with anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy. Consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis for esophageal cancer from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine potential associations of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters with anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. From a total of 82 included patients, 19 (23%) developed anastomotic leakage and 31 (38%) experienced pneumonia. The single independent factor associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage in multivariable analysis included a lower minimum intraoperative pH (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). An increased risk of pneumonia was associated with a lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the first 12 hours after surgery (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.99) and a higher maximum intraoperative pH (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). Interestingly, no differences were noted for the MAP and inotrope requirement between patients with and without anastomotic leakage. A lower minimum intraoperative pH (below 7.25) is associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy, whereas a lower postoperative average MAP (below 83 mmHg) and a higher intraoperative pH (above 7.34) increase the risk of postoperative pneumonia. These parameters indicate the importance of setting strict perioperative goals to be protected intensively. © International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Methane Leakage from a Faulty Natural Gas Well into Fractured Tight Formations.

    PubMed

    Moortgat, Joachim; Schwartz, Franklin W; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enabled hydrocarbon recovery from unconventional reservoirs, but led to natural gas contamination of shallow groundwaters. We describe and apply numerical models of gas-phase migration associated with leaking natural gas wells. Three leakage scenarios are simulated: (1) high-pressure natural gas pulse released into a fractured aquifer; (2) continuous slow leakage into a tilted fractured formation; and (3) continuous slow leakage into an unfractured aquifer with fluvial channels, to facilitate a generalized evaluation of natural gas transport from faulty natural gas wells. High-pressure pulses of gas leakage into sparsely fractured media are needed to produce the extensive and rapid lateral spreading of free gas previously observed in field studies. Transport in fractures explains how methane can travel vastly different distances and directions laterally away from a leaking well, which leads to variable levels of methane contamination in nearby groundwater wells. Lower rates of methane leakage (≤1 Mcf/day) produce shorter length scales of gas transport than determined by the high-pressure scenario or field studies, unless aquifers have low vertical permeabilities (≤1 millidarcy) and fractures and bedding planes have sufficient tilt (∼10°) to allow a lateral buoyancy component. Similarly, in fractured rock aquifers or where permeability is controlled by channelized fluvial deposits, lateral flow is not sufficiently developed to explain fast-developing gas contamination (0-3 months) or large length scales (∼1 km) documented in field studies. Thus, current efforts to evaluate the frequency, mechanism, and impacts of natural gas leakage from faulty natural gas wells likely underestimate contributions from small-volume, low-pressure leakage events. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Efficacy and safety of fibrin sealant patch in the treatment of air leakage in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lopez, C; Facciolo, F; Lequaglie, C; Rendina, E A; Saita, S; Dell'Amore, D; Sollitto, F; Urciuoli, G; Loizzi, M; Cisternino, M L; Granone, P; Angelelli, A; Cardillo, G; Mucilli, F; Di Rienzo, G

    2013-12-01

    Air leakage represents a major problem in lung surgery. Absorbable fibrin sealant patch (AFSP), a collagen sponge coated with human fibrinogen and thrombin, can be used as an adjunct to primary stapling or suturing. This study compared the efficacy of AFSP with manual suturing after primary stapling. This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized study. Patients undergoing lobectomy, bilobectomy, anatomical segmentectomy for lung cancer or wedge resection for pulmonary metastasis with air leakage grade 1 or 2 according to Macchiarini scale after stapler suture were randomized to receive AFSP or standard surgical treatment (ST). The primary endpoint was the reduction of intraoperative air leakage intensity. Duration of postoperative air leakage and number of days until removal of last chest drain were secondary endpoints. Safety was recorded for all patients. A total of 346 patients were enrolled in 14 centres, 179 of whom received AFSP and 167 ST. Intraoperative air leak intensity was reduced in 90.5% of AFSP patients and 82% of ST patients (P=0.03). A significant reduction in postoperative air leakage duration was observed in the AFSP group (P=0.0437). The median number of days until removal of last drainage was 6 (3-37) in the AFSP group and 7 (2-27) in the ST (P=0.38). Occurrence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. AFSP was more efficacious than standard ST as an adjunct to primary stapling in reducing intraoperative air leakage intensity and duration of postoperative air leakage in patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. AFSP was well tolerated.

  20. The role of pancreatic leakage on rising of postoperative complications following pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Benzoni, Enrico; Saccomano, Enrico; Zompicchiatti, Aron; Lorenzin, Dario; Baccarani, Umberto; Adani, Gian Luigi; Uzzau, Alessandro; Noce, Luigi; Cedolini, Carla; Bresadola, Fabrizio; De Anna, Dino; Intini, Sergio

    2008-10-01

    The variations in methods of pancreatic stump management and the volume of literature available on both main pancreatic duct and pancreaticoenetric anastomosis leak indicates the concern associated with the leak and the continuing efforts to prevent it. Herein we analyzed the role of pancreatic leakage followed by pancreatic surgery on the incidence of postoperative morbidity. From 1989 to 2005, we performed 76 pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and 26 distal pancreatectomy (DP), assumed as control case). During DP the parenchymal transection was performed with a linear stapler. The surgical reconstruction after PD was as follows: 11 manual nonabsorbable stitch closure of the main duct, 24 closure of the main duct with linear stapler, 17 temporary occlusion of the main duct with neoprene glue, and 24 duct-to-mucosa anastomosis. In the PD group, morbidity rate was 60%, caused by pancreatic leakage, with an incidence of 48%, hemorrhagic complication, occurred in 10% of patients following surgical procedure and infectious complication, with an incidence of 15%. After distal pancreatectomy we recorded 80, 7% no complications, 3, 9% leakage, 15, 4% hemoperitoneum. By multivariate analysis bleeding complications, biliary anastomosis leakage, and infectious complications were consequences of pancreatic leakage (P = 0.025, P = 0.025, and P = 0.025, respectively). A significant statistical difference was recorded analyzing re-operation rates between closure of the main duct with linear stapler versus temporary occlusion of the main duct with neoprene glue (t = 0.049) and closure of the main duct with linear stapler versus duct-to-mucosa anastomosis (t = 0.003). On the ground of our results of bleeding complication, biliary anastomosis leakage and infectious complication were consequences of pancreatic leakage: failure of a surgical anastomosis has serious consequences, particularly in case of anastomosis of the pancreas to the small bowel, because of the digestive capacities of

  1. MRI ductography of contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary ducts and ducts with in situ cancer.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2017-07-01

    High resolution 3D MRI was used to study contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary glands and glands containing in situ cancer after intra-ductal injection. Five female FVB/N mice (~19weeks old) with no detectable mammary cancer and eight C3(1) SV40 Tag virgin female mice (~15weeks old) with extensive in situ cancer were studied. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple and approximately 15μL of a Gadodiamide was injected slowly over 1min into the nipple and throughout the duct on one side of the inguinal gland. Following injection, the mouse was placed in a 9.4T MRI scanner, and a series of high resolution 3D T1-weighted images was acquired with a temporal resolution of 9.1min to follow contrast agent leakage from the ducts. The first image was acquired at about 12min after injection. Ductal enhancement regions detected in images acquired between 12 and 21min after contrast agent injection was five times smaller in SV40 mouse mammary ducts (p<0.001) than in non-cancerous FVB/N mouse mammary ducts, perhaps due to rapid washout of contrast agent from the SV40 ducts. The contrast agent washout rate measured between 12min and 90min after injection was ~20% faster (p<0.004) in SV40 mammary ducts than in FVB/N mammary ducts. These results may be due to higher permeability of the SV40 ducts, likely due to the presence of in situ cancers. Therefore, increased permeability of ducts may indicate early stage breast cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On designing of a low leakage patient-centric provider network.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuchen; Lin, Kun; White, Thomas; Pickreign, Jeremy; Yuen-Reed, Gigi

    2018-03-27

    When a patient in a provider network seeks services outside of their community, the community experiences a leakage. Leakage is undesirable as it typically leads to higher out-of-network cost for patient and increases barrier for care coordination, which is particularly problematic for Accountable Care Organization (ACO) as the in-network providers are financially responsible for quality of care and outcome. We aim to design a data-driven method to identify naturally occurring provider networks driven by diabetic patient choices, and understand the relationship among provider composition, patient composition, and service leakage pattern. By doing so, we learn the features of low service leakage provider networks that can be generalized to different patient population. Data used for this study include de-identified healthcare insurance administrative data acquired from Capital District Physicians' Health Plan (CDPHP) for diabetic patients who resided in four New York state counties (Albany, Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady) in 2014. We construct a healthcare provider network based on patients' historical medical insurance claims. A community detection algorithm is used to identify naturally occurring communities of collaborating providers. For each detected community, a profile is built using several new key measures to elucidate stakeholders of our findings. Finally, import-export analysis is conducted to benchmark their leakage pattern and identify further leakage reduction opportunity. The design yields six major provider communities with diverse profiles. Some communities are geographically concentrated, while others tend to draw patients with certain diabetic co-morbidities. Providers from the same healthcare institution are likely to be assigned to the same community. While most communities have high within-community utilization and spending, at 85% and 86% respectively, leakage still persists. Hence, we utilize a metric from import-export analysis to

  3. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  4. Determination of secondhand smoke leakage from the smoking room of an Internet café.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Kiyoung; An, Jaehoon; Won, Sungho

    2017-10-01

    Although Internet cafes have been designated as nonsmoking areas in Korea, smoke-free legislation has allowed the installation of indoor smoking rooms. The purposes of this study were to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) leakage from an Internet café smoking room and to identify factors associated with SHS leakage. PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) mass concentrations were measured simultaneously both inside and outside the door to the smoking room. During each measurement, a field technician observed how long the smoking room door was opened and closed, the direction of door opening, and the number of smokers. A multivariate linear regression model was used to identify the causality of SHS leakage from the smoking room. A time series of PM 2.5 concentrations both inside and outside the door to the smoking room showed a similar trend. SHS leakage was significantly increased because of factors associated with the direction of the smoking room door being opened, the duration of how long the smoking room door was opened until it was closed, and the average PM 2.5 concentration inside the smoking room when the door was opened. SHS leakage from inside the smoking room to outside the smoking room was evident especially when the smoking room door was opened. Since the smoking room is not effective in preventing SHS exposure, the smoking room should be removed from the facilities to protect citizens from SHS exposure through revision of the current legislation, which permits installation of a smoking room. This paper concerns secondhand smoke (SHS) leakage from indoor smoking room. Unlike previous studies, the authors statistically analyzed the causality of PM 2.5 concentration leakage from a smoking room using time-series analysis. Since the authors selected the most common smoking room, the outcomes could be generalized. The study demonstrated that SHS leakage from smoking room and SHS leakage were clearly associated with door opening

  5. Antimicrobial Peptide Lactoferricin B-Induced Rapid Leakage of Internal Contents from Single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Alam, Jahangir Md; Dohra, Hideo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-09-29

    Enzymatic digestion of bovine lactoferrin generates lactoferricin B (Lfcin B), a 25-mer peptide with strong antimicrobial activity of unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of Lfcin B bactericidal activity, we investigated the interaction of Lfcin B with Escherichia coli and liposomes of lipid membranes. Lfcin B induced the influx of a membrane-impermeant fluorescent probe, SYTOX green, from the outside of E. coli into its cytoplasm. Lfcin B induced gradual leakage of calcein from large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG)/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes. To clarify the cause of Lfcin B-induced leakage of calcein from the LUVs, we used the single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method to investigate the interaction of Lfcin B with calcein-containing DOPG/DOPC-GUVs. We observed that a rapid leakage of calcein from a GUV started stochastically; statistical analysis provided a rate constant for Lfcin B-induced pore formation, kp. On the other hand, phase-contrast microscopic images revealed that Lfcin B induced a rapid leakage of sucrose from the single GUVs with concomitant appearance of a spherical GUV of smaller diameter. Because of the very fast leakage, and at the present time resolution of the experiments (33 ms), we could not follow the evolution of pore nor the process of the structural changes of the GUV. Here we used the term "local rupture" to express the rapid leakage of sucrose and determined the rate constant of local rupture, kL. On the basis of the comparison between kp and kL, we concluded that the leakage of calcein from single GUVs occurred as a result of a local rupture in the GUVs and that smaller pores inducing leakage of calcein were not formed before the local rupture. The results of the effect of the surface charge density of lipid membranes and that of salt concentration in buffer on kp clearly show that kp increases with an increase in the extent of electrostatic interactions due to

  6. [Value of CT lymphangiography in the detection of lymphatic leakage: a report of nine cases].

    PubMed

    Safar, K; Aouaifia, A; Oudjit, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M; Legmann, P

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of CT lymphangiography to detect lymphatic leakage, especially at the thoracic level, prior to therapeutic intervention. Between 2004 and 2008, nine patients underwent lymphangiography, followed by CT for the evaluation of intractable lymphatic leakage in spite of optimal medical management. Patients included seven females and two males, with age ranging between 25 and 58 years. Lymphangiography was performed after unilateral or bilateral foot injection(s) of Lipiodol ultrafluid followed by standard radiographs of the chest and abdomen and CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The images were reviewed by two experienced radiologists. Lipiodol leakage was observed in six patients, while three patients showed evidence of lymphangiectasia of the abdominal and/or thoracic lymphatics. Spontaneous resolution of leakage after lymphangiography occurred in three cases. CT lymphangiography allows direct evaluation of lymphatics, from pelvis to chest, in order to detect the site of leakage at the origin of a chylous effusion and assist in its management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of chyle leakage after thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection, in patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Inhye; Her, Nayoon; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Jung-Han

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of chyle leakage after thyroidectomy and/or cervical lymph node dissection and to establish management protocols for chyle leakage. Patients who underwent surgical management for thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. For this study, 131 patients with chyle leakage were identified; the overall incidence was 0.9%. Of them, 43.7% of patients underwent central neck dissection without lateral neck dissection, and chyle leakage was easily controlled with conservative management. Patients whose chyle drainage was reduced by >50% after dietary modification had a significantly shorter hospital stay (P < .001); NPO was the most effective dietary modification. The occurrence of chyle leakage after central compartment dissection even without lateral neck dissection was not rare, but was easily controlled with conservative management. Surgical management should be considered if the drainage amount does not decrease by >50% of the original amount of the day of detection after 2 days of NPO. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Oil leakage detection for electric power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jian-hui; Xu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Lan-tao

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method to detect the oil leakage of high voltage power equipment based on ultraviolet fluorescence effect. The method exploits the principle that the insulating oil has the fluorescent effect under the irradiation of specific ultraviolet light. The emission spectrum of insulating oil under excitation light with different wavelengths is measured and analyzed first. On this basis, a portable oil leakage detective device for high voltage power equipment is designed and developed with a selected 365 nm ultraviolet as the excitation light and the low light level camera as the fluorescence image collector. Then, the feasibility of the proposed method and device in different conditions is experimentally verified in the laboratory environment. Finally, the developed oil leakage detective device is applied to 500 kV Xiamen substation and Quanzhou substation. And the results show that the device can detect the oil leakage of high voltage electrical equipment quickly and conveniently even under the condition of a slight oil leakage especially in the low light environment.

  9. Increase in Agulhas leakage due to poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere westerlies.

    PubMed

    Biastoch, A; Böning, C W; Schwarzkopf, F U; Lutjeharms, J R E

    2009-11-26

    The transport of warm and salty Indian Ocean waters into the Atlantic Ocean-the Agulhas leakage-has a crucial role in the global oceanic circulation and thus the evolution of future climate. At present these waters provide the main source of heat and salt for the surface branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). There is evidence from past glacial-to-interglacial variations in foraminiferal assemblages and model studies that the amount of Agulhas leakage and its corresponding effect on the MOC has been subject to substantial change, potentially linked to latitudinal shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. A progressive poleward migration of the westerlies has been observed during the past two to three decades and linked to anthropogenic forcing, but because of the sparse observational records it has not been possible to determine whether there has been a concomitant response of Agulhas leakage. Here we present the results of a high-resolution ocean general circulation model to show that the transport of Indian Ocean waters into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage has increased during the past decades in response to the change in wind forcing. The increased leakage has contributed to the observed salinification of South Atlantic thermocline waters. Both model and historic measurements off South America suggest that the additional Indian Ocean waters have begun to invade the North Atlantic, with potential implications for the future evolution of the MOC.

  10. Engineering a robust DNA split proximity circuit with minimized circuit leakage

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yan Shan; Tong, Rachel; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2016-01-01

    DNA circuit is a versatile and highly-programmable toolbox which can potentially be used for the autonomous sensing of dynamic events, such as biomolecular interactions. However, the experimental implementation of in silico circuit designs has been hindered by the problem of circuit leakage. Here, we systematically analyzed the sources and characteristics of various types of leakage in a split proximity circuit which was engineered to spatially probe for target sites held within close proximity. Direct evidence that 3′-truncated oligonucleotides were the major impurity contributing to circuit leakage was presented. More importantly, a unique strategy of translocating a single nucleotide between domains, termed ‘inter-domain bridging’, was introduced to eliminate toehold-independent leakages while enhancing the strand displacement kinetics across a three-way junction. We also analyzed the dynamics of intermediate complexes involved in the circuit computation in order to define the working range of domain lengths for the reporter toehold and association region respectively. The final circuit design was successfully implemented on a model streptavidin-biotin system and demonstrated to be robust against both circuit leakage and biological interferences. We anticipate that this simple signal transduction strategy can be used to probe for diverse biomolecular interactions when used in conjunction with specific target recognition moieties. PMID:27207880

  11. Potential for downward leakage to the Floridan Aquifer, Green Swamp area, central Florida

    Grubb, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    A qualitative evaluation of the potential for downward leakage from the surficial sand aquifer to the underlying Floridan aquifer was made for the Green Swamp area (about 870 sq mi) in central Florida. Downward leakage, or recharge, is limited under natural conditions owing to the nearness to land surface of the potentiometric surface of both the sand aquifer and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Continuous cores of the unconsolidated section were obtained at 74 sites in the study area and were evaluated for downward leakage potential based on grain-size distribution. Sand percentage was estimated for each interval or bed from microscopic examination of the core samples. The four maps prepared from this data show sand thickness, clay thickness, relative vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds and the relative potential for downward leakage. About 20 percent (178 sq mi) of the area classified has a relatively good potential for downward leakage; almost 50 percent of the area has a relatively poor potential. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Numerical investigation of the unsteady tip leakage flow and rotating stall inception in a transonic compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Lu, Xingen; Chu, Wuli; Zhu, Junqiang

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that tip leakage flow has a strong effect on the compressor performance and stability. This paper reports on a numerical investigation of detailed flow structures in an isolated transonic compressor rotor-NASA Rotor 37 at near stall and stalled conditions aimed at improving understanding of changes in 3D tip leakage flow structures with rotating stall inception. Steady and unsteady 3D Navier-Stokes analyses were conducted to investigate flow structures in the same rotor. For steady analysis, the predicted results agree well with the experimental data for the estimation of compressor rotor global performance. For unsteady flow analysis, the unsteady flow nature caused by the breakdown of the tip leakage vortex in blade tip region in the transonic compressor rotor at near stall condition has been captured with a single blade passage. On the other hand, the time-accurate unsteady computations of multi-blade passage at near stall condition indicate that the unsteady breakdown of the tip leakage vortex triggered the short length-scale — spike type rotating stall inception at blade tip region. It was the forward spillage of the tip leakage flow at blade leading edge resulting in the spike stall inception. As the mass flow ratio is decreased, the rotating stall cell was further developed in the blade passage.

  13. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-06-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in.), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in.), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in. circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approximately the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  14. Dehydration Effects on Imbibitional Leakage from Desiccation-Sensitive Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Becwar, Michael R.; Stanwood, Phillip C.; Roos, Eric E.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in electrolyte leakage and viability in response to dehydration stress were examined in two species of seeds that do not survive desiccation. Leakage from silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) seeds increased markedly as seed moisture contents decreased from 45 to 35% (fresh weight basis) and germination decreased from 97 to 5%, coincidentally. Time course curves of imbibitional leakage from areca palm (Chrysalido-carpus lutescens [Bory] Wendl.) embryos showed an increase in both initial leakage and steady-state leakage rates in response to dehydration from an original moisture content of 84 to as low as 53%. Absorbance at 530 nanometers of extracts from triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stained embryos of areca palm was used as a measure of viability. Absorbance decreased significantly in response to dehydration as embryo moisture content decreased from 80 to 30%. Collectively, the data suggest that membranes in the desiccation-sensitive seed tissues studied are damaged by dehydration below a critical moisture content, 40% in silver maple seed and 55% in areca palm embryos, and that the membrane damage contributes to loss of viability. PMID:16662357

  15. a High-Level Technique for Estimation and Optimization of Leakage Power for Full Adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivas, Jayram; Akashe, Shyam; Tiwari, Nitesh

    2013-06-01

    Optimization of power is a very important issue in low-voltage and low-power application. In this paper, we have proposed power gating technique to reduce leakage current and leakage power of one-bit full adder. In this power gating technique, we use two sleep transistors i.e., PMOS and NMOS. PMOS sleep transistor is inserted between power supply and pull up network. And NMOS sleep transistor is inserted between pull down network and ground terminal. These sleep transistors (PMOS and NMOS) are turned on when the circuit is working in active mode. And sleep transistors (PMOS and NMOS) are turned off when circuit is working in standby mode. We have simulated one-bit full adder and compared with the power gating technique using cadence virtuoso tool in 45 nm technology at 0.7 V at 27°C. By applying this technique, we have reduced leakage current from 2.935 pA to 1.905 pA and leakage power from 25.04μw to 9.233μw. By using this technique, we have reduced leakage power up to 63.12%.

  16. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  17. Simulation of leakage current measurement on medical devices using helmholtz coil configuration with different current flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, E.; Chandra, F.; Dinata, R.

    2017-05-01

    Leakage current measurement which can follow IEC standard for medical device is one of many challenges to be answered. The IEC 60601-1 has defined that the limit for a leakage current for Medical Device can be as low as 10 µA and as high as 500 µA, depending on which type of contact (applied part) connected to the patient. Most people are using ELCB (Earth-leakage circuit breaker) for safety purpose as this is the most common and available safety device in market. One type of ELCB devices is RCD (Residual Current Device) and this RCD type can measure the leakage current directly. This work will show the possibility on how Helmholtz Coil Configuration can be made to be like the RCD. The possibility is explored by comparing the magnetic field formula from each device, then it proceeds with a simulation using software EJS (Easy Java Simulation). The simulation will make sure the concept of magnetic field current cancellation follows the RCD concept. Finally, the possibility of increasing the measurement’s sensitivity is also analyzed. The sensitivity is needed to see the possibility on reaching the minimum leakage current limit defined by IEC, 0.01mA.

  18. Generalized Peritonitis Requiring Re-operation After Leakage of Omental Patch Repair of Perforated Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Ghaffari, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Peptic ulcer perforations are a common emergency, but available literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management, and complications of peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Patients and Methods: Retrospective data were collected on 422 patients who underwent omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer between March 20, 1999 and March 20, 2006. The definitive diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer and omental patch leakage was obtained at surgery. Results: Seventeen (4%) patients experienced generalized peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Mean age was 60.6 years. Mortality rate was 29.4%, and the mean hospital stay was 23.6 days. Delay in surgical approach, shock on admission, and age were all significantly associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: Peritonitis due to omental patch leakage can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common causes of omental patch leakage and operative procedures were unknown and reinsertion of omentum, respectively. Factors such as shock on admission or delayed surgery, have significantly contributed to fatal outcomes and need careful attention. PMID:21372350

  19. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments. II. Polarization Leakage Simulations in the Avoidance Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Thyagarajan, N.; Dillon, J. S.; Foster, G.; Grobler, T. L.; Martinot, J. Z. E.; Parsons, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    A critical challenge in the observation of the redshifted 21 cm line is its separation from bright Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. In particular, the instrumental leakage of polarized foregrounds, which undergo significant Faraday rotation as they propagate through the interstellar medium, may harmfully contaminate the 21 cm power spectrum. We develop a formalism to describe the leakage due to instrumental widefield effects in visibility-based power spectra measured with redundant arrays, extending the delay-spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. We construct polarized sky models and propagate them through the instrument model to simulate realistic full-sky observations with the Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization. We find that the leakage due to a population of polarized point sources is expected to be higher than diffuse Galactic polarization at any k mode for a 30 m reference baseline. For the same reference baseline, a foreground-free window at k > 0.3 h Mpc-1 can be defined in terms of leakage from diffuse Galactic polarization even under the most pessimistic assumptions. If measurements of polarized foreground power spectra or a model of polarized foregrounds are given, our method is able to predict the polarization leakage in actual 21 cm observations, potentially enabling its statistical subtraction from the measured 21 cm power spectrum.

  20. A 2-D/1-D transverse leakage approximation based on azimuthal, Fourier moments

    SciT

    Stimpson, Shane G.; Collins, Benjamin S.; Downar, Thomas

    Here, the MPACT code being developed collaboratively by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan is the primary deterministic neutron transport solver within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS). In MPACT, the two-dimensional (2-D)/one-dimensional (1-D) scheme is the most commonly used method for solving neutron transport-based three-dimensional nuclear reactor core physics problems. Several axial solvers in this scheme assume isotropic transverse leakages, but work with the axial S N solver has extended these leakages to include both polar and azimuthal dependence. However, explicit angular representation can be burdensome for run-time and memory requirements. The workmore » here alleviates this burden by assuming that the azimuthal dependence of the angular flux and transverse leakages are represented by a Fourier series expansion. At the heart of this is a new axial SN solver that takes in a Fourier expanded radial transverse leakage and generates the angular fluxes used to construct the axial transverse leakages used in the 2-D-Method of Characteristics calculations.« less

  1. A 2-D/1-D transverse leakage approximation based on azimuthal, Fourier moments

    DOE PAGES

    Stimpson, Shane G.; Collins, Benjamin S.; Downar, Thomas

    2017-01-12

    Here, the MPACT code being developed collaboratively by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan is the primary deterministic neutron transport solver within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS). In MPACT, the two-dimensional (2-D)/one-dimensional (1-D) scheme is the most commonly used method for solving neutron transport-based three-dimensional nuclear reactor core physics problems. Several axial solvers in this scheme assume isotropic transverse leakages, but work with the axial S N solver has extended these leakages to include both polar and azimuthal dependence. However, explicit angular representation can be burdensome for run-time and memory requirements. The workmore » here alleviates this burden by assuming that the azimuthal dependence of the angular flux and transverse leakages are represented by a Fourier series expansion. At the heart of this is a new axial SN solver that takes in a Fourier expanded radial transverse leakage and generates the angular fluxes used to construct the axial transverse leakages used in the 2-D-Method of Characteristics calculations.« less

  2. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Statistical imprints of CMB B -type polarization leakage in an incomplete sky survey analysis

    SciT

    Santos, Larissa; Wang, Kai; Hu, Yangrui

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals of modern cosmology is to search for primordial gravitational waves by looking on their imprints in the B -type polarization in the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, this signal is contaminated by various sources, including cosmic weak lensing, foreground radiations, instrumental noises, as well as the E -to- B leakage caused by the partial sky surveys, which should be well understood to avoid the misinterpretation of the observed data. In this paper, we adopt the E / B decomposition method suggested by Smith in 2006, and study the imprints of E -to- B leakage residualsmore » in the constructed B -type polarization maps, B( n-circumflex ), by employing various statistical tools. We find that the effects of E -to- B leakage are negligible for the B-mode power spectrum, as well as the skewness and kurtosis analyses of B-maps. However, if employing the morphological statistical tools, including Minkowski functionals and/or Betti numbers, we find the effect of leakage can be detected at very high confidence level, which shows that in the morphological analysis, the leakage can play a significant role as a contaminant for measuring the primordial B -mode signal and must be taken into account for a correct explanation of the data.« less

  4. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in.), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in.), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in. circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approximately the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  5. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results are included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approx. the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  6. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments. II. Polarization Leakage Simulations in the Avoidance Scheme

    SciT

    Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Foster, G.

    A critical challenge in the observation of the redshifted 21 cm line is its separation from bright Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. In particular, the instrumental leakage of polarized foregrounds, which undergo significant Faraday rotation as they propagate through the interstellar medium, may harmfully contaminate the 21 cm power spectrum. We develop a formalism to describe the leakage due to instrumental widefield effects in visibility-based power spectra measured with redundant arrays, extending the delay-spectrum approach presented in Parsons et al. We construct polarized sky models and propagate them through the instrument model to simulate realistic full-sky observations with the Precision Arraymore » to Probe the Epoch of Reionization. We find that the leakage due to a population of polarized point sources is expected to be higher than diffuse Galactic polarization at any k mode for a 30 m reference baseline. For the same reference baseline, a foreground-free window at k > 0.3 h Mpc{sup −1} can be defined in terms of leakage from diffuse Galactic polarization even under the most pessimistic assumptions. If measurements of polarized foreground power spectra or a model of polarized foregrounds are given, our method is able to predict the polarization leakage in actual 21 cm observations, potentially enabling its statistical subtraction from the measured 21 cm power spectrum.« less

  7. Generalized peritonitis requiring re-operation after leakage of omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Ghaffari, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Peptic ulcer perforations are a common emergency, but available literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management, and complications of peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Retrospective data were collected on 422 patients who underwent omental patch repair of perforated peptic ulcer between March 20, 1999 and March 20, 2006. The definitive diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer and omental patch leakage was obtained at surgery. Seventeen (4%) patients experienced generalized peritonitis due to omental patch leakage. Mean age was 60.6 years. Mortality rate was 29.4%, and the mean hospital stay was 23.6 days. Delay in surgical approach, shock on admission, and age were all significantly associated with increased mortality. Peritonitis due to omental patch leakage can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common causes of omental patch leakage and operative procedures were unknown and reinsertion of omentum, respectively. Factors such as shock on admission or delayed surgery, have significantly contributed to fatal outcomes and need careful attention.

  8. Dynamic SVL and body bias for low leakage power and high performance in CMOS digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Jyoti; Khare, Kavita

    2012-12-01

    In this article, a new complementary metal oxide semiconductor design scheme called dynamic self-controllable voltage level (DSVL) is proposed. In the proposed scheme, leakage power is controlled by dynamically disconnecting supply to inactive blocks and adjusting body bias to further limit leakage and to maintain performance. Leakage power measurements at 1.8 V, 75°C demonstrate power reduction by 59.4% in case of 1 bit full adder and by 43.0% in case of a chain of four inverters using SVL circuit as a power switch. Furthermore, we achieve leakage power reduction by 94.7% in case of 1 bit full adder and by 91.8% in case of a chain of four inverters using dynamic body bias. The forward body bias of 0.45 V applied in active mode improves the maximum operating frequency by 16% in case of 1 bit full adder and 5.55% in case of a chain of inverters. Analysis shows that additional benefits of using the DSVL and body bias include high performance, low leakage power consumption in sleep mode, single threshold implementation and state retention even in standby mode.

  9. Pancreatic juice leakage is a risk factor for deep mycosis after pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Iso, Yukihiro; Sawada, Tokihiko; Tagaya, Nobumi; Kato, Masato; Rokkaku, Kyu; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kita, Junji; Kubota, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    .14), pleural effusion (7: 24; P = 0.27) and ascites (10: 33; P = 0.11), with no significant intergroup differences. However, the respective durations of pancreatic juice leakage in G1 and G2 were 12 and 12, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). All the G1 patients were treated with the antifungal drug for 7.8 days. Postoperative hospital stays in G1 and G2 were 47.3 days and 38.7 days, respectively (P = 0.15) and the survival rates at 19 months after surgery were 46.7% and 79.4%, respectively (P = 0.04). Deep mycosis was observed in patients with pancreatic juice leakage, thus contributing to a poor outcome. Therefore, an early diagnosis of DM and the initiation of antifungal treatment are necessary for the improving prognosis.

  10. Leakage current evaluation for pn junctions formed in DC and RF MeV ion implanted wells

    SciT

    Yanagisawa, Yasunobu; Honda, Mitsuharu; Ogasawara, Makota

    1996-12-31

    The leakage current of pn junctions formed in DC and RF MeV implanted wells have been evaluated. There is no substantial difference in the leakage current levels between the continuous and pulsive beam implantations. However, the leakage current, so called diffusion current, for RF implanted wells is slightly higher than that for DC implanted wells on some condition. This suggests a possibility that relatively higher density of residual defects remains in the case of RIF implant.

  11. ERROR REDUCTION IN DUCT LEAKAGE TESTING THROUGH DATA CROSS-CHECKS

    SciT

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    One way to reduce uncertainty in scientific measurement is to devise a protocol in which more quantities are measured than are absolutely required, so that the result is over constrained. This report develops a method for so combining data from two different tests for air leakage in residential duct systems. An algorithm, which depends on the uncertainty estimates for the measured quantities, optimizes the use of the excess data. In many cases it can significantly reduce the error bar on at least one of the two measured duct leakage rates (supply or return), and it provides a rational method ofmore » reconciling any conflicting results from the two leakage tests.« less

  12. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  13. Leakage effects in n-GaAs MESFET with n-GaAs buffer layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    Whereas improvement of the interface between the active layer and the buffer layer has been demonstrated, the leakage effects can be important if the buffer layer resistivity is not sufficiently high and/or the buffer layer thickness is not sufficiently small. It was found that two buffer leakage currents exist from the channel under the gate to the source and from drain to the channel in addition to the buffer leakage resistance between drain and source. It is shown that for a 1 micron gate-length n-GaAs MESFET, if the buffer layer resistivity is 12 OHM-CM and the buffer layer thickness h is 2 microns, the performance of the device degrades drastically. It is suggested that h should be below 2 microns.

  14. Secondary migration and leakage of methane from a major tight-gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, James M.; Sanei, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Tight-gas and shale-gas systems can undergo significant depressurization during basin uplift and erosion of overburden due primarily to the natural leakage of hydrocarbon fluids. To date, geologic factors governing hydrocarbon leakage from such systems are poorly documented and understood. Here we show, in a study of produced natural gas from 1,907 petroleum wells drilled into a Triassic tight-gas system in western Canada, that hydrocarbon fluid loss is focused along distinct curvilinear pathways controlled by stratigraphic trends with superior matrix permeability and likely also structural trends with enhanced fracture permeability. Natural gas along these pathways is preferentially enriched in methane because of selective secondary migration and phase separation processes. The leakage and secondary migration of thermogenic methane to surficial strata is part of an ongoing carbon cycle in which organic carbon in the deep sedimentary basin transforms into methane, and ultimately reaches the near-surface groundwater and atmosphere.

  15. Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice transgenically overexpressing angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    Thurston, G; Suri, C; Smith, K; McClain, J; Sato, T N; Yancopoulos, G D; McDonald, D M

    1999-12-24

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. Direct comparison of transgenic mice overexpressing these factors in the skin revealed that the VEGF-induced blood vessels were leaky, whereas those induced by Ang1 were nonleaky. Moreover, vessels in Ang1-overexpressing mice were resistant to leaks caused by inflammatory agents. Coexpression of Ang1 and VEGF had an additive effect on angiogenesis but resulted in leakage-resistant vessels typical of Ang1. Ang1 therefore may be useful for reducing microvascular leakage in diseases in which the leakage results from chronic inflammation or elevated VEGF and, in combination with VEGF, for promoting growth of nonleaky vessels.

  16. Hot-Electron-Induced Device Degradation during Gate-Induced Drain Leakage Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Soo; Han, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jun-Ki; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyong-Joon; Shin, Joong-Shik; Lee, Hea-Beoum; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2012-11-01

    We studied the interface state generation and electron trapping by hot electrons under gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) stress in p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (P-MOSFETs), which are used as the high-voltage core circuit of flash memory devices. When negative voltage was applied to a drain in the off-state, a GIDL current was generated, but when high voltage was applied to the drain, electrons had a high energy. The hot electrons produced the interface state and electron trapping. As a result, the threshold voltage shifted and the off-state leakage current (trap-assisted drain junction leakage current) increased. On the other hand, electron trapping mitigated the energy band bending near the drain and thus suppressed the GIDL current generation.

  17. Calculations of the conditions for bunch leakage in the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuffer, D.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-04-01

    Observations are consistent with the possibility of an "ep" instability in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) with both bunched and unbunched beam. The instability requires electrons to be trapped within the beam, and calculations have shown that such trapping requires leakage of beam into the interbunch gap. Observationally, leakage of beam into the gap appears necessary for the onset of the instability. In this paper we present results of studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics at PSR parameters. The studies indicate that the combined effects of the rf buncher, longitudinal space charge, and injection mismatch are sufficient to cause the observed bunch leakage. Simulation results are presented and compared with PSR observations. Variations of PSR performance parameters are considered, and methods of improving bunch confinement are suggested and studied.

  18. Secondary migration and leakage of methane from a major tight-gas system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James M.; Sanei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Tight-gas and shale-gas systems can undergo significant depressurization during basin uplift and erosion of overburden due primarily to the natural leakage of hydrocarbon fluids. To date, geologic factors governing hydrocarbon leakage from such systems are poorly documented and understood. Here we show, in a study of produced natural gas from 1,907 petroleum wells drilled into a Triassic tight-gas system in western Canada, that hydrocarbon fluid loss is focused along distinct curvilinear pathways controlled by stratigraphic trends with superior matrix permeability and likely also structural trends with enhanced fracture permeability. Natural gas along these pathways is preferentially enriched in methane because of selective secondary migration and phase separation processes. The leakage and secondary migration of thermogenic methane to surficial strata is part of an ongoing carbon cycle in which organic carbon in the deep sedimentary basin transforms into methane, and ultimately reaches the near-surface groundwater and atmosphere. PMID:27874012

  19. Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    López, Daniel; Fischbach, Michael A; Chu, Frances; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-06

    We report a previously undescribed quorum-sensing mechanism for triggering multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis forms communities of cells known as biofilms in response to an unknown signal. We discovered that biofilm formation is stimulated by a variety of small molecules produced by bacteria--including the B. subtilis nonribosomal peptide surfactin--that share the ability to induce potassium leakage. Natural products that do not cause potassium leakage failed to induce multicellularity. Small-molecule-induced multicellularity was prevented by the addition of potassium, but not sodium or lithium. Evidence is presented that potassium leakage stimulates the activity of a membrane protein kinase, KinC, which governs the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation. We propose that KinC responds to lowered intracellular potassium concentration and that this is a quorum-sensing mechanism that enables B. subtilis to respond to related and unrelated bacteria.

  20. The White-test helps to reduce biliary leakage in liver resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Linke, Richard; Ulrich, Frank; Bechstein, Wolf O; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A

    2015-01-01

    Bile leakage testing may help to detect and reduce the incidence of biliary leakage after hepatic resection. This review was performed to investigate the value of the White-test in identifying intraoperative biliary leakage and avoiding postoperative leakage. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Two researchers performed literature research. Primary outcome measure was the incidence of post-hepatectomy biliary leakage; secondary outcome measure was the ability of detecting intraoperative biliary leakage with the help of the White-test. A total of 4 publications (including original data from our center) were included in the analysis. Evidence levels of the included studies had medium quality of 2b (individual cohort studies including low quality randomized controlled trials). Use of the White-test led to a significant reduction of post-operative biliary leakage [OR: 0.3 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.63), p = 0.002] and led to a significant higher intraoperative detection of biliary leakages [OR: 0.03 (95%CI: 0.02, 0.07), p < 0.00001]. Existing evidence implicates the use of the White-test after hepatic resection to identify bile leaks intraoperatively and thus reduce incidence of post-operative biliary leakage. Nonetheless, there is a requirement for a high-quality randomized controlled trial with adequately powered sample-size to confirm findings from the above described studies and further increase evidence in this field.

  1. Clinical implication of positive oral contrast computed tomography for the evaluation of postoperative leakage after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeo-Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Hyung, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang Kil; Choi, Jin-Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of positive oral contrast computed tomography (CT) for the detection of leakage and its relationship with the immediate postoperative outcome after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. A total of 210 patients with a clinical suspicion of leakage after gastrectomy for gastric cancer underwent a positive oral contrast CT. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the CT images, recorded the presence of extraluminal contrast leakage, and graded the amount of leaked contrast. The rate of postoperative intervention treatment, the length of postoperative hospital stay, and mortality rates were correlated with the presence and grades of leakage. Matching accuracy between CT and other diagnostic studies in detection of leakage was also evaluated. There were 162 patients without extraluminal contrast leakage (77.1%), 13 with grade 1 leakage (6.2%), 19 with grade 2 (9.0%), and 16 with grade 3 (7.6%). Postoperative intervention rate, hospital stay, and mortality were significantly higher in patients with extraluminal contrast than those in patients without extraluminal contrast (P < 0.05). Postoperative hospital stays increased as the leakage grades increased (P = 0.0008). The matching accuracy between CT and other studies was 82.1% (n = 32/39). Positive oral contrast CT can be a reliable tool for diagnosing postoperative leakage that requires further intervention after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients, and the immediate postoperative outcome may be related with the grade of leaked contrast on CT.

  2. Leakage current reduction of vertical GaN junction barrier Schottky diodes using dual-anode process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Tetsuro; Nanjo, Takuma; Furukawa, Akihiko; Watahiki, Tatsuro; Yamamuka, Mikio

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the leakage current of a trench-type vertical GaN diode was discussed. We found that the edge of p-GaN is the main leakage spot. To reduce the reverse leakage current at the edge of p-GaN, a dual-anode process was proposed. As a result, the reverse blocking voltage defined at the leakage current density of 1 mA/cm2 of a vertical GaN junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode was improved from 780 to 1,190 V, which is the highest value ever reported for vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs).

  3. Germline contamination and leakage in whole genome somatic single nucleotide variant detection.

    PubMed

    Sendorek, Dorota H; Caloian, Cristian; Ellrott, Kyle; Bare, J Christopher; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Ewing, Adam D; Houlahan, Kathleen E; Norman, Thea C; Margolin, Adam A; Stuart, Joshua M; Boutros, Paul C

    2018-01-31

    The clinical sequencing of cancer genomes to personalize therapy is becoming routine across the world. However, concerns over patient re-identification from these data lead to questions about how tightly access should be controlled. It is not thought to be possible to re-identify patients from somatic variant data. However, somatic variant detection pipelines can mistakenly identify germline variants as somatic ones, a process called "germline leakage". The rate of germline leakage across different somatic variant detection pipelines is not well-understood, and it is uncertain whether or not somatic variant calls should be considered re-identifiable. To fill this gap, we quantified germline leakage across 259 sets of whole-genome somatic single nucleotide variant (SNVs) predictions made by 21 teams as part of the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge. The median somatic SNV prediction set contained 4325 somatic SNVs and leaked one germline polymorphism. The level of germline leakage was inversely correlated with somatic SNV prediction accuracy and positively correlated with the amount of infiltrating normal cells. The specific germline variants leaked differed by tumour and algorithm. To aid in quantitation and correction of leakage, we created a tool, called GermlineFilter, for use in public-facing somatic SNV databases. The potential for patient re-identification from leaked germline variants in somatic SNV predictions has led to divergent open data access policies, based on different assessments of the risks. Indeed, a single, well-publicized re-identification event could reshape public perceptions of the values of genomic data sharing. We find that modern somatic SNV prediction pipelines have low germline-leakage rates, which can be further reduced, especially for cloud-sharing, using pre-filtering software.

  4. Direct lymphangiography as treatment option of lymphatic leakage: indications, outcomes and role in patient's management.

    PubMed

    Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Naguib, Nagy N N; Lehnert, Thomas; Harth, Marc; Thalhammer, Axel; Beeres, Martin; Tsaur, Igor; Hammersting, Renate; Wichmann, Julian L; Vogl, Thomas J; Jacobi, Volkmar

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of lymphography as a minimally invasive treatment option of lymphatic leakage in terms of local control and to investigate which parameters influence the success rate. This retrospective study protocol was approved by the ethic committee. Patient history, imaging data, therapeutic options and follow-up were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. Between June 1998 and February 2013, 71 patients (m:w = 42:29, mean age, 52.4; range 42–75 years) with lymphatic leakage in form of lymphatic fistulas (n = 37), lymphocele (n = 11), chylothorax (n = 13) and chylous ascites (n = 10)underwent lymphography. Sixty-four patients (90.1%) underwent successful lymphography while lymphography failed in 7 cases. Therapeutic success was evaluated and correlated to the volume of lymphatic leakage and to the volume of the applied iodized oil. Signs of leakage or contrast extravasation were directly detected in 64 patients. Of 64 patients, 45 patients (70.3%) were treated and cured after lymphography. Based on the lymphography findings, 19 patients (29.7%) underwent surgical intervention with a completely occlusion of lymphatic leakage. The lymphatic leak could be completely occluded in 96.8% of patients when the lymphatic drainage volume was less than 200 mL/day (n = 33). Even when lymphatic drainage was higher than 200 mL/day (n = 31),therapeutic lymphography was still successful in 58.1% of the patients. Lymphography is an effective, minimally invasive method in the detection and treatment of lymphatic leakage. The volume of lymphatic drainage per day is a significant predictor of the therapeutic success rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypertonic Saline Reduces Vascular Leakage in a Mouse Model of Severe Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kar Wai; Angeli, Veronique; Moochhala, Shabbir; Ooi, Eng Eong; Alonso, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) is a mosquito-borne viral disease and represents a serious public health threat and an economical burden throughout the tropics. Dengue clinical manifestations range from mild acute febrile illness to severe DEN hemorrhagic fever/DEN shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Currently, resuscitation with large volumes of isotonic fluid remains the gold standard of care for DEN patients who develop vascular leakage and shock. Here, we investigated the ability of small volume of hypertonic saline (HTS) suspensions to control vascular permeability in a mouse model of severe DEN associated with vascular leakage. Several HTS treatment regimens were considered and our results indicated that a single bolus of 7.5% NaCl at 4 mL per kg of body weight administered at the onset of detectable vascular leakage rapidly and significantly reduced vascular leak for several days after injection. This transient reduction of vascular leakage correlated with reduced intestine and liver damage with restoration of the hepatic functions, and resulted in delayed death of the infected animals. Mechanistically, we showed that HTS did not directly impact on the viral titers but resulted in lower immune cells counts and decreased systemic levels of soluble mediators involved in vascular permeability. In addition, we demonstrated that neutrophils do not play a critical role in DEN-associated vascular leakage and that the therapeutic effect of HTS is not mediated by its impact on the neutrophil counts. Together our data indicate that HTS treatment can transiently but rapidly reduce dengue-associated vascular leakage, and support the findings of a recent clinical trial which evaluated the efficacy of a hypertonic suspension to impact on vascular permeability in DSS children. PMID:23637867

  6. Rapid-onset plasma leakage of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes possibly due to hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Kida, Yoshiko; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Kyo, Michihito; Tanabe, Yuko; Suzuki, Kei; Hosokawa, Koji; Shime, Nobuaki

    2018-06-02

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an emerging tool for supporting cardiopulmonary function in patients with cardiorespiratory failure or arrest. The oxygenator of the ECMO circuit requires effective oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood. Major problems that can occur with the oxygenator include plasma leakage, one of the late-onset serious complications necessitating device replacement. However, the rapid onset of plasma leakage is rare. We present a 1-year-old boy with acute respiratory failure due to Pneumocystis and Aspergillus pneumonia. He presented with tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypoxemia despite the ventilatory support, and was therefore placed on venoarterial ECMO with a drainage catheter from the right internal jugular vein (12 Fr) and a return catheter to the right internal carotid artery (10 Fr). Extracorporeal circulation was initiated at a blood flow of 1 L/min (145 mL/kg/min) and a sweep gas flow of 1 L/min with FiO 2 of 0.7. Although he was successfully weaned from the venoarterial ECMO on day 15 with an improvement of cardiopulmonary function, he was later placed on venoarterial ECMO again because of the progression of pulmonary hypertension. Laboratory tests showed increased concentrations of hepatic enzymes and hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 31.6 mg/dL). Six hours after starting ECMO circulation, plasma leakage from the oxygenator occurred. Although we replaced the oxygenator with a new one, the replacement showed plasma leakage after 6 h. Disassembly of the oxygenator revealed congestion from bilirubin in the membrane fibers. We described a case of repeated, rapid-onset plasma leakage after implementation of ECMO. Hyperbilirubinemia was likely associated with the plasma leakage of this patient.

  7. Closed-Suction Drainage and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Following Microvascular Decompression : A Retrospective Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan

    2013-01-01

    Objective We performed this study to investigate whether the use of closed-suction drainage following microvascular decompression (MVD) causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Methods Between 2004 and 2011, a total of 157 patients with neurovascular compression were treated with MVD. MVD was performed for hemifacial spasm in 150 (95.5%) cases and for trigeminal neuralgia in 7 (4.5%) cases. The mean age of the patients was 49.8±9.6 years (range, 20-69). Dural substitutes were used in 44 (28.0%) patients. Ninety-two patients (58.6%) were underwent a 4-5 cm craniotomy using drainage (drainage group), and 65 (41.4%) did a small 2-2.5 cm retromastoid craniectomy without closed-suction drainage (no-drainage group). Results Eleven (7.0%) patients experienced CSF leakage following MVD based on the criteria of this study; all of these patients were in the drainage group. In the unadjusted analyses, the incidence of CSF leakage was significantly related with the use of closed-suction drainage following MVD (12.0% in the drainage group vs. 0% in the no-drainage group, respectively; p=0.003; Fisher's exact test). Those who received dural substitutes and the elderly (cut-off value=60 years) exhibited a tendency to develop CSF leakage (p=0.075 and p=0.090, respectively; Fisher's exact test). In the multivariate analysis, only the use of closed-suction drainage was significantly and independently associated with the development of CSF leakage following MVD (odds ratio=9.900; 95% confidence interval, 1.418 to infinity; p=0.017). Conclusion The use of closed-suction drainage following MVD appears to be related to the development of CSF leakage. PMID:24175025

  8. Bacterial leakage through temporary fillings in core buildup composite material - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, Dan-Krister; Schriber, Martina; Attin, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of the provisional filling material Cavit-W alone or in combination with different restorative materials to prevent bacterial leakage through simulated access cavities in a resin buildup material. LuxaCore resin cylinders were subdivided into 4 experimental groups (n = 30), plus a positive (n = 5) and a negative (n = 30) control group. One bore hole was drilled through each cylinder, except those in the negative control group (G1). The holes were filled with Cavit-W (G2), Cavit-W and Ketac-Molar (glassionomer cement, G3), Cavit-W and LuxaCore bonded with LuxaBond (G4), Cavit-W and LuxaCore (G5), or left empty (G6). Specimens were mounted in a two-chamber leakage setup. The upper chamber was inoculated with E. faecalis. An enterococci-selective broth was used in the lower chamber. Leakage was assessed for 60 days and compared using Fisher's exact test (α < 0.05) corrected for multiple testing. Bacteria penetrated specimens in the positive control group within 24 h. All specimens in the negative control group resisted bacterial leakage for 60 days. Twenty-seven specimens in G2, 26 in G3, and 16 specimens in G5 showed bacterial leakage by the end of the experiment. G4 prevented bacterial penetration completely. The statistical comparison revealed significant differences between G4 and all other experimental groups. Under the current conditions, Cavit-W alone or combined with a glass-ionomer cement did not prevent bacterial leakage through a resin buildup material for two months. In contrast, covering Cavit-W with a bonded resin material resulted in a bacteria-tight seal for two months.

  9. Geomechanical effects on CO 2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    SciT

    Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO 2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO 2 to reachmore » the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO 2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO 2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.« less

  10. Influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with thermoplastic technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, T; Peltomäki, T; Heumann, C; Schmidlin, P R; Paquè, F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with the thermoplastic technique. The upper central incisors (UCI) and mesial roots of the lower molars (MRLM) (n = 12 each) were tested regarding leakage using the gas-enhanced permeation test (GEPT) after root filling. The quality of the root fillings was assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) by superimposing scans before and after treatment to calculate unfilled volume. The calculated void volume was compared between the groups and correlated to the measured leakage values. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation tests (p < 0.05). The mean void volume did not differ between UCI and MRLM (13.7 ± 6.2% vs. 14.2 ± 6.8%, respectively). However, significantly more leakage was evident in the MRLM (p < 0.001). While the leakage correlated highly to the void volume in the MRLM group (R 2  = 0.981, p < 0.001), no correlation was found in UCI (R 2  = 0.467, p = 0.126). MRLM showed higher leakage values, which correlated to the void volume in the root canal fillings. Care should always be taken while doing root canal treatments, but attention to teeth with known/expected complex root canal anatomy should be considered.

  11. Study on optimized algorithm for mileage wheel of magnetic flux leakage detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Sun, L.; Li, Y. B.; Wu, Y. T.; Y Xu, Q.; Cai, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Pipeline integrity is significant to safe operation of long-range pipeline. To avoid critical failure of the pipeline, which may lead to great loss of property and life, MFL_PIG is often used to detect the corrosion and leakage of the pipeline. To accurately locate the defects, mileage pulses emitted by the mileage wheel are used to and emit signal to single-chip microcomputer for position. This paper investigates the factors that may affect the precision of mileage wheel, an important part of pipeline corrosion and leakage detector (MFL_PIG), investigate its working principle and present an optimized algorithm for mileage wheel to increase the precision of detection.

  12. [Greenhouse gas emissions, carbon leakage and net carbon sequestration from afforestation and forest management: A review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo Jie; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao Ke; Liu, Wei Wei

    2017-02-01

    Forests play an important role in climate change mitigation and concentration of CO 2 reduction in the atmosphere. Forest management, especially afforestation and forest protection, could increase carbon stock of forests significantly. Carbon sequestration rate of afforestation ranges from 0.04 to 7.52 t C·hm -2 ·a -1 , while that of forest protection is 0.33-5.20 t C·hm -2 ·a -1 . At the same time, greenhouse gas (GHG) is generated within management boundary due to the production and transportation of the materials consumed in relevant activities of afforestation and forest management. In addition, carbon leakage is also generated outside boundary from activity shifting, market effects and change of environments induced by forest management. In this review, we summarized the definition of emission sources of GHG, monitoring methods, quantity and rate of greenhouse gas emissions within boundary of afforestation and forest management. In addition, types, monitoring methods and quantity of carbon leakage outside boundary of forest management were also analyzed. Based on the reviewed results of carbon sequestration, we introduced greenhouse gas emissions within boundary and carbon leakage, net carbon sequestration as well as the countervailing effects of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon leakage to carbon sequestration. Greenhouse gas emissions within management boundary counteract 0.01%-19.3% of carbon sequestration, and such counteraction could increase to as high as 95% considering carbon leakage. Afforestation and forest management have substantial net carbon sequestration benefits, when only taking direct greenhouse gas emissions within boundary and measurable carbon leakage from activity shifting into consideration. Compared with soil carbon sequestration measures in croplands, afforestation and forest management is more advantageous in net carbon sequestration and has better prospects for application in terms of net mitigation potential. Along with the

  13. A compact model of the reverse gate-leakage current in GaN-based HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Huang, Junkai; Fang, Jielin; Deng, Wanling

    2016-12-01

    The gate-leakage behavior in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is studied as a function of applied bias and temperature. A model to calculate this current is given, which shows that trap-assisted tunneling, trap-assisted Frenkel-Poole (FP) emission, and direct Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling have their main contributions at different electric field regions. In addition, the proposed model clearly illustrates the effect of traps and their assistance to the gate leakage. We have demonstrated the validity of the model by comparisons between model simulation results and measured experimental data of HEMTs, and a good agreement is obtained.

  14. Microdose Induced Drain Leakage Effects in Power Trench MOSFETs: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrev, Gennady I.; Vatuev, Alexander S.; Useinov, Rustem G.; Emeliyanov, Vladimir V.; Anashin, Vasily S.; Gorbunov, Maxim S.; Turin, Valentin O.; Yesenkov, Kirill A.

    2014-08-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the micro-dose induced drain-source leakage current in the trench power MOSFETs under irradiation with high-LET heavy ions. We found experimentally that cumulative increase of leakage current occurs by means of stochastic spikes corresponding to a strike of single heavy ion into the MOSFET gate oxide. We simulate this effect with the proposed analytic model allowing to describe (including Monte Carlo methods) both the deterministic (cumulative dose) and stochastic (single event) aspects of the problem. Based on this model the survival probability assessment in space heavy ion environment with high LETs was proposed.

  15. Leakage and Power Loss Test Results for Competing Turbine Engine Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced brush and finger seal technologies offer reduced leakage rates over conventional labyrinth seals used in gas turbine engines. To address engine manufacturers concerns about the heat generation and power loss from these contacting seals, brush, finger, and labyrinth seals were tested in the NASA High Speed, High Temperature Turbine Seal Test Rig. Leakage and power loss test results are compared for these competing seals for operating conditions up to 922 K (1200 F) inlet air temperature, 517 KPa (75 psid) across the seal, and surface velocities up to 366 m/s (1200 ft/s).

  16. Humidity-Induced Charge Leakage and Field Attenuation in Electric Field Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Fang, Dongming; Yang, Pengfei; Peng, Chunrong; Wen, Xiaolong; Xia, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    The steady-state zero output of static electric field measuring systems often fluctuates, which is caused mainly by the finite leakage resistance of the water film on the surface of the electric field microsensor package. The water adsorption has been calculated using the Boltzmann distribution equation at various relative humidities for borosilicate glass and polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces. At various humidities, water film thickness has been calculated, and the induced charge leakage and field attenuation have been theoretically investigated. Experiments have been performed with microsensors to verify the theoretical predictions and the results are in good agreement. PMID:22666077

  17. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  18. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO 2 Storage Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D. C.

    2017-07-25

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids frommore » the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks

  19. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO 2 Storage Reservoirs

    SciT

    Carroll, Susan A.; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D. C.

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO 2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO 2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids frommore » the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks

  20. Serum from dengue virus-infected patients with and without plasma leakage differentially affects endothelial cells barrier function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baimukanova, Gyulnar; Lanteri, Marion Christine; Keating, Sheila Marie; Moraes Ferreira, Frederico; Heitman, John; Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio; Pati, Shibani; Romano, Camila Malta; Cerdeira Sabino, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Background Although most of cases of dengue infections are asymptomatic or mild symptomatic some individuals present warning signs progressing to severe dengue in which plasma leakage is a hallmark. Methodology/Principal findings The present study used Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS®) which allows for electrical monitoring of cellular barrier function measuring changes in Transendothelial Electric Resistance (TEER) to investigate the parameters associated with dengue induced leakage. Three groups of individuals were tested: dengue-positives with plasma leakage (leakage), dengue-positives without plasma leakage (no leakage), and dengue-negatives (control). Data show that TEER values of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was significantly lower after incubation with serum from subjects of the leakage group in comparison to the no leakage or control groups. The serum levels of CXCL1, EGF, eotaxin, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and platelets were significantly decreased in the leakage group, while IL-10, IL-6, and IP-10 levels were significantly increased. We also found a strong correlation between TEER values and augmented levels of IP-10, GM-CSF, IL-1α, and IL-8, as well as decreased levels of CXCL1 and platelets. Conclusions/Significance The present work shows that the magnitude of the immune response contributes to the adverse plasma leakage outcomes in patients and that serum components are important mediators of changes in endothelial homeostasis during dengue infections. In particular, the increased levels of IP-10 and the decreased levels of CXCL1 and platelets seem to play a significant role in the disruption of vascular endothelium associated with leakage outcomes after DENV infection. These findings may have important implications for both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to predict and mitigate vascular permeabilization in those experiencing the most severe clinical disease outcomes after dengue infection. PMID:28586397

  1. Influence of anti-adhesive agent on incidence of bile leakage after liver resection: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Dong; Kim, Dong-Sik; Jung, Sung-Won; Han, Jae-Hyun; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2016-07-01

    Anti-adhesive agents are increasingly used to reduce the incidence of postoperative adhesions following abdominal surgery. Bile leakage after liver resection remains a major cause of postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of anti-adhesive agent on bile leakage after liver resection. 77 patients were enrolled to receive an anti-adhesive agent (study group) during liver resection between May 2012 and August 2013. The study group was compared to a match-paired control group. Clinical data were collected including bilirubin concentration in serum and drain fluid and bile leakage rate. In addition, a separate analysis was performed between patients with and without postoperative bile leakage. There was no difference in bile leakage rate or hospital stay between the study group (n = 77) and control group (n = 77). Of the total number of patients (n = 154), there were 29 patients with postoperative bile leak and 125 patients without bile leak. On univariate analysis, patients without history of hepatitis were significantly associated with bile leakage. In addition, liver resection with broader cut surface area was associated with bile leakage. Application of anti-adhesive agent was not associated with bile leakage. On multivariate analysis, resection with broader cut surface area (OR = 2.788, p = 0.026) and patients without history of hepatitis (OR = 5.153, p = 0.039) were significantly associated with bile leakage. Larger area of cut-surface and patients without history of hepatitis were significant risk factors for bile leakage. The use of anti-adhesive agent was not associated with increased risk of bile leakage. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inter-slice Leakage Artifact Reduction Technique for Simultaneous Multi-Slice Acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Stephen F.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Bhat, Himanshu; Wang, Dingxin; Wald, Lawrence L.; Setsompop, Kawin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Controlled aliasing techniques for simultaneously acquired EPI slices have been shown to significantly increase the temporal efficiency for both diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fMRI studies. The “slice-GRAPPA” (SG) method has been widely used to reconstruct such data. We investigate robust optimization techniques for SG to ensure image reconstruction accuracy through a reduction of leakage artifacts. Methods Split slice-GRAPPA (SP-SG) is proposed as an alternative kernel optimization method. The performance of SP-SG is compared to standard SG using data collected on a spherical phantom and in-vivo on two subjects at 3T. Slice accelerated and non-accelerated data were collected for a spin-echo diffusion weighted acquisition. Signal leakage metrics and time-series SNR were used to quantify the performance of the kernel fitting approaches. Results The SP-SG optimization strategy significantly reduces leakage artifacts for both phantom and in-vivo acquisitions. In addition, a significant boost in time-series SNR for in-vivo diffusion weighted acquisitions with in-plane 2× and slice 3× accelerations was observed with the SP-SG approach. Conclusion By minimizing the influence of leakage artifacts during the training of slice-GRAPPA kernels, we have significantly improved reconstruction accuracy. Our robust kernel fitting strategy should enable better reconstruction accuracy and higher slice-acceleration across many applications. PMID:23963964

  3. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  4. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lim, Bee-Yen; Ciou, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ming-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients. PMID:27294927

  5. Novel Wearable Device for Blood Leakage Detection during Hemodialysis Using an Array Sensing Patch.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lim, Bee-Yen; Ciou, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ming-Jui

    2016-06-09

    Hemodialysis (HD) is a clinical treatment that requires the puncturing of the body surface. However, needle dislodgement can cause a high risk of blood leakage and can be fatal to patients. Previous studies proposed several devices for blood leakage detection using optical or electrical techniques. Nonetheless, these methods used single-point detection and the design was not suitable for multi-bed monitoring. This study proposed a novel wearable device for blood leakage monitoring during HD using an array sensing patch. The array sensing patch combined with a mapping circuit and a wireless module could measure and transmit risk levels. The different risk levels could improve the working process of healthcare workers, and enhance their work efficiency and reduce inconvenience due to false alarms. Experimental results showed that each point of the sensing array could detect up to 0.1 mL of blood leakage and the array sensing patch supports a risk level monitoring system up to 8 h to alert healthcare personnel of pertinent danger to the patients.

  6. Comparing Natural Gas Leakage Detection Technologies Using an Open-Source "Virtual Gas Field" Simulator.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Chandler E; Ravikumar, Arvind P; Brandt, Adam R

    2016-04-19

    We present a tool for modeling the performance of methane leak detection and repair programs that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of detection technologies and proposed mitigation policies. The tool uses a two-state Markov model to simulate the evolution of methane leakage from an artificial natural gas field. Leaks are created stochastically, drawing from the current understanding of the frequency and size distributions at production facilities. Various leak detection and repair programs can be simulated to determine the rate at which each would identify and repair leaks. Integrating the methane leakage over time enables a meaningful comparison between technologies, using both economic and environmental metrics. We simulate four existing or proposed detection technologies: flame ionization detection, manual infrared camera, automated infrared drone, and distributed detectors. Comparing these four technologies, we found that over 80% of simulated leakage could be mitigated with a positive net present value, although the maximum benefit is realized by selectively targeting larger leaks. Our results show that low-cost leak detection programs can rely on high-cost technology, as long as it is applied in a way that allows for rapid detection of large leaks. Any strategy to reduce leakage should require a careful consideration of the differences between low-cost technologies and low-cost programs.

  7. Automated Quantitative Characterization of Retinal Vascular Leakage and Microaneurysms in Ultra-widefield Fluorescein Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Wang, Kevin; Vasanji, Amit; Hu, Ming; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA) is an emerging imaging modality used to characterize pathology in the retinal vasculature such as microaneurysms (MA) and vascular leakage. Despites its potential value for diagnosis and disease surveillance, objective quantitative assessment of retinal pathology by UWFA is currently limited because it requires laborious manual segmentation by trained human graders. In this report, we describe a novel fully automated software platform, which segments MAs and leakage areas in native and dewarped UWFA images with retinal vascular disease. Comparison of the algorithm to human grader generated gold standards demonstrated significant strong correlations for MA and leakage areas (ICC=0.78-0.87 and ICC=0.70-0.86, respectively, p=2.1×10-7 to 3.5×10-10 and p=7.8×10-6 to 1.3×10-9, respectively). These results suggest the algorithm performs similarly to human graders in MA and leakage segmentation and may be of significant utility in clinical and research settings. PMID:28432113

  8. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An assessment of the Space Station Freedom program's leakage current requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program requires leakage currents to be limited to less than human perception level, which NASA presently defines as 5 mA for dc. The origin of this value is traced, and the literature for other dc perception threshold standards is surveyed. It is shown that while many varying standards exist, very little experimental data is available to support them.

  10. Two-well terahertz quantum cascade lasers with suppressed carrier leakage

    SciT

    Albo, Asaf; Flores, Yuri V.; Hu, Qing

    The mechanisms that limit the temperature performance of diagonal GaAs/Al 0.15GaAs 0.85-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) have been identified as thermally activated leakage of charge carriers through excited states into the continuum. THz-QCLs with energetically higher-laying excited states supported by sufficiently high barriers aim to eliminate these leakage mechanisms and lead to improved temperature performance. Although suppression of thermally activated carrier leakage was realized in a three-well THz-QCL based on a resonant-phonon scheme, no improvement in the temperature performance was reported thus far. Here, we report a major improvement in the temperature performance of a two-quantum-well direct-phonon THz-QCL structure.more » We show that the improved laser performance is due to the suppression of the thermally activated carrier leakage into the continuum with the increase in the injection barrier height. Furthermore, we demonstrate that high-barrier two-well structures can support a clean three-level laser system at elevated temperatures, which opens the opportunity to achieve temperature performance beyond the state-of-the-art.« less

  11. Potential errors and misuse of statistics in studies on leakage in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Lucena, C; Lopez, J M; Pulgar, R; Abalos, C; Valderrama, M J

    2013-04-01

    To assess the quality of the statistical methodology used in studies of leakage in Endodontics, and to compare the results found using appropriate versus inappropriate inferential statistical methods. The search strategy used the descriptors 'root filling' 'microleakage', 'dye penetration', 'dye leakage', 'polymicrobial leakage' and 'fluid filtration' for the time interval 2001-2010 in journals within the categories 'Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Medicine' and 'Materials Science, Biomaterials' of the Journal Citation Report. All retrieved articles were reviewed to find potential pitfalls in statistical methodology that may be encountered during study design, data management or data analysis. The database included 209 papers. In all the studies reviewed, the statistical methods used were appropriate for the category attributed to the outcome variable, but in 41% of the cases, the chi-square test or parametric methods were inappropriately selected subsequently. In 2% of the papers, no statistical test was used. In 99% of cases, a statistically 'significant' or 'not significant' effect was reported as a main finding, whilst only 1% also presented an estimation of the magnitude of the effect. When the appropriate statistical methods were applied in the studies with originally inappropriate data analysis, the conclusions changed in 19% of the cases. Statistical deficiencies in leakage studies may affect their results and interpretation and might be one of the reasons for the poor agreement amongst the reported findings. Therefore, more effort should be made to standardize statistical methodology. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  12. 47 CFR 76.611 - Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average power level of the strongest cable television carrier on the system. (c) In paragraph (a)(1) and... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable television basic signal leakage...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.611 Cable...

  13. A magnetic flux leakage and magnetostrictive guided wave hybrid transducer for detecting bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Cheng, Cheng; Ben, Anran

    2012-01-01

    Condition assessment of cables has gained considerable attention for the bridge safety. A magnetic flux leakage and magnetostrictive guided wave hybrid transducer is provided to inspect bridge cables. The similarities and differences between the two methods are investigated. The hybrid transducer for bridge cables consists of an aluminum framework, climbing modules, embedded magnetizers and a ribbon coil. The static axial magnetic field provided by the magnetizers meets the needs of the magnetic flux leakage testing and the magnetostrictive guided wave testing. The magnetizers also provide the attraction for the climbing modules. In the magnetic flux leakage testing for the free length of cable, the coil induces the axial leakage magnetic field. In the magnetostrictive guided wave testing for the anchorage zone, the coil provides a pulse high power variational magnetic field for generating guided waves; the coil induces the magnetic field variation for receiving guided waves. The experimental results show that the transducer with the corresponding inspection system could be applied to detect the broken wires in the free length and in the anchorage zone of bridge cables.

  14. 47 CFR 76.611 - Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... average power level of the strongest cable television carrier on the system. (c) In paragraph (a)(1) and... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable television basic signal leakage...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.611 Cable...

  15. 47 CFR 76.611 - Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... average power level of the strongest cable television carrier on the system. (c) In paragraph (a)(1) and... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television basic signal leakage...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.611 Cable...

  16. Band to Band Tunneling (BBT) Induced Leakage Current Enhancement in Irradiated Fully Depleted SOI Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Phillipe C.; Barnaby, H. J.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Vermeire, B.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a model, validated with simulations, describing how band-to-band tunneling (BBT) affects the leakage current degradation in some irradiated fully-depleted SOI devices. The dependence of drain current on gate voltage, including the apparent transition to a high current regime is explained.

  17. Two-well terahertz quantum cascade lasers with suppressed carrier leakage

    DOE PAGES

    Albo, Asaf; Flores, Yuri V.; Hu, Qing; ...

    2017-09-11

    The mechanisms that limit the temperature performance of diagonal GaAs/Al 0.15GaAs 0.85-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) have been identified as thermally activated leakage of charge carriers through excited states into the continuum. THz-QCLs with energetically higher-laying excited states supported by sufficiently high barriers aim to eliminate these leakage mechanisms and lead to improved temperature performance. Although suppression of thermally activated carrier leakage was realized in a three-well THz-QCL based on a resonant-phonon scheme, no improvement in the temperature performance was reported thus far. Here, we report a major improvement in the temperature performance of a two-quantum-well direct-phonon THz-QCL structure.more » We show that the improved laser performance is due to the suppression of the thermally activated carrier leakage into the continuum with the increase in the injection barrier height. Furthermore, we demonstrate that high-barrier two-well structures can support a clean three-level laser system at elevated temperatures, which opens the opportunity to achieve temperature performance beyond the state-of-the-art.« less

  18. Defunctioning ileostomy reduces leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery - systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Magdalena; Gajewska, Natalia; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Witowski, Jan; Torbicz, Grzegorz; Major, Piotr; Mizera, Magdalena; Dembiński, Marcin; Migaczewski, Marcin; Budzyński, Andrzej; Pędziwiatr, Michał

    2018-04-17

    The role of a defunctioning ileostomy in every anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to review the current literature to determine the impact of ileostomy creation on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing anterior rectal resection with TME. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. We analyzed data up to October 2017. Eligible studies had to compare patients with vs. without a defunctioning ileostomy in rectal cancer surgery and comprise data on anastomotic leakage in both groups. The primary outcome was anastomotic leakage. Secondary outcomes included the complication rate, mortality, reoperation rate, length of hospital stay and 30-day readmission. Initial search yielded 1,966 articles. Thorough evaluation resulted in 13 eligible articles which were analyzed. Leakage rate (RR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.67) and the number of reoperations (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.94) were significantly lower in the defunctioning stoma group. Morbidity was significantly higher in the stoma group (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65). Analysis of mortality, length of hospital stay and readmission rate did not show any significant differences. A defunctioning ileostomy may decrease the anastomotic leakage rate, additionally significantly reducing the risk of reoperations but it may also increase the overall complication rate. The presence of the protective stoma has no effect on mortality, length of hospital stay and readmission rate.

  19. A Magnetic Flux Leakage and Magnetostrictive Guided Wave Hybrid Transducer for Detecting Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Cheng, Cheng; Ben, Anran

    2012-01-01

    Condition assessment of cables has gained considerable attention for the bridge safety. A magnetic flux leakage and magnetostrictive guided wave hybrid transducer is provided to inspect bridge cables. The similarities and differences between the two methods are investigated. The hybrid transducer for bridge cables consists of an aluminum framework, climbing modules, embedded magnetizers and a ribbon coil. The static axial magnetic field provided by the magnetizers meets the needs of the magnetic flux leakage testing and the magnetostrictive guided wave testing. The magnetizers also provide the attraction for the climbing modules. In the magnetic flux leakage testing for the free length of cable, the coil induces the axial leakage magnetic field. In the magnetostrictive guided wave testing for the anchorage zone, the coil provides a pulse high power variational magnetic field for generating guided waves; the coil induces the magnetic field variation for receiving guided waves. The experimental results show that the transducer with the corresponding inspection system could be applied to detect the broken wires in the free length and in the anchorage zone of bridge cables. PMID:22368483

  20. Undesirable leakage to overlying formations with horizontal and vertical injection wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaheb, M.; Zeidouni, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are considered for underground storage of carbon dioxide. Undesirable leakage of injected CO2 to adjacent layers would disturb the storage process and can pollute shallower fresh water resources as well as atmosphere. Leaky caprocks, faults, and abandoned wells are examples of leaky pathways. In addition, the overpressure can reactivate a sealing fault or damage the caprock layer. Pressure management is applicable during the storage operation to avoid these consequences and to reduce undesirable leakage.The fluids can be injected through horizontal wells with a wider interval than vertical wells. Horizontal well injection would make less overpressure by delocalizing induced pressure especially in thin formations. In this work, numerical and analytical approaches are applied to model different leaky pathways with horizontal and vertical injection wells. we compare leakage rate and overpressure for horizontal and vertical injection wells in different leaky pathway systems. Results show that the horizontal well technology would allow high injection rates with lower leakage rate for leaky well, leaky fault, and leaky caprock cases. The overpressure would reduce considerably by horizontal well comparing to vertical well injection especially in leaky fault system. The horizontal well injection is an effective method to avoid reaching to threshold pressure of fault reactivation and prevent the consequent induced seismicity.