Science.gov

Sample records for early corticosteroid withdrawal

  1. Acute rejection characteristics from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of early corticosteroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gaber, A Osama; Moore, Linda W; Alloway, Rita R; Woodle, E Steve; Pirsch, John; Shihab, Fuad; Henning, Alice; Fitzsimmons, William; Holman, John; Reisfield, Robin; First, M Roy

    2013-02-27

    This report characterizes acute rejection and rejection outcomes in subjects randomized to continuous corticosteroid therapy (CCS) or early corticosteroid withdrawal (CSWD; 7 days after transplantation) in the Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial. The Astellas Blinded CSWD Trial was a 5-year, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of early CCS withdrawal in 386 kidney transplant recipients (195 CCS and 191 CSWD). Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were required as well as either rabbit antithymocyte globulin or interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction. Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) was grade 1A or higher by Banff criteria. This report also provides borderline changes (BL) that did not meet Banff grade 1A included with BCAR (BCAR+BL). BCAR+BL was 25 (12.8%) in CCS group and 42 (22.0%) in CSWD group (P=0.022). Early BCAR+BL (first 90 days after transplantation) was less frequent in CCS (n=5 [2.6%]) than in CSWD (n=22 [11.5%]; P<0.001). Among non-African-American subjects, early BCAR+BL occurred more often in CSWD (n=20 [12.7%]) versus CCS (n=2 [1.3%]; P<0.001). Late acute rejection (>2 years) occurred more often in African-American subjects in CCS (n=5 [13.9%]) than in CSWD (n=0; P=0.056). Risk factors were CSWD (hazard ratio [HR], 4.72; P<0.002) and human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.48; P<0.005) for early BCAR+BL and CSWD (HR, 1.9; P<0.02), human leukocyte antigen mismatch (HR, 1.2; P<0.01), and age (HR, 0.97; P<0.002) for 5-year rejection. The HR for graft loss associated with BCAR+BL was 8.8. BCAR+BL may occur more frequently during the early period after transplantation under an early CSWD regimen with tacrolimus plus induction compared with CCS, particularly among non-African-Americans.

  2. Organic brain syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis following corticosteroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V P; Ehrlich, G E

    1976-01-01

    Six patients with seropositive nodule-forming rheumatoid arthritis developed severe central nervous system manifestations consistent with a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome. Organic brain syndrome occurred while 5 of these patients were undergoing corticosteroid withdrawal after prolonged administration. Neuropsychiatric symptoms rapidly cleared, responding to reinstitution of oral or parenteral corticosteroids in large doses in 4 patients, to increase in dosage in 1 patient, and to no drug therapy in the remaining 1. Marked reduction in rheumatoid factor in sera and demonstration of IgM deposits in the choroid plexus in 1 of the patients raised the possibility of immune complex-mediated central nervous system vasculitis.

  3. Pinellia ternata Attenuates Mucus Secretion and Airway Inflammation after Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal in COPD Rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Su, Jinyu; Ye, Dan; Wang, Yuegang; Huang, Qiaobing; Gong, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, withdrawal of ICS generally causes various adverse effects, warranting careful management of the ICS withdrawal. Pinellia ternata, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat respiratory diseases in China for centuries. Here, we investigated its role in antagonizing ICS withdrawal-induced side effects, and explored the underlying mechanisms. The rat COPD model was established using a combination of passive cigarette smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). COPD rats were treated with saline or budesonide inhalation, or with budesonide inhalation followed by saline inhalation or Pinellia ternata gavage. The number of goblet cells and the level of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) were enhanced by budesonide withdrawal. Pinellia ternata treatment significantly blocked these effects. Further, Pinellia ternata treatment reversed budesonide withdrawal-induced increase of interleukin 1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor [Formula: see text] (TNF-[Formula: see text]) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but neither p38 nor c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was activated by budesonide withdrawal, and the activation was blocked by Pinellia ternata treatment. The MUC5AC expression was positively correlated with goblet cell number, IL-1[Formula: see text] and TNF-[Formula: see text] levels, and ERK activity. Pinellia ternata treatment protected the airway from ICS withdrawal-induced mucus hypersecretion and airway inflammation by inhibiting ERK activation. Pinellia ternata treatment may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent ICS withdrawal-induced side effects in COPD patients.

  4. A 2-year step-down withdrawal from inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children receiving immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Hui; Li, Xing; Lin, Jun-Hong; Xiao, Qiang; Yu, Jia-Lu; Liu, Ying-Fen; Jiang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Chen; Deng, Li; Zhou, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) for treating asthma are controversial because of their negative effects on the growth of asthmatic children and without clearly defined withdrawal strategy. A 2-year ICS step-down and withdrawal strategy has been developed for asthmatic children receiving 3-year subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Eleven children were included into the SCIT group and 13 children into the ICS group. ICSs were discontinued when children met the following criteria: requiring only 1 puffper day, with good control, for at least 6 months; having a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity ≥80%; and SCIT discontinued for ≥24 months. The main endpoints were the results of both the childhood asthma control test (C-CAT) and the methacholine bronchial provocation test. In the SCIT group, all the 11 children had ICS discontinued, with one child developed asthma attack after pneumonia and received ICS again after completion of SCIT. In the ICS group, five children discontinued ICS and developed asthma attacks later and received ICS again; the other eight children developed severe symptoms during ICS step-down. Thus, the discontinuation of ICS was only achieved in the SCIT group. The dose of methacholine that caused a decrease of 20% in FEV 1 continued to improve after discontinuation of ICS for the SCIT group and presented better results than the ICS group (P=0.050). After completion of SCIT, the C-CAT had improved significantly after 30 months of treatment compared with the ICS group (P<0.05). In the present study, we developed a 2-year step-down and withdrawal strategy from ICSs strategy for allergic asthma children receiving SCIT; the strategy was efficacious and safe.

  5. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hydrocortisone (2× 10 mg/kg), betamethasone (2× 0.4 mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0 mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17. Performance in the elevated plus maze was assessed on P20-22. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreased postnatal susceptibility to flurothyl-induced clonic seizures but not to kainic acid-induced seizures. Prenatal hydrocortisone decreased postnatal weight but did not affect seizure susceptibility. Hydrocortisone alone did not affect performance in behavioral tests except for improving horizontal bar holding on P17. A combination of prenatal hydrocortisone and postnatal seizures resulted in increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to mineralocorticoid receptor blocker canrenoic acid did not attenuate, but surprisingly amplified the effects of hydrocortisone on body weight and significantly worsened horizontal bar performance. Thus, prenatal exposure to excess corticosteroids alters postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. Specific effects may depend on corticosteroid species. PMID:21429712

  6. Corticosteroid injection in early treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, K L; Laskowski, E R; Idank, D M; McLean, T J; Egan, K S

    2001-10-01

    To analyze whether a corticosteroid injection in combination with rehabilitation early in the course of lateral epicondylitis (LE) alters the outcome up to 6 months after injection compared with a control injection and rehabilitation. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sports medicine center in a tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of LE whose symptoms had been present less than 4 weeks were included. Subjects were recruited by word of mouth and through advertising. The 39 subjects who were recruited were 18 to 65 years old. 19 subjects were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a sham injection, and 20 were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a corticosteroid injection. At 4 and 8 weeks, they were reevaluated and their treatment programs were modified, if indicated. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months, and included a functional pain questionnaire and a visual analogue pain scale. Painless grip strength on the affected side and maximal grip strength bilaterally were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in outcome between the two groups with the exception of an improvement in the visual analogue pain scale in the corticosteroid group from 8 weeks to 6 months. Outcome measurements in both groups improved significantly over time; more than 80% of subjects reported improvements from baseline to 6 months for all scales. A corticosteroid injection does not provide a clinically significant improvement in the outcome of LE, and rehabilitation should be the first line of treatment in patients with a short duration of symptoms.

  7. Early addition of topical corticosteroids in the treatment of bacterial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kathryn J; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Glidden, David V; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Sun, Catherine Q; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M

    2014-06-01

    Scarring from bacterial keratitis remains a leading cause of visual loss. To determine whether topical corticosteroids are beneficial as an adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis if given early in the course of infection. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial that overall found no effect of adding topical corticosteroids to topical moxifloxacin hydrochloride in bacterial keratitis. Here, we assess the timing of administration of corticosteroids in a subgroup analysis of the SCUT. We define earlier administration of corticosteroids (vs placebo) as addition after 2 to 3 days of topical antibiotics and later as addition after 4 or more days of topical antibiotics. We assess the effect of topical corticosteroids (vs placebo) on 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in patients who received corticosteroids or placebo earlier vs later. Further analyses were performed for subgroups of patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those with no topical antibiotic use before enrollment. Patients treated with topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy within 2 to 3 days of antibiotic therapy had approximately 1-line better visual acuity at 3 months than did those given placebo (-0.11 logMAR; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.02 logMAR; P = .01). In patients who had 4 or more days of antibiotic therapy before corticosteroid treatment, the effect was not significant; patients given corticosteroids had 1-line worse visual acuity at 3 months compared with those in the placebo group (0.10 logMAR; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.23 logMAR; P = .14). Patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those having no topical antibiotic use before the SCUT enrollment showed significant improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months if corticosteroids were administered earlier rather than later. There may be a benefit with adjunctive topical corticosteroids if application occurs earlier in the course of bacterial

  8. Withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, withdrawal is considered a better method of contraception than none at all. Protection Against STDs Withdrawal ... 2013 More on this topic for: Teens Emergency Contraception Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Birth Control ...

  9. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  10. Early Addition of Topical Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Kathryn J.; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Glidden, David V.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Sun, Catherine Q.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Scarring from bacterial keratitis remains a leading cause of visual loss. OBJECTIVE To determine whether topical corticosteroids are beneficial as an adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis if given early in the course of infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial that overall found no effect of adding topical corticosteroids to topical moxifloxacin hydrochloride in bacterial keratitis. Here, we assess the timing of administration of corticosteroids in a subgroup analysis of the SCUT. We define earlier administration of corticosteroids (vs placebo) as addition after 2 to 3 days of topical antibiotics and later as addition after 4 or more days of topical antibiotics. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assess the effect of topical corticosteroids (vs placebo) on 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in patients who received corticosteroids or placebo earlier vs later. Further analyses were performed for subgroups of patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those with no topical antibiotic use before enrollment. RESULTS Patients treated with topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy within 2 to 3 days of antibiotic therapy had approximately 1-line better visual acuity at 3 months than did those given placebo (−0.11 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.20 to −0.02 logMAR; P = .01). In patients who had 4 or more days of antibiotic therapy before corticosteroid treatment, the effect was not significant; patients given corticosteroids had 1-line worse visual acuity at 3 months compared with those in the placebo group (0.10 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.23 logMAR; P = .14). Patients with non-Nocardia keratitis and those having no topical antibiotic use before the SCUT enrollment showed significant improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months if corticosteroids were administered earlier rather than later. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE There may

  11. Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients starting peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qimei; Xia, Xi; Lin, Zhenchuan; Lin, Jianxiong; Yang, Xiao; Huang, Fengxian; Yu, Xueqing

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an increasingly important, but poorly understood, issue. Here, we identified the reasons and risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD. Methods: Incident PD patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University above 18 years who started treatment between January 1 2006 and December 31 2011 were included. Cessation of PD therapy within the first 90 days after beginning dialysis was classified as very early withdrawal. Results: Totally 1444 patients were enrolled. Of these, 71 (4.9%) withdrew from PD therapy during the first 90 days. Primary reasons for very early withdrawal included death (34 patients, 47.9%), transplantation (21 patients, 29.6%) and transfer to hemodialysis (14 patients, 19.7%). The leading reasons for death were cardiovascular and infectious disease, accounting for 41.2% (14 patients) and 23.5% (8 patients) of total deaths, respectively. Dialysate leakage (six patients, 42.9%) and catheter dysfunction (five patients, 35.7%) were the main reasons for transfer to hemodialysis. In multivariate analysis, predictors for very early PD withdrawal were older age (per decade increasing; hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.45; p = .019), higher systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increasing; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.20–1.50; p < .001), lower hemoglobin (per 10 g/l increasing; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57–0.78; p < .001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10–0.54; p = .001) and lower residual urine volume (per 100 ml/d increasing; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84–0.95; p = .001). Conclusions: Death was the primary reason for very early withdrawal from PD. Risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD were older in age, had higher systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower residual urine volume

  12. Impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on cardiac function and rhythm in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Padala, Santosh K; Peaslee, Samuel; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Steckman, David A; Judson, Marc A

    2017-01-15

    There is limited data on the effect of corticosteroid therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). We sought to examine the impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy, within a month of CS diagnosis, on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), and atrioventricular (AV) block. We retrospectively identified 30 CS patients from a large university sarcoidosis clinic. The effect of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on LVEF was assessed by serial echocardiography, and on VAs and AV block was assessed by Holter monitoring and/or device interrogations. The median time from diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis to CS was 40months. 90% (27/30) of the CS patients received corticosteroid therapy and 85% percent (23/27) had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Fourteen patients (47%) had reduced EF<50%. 9/14 patients who had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy had improvement in mean EF (25% to 46%, P<0.001); 5/14 patients who had a delay in initiation or who did not receive corticosteroids had no improvement in mean EF (41% to 37%, P=0.47). Fourteen patients (47%) had VAs and 5 patients (17%) had advanced AV block. Early initiation of corticosteroid therapy resulted in no VA recurrences in 8/11 patients (72%), and complete recovery of AV conduction in 2/3 patients (67%). Patients with VAs (n=3) or advanced AV block (n=2) who failed to receive early corticosteroid therapy did not show improvement. There is often a delay in manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis for several years from the diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis. Prompt initiation of corticosteroid therapy in CS patients may improve outcomes whereas delayed initiation of corticosteroids or failure to use corticosteroids may be associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior during later withdrawals by treatment of early withdrawals with benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H; Breese, George R

    2005-04-01

    Anxiety states, including those arising during acute or protracted withdrawal periods, may be precipitating factors in alcoholic relapse. Given the cyclical nature of ethanol withdrawal associated with repeated cycles of ethanol intake and abstinence in a pattern that often spans years, meaningful attempts to model ethanol withdrawal-associated anxiety should incorporate cycled ethanol treatments. The studies reported herein examined the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulating drugs on social interaction behavior-an established model of anxiety-in rats exposed to repeated cycles of ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Rats were exposed to 8 to 12 g/kg/day ethanol during three 7-day dietary cycles (5 days on ethanol diet followed by 2 days on control diet). Ethanol was administered either at hour 4 of withdrawal after cessation of each of the first 2 ethanol cycles or during the final withdrawal only. In other groups, the early withdrawals were treated with alphaxalone, diazepam, PK11159, or flumazenil to block anxiety-like behavior during an untreated later (third) withdrawal. The benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (methyl-6, 7-dymerhoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate) was also given repeatedly to determine whether it would sensitize anxiety-like behavior during a future withdrawal. Finally, the effects of all drugs on deficits in locomotor behavior were assessed. Pretreatment of earlier withdrawals with alphaxalone, diazepam, ethanol, or flumazenil reduced social interaction deficits during a later withdrawal, but pretreatment with PK11195 did not. In contrast, DMCM administered in lieu of early withdrawals increased social interaction deficits during an untreated later withdrawal. Locomotor deficits were significantly reversed only by the acute ethanol and diazepam treatment during the final withdrawal. Single-dose administration of drugs that enhance or diminish activity at benzodiazepine-gamma-aminobutyric acid- receptors during earlier withdrawals

  14. Early treatment of chlorine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation with corticosteroids

    SciT

    Jonasson, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.jonasson@foi.se; Wigenstam, Elisabeth; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå

    Chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200 ppm Cl{sub 2} during 15 min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis were analyzed 24 h or 14 days post-exposure. A single dose of themore » corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12 h following Cl{sub 2} exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6 h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1 h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100 mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10 mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14 days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl{sub 2} exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl{sub 2} exposure. - Highlights: • Inhalation of Cl{sub 2} may lead to a long-standing airway hyperresponsiveness. • The symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice are similar to those described for RADS in humans. • Corticosteroids prevent delayed symptoms such as

  15. [Early hypertrophic scar after surgery on the nasal region: value of long-acting corticosteroid injections].

    PubMed

    Amici, J-M

    2014-01-01

    "Pincushioning" is a complication of post-surgical scarring following use of transposition flaps particularly when surgery is performed on the nasal region. The transposition flap technique is very useful for the repair of certain defects of the tip of the nose, the medial canthus or of the ala nasi. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics of this scarring dystrophy, which we propose to call "early hypertrophy scarring", to clarify the nature thereof and to assess the efficacy of intralesional injection of corticosteroids at the first signs of hypertrophy. A prospective, open, non-comparative, single-centre study examined the clinical and histological characteristics of early hypertrophy scarring and the effectiveness of therapy with one or two injections of corticosteroids performed on the 15th day post-operatively and optionally repeated at D45 depending on the outcome. From January 2011 to January 2013, 12 consecutive patients with early hypertrophy scarring were included (ten men and two women - mean age: 64 years). All had undergone surgery for basal cell carcinoma under local anaesthesia with one-stage repair by means of a rhombic flap or a bilobed flap located in the nasal area. Scars were injected strictly intra-lesionally with triamcinolone acetate (40 mg/1 mL) until whitening occurred. A single injection was performed in three cases of rhombic flap while a second injection was given at D45 in the remaining nine cases. Complete regression of the early hypertrophy scarring was obtained in ten of the 12 patients by D90. Incomplete regression was observed but with a marked improvement in the other two patients. Early hypertrophy scarring is distinguished by its clinical characteristics of hypertrophic or keloid scars. Biopsy performed in two cases showed the fibrous but non-fatty nature of early hypertrophy scarring. Biomechanical factors particular to the nasal region and the transposition flap technique could account for the early

  16. Trajectories of social withdrawal from middle childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H; Bowker, Julie C; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-05-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend's withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class.

  17. Daily home-based spirometry during withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroid in severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Tetzlaff, Kay; Watz, Henrik; Wouters, Emiel FM; Disse, Bernd; Finnigan, Helen; Magnussen, Helgo; Calverley, Peter MA

    2016-01-01

    The WISDOM study (NCT00975195) reported a change in lung function following withdrawal of fluticasone propionate in patients with severe to very severe COPD treated with tiotropium and salmeterol. However, little is known about the validity of home-based spirometry measurements of lung function in COPD. Therefore, as part of this study, following suitable training, patients recorded daily home-based spirometry measurements in addition to undergoing periodic in-clinic spirometric testing throughout the study duration. We subsequently determined the validity of home-based spirometry for detecting changes in lung function by comparing in-clinic and home-based forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients who underwent stepwise fluticasone propionate withdrawal over 12 weeks versus patients remaining on fluticasone propionate for 52 weeks. Bland–Altman analysis of these data confirmed good agreement between in-clinic and home-based measurements, both across all visits and at the individual visits at study weeks 6, 12, 18, and 52. There was a measurable difference between the forced expiratory volume in 1 second values recorded at home and in the clinic (mean difference of −0.05 L), which may be due to suboptimal patient effort in performing unsupervised recordings. However, this difference remained consistent over time. Overall, these data demonstrate that home-based and in-clinic spirometric measurements were equally valid and reliable for assessing lung function in patients with COPD, and suggest that home-based spirometry may be a useful tool to facilitate analysis of changes in lung function on a day-to-day basis. PMID:27578972

  18. Early (< 8 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L

    2017-10-24

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For the 2017 update, we used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); Embase (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 2013 to 21 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment within the first seven days of life (early) in high-risk preterm infants. Most studies evaluated the use of dexamethasone, but we also included studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when used primarily for management of hypotension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, failure to extubate, complications during primary hospitalisation, and long-term health outcomes. We included 32 RCTs enrolling a total of 4395 participants. The overall risk of bias of included studies was probably low, as all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Investigators reported significant benefits for the following outcomes overall: lower rates of failure to extubate, decreased

  19. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Grades 1 to 6: Prediction from Early Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Oxford, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    From 1092 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we identified three trajectory patterns of social withdrawal from teacher reports in Grades 1-6: A Normative consistently low group (86%); a Decreasing group (5%) with initially high withdrawal that decreased; and an Increasing group (9%) with initially low withdrawal that increased. Prediction models supported the role of early dysregulated temperament, insensitive parenting, and attachment. Preschool shy temperament was a specific pathway to decreasing withdrawal, and poor inhibitory control, to increasing withdrawal. Children on the increasing pathway were more lonely, solitary, and excluded by peers. Results suggest differentiated pathways to varying trajectories of social withdrawal and highlight the importance of identification of longitudinal patterns in relation to risk. PMID:18793064

  20. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  1. Amniocentesis compared with antenatal corticosteroids prior to early term scheduled cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Zafman, Kelly B; Fox, Nathan S

    2018-05-06

    There are a variety of maternal or fetal conditions that require late preterm or early term delivery. In cases where early delivery is indicated, optimal management is not always clear. Historically, obstetricians used amniocentesis to document fetal lung maturity, but recently, many have transitioned to administration of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS). The objective of this study was to compare neonatal outcomes between women undergoing amniocentesis or receiving ACS prior to scheduled cesarean delivery (CD) less than 39 weeks. This was a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing scheduled CD by one maternal-fetal medicine practice between 36 and 38 6/7 weeks, from 2005 to 2017. We identified women who underwent amniocentesis or received ACS within 2 weeks prior to delivery. Neonatal outcomes were compared between the two groups, with the primary outcome being neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. A total of 502 women were included, of whom 313 (62.4%) underwent amniocentesis and 189 (37.6%) received ACS. Overall, 55 (11.0%) of neonates were admitted to the NICU. NICU admission was not significantly different between groups (11.8 versus 9.5%, p=.46). This held true after adjusting for gestational age and other differences in baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences between groups for all other neonatal outcomes, including NICU admission for respiratory indications, respiratory support, neonatal greater than maternal length of stay, low Apgar scores, and neonatal death. Rates of hypoglycemia were low and not significantly different between groups (2.2% in the amniocentesis group versus 0.5% in the ACS group, p=.27). Diabetes was the only covariate significantly associated with NICU admission (aOR 3.19, 95% CI 1.35, 7.54). In women undergoing scheduled CD between 36 and 38 6/7 weeks, administration of ACS is associated with similar neonatal outcomes compared to amniocentesis. This supports the current notion that outcomes are

  2. Early treatment of chlorine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Sofia; Wigenstam, Elisabeth; Koch, Bo; Bucht, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine (Cl2) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl2-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200ppm Cl2 during 15min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis were analyzed 24h or 14days post-exposure. A single dose of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12h following Cl2 exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl2 exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl2 exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Grades 1 to 6: Prediction from Early Parenting, Attachment, and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Oxford, Monica L.

    2008-01-01

    From 1,092 children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the authors identified 3 trajectory patterns of social withdrawal from teacher reports in Grades 1-6: a normative consistently low group (86%), a decreasing group (5%) with initially high withdrawal that decreased, and an increasing group (9%) with initially low…

  4. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N=392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in trajectories within subgroups. Assessments of individual (social withdrawal), interactive (prosocial behavior), relationship (friendship involvement, stability and quality, best friend’s withdrawal and exclusion/victimization) and group- (exclusion/victimization) level characteristics were used to define growth trajectories from the final year of elementary school, across the transition to middle school, and then to the final year of middle school (fifth-to-eighth grades). Three distinct trajectory classes were identified: low stable, increasing, and decreasing. Peer exclusion, prosocial behavior, and mutual friendship involvement differentiated class membership. Friendlessness, friendship instability, and exclusion were significant predictors of social withdrawal for the increasing class, whereas lower levels of peer exclusion predicted a decrease in social withdrawal for the decreasing class. PMID:18193479

  5. Corticosteroid therapy in Epstein-Barr virus infection. Effect on lymphocyte class, subset, and response to early antigen.

    PubMed

    Brandfonbrener, A; Epstein, A; Wu, S; Phair, J

    1986-02-01

    Corticosteroid treatment of impending upper airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis did not alter the pattern of lymphocyte changes induced by this viral infection during the first two weeks following administration of prednisone. By 12 weeks, 11 treated students had significantly fewer lymphocytes, including B, total T, helper, and T-suppressor cell numbers, than 11 untreated EBV-infected students, and values were closer to those noted in uninfected controls. Corticosteroid therapy did not alter the serologic response to early antigens of EBV. Fever and lymphadenopathy resolved somewhat more quickly in treated students.

  6. Early administration of systemic corticosteroids reduces hospital admission rates for children with moderate and severe asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Sanjit K; McGillivray, David; Bourbeau, Jean; Benedetti, Andrea; Bartlett, Susan; Ducharme, Francine M

    2012-07-01

    The variable effectiveness of clinical asthma pathways to reduce hospital admissions may be explained in part by the timing of systemic corticosteroid administration. We examine the effect of early (within 60 minutes [SD 15 minutes] of triage) versus delayed (>75 minutes) administration of systemic corticosteroids on health outcomes. We conducted a prospective observational cohort of children aged 2 to 17 years presenting to the emergency department with moderate or severe asthma, defined as a Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) score of 5 to 12. The outcomes were hospital admission, relapse, and length of active treatment; they were analyzed with multivariate logistic and linear regressions adjusted for covariates and potential confounders. Among the 406 eligible children, 88% had moderate asthma; 22%, severe asthma. The median age was 4 years (interquartile range 3 to 8 years); 64% were male patients. Fifty percent of patients received systemic corticosteroids early; in 33%, it was delayed; 17% of children failed to receive any. Overall, 36% of patients were admitted to the hospital. Compared with delayed administration, early administration reduced the odds of admission by 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.7) and the length of active treatment by 0.7 hours (95% confidence interval -1.3 to -0.8 hours), with no significant effect on relapse. Delayed administration was positively associated with triage priority and negatively with PRAM score. In this study of children with moderate or severe asthma, administration of systemic corticosteroids within 75 minutes of triage decreased hospital admission rate and length of active treatment, suggesting that early administration of systemic corticosteroids may allow for optimal effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhaled corticosteroids do not influence the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Guerrero, Mónica; Menéndez, Rosario; Huerta, Arturo; Martinez, Raquel; Gimeno, Alexandra; Soler, Néstor; Torres, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications that can down-regulate the immunologic response in patients with COPD; however, their role at onset of COPD exacerbation is still not understood. The aim of this study was to assess the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of patients with COPD exacerbation mediated by inhaled corticosteroids. Prospective data were collected on 123 hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation over a 30-month period at 2 Spanish university hospitals. Based on domiciliary use, comparative analyses were performed between subjects who did not use inhaled corticosteroids (n = 58) and subjects who did (n = 65). Measurements of serum biomarkers were recorded on admission to the hospital (day 1) and on day 3; clinical, physiological, microbiological, and severity data and mortality/readmission rates were also recorded. At days 1 and 3, both groups showed a similar inflammatory response; fluticasone produced lower levels of interleukin-8 compared with budesonide (P < .01). All clinical features considered were similar in the 2 groups; multivariate analysis predicting clinical complications on hospitalization showed air-flow obstruction severity as the only predictive factor (odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI 1.13-8.63, P = .02). Our study demonstrates a lack of inhaled corticosteroid influence in the early systemic inflammatory response to and clinical presentation of COPD exacerbation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Modulation of Ethanol Withdrawal–Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior During Later Withdrawals by Treatment of Early Withdrawals With Benzodiazepine/γ-Aminobutyric Acid Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Darin J.; Overstreet, David H.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety states, including those arising during acute or protracted withdrawal periods, may be precipitating factors in alcoholic relapse. Given the cyclical nature of ethanol withdrawal associated with repeated cycles of ethanol intake and abstinence in a pattern that often spans years, meaningful attempts to model ethanol withdrawal–associated anxiety should incorporate cycled ethanol treatments. The studies reported herein examined the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid–modulating drugs on social interaction behavior—an established model of anxiety—in rats exposed to repeated cycles of ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Methods Rats were exposed to 8 to 12 g/kg/day ethanol during three 7-day dietary cycles (5 days on ethanol diet followed by 2 days on control diet). Ethanol was administered either at hour 4 of withdrawal after cessation of each of the first 2 ethanol cycles or during the final withdrawal only. In other groups, the early withdrawals were treated with alphaxalone, diazepam, PK11159, or flumazenil to block anxiety-like behavior during an untreated later (third) withdrawal. The benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (methyl–6, 7–dymerhoxy–4–ethyl–beta–carboline–3–carboxylate) was also given repeatedly to determine whether it would sensitize anxiety-like behavior during a future withdrawal. Finally, the effects of all drugs on deficits in locomotor behavior were assessed. Results Pretreatment of earlier withdrawals with alphaxalone, diazepam, ethanol, or flumazenil reduced social interaction deficits during a later withdrawal, but pretreatment with PK11195 did not. In contrast, DMCM administered in lieu of early withdrawals increased social interaction deficits during an untreated later withdrawal. Locomotor deficits were significantly reversed only by the acute ethanol and diazepam treatment during the final withdrawal. Conclusions Single-dose administration of drugs that enhance or diminish activity at benzodiazepine

  9. Understanding Early Decisions to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Therapy in Cardiac Arrest Survivors. A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Craig M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Morrison, Laurie J; Golan, Eyal; Scales, Damon C

    2016-07-01

    Early withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy contributes to the majority of deaths following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), despite current recommendations for delayed neurological prognostication (≥72 h) after treatment with targeted temperature management. Little is known about clinicians' experiences of early withdrawal of life support decisions in patients with OHCA. To explore clinicians' experiences and perceptions of early withdrawal of life support decisions and barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication in comatose survivors of OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. We conducted qualitative interviews with intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses following withdrawal of life support in comatose patients with OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. The study was carried out across 18 academic and community hospitals participating in a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to improve quality-of-care processes for patients after OHCA in Ontario, Canada. We used a focused thematic analysis to capture barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication and used these barriers to identify potentially modifiable issues. The core thematic finding was a high emotional burden of ICU family-team communication in which strong feelings inhibited information transfer and delayed decision making following OHCA. Four subthemes describing sources of communication strain were identified: (1) requests from family members to provide early outcome predictions, (2) incomplete family comprehension of critical care, (3) family requests for early withdrawal of life support based on their understanding of patients' preferences and values, and (4) family-team communication gaps related to prognostic uncertainty. Participants worried that gaps in timely and clear prognostic information contributed to surrogates' perceptions of a poor outcome and to inappropriately early decisions to

  10. Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Early interventional treatment with intranasal corticosteroids compared with postonset treatment in pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takaya; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Makihara, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Haruna, Takenori; Noda, Yohei; Kariya, Shin; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of early interventional treatment (EIT) with intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) compared with postonset treatment (POT) has not been clarified. To study the efficacy and safety of EIT with INSs compared with POT and placebo in Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis. We designed a 3-armed, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients received mometasone furoate nasal spray (EIT group: n = 25), placebo (n = 25), or 4 weeks of placebo followed by 8 weeks of mometasone (POT group: n = 25) for a 12-week period starting on February 1, 2011. The primary end point was the comparison of the total nasal symptom score (TNSS) among the 3 groups. Total ocular symptom score (TOSS), total naso-ocular symptom score (TSS), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact (ARIA) on Asthma classification, and safety were the main secondary end points. The placebo and POT groups, but not the EIT group, had a significant exacerbation of TNSS and TOSS soon after the start of pollen counts being high on consecutive days. The 12-week mean TSS in the EIT group (score, 2.3) was significantly lower than in the placebo (5.0; P < .01) and POT (3.9; P = .03) groups. All patients in the placebo and POT groups were classified as having persistent rhinitis, whereas 80% of the EIT group met the ARIA classification criteria (P = .03). The quality-of-life score and nasal eosinophil cationic protein levels were lower in the EIT and POT groups compared with the placebo group. Daytime sleepiness, smell disturbance, and the mean dose of loratadine taken as the rescue medication were similar. Treatment with mometasone was well tolerated. EIT with INSs is superior to POT in controlling pollinosis. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High incidence of oral corticosteroids prescriptions in children with asthma in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J H; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H

    2016-12-01

    Severe asthma exacerbations are often treated with short courses of oral corticosteroids (OCS). This study assessed the incidence of OCS being prescribed in asthmatic children of various age groups and calculated their chances of receiving subsequent OCS prescriptions. Longitudinal Dutch community pharmacy data of 2272 children who were regular users of asthma medication was analyzed retrospectively. Incidence rates for first, second and third prescriptions of OCS were calculated, stratified by age and sex. Probabilities of receiving first, second or third OCS prescriptions were assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Incidence rates for first OCS prescriptions were 4.5 for the 1(st) year of life per 100 person-years (100PY); 3.9 for the 2(nd); 4.6 for the 3(rd); 4.2 for the 4(th), and 4.7 for the 5(th) year of life per 100PY. This was relatively high compared to incidence rates for children between the ages of 6 and 11 (ranging between 2.2 per 100PY (age 9) and 3.7(age 11)). Incidence rates for second and third OCS prescriptions were very high: 78.2(95%CI: 45.0-123.7) and 241.2(95%CI: 81.2-583.4) per 100PY for infants, respectively. The chances of receiving a first OCS prescription was higher in males (P value < 0.01). In the Netherlands, the incidence of OCS being prescribed to children being treated with asthma medication in early childhood is relatively high for first OCS prescriptions and extremely high for second and third OCS prescriptions compared to other ages. Furthermore, there is a high probability of receiving a further OCS prescription shortly after an OCS prescription.

  13. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Delucchi, Kevin L; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-05-01

    Although the early time course of smoking withdrawal effects has been characterized, the clinical significance of early withdrawal symptoms and their predictors are unknown. This study evaluated the relationships of early smoking withdrawal effects with quit attempt outcomes and the rate of nicotine metabolism. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers abstained from smoking for 4 hr in the laboratory before a quit attempt. Withdrawal measures included heart rate, sustained attention, and self-report. Following baseline assessment, withdrawal measures were administered every 30 min. At the conclusion of the 4-hr early withdrawal session, participants received a brief smoking cessation intervention and then returned 1 week and 12 weeks later for outcome assessments that included biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, cigarettes smoked in the past 24hr, and self-reported withdrawal symptoms. The rate of nicotine metabolism was estimated at intake with the nicotine metabolite ratio (trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) measured in saliva. Greater self-reported negative affect and concentration difficulty during early withdrawal, most notably anxiety, were related with poorer quit attempt outcomes. There was some indication that although a faster increase in craving and greater hunger during early withdrawal were associated with more favorable outcomes, a greater decrease in heart rate during this time was associated with poorer outcomes. Faster nicotine metabolism was related to a faster increase in anxiety but a slower increase in craving during early withdrawal. These findings lend support to the clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects. The rate of nicotine metabolism may be a useful predictor of early withdrawal symptoms.

  14. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Observed Gossip Moderates the Link between Anxious Withdrawal and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzer, Melissa M.; McDonald, Kristina L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Schulz, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model ("APIM," Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends…

  16. [Directions for use of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors against generalized myasthenia gravis: therapeutic strategies that can lead to early improvements and veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Nagane, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    The advent of effective immune treatment has meant that myasthenia gravis (MG) is most often not lethal. However, many MG patients still find it difficult to maintain daily activities due to chronic residual fatigability and long-term side effects of medication, since full remission without immune treatment is not common. Our analysis demonstrated that disease severity, dose of oral corticosteroids, and depressive state are the major independent factors negatively associated with self-reported QOL (MG-QOL15-J score). It is noteworthy that oral corticosteroid, the first-line agent for MG, is negatively associated with patients' QOL. When the analysis took into account MGFA postintervention status and dose of oral prednisolne (PSL), the MG-QOL15-J score of MM status patients taking ≤ 5 mg PSL per day is identically low (i.e., just as good QOL) as that seen in CSR and is a target of treatment. In order to veer away from high-dose oral corticosteroids and to achieve early MM or better status with PSL ≤ 5 mg/day, we advocate the early aggressive treatment strategy that can achieve early improvement by performing an aggressive therapy using combined treatment with plasmapheresis and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and then maintain an improved clinical status using low-dose oral corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine microemulsion and tacrolimus). The early stages of MG are susceptible to treatment with calcineurin inhibitors. When using cyclosporine microemulsion for MG, blood concentrations 2 h after administration (C2) correlate with clinical improvement and immediately before administration (C0) with side effects (increased serum creatinine and/or hypertension). Monitoring of C2 and C0 levels is useful to estimate efficacy and safety of the drug.

  17. Examining the Distinctiveness and the Socio-Emotional Correlates of Anxious-Withdrawal and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…

  18. Use of early corticosteroid therapy on ICU admission in patients affected by severe pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection.

    PubMed

    Martin-Loeches, I; Lisboa, T; Rhodes, A; Moreno, R P; Silva, E; Sprung, C; Chiche, J D; Barahona, D; Villabon, M; Balasini, C; Pearse, R M; Matos, R; Rello, J

    2011-02-01

    Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection, although relatively common, remains controversial. Prospective, observational, multicenter study from 23 June 2009 through 11 February 2010, reported in the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) H1N1 registry. Two hundred twenty patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with completed outcome data were analyzed. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 155 (70.5%). Sixty-seven (30.5%) of the patients died in ICU and 75 (34.1%) whilst in hospital. One hundred twenty-six (57.3%) patients received corticosteroid therapy on admission to ICU. Patients who received corticosteroids were significantly older and were more likely to have coexisting asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic steroid use. These patients receiving corticosteroids had increased likelihood of developing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) [26.2% versus 13.8%, p < 0.05; odds ratio (OR) 2.2, confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.5]. Patients who received corticosteroids had significantly higher ICU mortality than patients who did not (46.0% versus 18.1%, p < 0.01; OR 3.8, CI 2.1-7.2). Cox regression analysis adjusted for severity and potential confounding factors identified that early use of corticosteroids was not significantly associated with mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4, p = 0.4] but was still associated with an increased rate of HAP (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8, p < 0.05). When only patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were analyzed, similar results were observed. Early use of corticosteroids in patients affected by pandemic (H1N1)v influenza A infection did not result in better outcomes and was associated with increased risk of superinfections.

  19. Bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and immediate early transcription unit 1 promoter are stimulated by the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Kook, Insun; Henley, Caitlin; Meyer, Florencia; Hoffmann, Federico G; Jones, Clinton

    2015-10-01

    The primary site for life-long latency of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is sensory neurons. The synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone consistently induces reactivation from latency; however the mechanism by which corticosteroids mediate reactivation is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that dexamethasone stimulates productive infection, in part, because the BHV-1 genome contains more than 100 potential glucocorticoid receptor (GR) response elements (GREs). Immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) promoter activity, but not IEtu2 or VP16 promoter activity, was stimulated by dexamethasone. Two near perfect consensus GREs located within the IEtu1 promoter were necessary for dexamethasone-mediated stimulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the GR interacts with IEtu1 promoter sequences containing the GREs. Although we hypothesize that DEX-mediated stimulation of IEtu1 promoter activity is important during productive infection and perhaps reactivation from latency, stress likely has pleiotropic effects on virus-infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mothers' early depressive symptoms and children's first-grade adjustment: a transactional analysis of child withdrawal as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2014-05-01

    The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal in early development. Based on 1,364 dyads, four waves of data spanning from 24 months to first grade (7 years) were used to examine paths by which children's withdrawal mediates relations between mothers' early depressive symptoms and three first-grade outcomes: social competence, academic performance, and externalizing behavior problems. Structural equation modeling revealed three principal paths. First, direct relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted early child withdrawal and increases in child withdrawal over time, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. Second, reciprocal relations were observed: Mothers' depressive symptoms predicted child withdrawal, which predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Third, relations via mother-child mutual responsiveness were observed: Depression-related increases in child withdrawal predicted declines in mutual responsiveness, which predicted poor first-grade adjustment. The findings suggest that, due to its interdependence with maternal depression and low mother-child mutual responsiveness over time, child withdrawal may play an important role in the poor first-grade adjustment of children whose mothers are high in depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Antiviral Agents Added to Corticosteroids for Early Treatment of Adults With Acute Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell Palsy).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Frank; Daly, Fergus; Gagyor, Ildiko

    Compared with oral corticosteroids alone, are oral antiviral drugs associated with improved outcomes when combined with oral corticosteroids in patients presenting within 72 hours of the onset of Bell palsy? Compared with oral corticosteroids alone, the addition of acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famcyclovir to oral corticosteroids for treatment of Bell palsy was associated with a higher proportion of people who recovered at 3- to 12-month follow-up. The quality of evidence is limited by heterogeneity, imprecision of the result estimates, and risk of bias.

  2. Early administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in very low birth weight preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne; Halliday, Henry L; Dunn, Michael

    2017-01-04

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short- and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with a lower risk of undesirable systemic side effects. To determine the impact of inhaled corticosteroids administered to preterm infants with birth weight up to 1500 grams (VLBW) beginning in the first two weeks after birth for the prevention of CLD as reflected by the requirement for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 5 January 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to 5 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 5 January 2016), CINAHL (1982 to 5 January 2016), reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research or electronically on the Pediatric Academic Societies web-site (1990 to May 2016). We included in this review randomised controlled trials of inhaled corticosteroid therapy initiated within the first two weeks of life in VLBW preterm infants. We evaluated data regarding clinical outcomes, including: CLD at 28 days or 36 weeks' PMA; mortality; combined outcome of death or CLD at 28 days of age and at 36 weeks' PMA; the need for systemic corticosteroids; failure to extubate within 14 days; and adverse effects of corticosteroids. All data were analysed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5. Meta-analyses were performed using relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD), along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). If RD was significant, the number needed to treat for

  3. The relation between Bulimic symptoms and the social withdrawal syndrome during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Sangha, Rajvir

    2015-12-01

    The short-term longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that there was a prospective relation between the social withdrawal syndrome and Bulimic symptoms during early adolescence. Ninety-six adolescents (47 males, mean age=13 years - 10 months) completed standardized scales assessing Bulimic symptoms, trust beliefs in others and loneliness at Time 1/T1 and again 5 months later at Time 2/T2. Analyses showed that: (1) Bulimic symptoms were negatively correlated with trust beliefs, (2) Bulimic symptoms were positively correlated with loneliness, and (3) trust beliefs were negatively correlated with loneliness. The SEM and mediation analyses showed that trust beliefs at T1 were negatively and concurrently associated with Bulimic symptoms at T1 and longitudinally (and negatively) predicted changes in Bulimic symptoms. It was found that loneliness at T1 statistically mediated those concurrent and longitudinal relations. The findings yielded support for the conclusion that the social withdrawal syndrome, as assessed by low trust beliefs and resulting experiences of loneliness, contributes to Bulimia nervosa during early adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Corticosteroids for pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Stern, Anat; Skalsky, Keren; Avni, Tomer; Carrara, Elena; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2017-12-13

    .84; moderate-quality evidence), but not in adults with non-severe pneumonia (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.00). Early clinical failure rates (defined as death from any cause, radiographic progression, or clinical instability at day 5 to 8) were significantly reduced with corticosteroids in people with severe and non-severe pneumonia (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.7; and RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83, respectively; high-quality evidence). Corstocosteroids reduced time to clinical cure, length of hospital and intensive care unit stays, development of respiratory failure or shock not present at pneumonia onset, and rates of pneumonia complications.Among children with bacterial pneumonia, corticosteroids reduced early clinical failure rates (defined as for adults, RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.70; high-quality evidence) based on two small, clinically heterogeneous trials, and reduced time to clinical cure.Hyperglycaemia was significantly more common in adults treated with corticosteroids (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.14). There were no significant differences between corticosteroid-treated people and controls for other adverse events or secondary infections (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.93). Corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome was 18 patients (95% CI 12 to 49) to prevent one death. Corticosteroid therapy reduced morbidity, but not mortality, for adults and children with non-severe CAP. Corticosteroid therapy was associated with more adverse events, especially hyperglycaemia, but the harms did not seem to outweigh the benefits.

  5. Label-Free Proteomic Analysis of Protein Changes in the Striatum during Chronic Ethanol Use and Early Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Qiu, Yanyan; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Hinton, David J.; Moore, Raymond M.; Dasari, Surendra; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the neuronal signaling changes in alcohol addiction and withdrawal are complex and multifaceted. The cortico-striatal circuit is highly implicated in these processes, and the striatum plays a significant role not only in the early stages of addiction, but in the developed-addictive state as well, including withdrawal symptoms. Transcriptional analysis is a useful method for determining changes in gene expression, however, the results do not always accurately correlate with protein levels. In this study, we employ label-free proteomic analysis to determine changes in protein expression within the striatum during chronic ethanol use and early withdrawal. The striatum, composed primarily of medium spiny GABAergic neurons, glutamatergic and dopaminergic nerve terminals and astrocytes, is relatively homogeneous for proteomic analysis. We were able to analyze more than 5000 proteins from both the dorsal (caudate and putamen) and ventral (nucleus accumbens) striatum and identified significant changes following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and acute (8 h) withdrawal compared to ethanol naïve and ethanol exposure groups respectively. Our results showed significant changes in proteins involved in glutamate and opioid peptide signaling, and also uncovered novel pathways including mitochondrial function and lipid/cholesterol metabolism, as revealed by changes in electron transport chain proteins and RXR activation pathways. These results will be useful in the development of novel treatments for alcohol withdrawal and thereby aid in recovery from alcohol use disorder. PMID:27014007

  6. Moderating Effects of Aggression on the Associations between Social Withdrawal Subtypes and Peer Difficulties during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age = 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related…

  7. Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of BI and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. However, we know relatively little about the cognitive processes that accompany BI and shape later socio-emotional functioning. We examined the relations among BI in childhood, attention biases to threat in adolescence, and adolescent social withdrawal in a longitudinal study (N = 126, Mean age = 15 years). As has been reported in anxious adults, adolescents who were behaviorally inhibited as toddlers and young children showed heightened attention bias to threat. In addition, attention bias to threat moderated the relation between childhood BI and adolescent social withdrawal.

  8. Corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2014-01-01

    resolved through discussion. Main results The electronic searches retrieved 368 titles and abstracts. We reviewed 20 full-text articles. We identified no trials eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Authors' conclusions Although research has identified wide variation in practices regarding use of corticosteroids, our systematic review did not identify evidence from randomized controlled trials for the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether use of corticosteroids is more effective than use of anti-parasitic therapy alone, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and which dosage and duration of steroid use is best. These questions are easily amenable to research using a randomized controlled design and they are ethical due to the absence of evidence to support or discourage use of corticosteroids for this condition. The question of foremost importance, however, is whether they should be used as adjunct therapy (that is, additional) to anti-parasitic agents. PMID:23633342

  9. Relations between Chinese Mothers' Parenting Practices and Social Withdrawal in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Hart, Craig H.; Wu, Bo; Yang, Chongming; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified specific parenting practices used by parents of preschoolers in mainland China (e.g., physical coercion, overprotection, shaming, directiveness, encouragement of modesty). Some of the intrusive practices have been linked to social withdrawal in western societies (e.g., United States, Canada). It seemed important to…

  10. Moderating effects of aggression on the associations between social withdrawal subtypes and peer difficulties during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Markovic, Andrea; Cogswell, Alex; Raja, Radhi

    2012-08-01

    Recent research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the peer difficulties associated with social withdrawal subtypes during early adolescence, but little is known about possible sources of that heterogeneity. This study of 194 Indian young adolescents (48% female; 90% Hindu; M age= 13.35 years) evaluated whether the peer adversity related to self-reported social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance) varied as a function of peer-nominated overt and relational aggression, and gender. Regression analyses revealed that overt aggression and gender moderated the pathways between shyness and peer exclusion and peer victimization such that the associations were significant and positive only for boys who were high and girls who were low in overt aggression. Several additional moderator effects were found, including results revealing that relational aggression (in certain cases, in conjunction with gender) moderated the association between: (1) avoidance and peer exclusion and peer rejection, (2) shyness and peer rejection, and (3) unsociability and peer victimization. For adolescents who were average and low in relational aggression, avoidance was positively related to peer rejection, and unsociability was positively related to peer victimization. However, only for boys who were high in relational aggression, avoidance was found to be positively related to peer exclusion, and shyness was positively related to peer rejection. The findings highlight the importance of considering additional individual risk factors in studies of social withdrawal subtypes and point to important differences for young adolescent withdrawn boys and girls.

  11. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance use - cocaine withdrawal; Substance abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Drug abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Detox - cocaine ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. What is cocaine? Updated May 2016. www.drugabuse. ...

  12. Early and late effects of prenatal corticosteroid treatment on the microRNA profiles of lung tissue in rats

    PubMed Central

    YU, HONG-REN; LI, SUNG-CHOU; TSENG, WAN-NING; TAIN, YOU-LIN; CHEN, CHIH-CHENG; SHEEN, JIUNN-MING; TIAO, MAO-MENG; KUO, HO-CHANG; HUANG, CHAO-CHENG; HSIEH, KAI-SHENG; HUANG, LI-TUNG

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been administered to mothers at risk of premature delivery to induce maturation of preterm fetal lungs and prevent the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Micro (mi)RNAs serve various crucial functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and organ development; however, few studies have demonstrated an association between miRNAs and lung development. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissue following prenatal glucocorticoid therapy for fetal lung development. The differences in miRNA expression profiles were compared between postnatal days 7 (D7) and 120 (D120) rat lung tissues, followed by validation using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues following prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) therapy were also investigated. miRNAs with 2-fold changes were selected for further analysis. At D120, 6 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs were detected, compared with D7. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-101-3p and miR-99b-5p were associated with the lowest and highest expressions of miRNA at D7, respectively. A limited impact on the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues was observed following prenatal DEX treatment, which may help to further clarify the mechanisms underlying normal lung development. However, the results of the present study cannot entirely elucidate the effects of prenatal DEX treatment on the lung development of premature infants, and further studies investigating the impact of prenatal corticosteroids on fetal lung miRNA profiles are required. PMID:26997989

  13. Cognitive consequences of early versus late antiepileptic drug withdrawal after pediatric epilepsy surgery, the TimeToStop (TTS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boshuisen, Kim; Lamberink, Herm J; van Schooneveld, Monique Mj; Cross, J Helen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Geleijns, Karin; Uiterwaal, Cuno Spm; Braun, Kees Pj

    2015-10-26

    The goals of intentional curative pediatric epilepsy surgery are to achieve seizure-freedom and antiepileptic drug (AED) freedom. Retrospective cohort studies have indicated that early postoperative AED withdrawal unmasks incomplete surgical success and AED dependency sooner, but not at the cost of long-term seizure outcome. Moreover, AED withdrawal seemed to improve cognitive outcome. A randomized trial is needed to confirm these findings. We hypothesized that early AED withdrawal in children is not only safe, but also beneficial with respect to cognitive functioning. This is a multi-center pragmatic randomized clinical trial to investigate whether early AED withdrawal improves cognitive function, in terms of attention, executive function and intelligence, quality of life and behavior, and to confirm safety in terms of eventual seizure freedom, seizure recurrences and "seizure and AED freedom." Patients will be randomly allocated in parallel groups (1:1) to either early or late AED withdrawal. Randomization will be concealed and stratified for preoperative IQ and medical center. In the early withdrawal arm reduction of AEDs will start 4 months after surgery, while in the late withdrawal arm reduction starts 12 months after surgery, with intended complete cessation of drugs after 12 and 20 months respectively. Cognitive outcome measurements will be performed preoperatively, and at 1 and 2 years following surgery, and consist of assessment of attention and executive functioning using the EpiTrack Junior test and intelligence expressed as IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scales). Seizure outcomes will be assessed at 24 months after surgery, and at 20 months following start of AED reduction. We aim to randomize 180 patients who underwent anticipated curative epilepsy surgery below 16 years of age, were able to perform the EpiTrack Junior test preoperatively, and have no predictors of poor postoperative seizure prognosis (multifocal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  14. Betaxolol, a selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudoy, C.A.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    . Furthermore, treatment with betaxolol during early cocaine withdrawal significantly decreased β1-adrenergic receptor protein expression in the amygdala to levels comparable to those of control animals. Conclusions The present findings suggest that the anxiolytic-like effect of betaxolol on cocaine-induced anxiety may be related to its effect on amygdalar β1-adrenergic receptors that are up-regulated during early phases of drug withdrawal. These data support the efficacy of betaxolol as a potential effective pharmacotherapy in treating cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety during early phases of abstinence. PMID:17513029

  15. Betaxolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rudoy, C A; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2007-06-30

    , treatment with betaxolol during early cocaine withdrawal significantly decreased beta(1)-adrenergic receptor protein expression in the amygdala to levels comparable to those of control animals. The present findings suggest that the anxiolytic-like effect of betaxolol on cocaine-induced anxiety may be related to its effect on amygdalar beta(1)-adrenergic receptors that are up-regulated during early phases of drug withdrawal. These data support the efficacy of betaxolol as a potential effective pharmacotherapy in treating cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety during early phases of abstinence.

  16. Safety and efficacy of early intervention with pimecrolimus cream 1% combined with corticosteroids for major flares in infants and children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Elaine; Korman, Neil; Molina, Carmen; Kianifard, Farid; Abrams, Ken

    2006-01-01

    To assess early intervention with pimecrolimus combined with corticosteroid (CS) for major flares in patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD). In this 6-month, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group in 35 US centers, 275 children aged 3 months to 11 years with mild to severe AD applied the study medication twice daily at first signs/symptoms of AD. For major flares not controlled with study medication, a mid-potency CS cream replaced the evening study drug for up to 3 weeks. The percentage of subjects with no major flares was the main outcome measure. Pimecrolimus reduced the major flare incidence and prolonged flare-free intervals. Significantly more pimecrolimus subjects (52%) had no major flares compared with vehicle subjects (34%; p = 0.007). Pimecrolimus significantly delayed the first flare (median, 53 days vs 13 days; p<0.001), and increased the time between flares (median, 31 days vs 15 days). Additionally, there was earlier pruritus improvement (median, day 3 vs day 6; p = 0.034) in the pimecrolimus group, as well as a reduced need for CS by 37% (p = 0.020) [corrected] Adverse events (AEs) incidence and type were comparable between groups. Combination therapy with pimecrolimus used at half the recommended dose did not shorten the mean flare duration or alter the AE profile. Early treatment of signs/symptoms of AD with pimecrolimus cream 1% provided an effective steroid-sparing option that reduced the incidence of major flares.

  17. Hipersensitivity Reactions to Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used drugs in the clinical practice, especially by topic application in dermatology. These substances may act as allergens and produce immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most frequent presentation of corticosteroid allergy and it should be studied by patch testing in specific units. The corticosteroids included in the Spanish standard battery are good markers but not ideal. Therefore, if those makers are positive, it is useful to apply a specific battery of corticosteroids and the drugs provided by patients. Immediate reactions are relatively rare but potentially severe, and it is important to confirm the sensitization profile and to guide the use of alternative corticosteroids, because they are often necessary in several diseases. In this article we review the main concepts regarding these two types of hypersensitivity reactions in corticosteroid allergy, as well as their approach in the clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Corticosteroid signaling in frog metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Saurabh S; Buchholz, Daniel R

    2014-07-01

    Stress in fetal and larval life can impact later health and fitness in humans and wildlife. Long-term effects of early life stress are mediated by altered stress physiology induced during the process of relaying environmental effects on development. Amphibian metamorphosis has been an important model system to study the role of hormones in development in an environmental context. Thyroid hormone (TH) is necessary and sufficient to initiate the dramatic morphological and physiological changes of metamorphosis, but TH alone is insufficient to complete metamorphosis. Other hormones, importantly corticosteroid hormones (CSs), influence the timing and nature of post-embryonic development. Stressors or treatments with CSs delay or accelerate metamorphic change, depending on the developmental stage of treatment. Also, TH and CSs have synergistic, antagonistic, and independent effects on gene regulation. Importantly, the identity of the endogenous corticosteroid hormone or receptor underlying any gene induction or remodeling event has not been determined. Levels of both CSs, corticosterone and aldosterone, peak at metamorphic climax, and the corticosteroid receptors, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, have wide expression distribution among tadpole tissues. Conclusive experiments to identify the endogenous players have been elusive due to difficulties in experimental control of corticosteroid production and signaling. Current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the two CSs and their receptors serve largely overlapping functions in regulating metamorphosis and synergy with TH. Knowledge of the endogenous players is critical to understanding the basic mechanisms and significance of corticosteroid action in regulating post-embryonic development in environmental contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrasomatic injection of corticosteroid followed by vertebroplasty increases early pain relief rather than vertebroplasty alone in vertebral bone neoplasms: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Basile, Antonio; Masala, Salvatore; Banna, Giuseppe; Cotta, Elisa; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Mundo, Elena; Scavone, Giovanni; Granata, Antonio; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    group B had a higher reduction in VAS, with a difference of 25.4% (VAS reduction average 5.5 versus 4.1) at 6 h post-intervention, 24.5% (VAS average 5.7 versus 4.3) at 24 h, 25% (VAS average 6 versus 4.5) at 48 h, 23% (VAS average 6.5 versus 5) at 7 days, 16.4% (VAS average 6.7 versus 5.6) at 30 days, 8.9% (VAS average 6.7 versus 6, .1) at 3 months. The last available follow-up ranged from 3 to 24 months in group A and from 5 to 20 months in group B. In our preliminary experience, pre-vertebroplasty injection of intrasomatic corticosteroid in comparison to vertebroplasty alone is able to increase the early pain relief of the procedure.

  20. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Withdrawal Decision-Making in Patients with Coma After Cardiac Arrest: A Qualitative Study of Intensive Care Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Ong, Charlene J; Dhand, Amar; Diringer, Michael N

    2016-10-01

    Neurologists are often asked to define prognosis in comatose patients. However, comatose patients following cardiac arrest are usually cared for by cardiologists or intensivists, and it is their approach that will influence decisions regarding withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions (WLSI). We observed that factors leading to these decisions vary across specialties and considered whether they could result in self-fulfilling prophecies and early WLSI. We conducted a hypothesis-generating qualitative study to identify factors used by non-neurologists to define prognosis in these patients and construct an explanatory model for how early WLSI might occur. This was a single-center qualitative study of intensivists caring for cardiac arrest patients with hypoxic-ischemic coma. Thirty attending physicians (n = 16) and fellows (n = 14) from cardiac (n = 8), medical (n = 6), surgical (n = 10), and neuro (n = 6) intensive care units underwent semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. We found three components of early WLSI among non-neurointensivists: (1) development of fixed negative opinions; (2) early framing of poor clinical pictures to families; and (3) shortened windows for judging recovery potential. In contrast to neurointensivists, non-neurointensivists' negative opinions were frequently driven by patients' lack of consciousness and cardiopulmonary resuscitation circumstances. Both groups were influenced by age and comorbidities. The results demonstrate that factors influencing prognostication differ across specialties. Some differ from those recommended by published guidelines and may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies and early WLSI. Better understanding of this framework would facilitate educational interventions to mitigate this phenomenon and its implications on patient care.

  2. Relationship of impulsivity and depression during early methamphetamine withdrawal in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Su, Hang; Tao, Jingyan; Xie, Ying; Sun, Yeming; Li, Liren; Zhang, Xiang Yang; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jincai

    2015-04-01

    High level of impulsivity as well as depression is thought to be involved in the maintenance and development of methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the relationship between impulsivity and depression has not been studied thoroughly in METH dependence subjects, especially in early METH abstinent subjects. In this study, our objective is to explore the interplay between the depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early METH abstinent subjects. A total of 182 early abstinent METH dependent subjects (abstinence for 1-7 days) were recruited and the level of impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the short 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) respectively. Global impulsivity of BIS-11 was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms among early METH abstinent subjects (r=0.283, p=0.001). Moreover, all subscales of BIS-11 were also found to be correlated with depressive symptoms: correlation with attentional impulsivity (r=0.202, p=0.006); correlation with motor impulsivity (r=0.267, p=0.001); and correlation with non-planning impulsivity (r=0.177, p=0.017). This study showed a relationship between impulsivity and depression, which may further the comprehension of motivational elements contributing to the maintenance and development of METH use disorder. Future research would be dedicated to exploring underlying mechanisms of association between impulsivity and depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.

  4. Induction treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplant recipients with planned early steroid withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martin, Spencer T; Roberts, Keri L; Malek, Sayeed K; Tullius, Stefan G; Vadivel, Nidyanandh; De Serres, Sacha; Grafals, Monica; Elsanjak, Abdelaziz; Filkins, Beth Anne; Chandraker, Anil; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-06-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients for whom an early steroid withdrawal (ESW) regimen was planned. Single-center, retrospective, cohort study. Tertiary care medical center, including inpatient hospital stays and outpatient nephrology clinics. Ninety-nine consecutive adult recipients of living- or deceased-donor renal transplants between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007, in whom ESW was planned and who received either r-ATG or basiliximab; patients receiving an extended-criteria kidney donation or a donation after cardiac death were excluded. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus as maintenance therapy with planned ESW. Induction therapy was either r-ATG 1.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days (68 patients) or basiliximab 20 mg on postoperative days 0 and 4 (31 patients). The primary composite end point of biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, and death occurred in 6 patients (9%) and 9 patients (29%) in the r-ATG and basiliximab groups at 1 year after transplantation, respectively (p=0.01), with rates of 7% (5/68 patients) and 26% (8/31 patients) for BPAR (p=0.02), 0% and 3% (1/31 patients) for graft loss (p=0.31), and 2% (1/68 patients) and 0% for patient death (p>0.99). Average time to first BPAR was significantly longer in the r-ATG group (mean ± SD 151.4 ± 82.9 vs 53.6 ± 68.4 days, p<0.01). Kidney function at 12 months was similar between the two groups. Rabbit-ATG was associated with a lower frequency and delayed onset of BPAR compared with basiliximab in renal transplant recipients who received an ESW regimen.

  5. Corticosteroids for tuberculous pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Hannah; Yoo, Jinho; Darsini, Padmapriya

    2017-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids used in addition to antituberculous therapy have been reported to benefit people with tuberculous pleurisy. However, research findings are inconsistent and raise doubt as to whether such treatment is worthwhile. There is also concern regarding the potential adverse effects of corticosteroids, especially in HIV-positive people. Objectives To evaluate the effects of adding corticosteroids to drug regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion. Search methods In April 2016, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Current Controlled Trials, and the reference lists of articles identified by the literature search. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared any corticosteroid with no treatment, placebo, or other active treatment (both groups should have received the same antituberculous drug regimen) in people diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the search results, extracted data from the included trials, and assessed trial methodological quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We analysed the data using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We applied the fixed-effect model in the absence of statistically significant heterogeneity. Main results Six trials with 590 participants met the inclusion criteria, which were conducted in Asia (three trials), Africa (two trials), and Europe (one trial). Two trials were in HIV-negative people, one trial was in HIV-positive people, and three trials did not report HIV status. Corticosteroids may reduce the time to resolution of pleural effusion. Risk of residual pleural effusion on chest X-ray was reduced by 45% at eight weeks (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.78; 237 participants, 2 trials, low certainty evidence), and 65% at 24 weeks (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.66; 237 participants, 2 trials, low

  6. Corticosteroids: way upstream

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms of corticosteroid action continue to be a rich bed of research, spanning the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology through to immunology and metabolism. However, the vast literature generated, in particular with respect to corticosteroid actions in the brain, tends to be contentious, with some aspects suffering from loose definitions, poorly-defined models, and appropriate dissection kits. Here, rather than presenting a comprehensive review of the subject, we aim to present a critique of key concepts that have emerged over the years so as to stimulate new thoughts in the field by identifying apparent shortcomings. This article will draw on experience and knowledge derived from studies of the neural actions of other steroid hormones, in particular estrogens, not only because there are many parallels but also because 'learning from differences' can be a fruitful approach. The core purpose of this review is to consider the mechanisms through which corticosteroids might act rapidly to alter neural signaling. PMID:20180948

  7. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  8. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  9. Corticosteroids and ARDS: A review of treatment and prevention evidence

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, G.C.; Hadda, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    To systematically review the role of corticosteroids in prevention of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in high-risk patients, and in treatment of established ARDS. Primary articles were identified by English-language Pubmed/MEDLINE, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane systemic review database search (1960–June 2009) using the MeSH headings: ARDS, adult respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS, corticosteroids, and methylprednisolone (MP). The identified studies were reviewed and information regarding role of corticosteroids in prevention and treatment of ARDS was evaluated. Nine trials have evaluated the role of corticosteroid drugs in management of ARDS at various stages. Of the 9, 4 trials evaluated role of corticosteroids in prevention of ARDS, while other 5 trials were focused on treatment after variable periods of onset of ARDS. Trials with preventive corticosteroids, mostly using high doses of MP, showed negative results with patients in treatment arm, showing higher mortality and rate of ARDS development. While trials of corticosteroids in early ARDS showed variable results, somewhat, favoring use of these agents to reduce associated morbidities. In late stage of ARDS, these drugs have no benefits and are associated with adverse outcome. Use of corticosteroids in patients with early ARDS showed equivocal results in decreasing mortality; however, there is evidence that these drugs reduce organ dysfunction score, lung injury score, ventilator requirement, and intensive care unit stay. However, most of these trials are small, having a significant heterogeneity regarding study design, etiology of ARDS, and dosage of corticosteroids. Further research involving large-scale trials on relatively homogeneous cohort is necessary to establish the role of corticosteroids for this condition. PMID:21712921

  10. Effects of early-life exposure to THIP on brainstem neuronal excitability in the Mecp2-null mouse model of Rett syndrome before and after drug withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Oginsky, Max F; Wu, Yang; Jiang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is mostly caused by mutations of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Although the causal neuronal mechanisms are still unclear, accumulating experimental evidence obtained from Mecp2 -/Y mice suggests that imbalanced excitation/inhibition in central neurons plays a major role. Several approaches may help to rebalance the excitation/inhibition, including agonists of GABA A receptors (GABA A R). Indeed, our previous studies have shown that early-life exposure of Mecp2-null mice to the extrasynaptic GABA A R agonist THIP alleviates several RTT-like symptoms including breathing disorders, motor dysfunction, social behaviors, and lifespan. However, how the chronic THIP affects the Mecp2 -/Y mice at the cellular level remains elusive. Here, we show that the THIP exposure in early lives markedly alleviated hyperexcitability of two types of brainstem neurons in Mecp2 -/Y mice. In neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC), known to be involved in breathing regulation, the hyperexcitability showed clear age-dependence, which was associated with age-dependent deterioration of the RTT-like breathing irregularities. Both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the breathing disorders were relieved with early THIP treatment. In neurons of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the changes in intrinsic membrane properties were alleviated with the THIP treatment in Mecp2-null mice. The effects of THIP on both LC and Me5 neuronal excitability remained 1 week after withdrawal. Persistent alleviation of breathing abnormalities in Mecp2 -/Y mice was also observed a week after THIP withdrawal. These results suggest that early-life exposure to THIP, a potential therapeutic medicine, appears capable of controlling neuronal hyperexcitability in Mecp2 -/Y mice, which occurs in the absence of THIP in the recording solution, lasts at least 1 week after withdrawal, and may contribute to the RTT-like symptom mitigation. © 2017 The Authors

  11. Recurrence of IgA nephropathy after kidney transplantation in steroid continuation versus early steroid-withdrawal regimens: a retrospective analysis of the UNOS/OPTN database.

    PubMed

    Leeaphorn, Napat; Garg, Neetika; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Cardarelli, Francesca; Pavlakis, Martha

    2018-02-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been an increase in use of steroid-withdrawal regimens in kidney transplantation. However, steroid withdrawal may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Using United Network of (Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network) UNOS/OPTN data, we analyzed adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to IgAN who received their first kidney transplant between 2000 and 2014. For the primary outcome, we used a competing risk analysis to compare the cumulative incidence of graft loss due to IgAN recurrence between early steroid-withdrawal (ESW) and steroid continuation groups. The secondary outcomes were patient survival and death-censored graft survival (DCGS). A total of 9690 recipients were included (2831 in ESW group and 6859 in steroid continuation group). In total, 1238 recipients experienced graft loss, of which 191 (15.43%) were due to IgAN recurrence. In multivariable analysis, steroid use was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.666, 95% CI 0.482-0.921; P = 0.014). Patient survival and DCGS were not different between the two groups. In the USA, ESW in transplant for ESRD due to IgAN is associated with a higher risk of graft loss due to disease recurrence. Future prospective studies are warranted to further address which patients with IgAN would benefit from steroid continuation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-26

    variation in practice regarding the use of corticosteroids, our review did not identify any evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether the use of corticosteroids as an adjunctive agent is more effective than the use of anti-parasitic therapy alone; if so, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and what would be the best dose and duration of steroid use.

  13. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-01

    or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Authors’ conclusions Although research has identified a wide variation in practice regarding the use of corticosteroids, our review did not identify any evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether the use of corticosteroids as an adjunctive agent is more effective than the use of anti-parasitic therapy alone; if so, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and what would be the best dose and duration of steroid use. PMID:28125765

  14. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  15. A question of time: systemic corticosteroids in managing acute asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Sanjit K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of systemic corticosteroids in managing acute asthma in children as it relates to the timing of its administration. Three themes relevant to the timing of systemic corticosteroid administration as it relates to managing acute asthma in children are addressed, namely the evidence for early administration of systemic corticosteroid; factors associated with the administration of systemic corticosteroids and evidence for nurse-initiated administration of systemic corticosteroid. There is a clear inverse relationship between time elapsed from the intake of systemic corticosteroids to disposition and the risk of admission. The variable timing of systemic corticosteroid may explain the variable success of clinical care pathways to manage acute asthma. Recent studies have documented a significant reduction hospital admission with early administration of systemic corticosteroid. For acute asthma pathways to succeed in improving hospital admission rates, implementation of such pathways must be linked to barriers to the administration of systemic corticosteroids. Findings from the studies cited provide guidance in the administration of systemic corticosteroids in children with asthma in the real life setting of an emergency department.

  16. Intra-articular corticosteroid for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jüni, Peter; Hari, Roman; Rutjes, Anne W S; Fischer, Roland; Silletta, Maria G; Reichenbach, Stephan; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-10-22

    ) statistic of ≥ 62% indicated a moderate to large degree of between-trial heterogeneity up to 13 weeks after end of treatment (P for heterogeneity≤0.004), and an I(2) of 0% indicated low heterogeneity at 26 weeks (P=0.52). We found evidence of lower treatment effects in trials that randomised on average at least 50 participants per group (P=0.023), in unpublished trials (P=0.023), in trials that used non-intervention controls (P=0.031), and in trials that used concomitant viscosupplementation (P=0.06).Participants on corticosteroids were 11% less likely to experience adverse events, but confidence intervals included the null effect (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.23, I(2)=0%). Participants on corticosteroids were 67% less likely to withdraw because of adverse events, but confidence intervals were wide and included the null effect (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.05 to 2.07, I(2)=0%). Participants on corticosteroids were 27% less likely to experience any serious adverse event, but confidence intervals were wide and included the null effect (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.67, I(2)=0%).We found no evidence of an effect of corticosteroids on quality of life compared to control (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.28, I(2)=0%). There was also no evidence of an effect of corticosteroids on joint space narrowing compared to control interventions (SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.49 to 0.46). Whether there are clinically important benefits of intra-articular corticosteroids after one to six weeks remains unclear in view of the overall quality of the evidence, considerable heterogeneity between trials, and evidence of small-study effects. A single trial included in this review described adequate measures to minimise biases and did not find any benefit of intra-articular corticosteroids.In this update of the systematic review and meta-analysis, we found most of the identified trials that compared intra-articular corticosteroids with sham or non-intervention control small and hampered by low methodological quality. An

  17. Brain region-specific gene expression changes after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and early withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Roberto I.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Becker, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroadaptations that participate in the ontogeny of alcohol dependence are likely a result of altered gene expression in various brain regions. The present study investigated brain region-specific changes in the pattern and magnitude of gene expression immediately following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure and 8 hours following final ethanol exposure [i.e. early withdrawal (EWD)]. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix 430A 2.0, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and bioinformatics analysis were used to characterize gene expression and function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Gene expression levels were determined using gene chip robust multi-array average followed by statistical analysis of microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results indicated that immediately following CIE exposure, changes in gene expression were strikingly greater in the PFC (284 genes) compared with the HPC (16 genes) and NAc (32 genes). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of the transcriptionally responsive genes in the PFC were involved in Ras/MAPK signaling, notch signaling or ubiquitination. In contrast, during EWD, changes in gene expression were greatest in the HPC (139 genes) compared with the PFC (four genes) and NAc (eight genes). The most transcriptionally responsive genes in the HPC were involved in mRNA processing or actin dynamics. Of the few genes detected in the NAc, the most representatives were involved in circadian rhythms. Overall, these findings indicate that brain region-specific and time-dependent neuroadaptive alterations in gene expression play an integral role in the development of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. PMID:21812870

  18. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... opiate withdrawal; Oxycontin - opiate withdrawal; Hydrocodone - opiate withdrawal; Detox - opiates; Detoxification - opiates ... facilities set up to help people with detoxification (detox). In a regular hospital, if symptoms are severe. ...

  19. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruptus)

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal method (coitus interruptus) Overview The withdrawal method of contraception, also known as coitus interruptus, is the practice of withdrawing the penis from the vagina and away from a woman's external ...

  20. Corticosteroid Therapy in Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tollackson, Kenneth A.

    1965-01-01

    Fortunately, nearly all cases of asthma in childhood can be managed successfully without the use of adrenal corticosteroids. However, when used properly the corticoids enable that small group of children who have not responded to traditional allergic management to lead normal lives. The action of these compounds is a pharmacologic and not a physiologic one. The adrenal corticosteroids suppress the symptoms of childhood asthma but in no way serve as curative agents of allergic disease. PMID:14347975

  1. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-04-30

    reviewed 20 full-text articles. We identified no trials eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Although research has identified wide variation in practices regarding use of corticosteroids, our systematic review did not identify evidence from randomized controlled trials for the role of corticosteroids in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Several questions remain unanswered by well-conducted randomized trials in this context, including whether use of corticosteroids is more effective than use of anti-parasitic therapy alone, when corticosteroids should be initiated in the treatment regimen (early versus late course of treatment), and which dosage and duration of steroid use is best. These questions are easily amenable to research using a randomized controlled design and they are ethical due to the absence of evidence to support or discourage use of corticosteroids for this condition. The question of foremost importance, however, is whether they should be used as adjunct therapy (that is, additional) to anti-parasitic agents.

  2. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Matthijs C; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar; van de Beek, Diederik

    2015-09-12

    In experimental studies, the outcome of bacterial meningitis has been related to the severity of inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Corticosteroids reduce this inflammatory response. To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 4, 2015), EMBASE (1974 to February 2015), Web of Science (2010 to February 2015), CINAHL (2010 to February 2015) and LILACS (2010 to February 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. We scored RCTs for methodological quality. We collected outcomes and adverse effects. We performed subgroup analyses for children and adults, causative organisms, low-income versus high-income countries, time of steroid administration and study quality. We included 25 studies involving 4121 participants (2511 children and 1517 adults; 93 mixed population). Four studies were of high quality with no risk of bias, 14 of medium quality and seven of low quality, indicating a moderate risk of bias for the total analysis. Nine studies were performed in low-income countries and 16 in high-income countries.Corticosteroids were associated with a non-significant reduction in mortality (17.8% versus 19.9%; risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.01, P value = 0.07). A similar non-significant reduction in mortality was observed in adults receiving corticosteroids (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05, P value = 0.09). Corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of severe hearing loss (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.88), any hearing loss (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87) and neurological sequelae (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00).Subgroup analyses for causative organisms showed that corticosteroids reduced mortality in Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98), but not in

  3. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Matthijs C; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-06-04

    In experimental studies, the outcome of bacterial meningitis has been related to the severity of inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Corticosteroids reduce this inflammatory response. To examine the effect of adjuvant corticosteroid therapy versus placebo on mortality, hearing loss and neurological sequelae in people of all ages with acute bacterial meningitis. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 12, MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), Web of Science (2010 to January 2013), CINAHL (2010 to January 2013) and LILACS (2010 to January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. We scored RCTs for methodological quality. We collected outcomes and adverse effects. We performed subgroup analyses for children and adults, causative organisms, low-income versus high-income countries, time of steroid administration and study quality. Twenty-five studies involving 4121 participants were included. Corticosteroids were associated with a non-significant reduction in mortality (17.8% versus 19.9%; risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.01, P = 0.07). A similar non-significant reduction in mortality was observed in adults receiving corticosteroids (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05, P = 0.09). Corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of severe hearing loss (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.88), any hearing loss (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87) and neurological sequelae (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00).Subgroup analyses for causative organisms showed that corticosteroids reduced mortality in Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98), but not in Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) orNeisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) meningitis. Corticosteroids reduced severe hearing loss in children with H. influenzae meningitis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59) but not in children with meningitis due to non-Haemophilus species.In high-income countries

  4. Corticosteroid injection for adhesive capsulitis in primary care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Kim Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a common cause of shoulder pain and limited movement. The objectives of this review were to assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections for adhesive capsulitis and to evaluate the optimum dose and anatomical site of injections. PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomised trials and a total of ten trials were included. Results revealed that corticosteroid injection is superior to placebo and physiotherapy in the short-term (up to 12 weeks). There was no difference in outcomes between corticosteroid injection and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at 24 weeks. Dosages of intra-articular triamcinolone 20 mg and 40 mg showed identical outcomes, while subacromial and glenohumeral corticosteroid injections had similar efficacy. The use of corticosteroid injections is also generally safe, with infrequent and minor side effects. Physicians may consider corticosteroid injection to treat adhesive capsulitis, especially in the early stages when pain is the predominant presentation. PMID:27570870

  5. Corticosteroid injection for adhesive capsulitis in primary care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kim Hwee

    2016-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a common cause of shoulder pain and limited movement. The objectives of this review were to assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections for adhesive capsulitis and to evaluate the optimum dose and anatomical site of injections. PubMed and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomised trials and a total of ten trials were included. Results revealed that corticosteroid injection is superior to placebo and physiotherapy in the short-term (up to 12 weeks). There was no difference in outcomes between corticosteroid injection and oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at 24 weeks. Dosages of intra-articular triamcinolone 20 mg and 40 mg showed identical outcomes, while subacromial and glenohumeral corticosteroid injections had similar efficacy. The use of corticosteroid injections is also generally safe, with infrequent and minor side effects. Physicians may consider corticosteroid injection to treat adhesive capsulitis, especially in the early stages when pain is the predominant presentation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  6. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...

  7. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...

  8. Corticosteroids and peritonsillar abscess formation in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Brendan C; McMullan, Ronan; Hall, Samuel J

    2004-06-01

    Peritonsillar abscess formation is an uncommon complication of infectious mononucleosis (IM). Early case reports implicated corticosteroids in the development of such abscesses, however, subsequent studies suggested that these drugs do not promote the formation of abscesses at several sites outside the central nervous system. It has recently been demonstrated that zwitterionic polysaccharides, in bacterial capsules, form complexes with CD4(+) T lymphocytes leading to abscess formation. A patient is presented who developed peritonsillar abscess a few days after initiation of corticosteroid therapy for IM; the medical literature was reviewed in respect of this subject. It appears that the occurrence of these abscesses in IM is not strongly linked to corticosteroid treatment. The authors, therefore, recommend that steroids should not be withheld from patients with severe IM on the basis that they may precipitate the development of peritonsillar abscess.

  9. Corticosteroids for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Gail; Thompson, Matthew J; Perera, Rafael; Del Mar, Chris B; Glasziou, Paul P; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-10-13

    The common cold is a frequent illness, which, although benign and self limiting, results in many consultations to primary care and considerable loss of school or work days. Current symptomatic treatments have limited benefit. Corticosteroids are an effective treatment in other upper respiratory tract infections and their anti-inflammatory effects may also be beneficial in the common cold. This updated review has included one additional study. To compare corticosteroids versus usual care for the common cold on measures of symptom resolution and improvement in children and adults. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 4), which includes the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialised Register, the Database of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (2015, Issue 2), NHS Health Economics Database (2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 3, 2015) and EMBASE (January 2010 to May 2015). Randomised, double-blind, controlled trials comparing corticosteroids to placebo or to standard clinical management. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We were unable to perform meta-analysis and instead present a narrative description of the available evidence. We included three trials (353 participants). Two trials compared intranasal corticosteroids to placebo and one trial compared intranasal corticosteroids to usual care; no trials studied oral corticosteroids. In the two placebo-controlled trials, no benefit of intranasal corticosteroids was demonstrated for duration or severity of symptoms. The risk of bias overall was low or unclear in these two trials. In a trial of 54 participants, the mean number of symptomatic days was 10.3 in the placebo group, compared to 10.7 in those using intranasal corticosteroids (P value = 0.72). A second trial of 199 participants reported no significant differences in the duration of symptoms. The single-blind trial in children aged two to 14 years, who were also

  10. Steroid withdrawal in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Borro, J M; Solé, A; De la Torre, M; Pastor, A; Tarazona, V

    2005-11-01

    Many of the long-term complications in lung transplantations are secondary effects of immunosuppression. Corticosteroids are partially responsible for the development of osteoporosis, raised blood pressure, diabetes, muscular disorders, gastric ulcers, and other conditions. We analyzed the long-term result of steroid withdrawal in our lung transplant recipients. When respiratory function stabilized, to avoid secondary effects, steroid treatment was withdrawn in 34 of the 375 lung transplant patients in our centers We evaluated the characteristics of the donors and recipients, their compatibility, the pre, and post-steroid withdrawal complications, and type of immunosuppressant. The mean age of patients was 42 +/- 7 years and of donors, 25 +/- 9 years. The primary diseases were: 15 emphysema, six pulmonary fibrosis, 10 cystic fibrosis, and three primary pulmonary hypertension. Twenty seven patients had double lung transplants and seven single lung. The mean steroid withdrawal period was 881 +/- 237 days posttransplantation. The most frequent treatment regimen at the time of steroid withdrawal was cyclosporine, azathioprine, and minimal steroid doses. Six recipients had to be restarted on steroids one patient who required a kidney transplant, three cases due to an infectious process with a differential diagnosis of rejection, and two cases due to loss of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), suggestive of chronic rejection. There was an improvement in blood pressure in five patients, in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in eight patients, and insulin withdrawal in two diabetic patients. Steroid treatment may be suspended 2 to 3 years, posttransplant in selected lung transplant recipients. The usual patient profile shows few rejection episodes with cyclosporine and azathioprine immunosuppression. What is notable is the low mean age of donors. Close clinical monitoring and lung function testing are of major importance in the weeks following steroid

  11. Corticosteroid use in the intensive care unit: a survey of intensivists.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, François; Quiroz Martinez, Hector; Adhikari, Neill K J; Cook, Deborah J; Koo, Karen K Y; Lauzier, François; Turgeon, Alexis F; Kho, Michelle E; Burns, Karen E A; Chant, Clarence; Fowler, Rob; Douglas, Ivor; Poulin, Yannick; Choong, Karen; Ferguson, Niall D; Meade, Maureen O

    2013-07-01

    The efficacy of systemic corticosteroids in many critical illnesses remains uncertain. Our primary objective was to survey intensivists in North America about their perceived use of corticosteroids in clinical practice. Self-administered paper survey. Intensivists in academic hospitals with clinical trial expertise in critical illness. We generated questionnaire items in focus groups and refined them after assessments of clinical sensibility and test-retest reliability and pilot testing. We administered the survey to experienced intensivists practicing in selected North American centres actively enrolling patients in the multicentre Oscillation for ARDS Treated Early (OSCILLATE) Trial (ISRCTN87124254). Respondents used a four-point scale to grade how frequently they would administer corticosteroids in 14 clinical settings. They also reported their opinions on 16 potential near-absolute indications or contraindications for the use of corticosteroids. Our response rate was 82% (103/125). Respondents were general internists (50%), respirologists (22%), anesthesiologists (21%), and surgeons (7%) who practiced in mixed medical-surgical units. A majority of respondents reported almost always prescribing corticosteroids in the setting of significant bronchospasm in a mechanically ventilated patient (94%), recent corticosteroid use and low blood pressure (93%), and vasopressor-refractory septic shock (52%). Although more than half of respondents stated they would almost never prescribe corticosteroids in severe community-acquired pneumonia (81%), acute lung injury (ALI, 76%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 65%), and severe ARDS (51%), variability increased with severity of acute lung injury. Near-absolute indications selected by most respondents included known adrenal insufficiency (99%) and suspicion of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (89%), connective tissue disease (85%), or other potentially corticosteroid-responsive illnesses (85%). Respondents reported

  12. Topiramate in opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zullino, Daniele F; Cottier, Anne-Claude; Besson, Jacques

    2002-10-01

    The alpha2-adrenergic agonist clonidine is the mainly used drug for the opiate withdrawal. Its efficacy and tolerance in treating withdrawal symptoms is, however, suboptimal. The pharmacological profile of topiramate suggests it could be rather valuable for opiate withdrawal, as there is some evidence that topiramate acts, among others, through inhibition of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which play an important role in the withdrawal-induced activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) by glutamate. Three patients undergoing an inpatient opiate detoxification program were treated with topiramate, which achieved a nearly complete control of withdrawal symptoms.

  13. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  14. Mothers' Early Depressive Symptoms and Children's First-Grade Adjustment: A Transactional Analysis of Child Withdrawal as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Background: The depression-inhibition hypothesis suggests that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine development because they lead children to withdraw from social contact. To test this, this study examined whether poor first-grade adjustment among children of mothers with depressive symptoms is mediated by the emergence of child withdrawal…

  15. The Role of Maternal Behavior in the Relation between Shyness and Social Reticence in Early Childhood and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hane, Amie Ashley; Cheah, Charissa; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal behavior in the relations between social reticence and shyness in preschool and subsequent social withdrawal was investigated. Eighty children (47 females) were judged for degree of social reticence during play with unfamiliar peers at the age of four and mothers completed the Colorado child temperament inventory…

  16. Corticosteroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... include behavior change, increased appetite, acne, thrush (a yeast infection in the mouth), stomach upset, or trouble ... long-term systemic use. They may include a yeast infection in the mouth or hoarseness. The risk ...

  17. Corticosteroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... for cures; participate in a clinical trial of experimental treatments. Interactive Disease Tracker Use GI Buddy to ... system, which experts believe may be out of control in people with IBD. As ... adrenal glands. This group of medications is available in oral, rectal, and ...

  18. Corticosteroids in Myositis and Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Postolova, Anna; Chen, Jennifer K; Chung, Lorinda

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) involve inflammation of the muscles and are classified by the patterns of presentation and immunohistopathologic features on skin and muscle biopsy into 4 categories: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Systemic corticosteroid (CS) treatment is the standard of care for IIM with muscle and organ involvement. The extracutaneous features of systemic sclerosis are frequently treated with CS; however, high doses have been associated with scleroderma renal crisis in high-risk patients. Although CS can be effective first-line agents, their significant side effect profile encourages concomitant treatment with other immunosuppressive medications to enable timely tapering. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Withdrawal strategies for outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Mezciems, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses outpatient withdrawal strategies for patients addicted to alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and opiates and describes some practical ways to support recovery. PMID:8828877

  20. Attention biases towards and away from threat mark the relation between early dysregulated fear and the later emergence of social withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Santiago; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Fearful temperament, mostly studied as behavioral inhibition (BI), has been extensively associated with social withdrawal in childhood and the later emergence of anxiety disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). Recent studies have characterized a distinct type of fearful temperament marked by high levels of fear in low threat situations – labeled dysregulated fear. Dysregulated fear has been related to SAD over and above risks associated with BI. However, the mechanism by which dysregulated fear is related to SAD has not been studied. Cognitive mechanisms, such as attentional bias towards threat, may be a possible conduit. We examined differences in attentional bias towards threat in six-year-olds who displayed a pattern of dysregulated fear at age two (N = 23) compared with children who did not display dysregulated fear (N = 33). Moreover, we examined the concurrent relation between attentional bias and social withdrawal. Results indicated that children characterized by dysregulated fear showed a significant bias away from threat, and that this bias was significantly different from the children without dysregulated fear, who showed no significant bias. Moreover, attentional bias towards threat was positively related to social withdrawal only for the dysregulated fear group. These results are discussed in consideration of the existing knowledge of attentional bias to threat in the developmental and pediatric anxiety literatures, as well as recent studies that find important heterogeneity in attentional bias. PMID:25510354

  1. Attention Biases Towards and Away from Threat Mark the Relation between Early Dysregulated Fear and the Later Emergence of Social Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Morales, Santiago; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E; Buss, Kristin A

    2015-08-01

    Fearful temperament, mostly studied as behavioral inhibition (BI), has been extensively associated with social withdrawal in childhood and the later emergence of anxiety disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). Recent studies have characterized a distinct type of fearful temperament marked by high levels of fear in low threat situations - labeled dysregulated fear. Dysregulated fear has been related to SAD over and above risks associated with BI. However, the mechanism by which dysregulated fear is related to SAD has not been studied. Cognitive mechanisms, such as attentional bias towards threat, may be a possible conduit. We examined differences in attentional bias towards threat in six-year-olds who displayed a pattern of dysregulated fear at age two (N = 23) compared with children who did not display dysregulated fear (N = 33). Moreover, we examined the concurrent relation between attentional bias and social withdrawal. Results indicated that children characterized by dysregulated fear showed a significant bias away from threat, and that this bias was significantly different from the children without dysregulated fear, who showed no significant bias. Moreover, attentional bias towards threat was positively related to social withdrawal only for the dysregulated fear group. These results are discussed in consideration of the existing knowledge of attentional bias to threat in the developmental and pediatric anxiety literatures, as well as recent studies that find important heterogeneity in attentional bias.

  2. Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents--the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    PubMed

    Mäki, P; Koskela, S; Murray, G K; Nordström, T; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Veijola, J M

    2014-08-01

    Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=6274) completed the PROD-screen questionnaire in 2001-2002. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to detect both new psychotic and non-psychotic disorders requiring hospitalisation during 2003-2008. Twenty-three subjects developed psychosis and 89 developed a non-psychotic mental disorder requiring hospitalisation during the follow-up. Of those who developed psychosis, 35% had reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others and 30% social withdrawal in adolescence. In hospitalised non-psychotic disorder, the corresponding precentages were 10 and 13% and in the control group without hospital-treated mental disorder 9 and 11%. The differences between psychotic and non-psychotic hospitalised subjects (P<0.01) as well as controls (P<0.001) were statistically significant regarding difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others. In this general population-based sample self-reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others in adolescence preceded psychosis specifically compared to hospitalised non-psychotic mental disorders and controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Bell palsy in a neonate with rapid response to oral corticosteroids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi; Singhi, Pratibha; Sodhi, K S; Gupta, Ajit

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic facial nerve palsy, also known as Bell palsy is rare in the neonatal age group. Other more common causes such as birth trauma; infections, especially otitis media; and congenital malformations need to be excluded. We present here a 4-week-old neonate with Bell palsy who responded rapidly to oral corticosteroids. Such an early presentation of idiopathic facial nerve palsy and use of corticosteroids in neonates is scarcely reported in the literature.

  4. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven J; Kao, Uyen; Heinzerling, Keith; Ling, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Few studies examined treatments for amphetamine withdrawal, although it is a common problem among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse to amphetamine use. In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. MEDLINE (1966 - 2008), CINAHL (1982 - 2008), PsycINFO (1806 - 2008), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2008 issue 2), references of obtained articles. All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. Two authors evaluated and extracted data independently. The data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess dichotomous outcomes. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assess continuous outcomes. Four randomised controlled trials (involving 125 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two studies found that amineptine significantly reduced discontinuation rates and improved overall clinical presentation, but did not reduce withdrawal symptoms or craving compared to placebo. The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine

  5. Worsening of Asthma with Systemic Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ankur; Reddymasu, Savio; Jackson, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread use for treatment of asthma and allergies, glucocorticoids may cause allergic reactions, even anaphylaxis. The incidence of adverse reactions to systemic glucocorticoids is 0.3%. The most commonly reported corticosteroids causing anaphylaxis like reactions are hydrocortisone, prednisone, and methylprednisolone. Most authors agree that allergic reactions to systemic corticosteroids are possibly immunoglobulin E mediated. We report a patient with asthma, aspirin allergy, and nasal polyps who developed bronchospasm following the administration of intravenous methylprednisolone sodium succinate during an acute asthmatic attack. We discuss the differential diagnosis of worsening asthma despite adequate treatment, and suggest corticosteroid-induced bronchospasm in our patient. Corticosteroid-induced bronchospasm should be considered when asthmatics fail to improve, or frankly deteriorate with systemic corticosteroid therapy, particularly when a history of aspirin allergy is present. Teaching Point: Know the differential diagnosis for worsening of asthma despite adequate treatment.Consider corticosteroid-induced bronchospasm when asthmatics fail to improve, or frankly deteriorate with systemic corticosteroid therapy.Corticosteroid-induced bronchospasm is more commonly seen in asthmatics with a history of aspirin allergy. PMID:16606375

  6. Corticosteroids in Myositis and Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Postolova, Anna; Chen, Jennifer K; Chung, Lorinda

    2017-01-01

    Synopsis Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) involve inflammation of the muscles and are classified based on the patterns of presentation and immunohistopathologic features on skin and muscle biopsy into four categories: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, and immune mediated necrotizing myopathy. The term “scleroderma” refers to fibrosis of the skin. Localized scleroderma (morphea) is skin-limited, while systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with vascular and internal organ involvement. Although there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials, treatment with systemic corticosteroids (CS) is the standard of care for IIM with muscle and organ involvement. The extra-cutaneous features of systemic sclerosis are frequently treated with CS, however high doses have been associated with scleroderma renal crisis in high-risk patients. CS monotherapy is neither recommended for the cutaneous manifestations of dermatomyositis nor scleroderma. While CS can be effective first line agents, their significant side effect profile encourages concomitant treatment with other immunosuppressive medications to enable timely tapering. PMID:26611554

  7. Visualization of groundwater withdrawals

    Winston, Richard B.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-12-21

    Generating an informative display of groundwater withdrawals can sometimes be difficult because the symbols for closely spaced wells can overlap. An alternative method for displaying groundwater withdrawals is to generate a “footprint” of the withdrawals. WellFootprint version 1.0 implements the Footprint algorithm with two optional variations that can speed up the footprint calculation. ModelMuse has been modified in order to generate the input for WellFootprint and to read and graphically display the output from WellFootprint.

  8. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, M; Jarusuraisin, N; Kittirattanapaiboon, P

    2001-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal has been less studied although it is a common problem with a prevalent rate of 87% among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse of amphetamine use. In clinical practice, treatment for cocaine withdrawal has been recommended for the management of amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two substances are not the same. To search and determine risks, benefits, and costs of a variety of treatments for the management of amphetamine withdrawal. Electronic searches of MEDLINE (1966 - December 2000), EMBASE (1980 - February 2001), CINAHL (1982 - January 2001) and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library 2000 issue 4) were undertaken. References to the articles obtained by any means were searched. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included. Participants were people with amphetamine withdrawal, diagnosed by any set of criteria. Any kinds of biological and psychological treatments both alone and combined were examined. A variety of outcomes, for example, number of treatment responders, score changes, were considered. Two reviewers evaluated and extracted the data independently. The dichotomous data were extracted on an intention-to-treat basis in which the dropouts were assigned as participants with the worst outcomes. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the dichotomous data. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assessed the continuous data. The results of two studies have shown some benefits of amineptine in the treatment of amphetamine withdrawal. Those benefits can be seen in the respects of discontinuation rate and global state, as measured by Clinical Global Impression Scale. However, no direct benefit of amineptine on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms or craving was shown. The evidence about

  9. A Single Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Infusion into the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Cocaine Self-Administration-Induced Phosphorylation of Synapsin in the Nucleus Accumbens during Early Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway has been implicated in cocaine addiction. We have previously demonstrated that one intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion immediately following the last cocaine self-administration session caused a long-lasting inhibition of cocaine-seeking and normalized the cocaine-induced disturbance of glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens after extinction and a cocaine prime. However, the molecular mechanism mediating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect on cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate levels is unknown. Methods: In the present study, we determined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cocaine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of synapsin (p-synapsin), a family of presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle mobilization, in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal. Results: Two hours after cocaine self-administration, p-synapsin Ser9 and p-synapsin Ser62/67, but not p-synapsin Ser603, were increased in the nucleus accumbens. At 22 hours, only p-synapsin Ser9 was still elevated. Elevations at both time points were attenuated by an intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion immediately after the end of cocaine self-administration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also reduced cocaine self-administration withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor disinhibits protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, consistent with p-synapsin Ser9 dephosphorylation. Further, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit and synapsin are associated in a protein-protein complex that was reduced after 2 hours of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and reversed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that

  10. Suppression of the Ethanol Withdrawal Syndrome by Aliphatic Diols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-07

    Majchrowicz, 9 10 Hunt and Maljchrowt Vol. 213 1975). During the early prodromal detoxication phase, animar, ex- TABLE I hibited signs of ethanol intoxication...the entire withdrawal period 4 6.0 0 0 0 No from the prodromal detoxication phase through the withdrawal syn- 6 5.0 0 0 Yes drome was systematically

  11. Inhaled Corticosteroids in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raissy, Hengameh H.; Kelly, H. William; Harkins, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are used extensively in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to their broad antiinflammatory effects. They improve lung function, symptoms, and quality of life and reduce exacerbations in both conditions but do not alter the progression of disease. They decrease mortality in asthma but not COPD. The available ICSs vary in their therapeutic index and potency. Although ICSs are used in all age groups, younger and smaller children may be at a greater risk for adverse systemic effects because they can receive higher mg/kg doses of ICSs compared with older children. Most of the benefit from ICSs occurs in the low to medium dose range. Minimal additional improvement is seen with higher doses, although some patients may benefit from higher doses. Although ICSs are the preferred agents for managing persistent asthma in all ages, their benefit in COPD is more controversial. When used appropriately, ICSs have few adverse events at low to medium doses, but risk increases with high-dose ICSs. Although several new drugs are being developed and evaluated, it is unlikely that any of these new medications will replace ICSs as the preferred initial long-term controller therapy for asthma, but more effective initial controller therapy could be developed for COPD. PMID:23370915

  12. Corticosteroid treatment in Sydenham's chorea.

    PubMed

    Fusco, C; Spagnoli, C

    2018-03-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is an immune-mediated hyperkinetic movement disorder, developing after group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection. Aside from conventional symptomatic treatment (carbamazepine, valproate, neuroleptics), the use of steroids has also been advocated, mainly in severe, drug-resistant cases or if clinically disabling side effects develop with first line therapies. Based on the description of 5 cases followed in the Child Neurology Unit of Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Reggio Emilia and on the available medical literature on this topic, we propose considering the use of corticosteroids therapy in children with SC, with the administration of IV methyl-prednisolone followed by oral deflazacort in severe cases and of oral deflazacort alone in mild and moderate degrees of involvement. In our experience this therapy is effective both in the short and long-term period, in different clinical presentations (chorea paralytica, distal chorea, hemichorea, "classic" chorea, association with mood disorder or dyspraxia) and very well tolerated (no significant side effects were recorded). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Treatment by rituximab on six Grave's ophthalmopathies resistant to corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Précausta, Flavien; Arsène, Sophie; Renoult-Pierre, Peggy; Laure, Boris; Crinière, Lise; Pisella, Pierre-Jean

    2017-02-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy occurs in 50% of Graves' disease cases. Treatment is based on smoking cessation, and control of the euthyroidism and ocular repercussions associated with the disease. The active orbital forms are treated with glucocorticoids. Non-validated therapies have also been recently tested. Rituximab has been effectively used several times to treat corticosteroid-resistant Graves' ophthalmopathy associated with an optic neuropathy, but its use could be proposed only in inflammatory ophthalmopathies after failure of the corticosteroids. We present six cases treated since early 2012 at the University Hospital Center of Tours, France. Six patients were treated at the University Hospital Center of Tours, France, between September 2012 and April 2014. The patients had a Mourits' score greater than three after treatment with corticosteroids and/or a severe NOSPECS score and/or orbital inflammation resistant to maximal treatment with intravenous injections of methylprednisolone and an optic neuropathy. They twice received one gram of rituximab by slow intravenous injection two weeks apart. Efficacy was assessed by a decrease of the orbital inflammatory clinical Mourits' score, and visual acuity and visual field testing. The inflammatory score of patients improved and treatment helped to stop the progression of the sequelae due to neuropathy. The orbital inflammatory clinical score, and the visual acuity and visual field improved but orbital decompression was necessary to complete the treatment. Rituximab has been used for the treatment of active corticosteroid-resistant Graves' ophthalmopathies. We also had positive results on patients with visual threat and optic neuropathy, when combined with surgical decompression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Characterization of Seismic Sources and Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion.'' FOR FURTHER.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing RG 1.165, ``Identification and Characterization of... alter the licensing basis of any currently operating reactor or any of the currently issued early site...

  15. Improving alcohol withdrawal outcomes in acute care.

    PubMed

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; Mcwilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation's third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%-12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%-44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%-15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes.

  16. Use of intranasal corticosteroids in adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sakarya, E U; Bayar Muluk, N; Sakalar, E G; Senturk, M; Aricigil, M; Bafaqeeh, S A; Cingi, C

    2017-05-01

    This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system. Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  17. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  18. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  19. The Risks of Chronic Corticosteroid Exposure.

    PubMed

    Money, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. This article focuses on the use of corticosteroids to decrease inflammation and treat painful conditions as well as their long-term side effects and risks. Their long-term use can expose the body to side effects and can cause long-term health concerns. It therefore is important to be aware of the risks of long-term corticosteroid use.

  20. Targeting congestion in allergic rhinitis: the importance of intranasal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Marple, Bradley F

    2008-01-01

    The cardinal nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) are sustained by an underlying inflammatory process. Congestion is one of the most prominent and distressing symptoms for patients and is strongly associated with a broadly deteriorated quality of life and significant losses in productivity. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) in down-regulating the inflammatory response to allergen and their clinical efficacy on AR symptoms, particularly congestion. AR is characterized by an influx of inflammatory cells and mediators into the nasal mucosa after antigen exposure. The response is biphasic, encompassing an early and a late phase. Antigen exposure has a priming effect, decreasing the threshold for subsequent allergic reaction on rechallenge and increasing the responsiveness of the nasal mucosa. INSs are a mainstay of therapy for AR and the most effective intervention for nasal congestion and other nasal symptoms, with established superiority to antihistamines, decongestants, and leukotriene antagonists. In addition to symptom relief, INSs suppress numerous stages of the inflammatory cascade, inhibiting the influx of inflammatory cells and mediators. Topical nasal corticosteroids have a low incidence of local adverse effects, negligible systemic absorption, and excellent safety. Congestion is one of the most bothersome symptoms of AR. INS therapy improves AR symptoms, with particular efficacy in relieving congestion, by attenuating nasal hyperresponsiveness. Pretreatment with INSs has been shown to relieve early and late-phase clinical symptoms of AR. Modification of the disease process results in significant relief of symptoms and leads to fewer disease exacerbations.

  1. Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICSs) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... malformations after the use of inhaled budesonide in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 93(3):392-395. Lim AS, et al. 2011. Management of asthma in pregnant women by general practitioners: A cross sectional survey BMC Family Practice 12:121 Namazy J, et ...

  2. A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

    PubMed

    Schander, Julieta Aylen; Correa, Fernando; Bariani, María Victoria; Blanco, Julieta; Cymeryng, Cora; Jensen, Federico; Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) in the alterations of the endocrine system in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced miscarriage? In 7-days pregnant wild type, but not cannabinoid receptor type 1 knockout (CB1-KO) mice, LPS increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) production in the uterus leading to lower expression of prolactin receptor in the ovary and a marked regression of corpora lutea (CL), suggesting that the eCS mediates the deleterious effects of LPS on reproductive events. Appropriate systemic progesterone levels are critical for a successful pregnancy outcome. Precocious loss of luteal progesterone (P4) secretion leads to miscarriage in rodents. We have previously shown that LPS administration to pregnant mice induces embryonic resorption accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage, with the eCS mediating these LPS-induced deleterious effects. CD1 wild-type (WT) and CB1-KO mice were randomly allocated to Vehicle (saline; i.p.) or LPS (0.5 μg/g body weight; i.p.) treated groups: (WT-Vehicle; WT-LPS; CB1-KO-Vehicle and CB1-KO-LPS). A single injection was given on day 7 of pregnancy and tissues (blood, ovary, uterus) were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later. P4 and PGF2α plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) content in uterus was assayed. COX-2 and prolactin receptor (PrlR) mRNA levels in the ovary were assayed by RT-PCR. Tissue morphology of the CL was assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Treatment of 7-day pregnant WT mice with LPS induced a P4 withdrawal (p < 0.05), increased in uterine COX-2 mRNA and protein expression (p < 0.05) as well as an increase in uterine PGF 2α production (p < 0.05). These changes were absent in LPS-treated 7-day pregnant CB1-KO mice. In ovarian tissues, LPS treatment to 7-day pregnant WT mice induced a downregulation

  3. Autologous whole blood versus corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis: A randomized, controlled multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Afshin; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Erfani Fam, Saleh; Sedighipour, Leyla; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash

    2017-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Local injection modalities are among treatment options in patients with resistant pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of local autologous whole blood compared with corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis. In this randomized controlled multicenter study, 36 patients with chronic plantar fasciitis were recruited. Patients were allocated randomly into three treatment groups: local autologous blood, local corticosteroid injection, and control groups receiving no injection. Patients were assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and plantar fasciitis pain/disability scale (PFPS) before treatment, as well as 4 and 12 weeks post therapy. Variables of pain and function improved significantly in both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups compared to control group. At 4 weeks following treatment, patients in corticosteroid group had significantly lower levels of pain than patients in autologous blood and control groups (higher PPT level, lower PFPS, and VAS). After 12 weeks of treatment, both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups had lower average levels of pain than control group. The corticosteroid group showed an early sharp and then more gradual improvement in pain scores, but autologous blood group had a steady gradual drop in pain. Autologous whole blood and corticosteroid local injection can both be considered as effective methods in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. These treatments decrease pain and significantly improve function compared to no treatment.

  4. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    PubMed

    Madhok, Vishnu B; Gagyor, Ildiko; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-07-18

    Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action that should minimise nerve damage. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2010. To determine the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroid therapy in people with Bell's palsy. On 4 March 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS. We reviewed the bibliographies of the randomised trials and contacted known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished trials. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing different routes of administration and dosage schemes of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy versus a control group receiving no therapy considered effective for this condition, unless the same therapy was given in a similar way to the experimental group. We used standard Cochrane methodology. The main outcome of interest was incomplete recovery of facial motor function (i.e. residual facial weakness). Secondary outcomes were cosmetically disabling persistent sequelae, development of motor synkinesis or autonomic dysfunction (i.e. hemifacial spasm, crocodile tears) and adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy manifested during follow-up. We identified seven trials, with 895 evaluable participants for this review. All provided data suitable for the primary outcome meta-analysis. One of the trials was new since the last version of this Cochrane systematic review. Risk of bias in the older, smaller studies included some unclear- or high-risk assessments, whereas we deemed the larger studies at low risk of bias. Overall, 79/452 (17%) participants allocated to corticosteroids had incomplete recovery of facial motor function six months or more after randomisation

  5. Safety of topical corticosteroids in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ching-Chi; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wojnarowska, Fenella; Kirtschig, Gudula; Davies, Emily; Bennett, Cathy

    2015-10-26

    Topical corticosteroids are the most frequently prescribed dermatological treatment and are often used by pregnant women with skin conditions. However, little is known about their safety in pregnancy. To assess the effects of topical corticosteroids on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies, published reviews, articles that had cited the included studies, and one author's literature collection, for further references to relevant RCTs. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of topical corticosteroids in pregnant women, as well as case-control studies comparing maternal exposure to topical corticosteroids between cases and controls when studies reported pre-specified outcomes. The primary outcomes included mode of delivery, major congenital abnormality, birth weight, and preterm delivery (delivery before 37 completed weeks gestation); the secondary outcomes included foetal death, minor congenital abnormality, and low Apgar score (less than seven at 5 min). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two authors independently applied selection criteria, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. A third author was available for resolving differences of opinion. A further author independently extracted data from included studies that were conducted by authors of this systematic review. We included 7 new observational studies in this update, bringing the total number to 14, including 5 cohort and 9 case-control studies, with 1,601,515 study subjects.Most studies found no causal associations

  6. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shinnar, S; Berg, A T

    1995-04-01

    Recent literature on withdrawing antiepileptic drug therapy in patients who are seizure free on antiepileptic drugs is reviewed. The average recurrence risk across studies is 29% at 2 years. Factors such as age of onset, etiology of seizures, the electroencephalogram and the epileptic syndrome influence outcome. Factors that need to be considered by the clinician include not just the statistical risk of recurrence but also the consequences of a recurrence, which will be a function of age and sex.

  7. Antenatal corticosteroids: an assessment of anticipated benefits and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2018-04-07

    Antenatal corticosteroids are standard of care for pregnancies at risk of preterm delivery between 24-34 weeks' gestational age. Recent trials demonstrate modest benefits from antenatal corticosteroids for late preterm and elective cesarean deliveries, and antenatal corticosteroids for periviable deliveries should be considered with family discussion. However, many women with threatened preterm deliveries receive antenatal corticosteroids but do not deliver until >34 weeks or at term. The net effect is that a substantial fraction of the delivery population will be exposed to antenatal corticosteroids. There are gaps in accurate assessments of benefits of antenatal corticosteroids because the randomized controlled trials were performed prior to about 1990 in pregnancies generally >28 weeks. The care practices for the mother and infant survival were different than today. The randomized controlled trial data also do not strongly support the optimal interval from antenatal corticosteroid treatment to delivery of 1-7 days. Epidemiology-based studies using large cohorts with >85% of at-risk pregnancies treated with antenatal corticosteroids probably overestimate the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids. Although most of the prematurity-associated mortality is in low-resource environments, the efficacy and safety of antenatal corticosteroids in those environments remain to be evaluated. The short-term benefits of antenatal corticosteroids for high-risk pregnancies in high-resource environments certainly justify antenatal corticosteroids as few risks have been identified over many years. However, cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities have been identified in large animal models and cohorts of children exposed to antenatal corticosteroids that are consistent with fetal programming for adult diseases. These late effects of antenatal corticosteroids suggest caution for the expanded use of antenatal corticosteroids beyond at-risk pregnancies at 24-34 weeks. A way forward

  8. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rodrigo A; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Daly, Fergus; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2010-03-17

    Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action which should minimise nerve damage. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of corticosteroid therapy in Bell's palsy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Trials Specialized Register (9 December 2008) for randomised trials, as well as MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2008), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2008) and LILACS (9 December 2008). We contacted known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished trials. Randomised trials comparing different routes of administration and dosage schemes of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy versus a control group where no therapy considered effective for this condition was administered, unless it was also given in a similar way to the experimental group. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, trial quality, and extracted the data. Eight trials with a total of 1569 participants were included. Allocation concealment was appropriate in six trials, and the data reported allowed an intention-to-treat analysis in four, while unpublished data from the fifth and sixth trials were provided by the authors. The data included in the main outcome of this meta-analysis were collected from seven trials with a total of 1507 participants. Overall 175/754 (23%) of the participants allocated to corticosteroids had incomplete recovery of facial motor function six months or more after randomisation, significantly less than 245/753 (33%) in the control group (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.83). There was, also, a significant reduction in motor synkinesis during follow-up in those receiving corticosteroids (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.81). The reduction in the proportion of patients with cosmetically disabling sequelae six months after randomisation, however, was not significant (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0

  10. Severity of Withdrawal Symptoms, Plasma Oxytocin Levels, and Treatment Outcome in Heroin Users Undergoing Acute Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Kakia; Kapoukranidou, Dorothea; Ndungu, Samuel; Floros, Georgios; Kovatsi, Leda

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission. Out of the 57 patients enrolled in the study, 27 completed the 21-day program, while the remaining 30 dropped out prior to completion. Plasma oxytocin levels were significantly higher in those individuals who dropped out than in those who completed the program. Participants who dropped out at some stage scored higher in the COWS, VAS-Craving, and Hamilton-anxiety scales, indicating a higher stress and explaining the higher oxytocin levels. In addition, plasma oxytocin levels correlated positively with the scores achieved in the COWS and Hamilton-anxiety scales. Higher withdrawal stress levels are associated with higher plasma oxytocin levels and early treatment discharge.

  11. A Phase III Study Evaluating Continuation, Tapering, and Withdrawal of Certolizumab Pegol After One Year of Therapy in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Clifton O.; Burmester, Gerd‐Rüdiger; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Furst, Daniel E.; Mariette, Xavier; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; VanLunen, Brenda; Ecoffet, Cécile; Cioffi, Christopher; Emery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective In disease‐modifying antirheumatic drug–naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had achieved sustained low disease activity (a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of ≤3.2 at both week 40 and week 52) after 1 year of treatment with certolizumab pegol (CZP) at a standard dose (200 mg every 2 weeks plus optimized methotrexate [MTX]), we evaluated whether continuation of CZP treatment at a standard dose or at a reduced frequency (200 mg every 4 weeks plus MTX) was superior to stopping CZP (placebo plus MTX) in maintaining low disease activity for 1 additional year. Methods A total of 293 patients from period 1 of our study were re‐randomized 2:3:2 in period 2 to CZP at a standard dose (n = 84), CZP at a reduced frequency (n = 127), or placebo plus MTX (CZP stopped) (n = 82). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who maintained low disease activity throughout weeks 52–104 without flares. We used a hierarchical testing scheme, comparing CZP at a standard dose with CZP stopped. If P < 0.05 was achieved, then CZP at a reduced frequency was compared with CZP stopped (nonresponder imputation). Results The 293 patients from period 1 represented 36% fewer patients than projected, yielding a smaller number of patients eligible for period 2. Higher proportions of patients treated with the standard and reduced frequency regimens maintained low disease activity than those who had stopped CZP (48.8% and 53.2%, respectively, versus 39.2% [P = 0.112 and P = 0.041, respectively; nominal P value, first hierarchical test not significant]). Similar trends were observed for radiographic nonprogression (change from baseline of ≤0.5 in modified Sharp/van der Heijde score; 79.2% and 77.9% of patients, respectively, versus 70.3%) and normative physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index score of ≤0.5; 71.4% and 70.6% of patients, respectively, versus 57

  12. Analysis of Participant Withdrawal in Huntington Disease Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Banno, Haruhiko; Andrzejewski, Kelly L; McDermott, Michael P; Murphy, Alyssa; Majumder, Madhurima; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Auinger, Peggy; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Atassi, Nazem

    2017-01-01

    Excellent retention in Huntington disease (HD) clinical trials is essential for testing new therapies. The stage of disease, cognitive status, and availability of a care partner may influence retention in HD clinical trials. We sought to analyze reasons for early withdrawal in three HD clinical trials, and evaluated if either baseline characteristics or follow-up assessments were associated with time to withdrawal. Analyses of participant withdrawal were performed for three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials including the CARE-HD (coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in HD, n = 347), DOMINO (pilot study of minocycline in HD, n = 114), and 2CARE (coenzyme Q10 in HD, n = 609) trials. Reasons for withdrawal were obtained by review of textual data in the study databases. Participant demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed as potential predictors of time to withdrawal using Cox-proportional hazards models. Estimated probabilities of withdrawal at 12 months were 2.9% for CARE-HD, 10.5% for DOMINO, and 5.9% for 2CARE. The top reasons for withdrawal (202 in total), expressed as mean percentage across the three trials, were loss to follow-up (23.2%), death (15.9%), and loss of interest/desire to participate (15.2%). Baseline and time-dependent variables associated with time to withdrawal were mainly motor, behavioral, and functional scores. Age, gender, ethnicity, and educational level were not associated with time to withdrawal in any of the three studies. The estimated withdrawal probability at 12 months ranged from 2.9% to 10.5% in the three HD trials considered here. A possible strategy to improve retention of participants in future HD clinical trials is to enroll individuals with higher baseline functional and behavioral status.

  13. Confined Selective Withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse simple and composite emulsions possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy, materials science and industry. Here we present both experiments and slender-body theory regarding the generation of simple emulsions using a configuration that we have called Confined Selective Withdrawal, since it is an improved configuration of the classical Selective Withdrawal. We consider two different situations, namely, the cases when the outer flow Reynolds number is high and low, respectively. Several geometrical configurations and a wide range of viscosity ratios are analyzed so that the physics behind the phenomenon can be fully understood. In addition, we present both experiments and theory regarding the generation of composite emulsions. This phenomenon is only feasible when the outer flow Reynolds number is low enough. In this case, we propose a more complex theory which requires the simultaneous resolution of two interfaces in order to predict the shape of the jet and the sizes of the drops formed. The excellent agreement between our slender-body approximation and the experimental evidence fully validates our theories.

  14. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    PubMed

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  15. A multitechnique evaluation of topical corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Josse, G; Rouvrais, C; Mas, A; Haftek, M; Delalleau, A; Ferraq, Y; Ossant, F; George, J; Lagarde, J M; Schmitt, A M

    2009-02-01

    Corticosteroids are widely prescribed for systemic or local treatment of inflammatory autoimmune disorders. Long-term therapy is associated with side effects and causes cutaneous atrophy of the epidermis and the dermis. The present study aims to evaluate with several noninvasive techniques, the skin modifications observed during corticosteroids treatment. The potential of skin mechanical measurement and ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal analysis are proposed as new measures more closely related to the functional impairments. Thirteen young healthy women volunteers had two applications per day on one arm of topical Clobetasol propionate 0.05% for 28 days, and they were followed for 28 days more. Skin modifications were studied by high-frequency ultrasound imaging, ultrasound RF signal analysis, optical coherence tomography and by the suction test. For all the techniques, a statistically significant change is observed with treatment. Large variations, around 30%, are observed for all techniques, but less for ultrasound imaging (10%). Dermis and epidermis thickness presented stable measurements on the nontreated zone. At the end of the study, measures returned to normal. The dynamic is mainly observed within the first 14 days of treatment and within the first 14 days after its cessation. Similar dynamics of skin modification during corticosteroid treatment was observed with very different techniques. Moreover, the potential of RF ultrasound analysis and mechanical skin measurement for characterizing skin structural and functional impairments has been evaluated.

  16. Kindergarten Social Withdrawal and Reading Achievement: A Cross-Lagged Path Model for At-Risk Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cristin M.; Welsh, Janet A.; Bierman, Karen L.; Nix, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The association between social withdrawal, school adjustment, and academic functioning in preschool and school entry is well-established. Children who experience social withdrawal in primary grades are at risk for decreased academic performance. The bidirectional relationships among early literacy and social withdrawal in primary grades have not…

  17. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity studies in a skin allergy clinic.

    PubMed

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2015-12-01

    Corticosteroids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, particularly delayed-type allergic reactions. A new classification system for testing hypersensitivity to corticosteroids distributes the drugs into 3 groups according to molecular structure; patients are classified according to whether they are allergic to agents in 1 or more of the groups. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of corticosteroid-allergic patients treated at our clinic and apply the new classification system to them; we also compared these patients' characteristics to those of others treated at our clinic. Retrospective study of cases of delayed-type corticosteroid hypersensitivity treated in the skin allergy clinic of a tertiary level hospital over an 11-year period. We reviewed the records of 2857 patients, finding 33 with at least one positive patch test result showing corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Atopic dermatitis and hand involvement were less common in our corticosteroid-allergic patients. All were allergic to a group 1 corticosteroid (most often, budesonide, the culprit in 87.9%). Testing with a specific corticosteroid series revealed that 14 (42.4%) were also allergic to corticosteroids in group 2 and/or group 3. None were allergic exclusively to group 2 or group 3 agents. Twenty-one patients were exposed to a corticosteroid cream from a group their patch test results indicated allergy to; 13 of them (61.9%) did not develop a hypersensitivity reaction. The Spanish standard series only contains group 1 corticosteroids. In the interest of improving allergy management, we recommend testing with a specific corticosteroid series and a patient's own creams whenever patch testing with a standard series reveals a hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. And Tell Yourself, "This is not Me, it's the Drug": Coping with the Psychological Impact of Corticosteroid Treatments in Hematology - Further Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Patton, Mary Anne; Leahy, Michael

    2009-03-01

    , knowing that the negative emotional states being experienced are due to the corticosteroids, stoicism and self-reliance based on a cognitive-rational approach, keeping busy, remaining fit and active, and, for some, using antidepressants to help with mood swings. For sleep disturbances, patients found it helpful to try to accept the sleeplessness, engage in distraction, and have light sleeps. Support from family and friends who understand the range of corticosteroid adverse effects, including patients' need to withdraw during treatment, was seen as important. Counseling was not considered helpful. Tapering corticosteroid doses and cessation of corticosteroids were also discussed as aids to coping. These findings provide a start to understanding how individuals cope with corticosteroid therapy for hematological conditions. There is a need for further extensive research in this area.

  19. Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your Symptoms (Quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Resources Medications Can Help You Quit Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy Busting NRT Myths Smokefree Phone Apps ... Withdrawal Understanding Withdrawal Quiz: How Strong is Your Nicotine Addiction? Quiz: What Are Your Withdrawal Symptoms? Dealing ...

  20. Role of Corticosteroids in Bone Loss During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, Thomas J.; Halloran, Bernard P.; Miller, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  1. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body’s stress response. Mineralocorticoid’s main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient’s ’at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  2. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  3. Corticosteroid and Azithromycin in Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Maryam; Kalbasi, Nader; Hakamifard, Atousa; Salehi, Hassan; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi; Sharifian, Jalil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients. It was administered 250 mg of Azithromycin per 12 hour and 60 mg of Prednisolone per day within 2 weeks. Next, they took 40 mg/day within 8 weeks, and this dosage was tapered during 6 months and the patients clinically and radiologically followed up. The studied patients were examined within 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, from the beginning of treatment. Results: This study investigated granulomatous mastitis patients in Alzahra hospital in 2013. The mean age of these patients was 33.6 ± 8.9, and their age range was 18–56 years old. Among 26 studied patients, 24 persons (92.3%) according to follow-up the patients by physical examination and sonography responded to treatment of corticosteroid and Azithromycin. The remaining (7.7%) underwent surgery. Treatment periods in case of drug use were respectively, 8.5 ± 0.71 months. Conclusion: Treatment with corticosteroid and Azithromycin is an effective and appropriate treatment for IGM. PMID:28217653

  4. Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.

    PubMed

    Armitage, K B

    1991-01-01

    1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations.

  5. Perioperative corticosteroid management for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Wick, Elizabeth C; Salvatori, Roberto; Ha, Christina Y

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines on the appropriate use of perioperative steroids in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are lacking. As a result, corticosteroid supplementation during and after colorectal surgery procedures has been shown to be highly variable. A clearer understanding of the indications for perioperative corticosteroid administration relative to preoperative corticosteroid dosing and duration of therapy is essential. In this review, we outline the basic tenets of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its normal response to stress, describe how corticosteroid use is thought to affect this system, and provide an overview of the currently available data on perioperative corticosteroid supplementation including the limited evidence pertaining to patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Based on currently existing data, we define "adrenal suppression," and propose a patient-based approach to perioperative corticosteroid management in the inflammatory bowel disease population based on an individual's historical use of corticosteroids, the type of surgery they are undergoing, and HPA axis testing when applicable. Patients without adrenal suppression (<5 mg prednisone per day) do not require extra corticosteroid supplementation in the perioperative period; patients with adrenal suppression (>20 mg prednisone per day) should be treated with additional perioperative corticosteroid coverage above their baseline home regimen; and patients with unclear HPA axis function (>5 and <20 mg prednisone per day) should undergo preoperative HPA axis testing to determine the best management practices. The proposed management algorithm attempts to balance the risks of adrenal insufficiency and immunosuppression.

  6. Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2017-08-20

    Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. We also searched registers of ongoing trials. We handsearched the references quoted in the identified trials, and sought information from researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and relevant trial authors about unpublished or uncompleted trials. We placed no restrictions on language. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating baclofen versus placebo or any other treatment for people with AWS. We excluded uncontrolled, non-randomised, or quasi-randomised trials. We included both parallel group and cross-over studies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included three RCTs with 141 randomised participants. We did not perform meta-analyses due to the different control interventions. For the comparison of baclofen and placebo (1 study, 31 participants), there was no significant difference in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores (very low quality evidence). For the comparison of baclofen and diazepam (1 study, 37 participants), there was no significant difference in CIWA-Ar scores (very low quality evidence), adverse events (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), dropouts (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), and dropouts due to adverse events (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence). For the comparison of

  7. Safety of intranasal corticosteroids in acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for acute rhinosinusitis (RS) recommend the use of intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. However, the adverse event (AE) profiles of oral glucocorticoids, which result largely from the systemic absorption of those agents, have engendered concerns about the safety of INSs. These concerns persist for INSs despite significant or marked clinical differences between them and systemic corticosteroids in systemic absorption and among the INSs in bioavailability, mechanism of action, and lipophilicity, which may contribute to differences in AEs. For example, the systemic bioavailability of the INSs as a percentage of the administered drug is less than 0.1% for mometasone furoate, less than 1% for fluticasone propionate, 46% for triamcinolone acetonide, and 44% for beclomethasone dipropionate. A review of the safety profiles of INSs, as reported in clinical trials in acute and chronic RS and allergic rhinitis, shows primarily local AEs (eg, epistaxis and headache) that are generally classified as mild to moderate, with occurrence rates that are similar to those with placebo. Studies of the safety of mometasone furoate, fluticasone propionate, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide did not identify any evidence of systemic AEs, such as growth retardation in children due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, bone mineral density loss, or cataracts, which suggests that INSs can be safely administered in patients with acute RS without concern for systemic AEs.

  8. Treatment of Eczema: Corticosteroids and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Chong, Melanie; Fonacier, Luz

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that requires a manifold approach to therapy. The goal of therapy is to restore the function of the epidermal barrier and to reduce skin inflammation. This can be achieved with skin moisturization and topical anti-inflammatory agents, such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Furthermore, proactive therapy with twice weekly use of both topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors in previously affected areas has been found to reduce the time to the next eczematous flare. Adjunctive treatment options include wet wrap therapy, anti-histamines, and vitamin D supplementation. Bacterial colonization, in particular Staphylococcus aureus, can contribute to eczematous flares and overt infection. Use of systemic antibiotics in infected lesions is warranted; however, empiric antibiotics use in uninfected lesions is controversial. Local antiseptic measures (i.e., bleach baths) and topical antimicrobial therapies can be considered in patients with high bacterial colonization. Difficult-to-treat AD is a complex clinical problem that may require re-evaluation of the initial diagnosis of AD, especially if the onset of disease occurs in adulthood. It may also necessitate evaluation for contact, food, and inhaled allergens that may exacerbate the underlying AD. There are a host of systemic therapies that have been successful in patients with difficult-to-treat AD, however, these agents are limited by their side effect profiles. Lastly, with further insight into the pathophysiology of AD, new biological agents have been investigated with promising results.

  9. Corticosteroid-impairment of healing and gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157 creams in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Staresinic, M; Bedekovic, V; Zarkovic, N; Borovic, S; Gjurasin, M; Boban-Blagaic, A; Batelja, L; Rucman, R; Anic, T

    2003-06-01

    The amelioration of corticosteroid-impairment of healing by a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC-157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M(w) 1419, currently in early clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease) was studied in thermally injured mice. Its effects on corticosteroid impaired healing of deep partial skin thickness burns, and burn-gastric lesions were investigated. Male NMRI-Hannover mice (sacrificed at 1-3,7,14 and 21 days following burning 20% of total burn area at the back (open flame for 7s) received intraperitoneally (per kg bw) 6alpha-methylprednisolone (Depo-medrol, 1.0 or 10.0mg), or an equal volume of saline (5.0 ml), once daily, first application 30 min after injury, last 24h before sacrifice. The injury was subsequently treated by topical application of a thin layer of pentadecapeptide BPC-157 cream at three different levels a neutral cream of no treatment. Pentadecapeptide BPC-157 consistently improved given burn healing (both microscopical and tensionmetry assessment), and counteracted corticosteroid-impairment of burn healing. In burn-gastric lesions investigation of the effects of BPC showed an anti-ulcer effect of its own in burned non-corticosteroid-treated mice and potentiated the anti-ulcer effect observed in 6alpha-methylprednisolone-treated mice. Pentadecapeptide BPC-157 inhibited corticosteroid immunosuppression. In vitro, in spleenic cells assessment, animals (sacrificed at day 21) treated with 6alpha-methylprednisolone 1mg showed decreased reactivity to nitrogen in comparison with control, healthy animals, while the addition of BPC-157 (1 microg/g cream) returned cell reactivity to values noted in control healthy animals.

  10. Timing of Corticosteroid Therapy Is Critical to Prevent Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Experimental Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Mahasweta; Tabuena, Philomela; Ventura, Elvira; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Acute vision loss from optic neuritis typically resolves; however, recovery is often not complete. Permanent vision loss from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death occurs in 40% to 60% of patients. Current therapy (high-dose corticosteroids) speeds recovery but does not change final visual outcomes. Here the authors examined whether corticosteroids administered early in the disease course can prevent RGC loss in experimental optic neuritis. Methods. RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorogold in SJL/J mice. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by immunization with proteolipid protein peptide. Optic neuritis began 9 days after immunization. Mice were treated daily with dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, or PBS from days 0 to 14 or days 10 to 14 and then were killed on day 14, 18, or 22. Results. Corticosteroid treatment initiated before optic neuritis onset (days 0–14) suppressed EAE and reduced optic neuritis incidence through day 14. In the few eyes that developed optic neuritis, inflammation was mild, and RGC loss was attenuated. After treatment was stopped on day 14, mice rapidly developed EAE and optic neuritis by day 18, but RGC loss was still reduced. By day 22, RGC loss increased to levels similar to those of untreated optic neuritis eyes. Corticosteroid treatment after optic neuritis onset (days 10–14) slowed EAE progression and showed a trend toward suppression of optic neuritis and RGC loss on day 14 that was lost by day 18. Conclusions. Corticosteroids can suppress optic neuritis and prevent RGC loss if treatment is initiated before optic nerve inflammation onset. Treatment is less effective after inflammation begins. Results suggest that chronic immunomodulation may prevent recurrent optic neuritis and RGC damage. PMID:19892867

  11. Narp regulates long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Irving M.; Crombag, Hans S.; Takamiya, Kogo; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Guo, Ning; Dinenna, Megan L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.

    2008-01-01

    Although long-lasting effects of drug withdrawal are thought to play a key role in motivating continued drug use, the mechanisms mediating this type of drug-induced plasticity are unclear. As Narp is an immediate early gene product that is secreted at synaptic sites and binds to AMPA receptors, it has been implicated in mediating enduring forms of synaptic plasticity. In previous studies, we found that Narp is selectively induced by morphine withdrawal in the extended amygdala, a group of limbic nuclei that mediate aversive behavioral responses. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated whether long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal are altered in Narp KO mice. We found that acute physical signs of morphine withdrawal are unaffected by Narp deletion. However, Narp KO mice acquire and sustain more aversive responses to the environment conditioned with morphine withdrawal than WT controls. Paradoxically, Narp KO mice undergo accelerated extinction of this heightened aversive response. Taken together, these studies suggest that Narp modulates both acquisition and extinction of aversive responses to morphine withdrawal and, therefore, may regulate plasticity processes underlying drug addiction. PMID:18729628

  12. Narp regulates long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Reti, Irving M; Crombag, Hans S; Takamiya, Kogo; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Guo, Ning; Dinenna, Megan L; Huganir, Richard L; Holland, Peter C; Baraban, Jay M

    2008-08-01

    Although long-lasting effects of drug withdrawal are thought to play a key role in motivating continued drug use, the mechanisms mediating this type of drug-induced plasticity are unclear. Because Narp is an immediate early gene product that is secreted at synaptic sites and binds to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, it has been implicated in mediating enduring forms of synaptic plasticity. In previous studies, the authors found that Narp is selectively induced by morphine withdrawal in the extended amygdala, a group of limbic nuclei that mediate aversive behavioral responses. Accordingly, in this study, the authors evaluate whether long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal are altered in Narp knockout (KO) mice. The authors found that acute physical signs of morphine withdrawal are unaffected by Narp deletion. However, Narp KO mice acquire and sustain more aversive responses to the environment conditioned with morphine withdrawal than do wild type (WT) controls. Paradoxically, Narp KO mice undergo accelerated extinction of this heightened aversive response. Taken together, these studies suggest that Narp modulates both acquisition and extinction of aversive responses to morphine withdrawal and, therefore, may regulate plasticity processes underlying drug addiction.

  13. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  14. Orbital Radiotherapy Combined With Corticosteroid Treatment for Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gold, Katherine G; Scofield, Stacy; Isaacson, Steven R; Stewart, Michael W; Kazim, Michael

    To evaluate the effectiveness of orbital radiotherapy (ORT) in the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED)-compressive optic neuropathy. A retrospective review of patients with corticosteroid-responsive compressive optic neuropathy due to TED treated with ORT. Study was conducted in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. One hundred four patients (163 orbits) with a mean age of 61.7 years met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four percent (77/104) were female, and 32.7% (34/104) were current or previous smokers. A total absorbed dose of 2000 cGy fractionated in 10 treatment doses over the course of 2 weeks was administered to the retroocular tissues according to a standard protocol. The primary end point was failure of ORT, defined as persistent optic neuropathy following completion of radiotherapy that mandated urgent orbital decompression surgery. Ninety-eight of 104 (94%) patients or 152 of 163 (93.3%) orbits did not require orbital decompression surgery during the acute phase. Patients who responded successfully to ORT had similar improvements in visual acuity, color vision, Humphrey threshold visual field testing, and afferent pupillary defects compared with patients who failed ORT and underwent urgent decompression surgery. Only 36.7% of successfully treated patients ultimately underwent elective surgery, including orbital decompression, strabismus, or eyelid surgery, during the inactive phase of TED. The data from this study, the largest retrospective review reported to date, supports the use of ORT in eyes with corticosteroid-responsive TED-compressive optic neuropathy. ORT may favorably alter the natural history of active-phase TED by preventing recurrent compressive optic neuropathy after withdrawal of corticosteroids.

  15. The ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Ville, Dorothée; Chiron, Catherine; Laschet, Jacques; Dulac, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal therapy or ketogenic diet often permits overcoming the challenging periods of many epileptic encephalopathies (West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes and encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep), but relapse affects over 20% of patients. We report here a monocenter pilot series of 42 consecutive patients in whom we combined oral steroids with the ketogenic diet for corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent epileptic encephalopathy. We retrospectively evaluated the effect on seizure frequency, interictal spike activity, neuropsychological course, and steroid treatment course. Twenty-three patients had West syndrome (WS), 13 had encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in slow sleep (CSWS), and six others had miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. All patients succeeded to reach 0.8 to 1.6g/l ketone bodies in the urine following the usual KD regimen. For at least 6 months, 14/42 responded to the addition of the ketogenic diet: 4/23 with WS, 8/13 with CSWS, and 2/6 with miscellaneous epileptic encephalopathies. The addition of the KD allowed withdrawing steroids in all responders. Among them, 10/15 had been patients with steroid-dependent epileptic encephalopathy and 4/27 patients with steroid-resistant epileptic encephalopathy. Therefore, the ketogenic diet can be used successfully in combination with corticosteroids for epileptic encephalopathies. Patients presenting with steroid-dependent CSWS seem to be the best candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bederman, S Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2009-10-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966-2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%-92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5-13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of corticosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial.

  17. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...

  18. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...

  19. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...

  20. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...

  1. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...

  2. Developing standardized corticosteroid treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Guglieri, Michela; Bushby, Kate; McDermott, Michael P; Hart, Kimberly A; Tawil, Rabi; Martens, William B; Herr, Barbara E; McColl, Elaine; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Kirschner, Janbernd; King, Wendy M; Eagle, Michele; Brown, Mary W; Willis, Tracey; Hirtz, Deborah; Shieh, Perry B; Straub, Volker; Childs, Anne-Marie; Ciafaloni, Emma; Butterfield, Russell J; Horrocks, Iain; Spinty, Stefan; Flanigan, Kevin M; Kuntz, Nancy L; Baranello, Giovanni; Roper, Helen; Morrison, Leslie; Mah, Jean K; Manzur, Adnan Y; McDonald, Craig M; Schara, Ulrike; von der Hagen, Maja; Barohn, Richard J; Campbell, Craig; Darras, Basil T; Finkel, Richard S; Vita, Giuseppe; Hughes, Imelda; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Wicklund, Matthew; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Bryan Burnette, W; Howard, James F; McMillan, Hugh J; Thangarajh, Mathula; Griggs, Robert C

    2017-07-01

    Despite corticosteroids being the only treatment documented to improve strength and function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) corticosteroid prescription is inconsistent and in some countries, corticosteroids are not prescribed. We are conducting a clinical trial that (1) compares the 3 most frequently prescribed corticosteroid regimes; (2) standardizes treatment of DMD complications; and (3) standardizes prevention of corticosteroid side effects. Investigators at 38 sites in 5 countries plan to recruit 300 boys aged 4-7 who are randomly assigned to one of three regimens: daily prednisone; daily deflazacort; or intermittent prednisone (10days on/10days off). Boys are followed for a minimum of 3years to assess the relative effectiveness and adverse event profiles of the different regimens. The primary outcome is a 3-dimensional variable consisting of log-transformed time to rise from the floor, forced vital capacity, and subject/parent satisfaction with treatment, each averaged over all post-baseline visits. The study protocol includes evidence- and consensus-based treatment of DMD complications and of corticosteroid side effects. This study seeks to establish a standard corticosteroid regimen for DMD. Since all new interventions for DMD are being developed as add-on therapies to corticosteroids, defining the optimum regimen is of importance for all new treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najmanm, Jake M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and…

  4. Paying Attention to and Not Neglecting Social Withdrawal and Social Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This commentary outlines the origins, history, and current status of research related to children's social withdrawal and social isolation. Early research related to children's peer relationships is first explored, followed by a discussion of the relative "neglect" of social withdrawal prior to the 1980s. Increased research attention since that…

  5. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958

  6. The Effects of Airway Microbiome on Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Goleva, Elena; Jackson, Leisa P.; Harris, J. Kirk; Robertson, Charles E.; Sutherland, E. Rand; Hall, Clifton F.; Good, James T.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The role of airway microbiome in corticosteroid response in asthma is unknown. Objectives: To examine airway microbiome composition in patients with corticosteroid-resistant (CR) asthma and compare it with patients with corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) asthma and normal control subjects and explore whether bacteria in the airways of subjects with asthma may direct alterations in cellular responses to corticosteroids. Methods: 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 39 subjects with asthma and 12 healthy control subjects. In subjects with asthma, corticosteroid responsiveness was characterized, BAL macrophages were stimulated with pathogenic versus commensal microorganisms, and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the expression of corticosteroid-regulated genes and cellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 39 subjects with asthma, 29 were CR and 10 were CS. BAL microbiome from subjects with CR and CS asthma did not differ in richness, evenness, diversity, and community composition at the phylum level, but did differ at the genus level, with distinct genus expansions in 14 subjects with CR asthma. Preincubation of asthmatic airway macrophages with Haemophilus parainfluenzae, a uniquely expanded potential pathogen found only in CR asthma airways, resulted in p38 MAPK activation, increased IL-8 (P < 0.01), mitogen-activated kinase phosphatase 1 mRNA (P < 0.01) expression, and inhibition of corticosteroid responses (P < 0.05). This was not observed after exposure to commensal bacterium Prevotella melaninogenica. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β–associated kinase-1 (TAK1), upstream activator of MAPK, but not p38 MAPK restored cellular sensitivity to corticosteroids. Conclusions: A subset of subjects with CR asthma demonstrates airway expansion of specific gram-negative bacteria, which trigger TAK1/MAPK activation and induce

  7. Excipients in topical corticosteroid preparations in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Searles, G E; DesGroseilliers, J P

    1989-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of dermatoses in Canada. The effects of the various nontherapeutic components of these formulations are less well known than those of the active ingredients and may cause adverse reactions. Information on the components is fragmentary and is scattered throughout the literature. We have attempted to consolidate this information into one source. Recent provincial legislation requiring the generic substitution of interchangeable products and the nondisclosure of all ingredients in product labelling hinder the search for an excipient that has caused an adverse reaction. Practitioner participation in the Cutaneous Adverse Reaction Registry of the Canadian Dermatology Association will identify sensitizing excipients and will support efforts by the profession to obtain more effective and safer products. PMID:2766179

  8. Asthma, inhaled corticosteroid treatment, and growth.

    PubMed

    Ninan, T K; Russell, G

    1992-06-01

    To evaluate the effects on growth of inhaled corticosteroid treatment (ICT) and of the quality of control of asthma, height velocity was studied in 58 prepubertal children attending a specialist asthma clinic because of chronic asthma that was difficult to control. The height velocity standard deviation (SD) score was maximal when the asthma was well controlled both before (0.01) and after (-0.07) starting ICT. It was least when the asthma was poorly controlled both before (-1.50) and after (-1.55) starting ICT. The effectiveness of control correlated significantly with the height velocity SD score, both before and after ICT was started. No evidence was found that the administration of ICT has an adverse effect on growth.

  9. Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

  11. Side effects of corticosteroid injections: what's new?

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Goff, Benoît; Maugars, Yves

    2013-07-01

    The risk of sepsis with a hip or knee implant does not seem to be increased by prior joint injections, as long as the injection and surgery are separated by at least two months. Calcifications have been reported after intradiscal injection in the coccygeal region for coccydynia. Complete rest for 24 hours after injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide into the knee had no effect on systemic diffusion of the product. Patients infected by HIV who are treated with ritonavir are at much greater risk for Cushing syndrome after epidural injection. Problems with menstruation after corticosteroid injection seem to be related to a transient decrease in estradiol levels, without alterations in FSH and LH levels. The risk of central serous chorioretinopathy and acute necrosis of the retina after injection is not known, even by ophthalmologists. Transient dysphonia occurs in 12% of patients receiving corticosteroid injections. The impressive Tachon's syndrome seems to be the venous counterpart to Nicolau's syndrome for arteries. Injections into C1-C2 should be abandoned because of the neurological risks. Since serious neurological events after foraminal injections could be the result of an overly fast injection into the arterialized radicular veins rather than in the arteries, only slow injections with products having a low risk of embolism or vascular complications should be allowed. Dexamethasone-based preparations seem to contain no particles or crystals, and have not induced any neurological accidents in various animal models, even after direct administration into vertebral or carotid arteries. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Are corticosteroids useful in all degrees of severity and rapid recovery of Bell's palsy?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Margarida; Firmino, Machado J; Marques, Elisa A; Santos, Paula C; Duarte, José A

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that corticosteroids were not effective in all grades of dysfunction and for achieving a rapid remission in the early phase of BP, highlighting the need to define standard and rigorous criteria to prescribe corticosteroids in these patients. Objectives The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of corticosteroids better associated than paralleled with neuromuscular training (C + FNT) is more effective than facial neuromuscular training (FNT) applied alone, in terms of recovery degree and facial symmetry during the early phase of Bell's palsy (BP). Patients and methods A prospective single-blinded study involved 73 patients: the C + FNT group (n = 42; median age = 37.5 years) and FNT group (n = 31; median age = 49.0 years). Patients were assessed before and 6 weeks after treatment by House-Brackmann (HB-FGS) and Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SB-FGS). Results Recovery degree and facial symmetry improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001), without differences between groups (p > 0.05). However, the C + FNT group displayed better outcomes for cheek (p = 0.004) and mouth (p = 0.022) resting symmetry at SB-FGS, instead of compared to the FNT group. The corticosteroids had no significant effect on all recovery degrees (p = 0.992) and rapid remission (p = 0.952). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the type of intervention was not a significant predictor for recovery degree (p = 0.917).

  13. Long-term effects of steroid withdrawal in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Offermann, G; Schwarz, A; Krause, P H

    1993-01-01

    The long-term graft function after withdrawal of steroids from maintenance immunosuppression was analyzed in 98 kidney recipients (59 on cyclosporin monotherapy, 39 on cyclosporin plus azathioprine) who had not developed an early rejection episode when prednisolone was discontinued. Seven years after steroid withdrawal the probability of an increase in serum creatinine (> 20% of baseline levels) was 51%. The increase in creatinine was associated with sclerosing arteriopathy as a marker of chronic rejection in 29 of 43 graft biopsies. The addition of azathioprine had no effect on the stability of long-term graft function and did not influence the 7-year graft survival rate in this highly selected group of patients.

  14. 11-Deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey

    Close, D.A.; Yun, S.-S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wildbill, A.J.; Li, W.

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones are critical for controlling metabolism, hydromineral balance, and the stress response in vertebrates. Although corticosteroid hormones have been well characterized in most vertebrate groups, the identity of the earliest vertebrate corticosteroid hormone has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that 11-deoxycortisol is the corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey, a member of the agnathans that evolved more than 500 million years ago. We used RIA, HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis to determine that 11-deoxycortisol is the active corticosteroid present in lamprey plasma. We also characterized an 11-deoxycortisol receptor extracted from sea lamprey gill cytosol. The receptor was highly specific for 11-deoxycortisol and exhibited corticosteroid binding characteristics, including DNA binding. Furthermore, we observed that 11-deoxycortisol was regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and responded to acute stress. 11-Deoxycortisol implants reduced sex steroid concentrations and upregulated gill Na+, K+-ATPase, an enzyme critical for ion balance. We show here that 11-deoxycortisol functioned as both a glucocorticoid and a mineralocorticoid in the lamprey. Our findings indicate that a complex and highly specific corticosteroid signaling pathway evolved at least 500 million years ago with the arrival of the earliest vertebrate.

  15. Fetal heart rate variation after corticosteroids for fetal maturation.

    PubMed

    Knaven, Olga; Ganzevoort, Wessel; de Boer, Marjon; Wolf, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Several studies report a decrease of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) after corticosteroids for improvement of fetal maturity and advice not to deliver a fetus for low STV within 2-3days after corticosteroids. However, literature is not unanimous in this respect. This study intends to asses STV longitudinally after corticosteroid administration. A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary perinatal centre from 2009 to 2015 included all women who had been treated with corticosteroids at gestational age of 26-34 weeks, had a computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) before and after medication and did not deliver within 48h. FHR and STV were stratified over 12-h periods and compared before and after corticosteroids. Women with imminent preterm labour (including PPROM) and women with placental problems (fetal growth restriction (FGR) or preeclampsia) (PE) were analysed separately. The effect of co-medication and gestational age was assessed. The study included 406 women, 211 with imminent preterm labour, 195 with FGR-PE. After corticosteroids STV increased 1-2ms (median 1.4; IQR 0.1-3.1) during the first 36h after start of corticosteroids. Thereafter a small decrease of less than 1ms (median -0,6; IQR -1.6 to 0.3) compared to before CC was seen. The most conspicuous effect of corticosteroids is a short term increase of STV and decrease of FHR. A slight decrease after 48-71h is possible, but abnormally low values should be considered as a sign of fetal distress. The clinical guidance, given by some, not to intervene because of a low STV after corticosteroids appears invalid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal Excretion of Corticosteroid Sulphates in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P. C.; Lockwood, E.; Pennington, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    In a preliminary study, the 24-hour urinary excretion of corticosteroid sulphates and free cortisol have been measured in a group of patients with breast cancer and compared with the excretion of the same compounds in a group of normal women of similar age. Excretion of corticosteroid sulphates in the breast cancer group was found to be markedly raised. In a small number of patients with localized cancer of sites other than the breast the level of corticosteroid sulphate was not raised. If proved metastases were present a noticeable rise was observed. Imagesp330-a PMID:4685623

  17. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Caroline A; McKinlay, Christopher JD; Middleton, Philippa; Harding, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids are beneficial. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (31 March 2011), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors for further data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of women who had already received a single course of corticosteroids seven or more days previously and considered still at risk of preterm birth. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. Main results We included 10 trials (more than 4730 women and 5650 babies) with low to moderate risk of bias. Treatment of women who remain at risk of preterm birth seven or more days after an initial course of prenatal corticosteroids with repeat dose(s), compared with no repeat corticosteroid treatment, reduced the risk of their infants experiencing the primary outcomes respiratory distress syndrome (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 0.91, eight trials, 3206 infants, numbers needed to treat (NNT) 17, 95% CI 11 to 32) and serious infant outcome (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94, seven trials, 5094 infants, NNT 30, 95% CI 19 to 79). Treatment with repeat dose(s) of corticosteroid was associated with a reduction in mean birthweight (mean difference (MD) −75.79 g, 95% CI −117.63 to −33.96, nine trials, 5626 infants). However, outcomes that adjusted birthweight for gestational age (birthweight Z scores, birthweight multiples of the median and small-for-gestational age) did not differ between treatment groups. At early childhood follow-up no statistically significant differences were seen for infants exposed to repeat prenatal corticosteroids compared with unexposed infants for the primary outcomes (total deaths; survival free of any disability or major disability; disability; or

  18. Tocilizumab for giant cell arteritis with corticosteroid-resistant progressive anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vionnet, Julien; Buss, Guillaume; Mayer, Cédric; Sokolov, Arseny A; Borruat, François-Xavier; Spertini, François

    2017-10-01

    Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory disorder of the medium- and large-size arteries. Permanent visual loss related to arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is among the most serious complications of this disease and initial treatment usually consists of high dose corticosteroids. There is no consensus in the literature concerning the optimal therapeutic approach in giant cell arteritis patients with corticosteroid-resistant arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A 73-year-old Caucasian female with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis developed an acute visual loss of the right eye due to arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Despite 5 daily methylprednisolone pulses, systemic symptoms persisted and rapid involvement of the controlateral eye was documented. Therefore, tocilizumab (humanised monoclonal antibody binding the human interleukin-6 receptor) was introduced as a potential salvage therapy with a swift consecutive resolution of the systemic symptoms and stabilization of the ophthalmic lesions. Although a late effect of steroids pulses cannot be formally ruled out in this dramatic situation, tocilizumab likely offered a decisive effect in preventing bilateral blindness and may have contributed to steroid tapering. Tocilizumab may represent a new early effective second-line treatment option in corticosteroid-resistant anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. More data are needed to confirm this observation and to evaluate the safety profile of this treatment. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bederman, S. Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966–2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Results Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5–13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Conclusion Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of cortisosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial. PMID:19865573

  20. Radiolytic degradation scheme for 60Co-irradiated corticosteroids

    SciT

    Kane, M.P.; Tsuji, K.

    The cobalt 60 radiolytic degradation products have been identified in the following corticosteroids: cortisone, cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, isoflupredone acetate, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate, prednisolone, prednisolone acetate, and prednisone. Two major types of degradation processes have been identified: loss of the corticoid side chain on the D-ring to produce the C-17 ketone and conversion of the C-11 alcohol, if present, to the C-11 ketone. Minor degradation products derived from other changes affecting the side chain are also identified in several corticosteroids. These compounds are frequently associated in corticosteroids as process impurities or degradation compounds. No new radiolyticmore » compounds unique to 60Co-irradiation have been found. The majority of corticosteroids have been shown to be stable to 60Co-irradiation. The rates of radiolytic degradation ranged from 0.2 to 1.4%/Mrad.« less

  1. Incidence of plantar fascia ruptures following corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul; Cashdollar, Michael R; Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Fuge, LaDonna

    2010-12-01

    Plantar fasciitis is commonly treated with corticosteroid injections to decrease pain and inflammation. Therapeutic benefits often vary in terms of efficacy and duration. Rupture of the plantar fascia has been reported as a possible complication following corticosteroid injection. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients who received corticosteroid injection for plantar fasciitis was performed at the authors' institution to determine the incidence of plantar fascia rupture. The plantar fascia rupture was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Various factors were analyzed, including the number of injections, interval between injections, body mass index (BMI), and activity level. Four patients (2.4%) consequently experienced plantar fascia rupture following an average of 2.67 injections. The average BMI of these patients was 38.6 kg/m². The authors conclude that corticosteroid injection therapy appears to be a safe and effective form of nonoperative treatment with minimal complications and a relatively low incident of plantar fascia rupture.

  2. Predicting Corticosteroid-Free Biologic Remission with Vedolizumab in Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Waljee, Akbar K; Liu, Boang; Sauder, Kay; Zhu, Ji; Govani, Shail M; Stidham, Ryan W; Higgins, Peter D R

    2018-05-18

    Vedolizumab (VDZ) is effective for Crohn's disease (CD) but costly and is slow to produce remission. Early knowledge of whether vedolizumab is likely to succeed is valuable for physicians, patients, and insurers. Phase 3 clinical trial data on VZD for CD were used to predict outcomes. Random forest modeling on the training cohort was used to predict the outcome of corticosteroid-free biologic remission at week 52 on the testing cohort. Models were constructed using baseline data, or data through week 6 of VDZ therapy. The clinical trial included 594 subjects who received VDZ with baseline active inflammation [elevated C-reactive protein (>5 mg/L)]. Subjects with missing predictor variables (N = 120) or missing outcome data (N = 2) were excluded to produce a modeling dataset of 472 subjects. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AuROC) for corticosteroid-free biologic remission at week 52 using baseline data was only 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53 - 0.77), but was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 - 0.86) with data through week 6 of VDZ . Patients predicted to be in corticosteroid-free biologic remission at week 52 by the model achieved this endpoint 35.8% of the time, whereas patients predicted to fail only succeeded 6.7% of the time. An algorithm using laboratory data through week 6 of VDZ therapy was able to identify which CD patients with baseline inflammation would achieve corticosteroid-free biologic remission on VDZ at week 52. A majority of patients can be identified by week 6 as very unlikely to achieve remission.

  3. Predicting corticosteroid-free endoscopic remission with vedolizumab in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Waljee, A K; Liu, B; Sauder, K; Zhu, J; Govani, S M; Stidham, R W; Higgins, P D R

    2018-03-01

    Vedolizumab is an effective therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC), but costly and slow to work. New clinical responses occur after 30 weeks of therapy. To enable physicians, patients, and insurers to predict whether a patient with UC will respond to vedolizumab at an early time point after starting therapy. The clinical study data request website provided the phase 3 clinical trial data for vedolizumab. Random forest models were trained on 70% and tested on 30% of the data to predict corticosteroid-free endoscopic remission at week 52. Models were constructed using baseline data, or data through week 6 of vedolizumab therapy from 491 subjects. The AuROC for prediction of corticosteroid-free endoscopic remission at week 52 using baseline data was only 0.62 (95% CI: 0.53-0.72), but was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65-0.82) when using data through week 6. A total of 47% of subjects were predicted to be remitters, and 59% of these subjects achieved corticosteroid-free endoscopic remission, in contrast to 21% of the predicted non-remitters. A week 6 prediction using FCP ≤234 μg/g was nearly as accurate. A machine learning algorithm using laboratory data through week 6 of vedolizumab therapy was able to accurately identify which UC patients would achieve corticosteroid-free endoscopic remission on vedolizumab at week 52. Application of this algorithm could have significant implications for clinical decisions on whom to continue on this costly medication when the benefits of the vedolizumab are not clinically apparent in the first 6 weeks of therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expenditure is incident to new and advanced ship design, machinery and equipment; (iii) The withdrawal would be a qualified withdrawal except for the fact that there is no tax basis left that can be reduced; or...

  5. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expenditure is incident to new and advanced ship design, machinery and equipment; (iii) The withdrawal would be a qualified withdrawal except for the fact that there is no tax basis left that can be reduced; or...

  6. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Texas, 1990

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Texas by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: self-supplied irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, industrial and mining, and other (domestic, commercial, livestock). Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, and industrial and mining are illustrated in this report, although all data are tabulated.

  7. Withdrawal When You’re Pregnant

    Cancer.gov

    The nicotine in cigarettes is addictive. That’s why many smokers who decide to quit go through some degree of withdrawal. Quitting smoking while you’re pregnant won’t change withdrawal symptoms. You may still be uncomfortable or feel not quite like yourself. But withdrawal from cigarettes will not harm your baby.

  8. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  9. The use of corticosteroid for the prophylaxis of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Silva, Douglas Fini; Carmona, César Vanderlei; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araújo; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Nascimento, Bartolomeu; Rizoli, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The "Evidence-based Telemedicine - Trauma & Acute Care Surgery" (EBT-TACS) Journal Club conducted a critical review of the literature and selected three recent studies on the use of corticosteroids for the prophylaxis of fat embolism syndrome. The review focused on the potential role of corticosteroids administration to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at risk of developing post-traumatic fat embolism. The first study was prospective and aimed at identifying reliable predictors, which occurred early and were associated with the onset of fat embolism syndrome in trauma patients. The second manuscript was a literature review of the role of corticosteroids as a prophylactic measure for fat embolism syndrome (FES). The last manuscript was a meta-analysis on the potential for corticosteroids to prophylactically reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long bone fractures. The main conclusions and recommendations reached were that traumatized patients should be monitored with non-invasive pulse oximetry and lactate levels since these factors may predict the development of FES, and that there is not enough evidence to recommend the use of steroids for the prophylaxis of this syndrome.

  10. Humoral immune response in infectious mononucleosis. Late emergence of anti-EA(R) and the effects of corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, G R; Collins, M; Fager, S

    1985-11-01

    The antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) was studied to assess antibody appearance to the restricted (R) component of the early antigen (EA) complex and to determine the effect of corticosteroids on all aspects of the humoral immune response. Sixty college students with heterophil-positive clinical IM, confirmed by EBV-specific serology, were followed for a period of 4-26 weeks, Half received prednisone for six days, and the remainder received no corticosteroid therapy. Regardless of therapy, 48% of the patients developed anti-EA(R) antibodies. The response to other antigens was similar in both groups with the exception that antibodies to the EB-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) developed later during convalescence and at lower titers in the corticosteroid-treated group. We conclude that 1) anti-EA(R) antibodies develop with considerable frequency following IM and are not a marker, as previously proposed, of unusually severe disease, and 2) corticosteroid therapy may retard the formation of anti-EBNA antibodies but it does not otherwise influence the humoral immune response to EBV.

  11. Systemic corticosteroids for acute otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Ranakusuma, Respati W; Pitoyo, Yupitri; Safitri, Eka D; Thorning, Sarah; Beller, Elaine M; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Del Mar, Chris B

    2018-03-15

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics. To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids (oral or parenteral), with or without antibiotics, for AOM in children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which contains the Cochrane ARI Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), and LILACS (BIREME) for published studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for completed and ongoing studies, to 20 February 2018. We checked the reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references and contacted experts in the field to identify additional unpublished materials. We included randomised controlled trials of children with AOM that compared any systemic corticosteroid (oral or parenteral) with placebo, either with antibiotics (corticosteroid plus antibiotic versus placebo plus antibiotic) or without antibiotics (corticosteroid versus placebo). Three review authors (EDS, RR, YP) independently screened the titles and abstracts and retrieved the full texts of potentially relevant studies. We independently extracted study characteristics and outcome data from the included studies, and assessed the risk of bias for each study using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We assessed study quality using the GRADE method. We included two studies involving 252

  12. Corticosteroids in brain cancer patients: benefits and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Jörg; Rao, Krithika; Pastorino, Sandra; Kesari, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used for decades in the treatment of brain tumor patients and belong to the most powerful class of agents in reducing tumor-associated edema and minimizing side effects and the risk of encephalopathy in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Unfortunately, corticosteroids are associated with numerous and well-characterized adverse effects, constituting a major challenge in patients requiring long-term application of corticosteroids. Novel anti-angiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin®), which have been increasingly used in cancer patients, are associated with significant steroid-sparing effects, allowing neuro-oncologists to reduce the overall use of corticosteroids in patients with progressive malignant brain tumors. Recent experimental studies have revealed novel insights into the mechanisms and effects of corticosteroids in cancer patients, including modulation of tumor biology, angiogenesis and steroid-associated neurotoxicity. This article summarizes current concepts of using corticosteroids in brain cancer patients and highlights potential pitfalls in their effects on both tumor and neural progenitor cells. PMID:21666852

  13. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    PubMed

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Endocrine complications of topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Cormode, E; Laski, B; Toole, J; Howard, N

    1982-03-01

    Four previously healthy children acquired skin problems that were treated with topical or intralesional fluorinated corticosteroids. Three developed signs that suggested Cushing's syndrome 1-4 months after initial treatment. Investigation showed low plasma cortisol levels and inadequate response to corticotrophin stimulation. After 7 months of treatment with topical steroids the fourth child presented with failure to thrive; during a febrile illness he had a convulsion followed by acute hypotension which responded to parenteral corticosteroid administration. Adrenal function was not studied in this patient. Although fluorinated corticosteroids seldom lead to overt adrenal suppression in children, they may impair pituitary-adrenal responses in some. Such patients should be given oral or parenteral steroid cover in the event of illness or trauma.

  15. The Effect of Intra-articular Corticosteroids on Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wernecke, Chloe; Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid therapy has been used for the treatment of inflammation and pain in the knee since the 1950s. Purpose: To review the current literature on the effects of IA corticosteroids on articular cartilage. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A MEDLINE and SCOPUS database search was performed, and studies were selected for basic science and clinical trial research on corticosteroids with direct outcome measures of cartilage health. Preliminary searches yielded 1929 articles, and final analysis includes 40 studies. Results: Methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, betamethasone, prednisolone, and triamcinolone were reported to display dose-dependent deleterious effects on cartilage morphology, histology, and viability in both in vitro and in vivo models. The beneficial animal in vivo effects of methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, and triamcinolone occurred at low doses (usually <2-3 mg/dose or 8-12 mg/cumulative total dose in vivo), at which increased cell growth and recovery from damage was observed; the single human clinical trial indicated a beneficial effect of triamcinolone. However, at higher doses (>3 mg/dose or 18-24 mg/cumulative total dose in vivo), corticosteroids were associated with significant gross cartilage damage and chondrocyte toxicity. Dose and time dependency of corticosteroid chondrotoxicity was supported in the in vitro results, however, without clear dose thresholds. Conclusion: Corticosteroids have a time- and dose-dependent effect on articular cartilage, with beneficial effects occurring at low doses and durations and detrimental effects at high doses and durations. Clinically, beneficial effects are supported for IA administration, but the lowest efficacious dose should be used. PMID:26674652

  16. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  17. Terbinafine-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus in two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus successfully treated with topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kalińska-Bienias, Agnieszka; Kowalewski, Cezary; Woźniak, Katarzyna

    2013-08-01

    So far in the literature there have been reported only 5 patients with a recognized and well-documented history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed SCLE after terbinafine introduction. Here we report two women suffering from SLE who developed SCLE after initiation of oral terbinafine for onychomycosis. Skin lesions in both of them were extensive, located on the trunk, and upper and lower extremities. No exacerbation of SLE symptoms was observed at that time. Despite severe skin lesions, patients revealed good response to topical corticosteroids within a few weeks. The systemic review of the literature and our experience on terbinafine-induced SCLE developing in patients with SLE allowed to create a description for this special subset: a) terbinafine-induced SCLE usually develop in 1-8 weeks after terbinafine introduction, b) skin lesions are usually severe, disseminated including lower extremities, c) patients present Ro/SS-A La/SS-B antibodies, but anti-histone antibodies are rarely observed, d) exacerbation of SLE symptoms is rather not observed, e) eruptions clear within 2-8 weeks, f) withdrawal of terbinafine and topical corticosteroids should be considered as a first-line therapy in these cases, g) terbinafine should be carefully used in patients suffering from SLE.

  18. Effects of acute alcohol withdrawal on nest building in mice selectively bred for alcohol withdrawal severity.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Gian D; Phillips, Tamara J; Crabbe, John C

    2016-10-15

    Nest building has been used to assess thermoregulatory behavior and positive motivational states in mice. There are known genetic influences on ethanol withdrawal severity as well as individual/thermoregulatory nest building. Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP-1, WSP-2) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR-1, WSR-2) mice were selectively bred for high vs low handling-induced convulsion (HIC) severity, respectively, during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. They also differ in HIC severity during withdrawal from an acute, 4g/kg ethanol injection. In our initial study, withdrawal from an acute dose of ethanol dose-dependently impaired nest building over the initial 24h of withdrawal in genetically segregating Withdrawal Seizure Control (WSC) mice. In two further studies, acute ethanol withdrawal suppressed nest building for up to two days in WSP-1 females. Deficits in nest building from ethanol were limited to the initial 10h of withdrawal in WSR-1 females and to the initial 24h of withdrawal in WSP-1 and WSR-1 males. Effects of ethanol on nest building for up to two days were found in WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice of both sexes. Nest building deficits in female mice from the first replicate could not be explained by a general decrease in locomotor behavior. These results suggest that nest building is a novel behavioral phenotype for indexing the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal, and that genes contributing to this trait differ from those affecting acute withdrawal HIC severity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of acute alcohol withdrawal on nest building in mice selectively bred for alcohol withdrawal severity

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Gian D.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Crabbe, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Nest building has been used to assess thermoregulatory behavior and positive motivational states in mice. There are known genetic influences on ethanol withdrawal severity as well as individual/thermoregulatory nest building. Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP-1, WSP-2) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR-1, WSR-2) mice were selectively bred for high vs low handling-induced convulsion (HIC) severity, respectively, during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. They also differ in HIC severity during withdrawal from an acute, 4 g/kg ethanol injection. In our initial study, withdrawal from an acute dose of ethanol dose-dependently impaired nest building over the initial 24 h of withdrawal in genetically segregating Withdrawal Seizure Control (WSC) mice. In two further studies, acute ethanol withdrawal suppressed nest building for up to two days in WSP-1 females. Deficits in nest building from ethanol were limited to the initial 10 h of withdrawal in WSR-1 females and to the initial 24 h of withdrawal in WSP-1 and WSR-1 males. Effects of ethanol on nest building for up to two days were found in WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice of both sexes. Nest building deficits in female mice from the first replicate could not be explained by a general decrease in locomotor behavior. These results suggest that nest building is a novel behavioral phenotype for indexing the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal, and that genes contributing to this trait differ from those affecting acute withdrawal HIC severity. PMID:27503811

  20. Withdrawal: Plews and Laursen (2017).

    PubMed

    2018-03-01

    We, the Editors and Publishers of the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, have withdrawn the following article in whole: Plews, DJ, Laursen, PB. Training intensity distribution over a four-year cycle in Olympic champion rowers: different roads lead to Rio [version of record published online ahead of print September 27, 2017]. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0343 . The Editorial Office was contacted with the request to withdraw this article informing the Editor-in-Chief that the data in this article were not permissible to use due to undisclosed contractual obligations.

  1. Efficacy of Low-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy Versus High-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy in Bell's Palsy in Children.

    PubMed

    Arican, Pinar; Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Gencpinar, Pinar; Cavusoglu, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Bell's palsy is the most common cause of acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis, but the optimal dose of corticosteroids in pediatric patients is still unclear. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose corticosteroid therapy compared with high-dose corticosteroid therapy in children with Bell's palsy. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the dose of oral prednisolone regimen initiated. The severity of idiopathic facial nerve paralysis was graded according to the House-Brackmann Grading Scale. The patients were re-assessed in terms of recovery rate at the first, third, and sixth months of treatment. There was no significant difference in complete recovery between the 2 groups after 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment. In our study, we concluded that even at a dose of 1 mg/kg/d, oral prednisolone was highly effective in the treatment of Bell's palsy in children.

  2. Influence of Corticosteroids and Vitamin E Deficiency on Onset and Cytopathology of Radiation-Induced Cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. V.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of 72 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on regular chow. In each nutritional group 18 rats additionally received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of 6 months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After 6 month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks versus 11 wks in controls (p<0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated (p<0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes (p<0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was inhibited in the group that

  3. Influence of corticosteroids and vitamin E deficiency on onset of radiation-induced cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. W.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with, and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of seventy-two 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on standard chow. Fifty per cent of the animals in each nutritional group received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of six months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After six month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks vs. 11 wks in controls ( p < 0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated ( p < 0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes ( p < 0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was

  4. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Washington, 2010

    Lane, Ron C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2015-03-18

    The amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power was estimated for state, county, and eastern and western regions of Washington during calendar year 2010. Withdrawals of freshwater for offstream uses were estimated to be about 4,885 million gallons per day. The total estimated freshwater withdrawals for 2010 was approximately 15 percent less than the 2005 estimate because of decreases in irrigation and thermoelectric power withdrawals.

  5. Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your Symptoms (Quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Challenges When Quitting Nicotine Withdrawal Cravings & Triggers Handling Stress Manage Your Mood Weight Gain & Appetite Stay Smokefree for Good Stick with It Weight Management Eat Healthy Get ...

  6. Iatrogenic osteoporosis, bilateral HIP osteonecrosis, and secondary adrenal suppression in an HIV-infected man receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Nargess; Bukberg, Phillip; Manessis, Anastasios; Yen, Vincent; Young, Iven

    2011-01-01

    To report the first case of severe osteoporosis associated with a vertebral pathologic fracture and osteonecrosis of femoral heads in an HIV-infected man receiving inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir-boosted antiretroviral therapy. We describe an HIV-infected man with severe osteoporosis, bilateral hip osteonecrosis, and secondary adrenal suppression, including detailed clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data, and review the related literature. A 60-year-old man with a 15-year history of HIV infection and a medical history of long-standing bronchiectasis treated with inhaled corticosteroids and hypogonadism treated with testosterone was referred to the endocrinology clinic after experiencing an osteoporotic vertebral fracture. He was taking ritonavir-boosted antiretroviral therapy. Osteonecrosis of both hips was also diagnosed, which required total hip replacement therapy. Laboratory evaluation revealed adrenal insufficiency due to increased effect of exogenous inhaled steroids and no other secondary causes of osteoporosis. A bone densitometry study showed osteoporosis of both hips and the lumbar spine. He was treated with intravenous pamidronate. During treatment, he developed bilateral femoral fractures after minor trauma. Given the potential for increased serum levels of inhaled corticosteroids in patients taking ritonavir-boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy, attention must be paid to the risk of bone loss in HIV-infected patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Prescribing calcium and vitamin D supplementation and considering early osteoporosis screening are reasonable measures for this patient population. Interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and ritonavir may increase risk of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression.

  7. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic changes in psoriatic skin under topical corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Beathe; Johnsson, Margareta Karin; Halgunset, Jostein; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2013-08-14

    MR spectroscopy of intact biopsies can provide a metabolic snapshot of the investigated tissue. The aim of the present study was to explore the metabolic pattern of uninvolved skin, psoriatic skin and corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin. The three types of skin biopsy samples were excised from patients with psoriasis (N = 10). Lesions were evaluated clinically, and tissue biopsies were excised and analyzed by one-dimensional 1H MR spectroscopy. Relative levels were calculated for nine tissue metabolites. Subsequently, relative amounts of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue were scored by histopathological evaluation of HES stained sections. Seven out of 10 patients experienced at least 40% reduction in clinical score after corticosteroid treatment. Tissue biopsies from psoriatic skin contained lower levels of the metabolites myo-inositol and glucose, and higher levels of choline and taurine compared to uninvolved skin. In corticosteroid treated psoriatic skin, tissue levels of glucose, myo-inositol, GPC and glycine were increased, whereas choline was reduced, in patients with good therapeutic effect. These tissue levels are becoming more similar to metabolite levels in uninvolved skin. This MR method demonstrates that metabolism in psoriatic skin becomes similar to that of uninvolved skin after effective corticosteroid treatment. MR profiling of skin lesions reflect metabolic alterations related to pathogenesis and treatment effects.

  9. Corticosteroids for severe influenza pneumonia: A critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Nedel, Wagner Luis; Nora, David Garcia; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira; Lisboa, Thiago; Póvoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Influenza pneumonia is associated with high number of severe cases requiring hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with high mortality. Systemic steroids are proposed as a valid therapeutic option even though its effects are still controversial. Heterogeneity of published data regarding study design, population demographics, severity of illness, dosing, type and timing of corticosteroids administered constitute an important limitation for drawing robust conclusions. However, it is reasonable to admit that, as it was not found any advantage of corticosteroid therapy in so diverse conditions, such beneficial effects do not exist at all. Its administration is likely to increase overall mortality and such trend is consistent regardless of the quality as well as the sample size of studies. Moreover it was shown that corticosteroids might be associated with higher incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia and longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay. Finally, it is reasonable to conclude that corticosteroids failed to demonstrate any beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with severe influenza infection. Thus its current use in severe influenza pneumonia should be restricted to very selected cases and in the setting of clinical trials. PMID:26855898

  10. Inhaled corticosteroids for asthma: are they all the same?

    PubMed

    Baptist, A P; Reddy, R C

    2009-02-01

    To assess similarities and differences among currently available inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for treatment of asthma, with special emphasis on factors that may affect the relative safety of these medications. PubMed was searched for relevant reviews and original articles. Information from these studies was synthesized and critically assessed. Differences in corticosteroid formulations and delivery systems can create variations in therapeutic efficacy. Chemical properties of the various corticosteroids may also affect their relative safety. Ciclesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate are administered as prodrugs activated by enzymes present in the lungs but not the oropharynx. Corticosteroid-specific adverse effects in the oropharynx are thus avoided, although formulation-specific effects may remain. Other adverse effects require systemic availability, either via the gastrointestinal tract or the lung. Once they enter the systemic circulation, all ICS are rapidly metabolized by the liver. Oral bioavailability of ICS such as fluticasone, ciclesonide and mometasone is minimal, as a result of their essentially complete first-pass metabolism in the liver. Ciclesonide also undergoes extrahepatic metabolism that eliminates it even more rapidly. Additionally, ciclesonide and mometasone exhibit very high levels of binding to serum proteins that reduces their ability to stimulate glucocorticoid receptors outside the lung. Despite acting by similar mechanisms, currently available ICS and their delivery systems differ in ways that can potentially affect both safety and therapeutic effectiveness for individual patients.

  11. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Moonah, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Methodology and Principal Findings Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58%) were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery. Conclusions and Significance Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease. PMID:27467600

  12. Corticosteroid Treatment for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: A Review.

    PubMed

    Skeoch, Gordon D; Tobin, Matthew K; Khan, Sajeel; Linninger, Andreas A; Mehta, Ankit I

    2017-05-01

    Narrative review. Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a very frequent complication among cancer patients. Presenting commonly as nocturnal back pain, MSCC typically progresses to lower extremity paresis, loss of ambulatory capabilities, and paraplegia. In addition to standard treatment modalities, corticosteroid administration has been utilized in preclinical and clinical settings as adjunctive therapy to reduce local spinal cord edema and improve clinical symptoms. This article serves as a review of existing literature regarding corticosteroid management of MSCC and seeks to provide potential avenues of research on the topic. A literature search was performed using PubMed in order to consolidate existing information regarding dexamethasone treatment of MSCC. Of all search results, 7 articles are reviewed, establishing the current understanding of metastatic spine disease and dexamethasone treatment in both animal models and in clinical trials. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is associated with an increased rate of potentially serious systemic side effects. For this reason, definitive guidelines for the use of dexamethasone in the management of MSCC are unavailable. It is still unclear what role dexamethasone plays in the treatment of MSCC. It is evident that new, more localizable therapies may provide more acceptable treatment strategies using corticosteroids. Looking forward, the potential for more targeted, localized application of the steroid through the use of nanotechnology would decrease the incidence of adverse effects while maintaining the drug's efficacy.

  13. Thoracic Radiculopathy following Spinal Cord Stimulator Implantation Treated with Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ritam; Holland, Ryan; Mammis, Antonios

    2017-04-01

    Spinal cord stimulation has been used since 1967 to manage chronic neuropathic pain. Although effective, the literature describes the complication rate to be as high as 35%. One rare complication following spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation is the development of radicular pain. We present a case series of 2 patients implanted with SCSs who developed thoracic radiculopathy following implantation that resolved with corticosteroids. Although this complication was previously thought to require surgical intervention, this case series describes the use of corticosteroids to resolve postimplantation thoracic radiculopathy. Two patients were studied in this case series who received permanent thoracic implantation of a paddle lead SCS. Several days later, both developed back pain radiating toward the umbilicus in a dermatomal pattern consistent with thoracic radiculopathy. Corticosteroids were administered to relieve this pain. One received 6 mg dexamethasone intravenously every 6 hours followed by an oral dexamethasone taper for 1 week. The other was treated with an oral methylprednisolone taper for 2 weeks. Upon follow-up, both patients no longer complained of the thoracic radiculopathy and were satisfied with the pain relief the stimulators provided. In conclusion, postsurgical radicular pain is a rare but troubling complication of SCS implantation. In order to avoid further surgical complications or the need to explant a device that provides satisfactory paresthesia coverage, pharmacologic management is desirable. This case series has demonstrated that the use of corticosteroids can effectively resolve postimplantation thoracic radicular pain in a specific subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Corticosteroid therapy in Henoch-Schönlein gastritis].

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Momcilo; Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Berenji, Karolina; Novak, Arpad

    2007-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vascular disease of childhood. It is a multisystem disease most commonly affecting the skin,joints, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, but other organs may be affected, too. Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in approximately 65-90% of patients, ranging from mild symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, to more severe manifestations such as gastrointestinal bleeding and intussusception. In most cases, HSP spontaneously resolves without treatment. The use of corticosteroids is controversial and usually reserved for severe systemic manifestations. Some authors suggest that the abdominal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage of HSP may respond to steroids, with some suggesting that there is a benefit in their use and describing a regimen. This is a case report of HSP in a fourteen-year-old boy with abdominal pain and hematemesis. Upper endoscopy showed an edematous and erythematous change in the body of the stomach and purpuric lesions in the duodenum, while multiple erosions were found in the antral area. Parenteral corticosteroid therapy with gastric acid secretion inhibitor administration led to regression of gastrointestinal symptoms on the seventh day, with relapses on the fourth and sixth day. Peroral administration of corticosteroids and gradual decrease of daily doses started on the eighth day of abdominal symptoms. New purpuric skin rashes appeared during six weeks. Corticosteroid therapy with gastric acid secretion inhibitors showed a positive effect in our patient with a severe form of HSP accompanied by abdominal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  15. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...

  16. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...

  17. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time within... withdraw all or part of the merchandise covered by the transfer by filing any authorized kind of withdrawal...

  18. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time within... withdraw all or part of the merchandise covered by the transfer by filing any authorized kind of withdrawal...

  19. Predicted Unfavorable Neurologic Outcome Is Overestimated by the Marshall Computed Tomography Score, Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury (CRASH), and International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) Models in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Managed with Early Decompressive Craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Charry, Jose D; Tejada, Jorman H; Pinzon, Miguel A; Tejada, Wilson A; Ochoa, Juan D; Falla, Manuel; Tovar, Jesus H; Cuellar-Bahamón, Ana M; Solano, Juan P

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is of public health interest and produces significant mortality and disability in Colombia. Calculators and prognostic models have been developed to establish neurologic outcomes. We tested prognostic models (the Marshall computed tomography [CT] score, International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT), and Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury) for 14-day mortality, 6-month mortality, and 6-month outcome in patients with TBI at a university hospital in Colombia. A 127-patient cohort with TBI was treated in a regional trauma center in Colombia over 2 years and bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Discriminatory power of the models, their accuracy, and precision was assessed by both logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Shapiro-Wilk, χ 2 , and Wilcoxon test were used to compare real outcomes in the cohort against predicted outcomes. The group's median age was 33 years, and 84.25% were male. The injury severity score median was 25, and median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score was 3. Six-month mortality was 29.13%. Six-month unfavorable outcome was 37%. Mortality prediction by Marshall CT score was 52.8%, P = 0.104 (AUC 0.585; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 0.489-0.681), the mortality prediction by CRASH prognosis calculator was 59.9%, P < 0.001 (AUC 0.706; 95% CI 0.590-0.821), and the unfavorable outcome prediction by IMPACT was 77%, P < 0.048 (AUC 0.670; 95% CI 0.575-0.763). In a university hospital in Colombia, the Marshall CT score, IMPACT, and Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury models overestimated the adverse neurologic outcome in patients with severe head trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anhedonia and anxiety sensitivity: prospective relationships to nicotine withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M; Stewart, Sherry; Rosenfield, David; Steeves, Dan; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to explore the main and interactive effects of anhedonic depressive symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in terms of the individual components of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced on quit day as well as throughout the initial 14 days of cessation. Participants included 65 daily cigarette smokers (38 women; Mage = 46.08 years, SD = 9.12) undergoing psychosocial-pharmacological cessation treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the effects of participant sex and nicotine dependence, anhedonic depression symptoms, but not anxiety sensitivity, significantly predicted quit day levels of mood-based nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Conversely, anxiety sensitivity, but not anhedonic depression symptoms, was significantly related to the change in most nicotine withdrawal symptoms over time. Finally, our results revealed a significant interaction between anxiety sensitivity and anhedonic depression symptoms related to the slope of certain withdrawal symptoms over time. Specifically, among participants with higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, greater levels of anhedonic depression symptoms were related to greater increases in withdrawal symptoms over time for two of the nine anxiety-relevant components of nicotine withdrawal (restlessness and frustration). Among high anxiety-sensitivity persons, compared with those low in anxiety sensitivity, anhedonic depression symptoms may be more relevant to the experience of some withdrawal symptoms being more intense and persistent during the early phases of quitting.

  1. Programming effects of antenatal corticosteroids exposure in male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mário; Leão, Pedro; Rodrigues, Ana-João; Pêgo, José-Miguel; Cerqueira, João-José; Sousa, Nuno

    2011-07-01

    Brain regions implicated in sexual behavior begin to differentiate in the last trimester of gestation. Antenatal therapy with corticosteroids is often used in clinical practice during this period to accelerate lung maturation in preterm-risk pregnancies. Clinical and animal studies highlighted major behavioral impairments induced later in life by these treatments, especially when synthetic corticosteroids are used. To evaluate the implications of acute prenatal treatment with natural vs. synthetic corticosteroids on adult male rat sexual behavior and its neurochemical correlates. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX-1 mg/kg), corticosterone (CORT-25 mg/kg), or saline on late gestation (pregnancy days 18 and 19). Following this brief exposure to corticosteroids, we assessed the sexual behavior of the adult male progeny and subsequently associated these behaviors with the levels of catecholamines and mRNA of dopamine and androgen receptors (AR) in brain regions relevant for sexual behavior. Sexual behavior of adult male offspring was assessed by exposure to receptive females. This was associated with serum testosterone levels and levels of catecholamines (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography) and dopamine and AR mRNA expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in brain regions implicated in sexual behavior. Prenatal DEX exposure resulted in a decreased number and increased mounts and intromissions latencies in adulthood. These findings were associated with decreased levels of serum testosterone and increased hypothalamic expression of AR mRNA. DEX animals also displayed lower dopamine levels and higher dopamine receptor mRNA expression both in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The milder phenotype of CORT animals was associated only with decreased dopamine levels in NAcc. Antenatal corticotherapy programs adult male sexual behavior through changes in specific neuronal and endocrine mediators

  2. Corticosteroids vs corticosteroids plus antiviral agents in the treatment of Bell palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudakos, John K; Markou, Konstantinos D

    2009-06-01

    To review systematically and meta-analyze the results of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of patients with Bell palsy with corticosteroids vs corticosteroids plus antiviral agents. A MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CENTRAL database search, followed by extensive hand-searching for the identification of relevant studies. No time and language limitations were applied. Prospective RCTs on the treatment of patients with Bell palsy. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and tests for heterogeneity were reported. Five studies were eventually identified and systematically reviewed. Meta-analysis was performed for 4 studies. Regarding the complete recovery rate of facial nerve paralysis 3 months after initiation of therapy, the current systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that the addition of an antiviral agent does not provide any benefit (OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.74-1.42]; P = .88). The same conclusion emerged at posterior (fourth, sixth, and ninth) months of assessment. Subgroup analysis, conducted on the basis of time point of therapy initiation, type of antiviral agent, and blindness of assessments did not change the results obtained. The occurrence rate of adverse effects attributable to therapy choice was not significantly different between patients receiving corticosteroids and those following combined treatment. The present systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the currently available evidence, suggests that the addition of an antiviral agent to corticosteroids for the treatment of Bell palsy is not associated with an increase in the complete recovery rate of the facial motor function.

  3. 31 CFR 103.84 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 103.84 Section 103.84 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING... requests. A person may withdraw a request for an administrative ruling at any time before the ruling has...

  4. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public...

  5. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ...-06A] RIN 2120-AJ15 Safety Management System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the... management with a set of robust decision-making tools to use to improve safety. The FAA received 89 comments...

  6. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw...

  7. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw...

  8. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw...

  9. Review of end grain nail withdrawal research

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2004-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on static and impact withdrawal of nails driven into the end grain of wood members. From this, an empirical relationship was created relating the specific gravity of the wood, the diameter of the nail, and the depth of penetration of the nail to the static withdrawal capacity of nails driven into the wood and withdrawn immediately....

  10. New mechanisms and perspectives in nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K.J.; Muldoon, P.P.; De Biasi, M.; Damaj, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. PMID:25433149

  11. Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Area 1 in east-central New Jersey was mandated in the early 1980s to address large drawdowns caused by increases in groundwater withdrawals. The aquifers involved include the Englishtown aquifer system, Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer, and the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifers. Groundwater levels recovered as a result of mandated cutbacks in withdrawals that began in the late 1980s. Subsequent increased demand for water has necessitated an analysis to determine the effects of full-allocation withdrawals, which supplements an optimization analysis done previously. A steady-state regional groundwater flow model is used to evaluate the effects of 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (7.3 million gallons per day greater than for 2003) on simulated water-levels. Simulation results indicate that the range of available withdrawals greater than full-allocation withdrawals is likely between 0 and 12 million gallons per day. The estimated range of available withdrawals is based on: (1) an examination of hydraulic-heads resulting from each of the two simulations, (2) an examination of differences in heads between these two simulations, (3) a comparison of simulated heads from each of the two simulations with the estimated location of salty groundwater, and (4) a comparison of simulated 2003 water levels to observed 2003 water levels. The results of the simulations also indicate that obtaining most of the available water would require varying the distribution of withdrawals and (or) relaxing the mandated hydrologic constraints used to protect the water supply.

  12. Withdrawal of food and fluid.

    PubMed

    Daly, B J

    1990-05-01

    John S. is a 72-year-old patriarch of a large, extended family. He underwent a mitral and aortic valve replacement, followed by a complicated postoperative course. His recovery was complicated by hemodynamic instability, several cardiac arrests, acute renal failure, and sepsis. He has been in the ICU for 14 weeks and has been unable to wean from mechanical ventilation. After many conferences between the patient's family and the ICU staff, a decision was made to remove ventilator support. This was done 3 days ago. John's condition seems stable now, but it is clear that he will not regain his former state of health. He is very debilitated, may require chronic dialysis, and has suffered some anoxic brain damage during his arrests. The nursing and medical staff are now faced with the question of further withdrawal of treatment and are considering whether or not to discontinue his parenteral nutrition and all IV fluids.

  13. Childhood social withdrawal, interpersonal impairment, and young adult depression: a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Katz, Shaina J; Conway, Christopher C; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake M

    2011-11-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and depression by age 20. This mediational model was tested in a community sample of 702 Australian youth followed from mother's pregnancy to youth age 20. Structural equation modeling analyses found support for a model in which childhood social withdrawal predicted adolescent social impairment, which, in turn, predicted depression in young adulthood. Additionally, gender was found to moderate the relationship between adolescent social impairment and depression in early adulthood, with females exhibiting a stronger association between social functioning and depression at the symptom and diagnostic level. This study illuminates one potential pathway from early developing social difficulties to later depressive symptoms and disorders.

  14. Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2012-01-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and depression by age 20. This mediational model was tested in a community sample of 702 Australian youth followed from mother’s pregnancy to youth age 20. Structural equation modeling analyses found support for a model in which childhood social withdrawal predicted adolescent social impairment, which, in turn, predicted depression in young adulthood. Additionally, gender was found to moderate the relationship between adolescent social impairment and depression in early adulthood, with females exhibiting a stronger association between social functioning and depression at the symptom and diagnostic level. This study illuminates one potential pathway from early developing social difficulties to later depressive symptoms and disorders. PMID:21744059

  15. Consequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor withdrawal in CNS neurons and implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Mariga, Abigail; Mitre, Mariela; Chao, Moses V.

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor withdrawal has been studied across different species and has been shown to have dramatic consequences on cell survival. In the nervous system, withdrawal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from sympathetic and sensory neurons results in substantial neuronal cell death, signifying a requirement for NGF for the survival of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In contrast to the PNS, withdrawal of central nervous system (CNS) enriched brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has little effect on cell survival but is indispensible for synaptic plasticity. Given that most early events in neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by a loss of synapses, lack of BDNF may thus be an important part of a cascade of events that leads to neuronal degeneration. Here we review reports on the effects of BDNF withdrawal on CNS neurons and discuss the relevance of the loss in disease. PMID:27015693

  16. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  17. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 pathway mediates the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Contarino, Angelo; Papaleo, Francesco

    2005-12-20

    The negative affective symptoms of opiate withdrawal powerfully motivate drug-seeking behavior and may trigger relapse to heroin abuse. To date, no medications exist that effectively relieve the negative affective symptoms of opiate withdrawal. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been hypothesized to mediate the motivational effects of drug dependence. The CRF signal is transmitted by two distinct receptors named CRF receptor-1 (CRF1) and CRF2. Here we report that genetic disruption of CRF1 receptor pathways in mice eliminates the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal. In particular, neither CRF1 receptor heterozygous (CRF1+/-) nor homozygous (CRF1-/-) null mutant mice avoided environmental cues repeatedly paired with the early phase of opiate withdrawal. These results were not due to altered associative learning processes because CRF1+/- and CRF1-/- mice displayed reliable, conditioned place aversions to environmental cues paired with the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H. We also examined the impact of CRF1 receptor-deficiency upon opiate withdrawal-induced dynorphin activity in the nucleus accumbens, a brain molecular mechanism thought to underlie the negative affective states of drug withdrawal. Consistent with the behavioral indices, we found that, during the early phase of opiate withdrawal, neither CRF1+/- nor CRF1-/- showed increased dynorphin mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. This study reveals a cardinal role for CRF/CRF1 receptor pathways in the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal and suggests therapeutic strategies for the treatment of opiate addiction.

  18. Anti-leukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids in the management of recurrent and/or chronic asthma in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Ducharme, Francine M

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-leukotrienes (5-lipoxygenase inhibitors and leukotriene receptors antagonists) serve as alternative monotherapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in the management of recurrent and/or chronic asthma in adults and children. Objectives To determine the safety and efficacy of anti-leukotrienes compared to inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy in adults and children with asthma and to provide better insight into the influence of patient and treatment characteristics on the magnitude of effects. Search methods We searched MEDLINE (1966 to Dec 2010), EMBASE (1980 to Dec 2010), CINAHL (1982 to Dec 2010), the Cochrane Airways Group trials register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Dec 2010), abstract books, and reference lists of review articles and trials. We contacted colleagues and the international headquarters of anti-leukotrienes producers. Selection criteria We included randomised trials that compared anti-leukotrienes with inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy for a minimum period of four weeks in patients with asthma aged two years and older. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the methodological quality of trials and extracted data. The primary outcome was the number of patients with at least one exacerbation requiring systemic corticosteroids. Secondary outcomes included patients with at least one exacerbation requiring hospital admission, lung function tests, indices of chronic asthma control, adverse effects, withdrawal rates and biological inflammatory markers. Main results Sixty-five trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Fifty-six trials (19 paediatric trials) contributed data (representing total of 10,005 adults and 3,333 children); 21 trials were of high methodological quality; 44 were published in full-text. All trials pertained to patients with mild or moderate persistent asthma. Trial durations varied from four to 52 weeks. The median dose of inhaled corticosteroids

  19. System among the corticosteroids: specificity and molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Jennifer C.; Galigniana, Mario D.; Harker, Anthony H.; Stoneham, A. Marshall; Vinson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how structural features determine specific biological activities has often proved elusive. With over 161 000 steroid structures described, an algorithm able to predict activity from structural attributes would provide manifest benefits. Molecular simulations of a range of 35 corticosteroids show striking correlations between conformational mobility and biological specificity. Thus steroid ring A is important for glucocorticoid action, and is rigid in the most specific (and potent) examples, such as dexamethasone. By contrast, ring C conformation is important for the mineralocorticoids, and is rigid in aldosterone. Other steroids that are less specific, or have mixed functions, or none at all, are more flexible. One unexpected example is 11-deoxycorticosterone, which the methods predict (and our activity studies confirm) is not only a specific mineralocorticoid, but also has significant glucocorticoid activity. These methods may guide the design of new corticosteroid agonists and antagonists. They will also have application in other examples of ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:21613285

  20. Fulminant Ocular Toxoplasmosis: The Hazards of Corticosteroid Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oray, Merih; Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Cebeci, Zafer; Kir, Nur; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2016-12-01

    To describe fulminant toxoplasma retinochoroiditis induced by corticosteroid monotherapy. Clinical records of nine patients were reviewed. All patients (five female, four male; aged 15-64 years) had been misdiagnosed as unilateral non-infectious uveitis and given systemic and/or local corticosteroid injections elsewhere. Mean disease duration before referral was 105.6 ± 71 (45-240) days. Visual acuity at presentation was <20/200 in six eyes. Average lesion size was 6.6 disc areas in eight eyes and all four quadrants were involved in one. Toxoplasma DNA was detected in eight tested eyes. Mean duration of anti-toxoplasmic therapy was 92.5 ± 37.1 days. Three eyes developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Four patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Final visual acuity was <20/200 in five eyes. Iatrogenic immunosuppression due to initial misdiagnosis may lead to an aggressive course and serious complications of ocular toxoplasmosis, a potentially self-limiting infection.

  1. [Crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroids: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bilan, P; Colin-Gorski, A-M; Chapelon, E; Sigal, M-L; Mahé, E

    2015-12-01

    The frequency of scabies is increasing in France. Crusted (or Norwegian) scabies is a very contagious form of scabies because of the huge number of mites in the skin. It is observed in patients suffering from immunodepression, motor or sensory deficiency, or mental retardation. The clinical presentation, except for the classic manifestation of scabies, is characterized by crusted lesions. Treatment is not easy and requires hospitalization. Topical corticosteroids are frequently used for children's dermatological diseases. Their long-term and inappropriate application in an infested scabies child can induce crusted scabies. We report on a case of an 8-year-old boy who developed crusted scabies induced by topical corticosteroid application. We discuss the therapeutic aspects of this severe form of scabies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of Action of Topical Corticosteroids in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Antunes, Joana; Cruz, Diogo; Ferreira, João; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong, chronic, and immune-mediated systemic disease, which affects approximately 1–3% of the Caucasian population. The different presentations of psoriasis require different approaches to treatment and appropriate prescriptions according to disease severity. The use of topical therapy remains a key component of the management of almost all psoriasis patients, and while mild disease is commonly treated only with topical agents, the use of topical therapy as adjuvant therapy in moderate-to-severe disease may also be helpful. This paper focuses on the cutaneous mechanisms of action of corticosteroids and on the currently available topical treatments, taking into account adverse effects, bioavailability, new combination treatments, and strategies to improve the safety of corticosteroids. It is established that the treatment choice should be tailored to match the individual patient's needs and his/her expectations, prescribing to each patient the most suitable vehicle. PMID:23213332

  3. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  4. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study examined the interrelations among BI, attention biases to threat, and social withdrawal already manifest in early childhood. Children (N=187, 83 Male, Mage=61.96 months) were characterized for BI in toddlerhood (24 & 36 months). At 5 years, they completed an attention bias task and concurrent social withdrawal was measured. As expected, BI in toddlerhood predicted high levels of social withdrawal in early childhood. However, this relation was moderated by attention bias. The BI-withdrawal association was only evident for children who displayed an attention bias toward threat. The data provide further support for models associating attention with socioemotional development and the later emergence of clinical anxiety. PMID:21318555

  5. Attention biases to threat link behavioral inhibition to social withdrawal over time in very young children.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K; Henderson, Heather A; Degnan, Kathryn A; Hane, Amie A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-08-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior studies examine the association between attention bias and BI before adolescence. The current study examined the interrelations among BI, attention biases to threat, and social withdrawal already manifest in early childhood. Children (N=187, 83 Male, M (age)=61.96 months) were characterized for BI in toddlerhood (24 & 36 months). At 5 years, they completed an attention bias task and concurrent social withdrawal was measured. As expected, BI in toddlerhood predicted high levels of social withdrawal in early childhood. However, this relation was moderated by attention bias. The BI-withdrawal association was only evident for children who displayed an attention bias toward threat. The data provide further support for models associating attention with socioemotional development and the later emergence of clinical anxiety.

  6. Nocardia keratitis: Clinical course and effect of corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Priya, Jeganathan Lakshmi; Sy, Aileen; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical course of Nocardia spp keratitis with keratitis due to other bacterial organisms, and to assess the effect of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy using data collected from the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT). Design Sub-group analysis of a randomized controlled trial Methods Setting Multicenter randomized controlled trial Study Population 500 patients with bacterial keratitis, randomized 1:1 to topical corticosteroid or placebo who had received at least 48 hours of topical moxifloxacin Intervention/Observation Procedure Topical prednisolone phosphate 1% or placebo; clinical course of Nocardia keratitis Main outcome measures Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate/scar size at 3 months from enrollment Results Of 500 patients enrolled in the trial, 55 (11%) had a Nocardia corneal ulcer. Patients with Nocardia ulcers had better presentation visual acuity compared to non-Nocardia ulcers (median Snellen 20/45 compared to 20/145, P<0.001), and comparable 3-month visual acuity (median 20/25 versus 20/40, P=0.25). Nocardia ulcers had approximately 2 lines less improvement in visual acuity compared to non-Nocardia ulcers (0.21 logMAR, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.33 logMAR, P=0.001). This difference may reflect the better starting visual acuity in patients with Nocardia ulcers. In Nocardia ulcers, corticosteroids were associated with an average 0.4 mm increase in 3-month infiltrate/scar size (95% CI 0.03 to 0.77mm, P=0.03). Conclusion Nocardia ulcers responded well to treatment. They showed less overall improvement in visual acuity than non-Nocardia ulcers, but had better presentation acuity. Corticosteroids may be associated with worse outcomes. PMID:22959881

  7. Nocardia keratitis: clinical course and effect of corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Priya, Jeganathan Lakshmi; Sy, Aileen; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ray, Kathryn J; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R

    2012-12-01

    To compare the clinical course of Nocardia species keratitis with keratitis resulting from other bacterial organisms and to assess the effect of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy using data collected from the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. setting: Multicenter randomized controlled trial. study population: Five hundred patients with bacterial keratitis randomized 1:1 to topical corticosteroid or placebo who had received at least 48 hours of topical moxifloxacin. intervention/observation procedure: Topical prednisolone phosphate 1% or placebo and clinical course of Nocardia keratitis. main outcome measures: Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months from enrollment. Of 500 patients enrolled in the trial, 55 (11%) had a Nocardia corneal ulcer. Patients with Nocardia ulcers had better presentation visual acuity compared with non-Nocardia ulcers (median Snellen visual acuity, 20/45, compared with 20/145; P < .001) and comparable 3-month visual acuity (median, 20/25, vs 20/40; P = .25). Nocardia ulcers had approximately 2 lines less of improvement in visual acuity compared with non-Nocardia ulcers (0.21 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.33 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution; P = .001). This difference may reflect the better starting visual acuity in patients with Nocardia ulcers. In Nocardia ulcers, corticosteroids were associated with an average 0.4-mm increase in 3-month infiltrate or scar size (95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.77 mm; P = .03). Nocardia ulcers responded well to treatment. They showed less overall improvement in visual acuity than non-Nocardia ulcers, but had better presentation acuity. Corticosteroids may be associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis: outcomes and response to corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Sy, Aileen; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ray, Kathryn J; Glidden, David; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R

    2012-01-25

    To compare the clinical course and effect of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with those of all other strains of bacterial keratitis. Subanalyses were performed on data collected in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT), a large randomized controlled trial in which patients were treated with moxifloxacin and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 adjunctive treatment arms: corticosteroid or placebo (4 times a day with subsequent reduction). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of predictors, organism, and treatment on outcomes, 3-month best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and infiltrate/scar size. The incidence of adverse events over a 3-month follow-up period was compared using Fisher's exact test. SCUT enrolled 500 patients. One hundred ten patients had P. aeruginosa ulcers; 99 of 110 (90%) enrolled patients returned for follow-up at 3 months. Patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers had significantly worse visual acuities than patients with other bacterial ulcers (P = 0.001) but showed significantly more improvement in 3-month BSCVA than those with other bacterial ulcers, adjusting for baseline characteristics (-0.14 logMAR; 95% confidence interval, -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in adverse events between P. aeruginosa and other bacterial ulcers. There were no significant differences in BSCVA (P = 0.69), infiltrate/scar size (P = 0.17), and incidence of adverse events between patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers treated with adjunctive corticosteroids and patients given placebo. Although P. aeruginosa corneal ulcers have a more severe presentation, they appear to respond better to treatment than other bacterial ulcers. The authors did not find a significant benefit with corticosteroid treatment, but they also did not find any increase in adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.).

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis: Outcomes and Response to Corticosteroid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Aileen; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Lalitha, Prajna; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Glidden, David; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the clinical course and effect of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with those of all other strains of bacterial keratitis. Methods. Subanalyses were performed on data collected in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT), a large randomized controlled trial in which patients were treated with moxifloxacin and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 adjunctive treatment arms: corticosteroid or placebo (4 times a day with subsequent reduction). Multivariate analysis was used to determine the effect of predictors, organism, and treatment on outcomes, 3-month best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and infiltrate/scar size. The incidence of adverse events over a 3-month follow-up period was compared using Fisher's exact test. Results. SCUT enrolled 500 patients. One hundred ten patients had P. aeruginosa ulcers; 99 of 110 (90%) enrolled patients returned for follow-up at 3 months. Patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers had significantly worse visual acuities than patients with other bacterial ulcers (P = 0.001) but showed significantly more improvement in 3-month BSCVA than those with other bacterial ulcers, adjusting for baseline characteristics (−0.14 logMAR; 95% confidence interval, −0.23 to −0.04; P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in adverse events between P. aeruginosa and other bacterial ulcers. There were no significant differences in BSCVA (P = 0.69), infiltrate/scar size (P = 0.17), and incidence of adverse events between patients with P. aeruginosa ulcers treated with adjunctive corticosteroids and patients given placebo. Conclusions. Although P. aeruginosa corneal ulcers have a more severe presentation, they appear to respond better to treatment than other bacterial ulcers. The authors did not find a significant benefit with corticosteroid treatment, but they also did not find any increase in adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00324168.) PMID:22159005

  10. Neurosarcoidosis associated with hypersomnolence treated with corticosteroids and brain irradiation

    SciT

    Rubinstein, I.; Gray, T.A.; Moldofsky, H.

    1988-07-01

    Narcoleptic features developed in a young man with CNS sarcoidosis. This was associated with a structural lesion in the hypothalamus as demonstrated on CT scans of the head. The diagnosis of narcolepsy was established by compatible clinical history and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids was ineffective, but when the low-dose, whole-brain irradiation was added, complete resolution of the narcoleptic features ensued.

  11. Chemical Pathways of Corticosteroids, Industrial Synthesis from Sapogenins.

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are products of high industrial and commercial importance. There are dozens of different synthesis published for all of them. Some are coming from academia and some from industry. Here, industrial processes for the synthesis of prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, and methylprednisolone are described. The starting material is diosgenin and the desired molecules are reached due to a good combination of chemistry and biotechnology that was developed along the second part of the twentieth century.

  12. Inhaled corticosteroids and Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Noni, Maria; Katelari, Anna; Dimopoulos, George; Kourlaba, Georgia; Spoulou, Vana; Alexandrou-Athanassoulis, Helen; Doudounakis, Stavros-Eleftherios; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cultures from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is quite common; however, the role of A. fumigatus as a pathogen and whether its presence is associated with progression of pulmonary disease remain unclear. We investigated the association between inhaled corticosteroids and the recovery of A. fumigatus by performing a retrospective cohort study of CF patients born between 1988 and 1996. The patients' medical records from their first visit to the CF Center until December 2010 were reviewed. Outcomes were the occurrence of A. fumigatus first isolation, chronic colonization, or the last visit at the CF Center. A number of possible confounders were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify an independent association between inhaled corticosteroids and colonization status. A total of 121 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (32.2%) had at least one positive culture and 14 (11.6%) developed chronic colonization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the odds of first isolation (odds ratio [OR], 1.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015-1.337; P = 0.029) and chronic colonization (OR, 1.180; 95% CI, 1.029-1.353; P = 0.018). In conclusion, A. fumigatus first isolation and chronic colonization are associated with the duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of corticosteroids on hyposmia in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Catana, Iuliu V; Chirila, Magdalena; Negoias, Simona; Bologa, Ramona; Cosgarea, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    To asses the effects of two topical nasal corticosteroids sprays on hyposmia in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. The study was a prospective clinical trial and it included twenty four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) and hyposmia (H). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the type of corticosteroid topical nasal spray treatment: group A, 200 micrograms dose of mometasone furoate (MF) and group B, 110 micrograms dose of fluticasone furoate (FF) both administered in the morning for 4 weeks. The olfactory function of the patients was evaluated with the extended Test battery "Sniffin' Sticks". The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the assessment of hyposmia, nasal discharge. The level of the nasal obstruction, before and after the treatment, was evaluated through the anterior rhinomanometry. The comparisons between the two types of topical corticosteroids showed a significant improvement separately between scores of the odor threshold (OT), odor discrimination (OD) and odor identification (OI) and also on the final olfactory score (SDI) before and after 4 weeks of the treatment. The comparisons of the VAS scores pre and post treatment showed a significant improvement in hyposmia and nasal obstruction. The nasal airflow and the nasal discharge scores were improved, but the differences were not statistically significant between the groups. The final statistical analysis found no significant differences between the two patients groups. The study concludes that fluticasone furoate and mometasone furoate have quite the same effects on hyposmia and on the classical symptoms from PER.

  14. Fluoroscopically Guided Peritendinous Corticosteroid Injection for Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Luke T.; DiSegna, Steven; Newman, Joel S.; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an uncommon but debilitating cause of posterior thigh pain in athletes subjected to repetitive eccentric hamstring contraction, such as runners. Minimal data exist evaluating treatment options for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Purpose: This retrospective study evaluates the effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injections in treating proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eighteen athletes with 22 cases of magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed proximal hamstring tendinopathy were treated with corticosteroid injection and later contacted to evaluate the efficacy of the injection with the use of a questionnaire. Results: The visual analog score decreased from 7.22 preinjection to 3.94 postinjection (P < .001), level of athletic participation increased from 28.76% to 68.82% (P < .001) at a mean follow-up of 21 months, and 38.8% of patients experienced complete resolution at a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. The mean lower extremity function score at the time of follow-up was 60. Conclusion: A trial of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injection is warranted in patients presenting with symptoms of proximal hamstring tendinopathy refractory to conservative therapy. PMID:26535310

  15. Management of autoimmune hepatitis: Focus on pharmacologic treatments beyond corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Casal Moura, Marta; Liberal, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Hélder; Horta e Vale, Ana Maria; Macedo, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    In autoimmune hepatitis, patients who are intolerant or with toxicity experience, non-responders, relapsers or refractory are challenging. Non-standard drugs are being tried to preemptively avoid corticosteroid-related side effects. Prognosis and quality of life of life rely on treatment optimization. Recently, emergence of powerful immunosuppressive agents, mainly from liver transplantation, challenged the supremacy of the corticosteroid regime and promise greater immunosuppression than conventional medications, offer site-specific actions and satisfactory patient tolerance. Successes in experimental models of related diseases have primed these molecular interventions. We performed a literature review on alternative treatments. Azatioprine intolerance is the principal indication for mycophenolate use but it can be used as a front-line therapy. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus have been tested for non-responders or relapsers. Rituximab may be used as salvage therapy. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents may be used for incomplete responses or non-responders. Methotrexate is possibly an alternative for induction of remission and maintenance in refractory patients. Cyclophosphamide has been included in the induction regimen with corticosteroids. Ursodeoxycholic acid action is mainly immunomodulatory. Non-standard treatments are coming slowly to the attention, but its use should be cautious performed by experienced centers. PMID:25018851

  16. Visual acuity and astigmatism in periocular infantile hemangiomas treated with oral beta-blocker versus intralesional corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Erin P; Kelly, John P; Sidbury, Robert; Perkins, Jonathan A; Weiss, Avery H

    2016-02-01

    Periocular infantile hemangiomas (PIH) can induce anisometropic astigmatism, a risk factor for amblyopia. Oral beta-blocker therapy has largely supplanted systemic or intralesional corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and time course of these treatment modalities on visual acuity and induced astigmatism. The medical records of patients with PIH treated with oral propanolol between November 2008 and July 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for data on visual acuity and astigmatism. Patients with incomplete pre- and post-treatment ophthalmic examinations were excluded. Results were compared to those of a similar cohort treated with intralesional corticosteroid injection. Mean astigmatism in affected eyes was 1.90 D before propranolol and 1.00 D after; patients showed a monophasic reduction in astigmatism over 12 months. By comparison, patients treated with corticosteroid injection showed a biphasic response, with an immediate steep decrease followed by a slow monophasic decline, paralleling propranolol-treated patients. Oral propranolol treatment caused a 47% reduction in mean induced astigmatism, less than the 63% reduction reported for the cohort treated with corticosteroid. No patient had visual acuity in the affected eye more than 1 standard devation below the age-matched norm, and none experienced significant side effects when treated with oral propranolol. In this patient cohort oral beta-blocker was well-tolerated. Treatment was therefore often initiated prior to the induction of significant astigmatism, with treatment effects comparable to steroid treatment. Visual outcomes were good. Early treatment may minimize the potential effect of astigmatism on postnatal visual development. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intractable nausea caused by zolpidem withdrawal: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Edward; Vernon, Leonard F; Hasbun, Rafael J

    2007-03-01

    First launched in France in 1988, zolpidem (Ambien®) is a short-acting hypnotic agent. Early studies reported that that the development of physical dependence and tolerance to sedative-hypnotic drugs, such as the depressant and anticonvulsant effects evidenced with benzodiazepines, is not found with zolpidem. Direct to consumer advertising by the manufacturer continues to state that the risk for dependency is low; however, recent publications seem to contradict this. Additionally, adverse drug reactions affecting the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory system have been reported. Other studies have examined the interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and zolpidem as a possible cause of hallucinations. With continued physician marketing efforts touting the safety and efficacy of zolpidem, there is a high likelihood to overlook the risk of dependency and the symptoms related to zolpidem withdrawal. We report a case of a 41-year-old female who developed a dependency to zolpidem, who on her own decided to decrease her dosage, resulting in intractable nausea requiring hospitalization. Reported cases of zolpidem withdrawal have occurred with doses in excess of 160 mg per day, none of these have reported with intractable nausea as the sole symptom. In our reported case, although exceeding recommended dosage withdrawal phenomenon seemed to be severe after withdrawal from a comparatively low dose of zolpidem. Before zolpidem is prescribed, patient education should include warnings about the potential problems associated with dependency and abrupt discontinuation. Education about this common and likely underrecognized clinical phenomenon will help prevent future episodes and minimize the risk of misdiagnosis.

  18. A lack of association between severity of nicotine withdrawal and individual differences in compensatory nicotine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Pentel, Paul R.; Burroughs, Danielle; Staley, Mylissa D.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Compensatory smoking may represent an adverse consequence of smoking reduction or the use of reduced nicotine tobacco products. Factors contributing to individual variability in compensation are poorly understood. Objective To examine whether severity of nicotine withdrawal as measured by elevated intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds is related to individual differences in compensatory nicotine self-administration (NSA) following unit dose reduction. Methods Rats were trained for ICSS and NSA (0.06 mg/kg/inf). After stabilization, effects of reducing the nicotine unit dose to 0.03 mg/kg/inf were examined. Following reacquisition of NSA (0.06 mg/kg/inf), effects of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal and saline extinction (spontaneous withdrawal) were examined. Results Reducing the NSA unit dose produced partial compensation as indicated by increased infusion rates but a 35% mean decrease in daily nicotine intake. Magnitude of compensation varied considerably among rats. Dose reduction did not elicit withdrawal in rats as a group, although there were substantial increases in ICSS thresholds in some animals. Intracranial self-stimulation thresholds were consistently elevated during precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal, confirming that rats were nicotine-dependent. Individual differences in compensation were not correlated with changes in ICSS thresholds during dose reduction, precipitated withdrawal, or spontaneous withdrawal. In a secondary analysis, greater precipitated withdrawal severity predicted greater initial nicotine-seeking during extinction. Conclusions Severity of nicotine withdrawal was not related to the degree of compensation in this protocol. These data do not support a role for nicotine withdrawal in individual differences in compensation during reduced nicotine exposure, but do suggest that withdrawal may contribute to nicotine-seeking during early abstinence. PMID:21494791

  19. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  20. Management of acute overdose or withdrawal state in intrathecal baclofen therapy.

    PubMed

    Watve, S V; Sivan, M; Raza, W A; Jamil, F F

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who are treated with intrathecal Baclofen (ITB) pump delivery system for intractable spasticity can suffer from severe morbidity as a result of acute overdose or withdrawal of ITB, which can also be life threatening. Current literature has a number of single case studies with different approaches to the management in such states. The aim of this article is to consolidate available evidence and develop treatment pathways for acute ITB overdose and withdrawal states. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases using the keywords 'intrathecal', 'baclofen', 'withdrawal', 'overdose' to identify studies (published up to December 2010) that focused on presentation or treatment of acute overdose and withdrawal state in ITB therapy. Only original articles in English involving adult population were included. Initial search revealed 130 articles. After reading the abstract, 13 studies on ITB overdose and 23 studies on ITB withdrawal were deemed suitable for inclusion. All studies were either single-case studies or case series. Acute ITB overdose is managed with immediate cessation of baclofen delivery through the system, reducing the baclofen load by cerebrospinal fluid aspiration and by providing supportive treatment in an intensive care setting. There is no specific antidote for reversing overdose symptoms. Acute ITB withdrawal is managed by restoring the delivery of ITB, providing supportive care in an intensive care setting and using drugs like low dose propofol or benzodiazepines in selected cases. Early involvement of ITB physicians is strongly recommended.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Mirijello, Antonio; D’Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop within 6–24 hours after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is represented by benzodiazepines. Among them, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as alpha2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and beta-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptics can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin, and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents will be discussed in the text. PMID:25666543

  2. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each... that slot or one acquired by trade of that slot, if the resulting total of slots held or operated at...

  3. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  4. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  5. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p < .001). Withdrawal scores in both groups decreased over the subsequent 2-week period with no group differences, F (1, 910) = 0.50, p = .48. A similar pattern was observed on craving (i.e., Desire to Smoke item of MNWS), although the trajectory of decrease over time on this item was also moderated by gender. Overall, there was no difference in withdrawal during biochemically verified smoking abstinence between OD and non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi, 1990

    Johnson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  8. 29 CFR 1956.24 - Procedures for withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for withdrawal of approval. 1956.24 Section 1956..., Change, Evaluation and Withdrawal of Approval Procedures § 1956.24 Procedures for withdrawal of approval... withdrawal of approval of plans approved under this part 1956, except that (because these plans, as do public...

  9. 8 CFR 235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission to withdraw an application for... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of application for admission... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.4 Withdrawal of application for admission. The Attorney...

  10. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application? (a) Request for withdrawal filed before a determination is made. You may withdraw your application...

  11. Inhaled corticosteroids and the increased risk of pneumonia: what’s new? A 2015 updated review

    PubMed Central

    Iannella, Hernan; Luna, Carlos; Waterer, Grant

    2016-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of evidence that supports the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia associated with prolonged use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, as yet, no statistically significant increase in pneumonia-related 30-day mortality in patients on ICS has been demonstrated. The lack of objective pneumonia definitions and radiological confirmations have been a major source of bias, because of the similarities in clinical presentation between pneumonia and acute exacerbations of COPD. One of the newer fluticasone furoate studies overcomes these limitations and also provides an assessment of a range of doses, suggesting that the therapeutic window is quite narrow and that conventional dosing has probably been too high, although the absolute risk may be different compared to other drugs. Newer studies were not able to rule out budesonide as responsible for pneumonia, as previous evidence suggested, and there is still need for evidence from head-to-head comparisons in order to better assess possible intra-class differences. Although the exact mechanisms by which ICS increase the risk of pneumonia are not fully understood, the immunosuppressive effects of ICS on the respiratory epithelium and the disruption of the lung microbiome are most likely to be implicated. Given that COPD represents such a complex and heterogeneous disease, attempts are being made to identify clinical phenotypes with clear therapeutic implications, in order to optimize the pharmacological treatment of COPD and avoid the indiscriminate use of ICS. If deemed necessary, gradual withdrawal of ICS appears to be well tolerated. Vaccination against pneumococcus and influenza should be emphasized in patients with COPD receiving ICS. Physicians should keep in mind that signs and symptoms of pneumonia in COPD patients may be initially indistinguishable from those of an exacerbation, and that patients with COPD

  12. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Mediate Cognitive Deficits and Structural Plasticity Changes During Nicotine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Rocio; Flores, África; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de la Torre, Rafael; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. We investigated in mice the role of CB 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB 1 Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system and genetically modified mice were used. Memory impairment during nicotine withdrawal was blocked by the CB 1 R antagonist rimonabant or the genetic deletion of CB 1 R in forebrain gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons (GABA-CB 1 R). An increase of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide, was observed during nicotine withdrawal. The selective inhibitor of 2-AG biosynthesis O7460 abolished cognitive deficits of nicotine abstinence, whereas the inhibitor of 2-AG enzymatic degradation JZL184 did not produce any effect in cognitive impairment. Moreover, memory impairment was prevented by the selective mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor temsirolimus and the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Mature dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal hippocampal neurons decreased 4 days after the precipitation of nicotine withdrawal, when the cognitive deficits were still present. Indeed, a correlation between memory performance and mature spine density was found. Interestingly, these structural plasticity alterations were normalized in GABA-CB 1 R conditional knockout mice and after subchronic treatment with rimonabant. These findings underline the interest of CB 1 R as a target to improve cognitive performance during early nicotine withdrawal. Cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Statin withdrawal: clinical implications and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Luigi X; Seamon, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Retrospective analyses of data from the Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management (PRISM), the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4, and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) trials revealed that the benefits of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) on acute coronary outcomes are rapidly lost and outcomes worsened if statins are discontinued during a patient's hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome. Withdrawal of statin therapy in the first 24 hours of hospitalization for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction increased the hospital morbidity and mortality rate versus continued therapy (11.9% vs 5.7%, p<0.01). Data from the Treating New Targets (TNT) study, however, suggested that short-term discontinuation of statin therapy in patients with stable cardiac conditions may not substantially increase the risk of acute coronary syndromes. In patients with acute coronary syndromes who discontinue statins, the rapid increase in risk of an event may result not only from the lost benefits from the therapy, but also from rebound inhibition of vascular protective substances and activation of vascular deleterious substances. Statins inhibit cholesterol synthesis in vascular cells. By reducing levels of isoprenoid intermediates, statins increase the production of nitric oxide and downregulate angiotensin II AT(1) receptors, endothelin-1, vascular inflammatory adhesion molecules, and inflammatory cytokines. These benefits are rapidly lost and often transiently reversed when statins are acutely discontinued. Acute removal of pleiotropic effects and rebound vascular dysfunction may be more important in an acute coronary event, where inflammation promotes rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and inflammatory and prothrombosis markers are present in high concentration, than in stable chronic vascular disease. In the absence of data from randomized controlled trials, current information suggests that

  14. Withdrawing low risk women from cervical screening programmes: mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S; Jenkins, D

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of policies for removing women before the recommended age of 64 from screening programmes for cervical cancer in the United Kingdom. Design A mathematical model of the clinical course of precancerous lesions which accounts for the influence of infection with the human papillomavirus, the effects of screening on the progression of disease, and the accuracy of the testing procedures. Two policies are compared: one in which women are withdrawn from the programme if their current smear is negative and they have a recent history of regular, negative results and one in which women are withdrawn if their current smear test is negative and a simultaneous test is negative for exposure to high risk types of human papillomavirus. Setting United Kingdom cervical screening programme. Main outcome measures The incidence of invasive cervical cancer and the use of resources. Results Early withdrawal of selected women from the programme is predicted to give rise to resource savings of up to 25% for smear tests and 18% for colposcopies when withdrawal occurs from age 50, the youngest age considered in the study. An increase in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer, by up to 2 cases/100 000 women each year is predicted. Testing for human papillomavirus infection to determine which women should be withdrawn from the programme makes little difference to outcome. Conclusions This model systematically analyses the consequences of screening options using available data and the clinical course of precancerous lesions. If further audit studies confirm the model’s forecasts, a policy of early withdrawal might be considered. This would be likely to release substantial resources which could be channelled into other aspects of health care or may be more effectively used within the cervical screening programme to counteract the possible increase in cancer incidence that early withdrawal might bring. Key messagesIn the United Kingdom there is concern that

  15. The therapeutic effects of a topical tretinoin and corticosteroid combination for vitiligo: a placebo-controlled, paired-comparison, left-right study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Choi, Yunseok; Kim, Hwa Jung; Lee, Ai-Young

    2013-04-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) prevents skin atrophy induced by long-term use of topical corticosteroids, without abrogating their anti-inflammatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of tretinoin plus topical corticosteroids (tretinoin plus) for repigmentation in patients with vitiligo. A placebo-controlled, paired-comparison, left-right study was conducted for a period of 6 months on tretinoin plus and the vehicle plus the same topical corticosteroid (vehicle plus) treatment in 50 patients diagnosed with generalized vitiligo. Clinical responses were assessed using the computerized analysis, and the results were compared with the visual analysis. The percentage agreement between the 2 analyses was 91.8%. Among 49 participants who successfully completed this study, 27 (55%) showed a better response to tretinoin plus than to vehicle plus. The improved response was noted at an early stage of treatment, during the first 3 months in 60% of patients. Combined therapy with tretinoin plus topical corticosteroids is safe and effective and provides another option for treatment of patients with vitiligo.

  16. Participant Withdrawal as a Function of Hedonic Value of Task and Time of Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellone, John A.; Navarick, Douglas J.; Mendoza, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates participating in experiments late in the semester generally perform more poorly on demanding tasks and withdraw more often than those participating early. To investigate effects of task aversiveness, some participants were instructed to choose brief cartoon reinforcement with a long time-out while others were instructed to choose…

  17. Approach-Withdrawal and the Role of the Striatum in the Temperament of Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfinstein, Sarah M.; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is a temperament characterized in infancy and early childhood by a tendency to withdraw from novel or unfamiliar stimuli. Children exhibiting this disposition, relative to children with other dispositions, are more socially reticent, less likely to initiate interaction with peers, and more likely to develop anxiety over time.…

  18. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  19. Starting small: Revisiting young children's perceptions of social withdrawal in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuechen; Coplan, Robert J; Sang, Biao; Liu, Junsheng; Pan, Tingting; Cheng, Chen

    2015-06-01

    In this reply to the commentaries by Xinyin Chen, Charissa Cheah, Yiyuan Xu, and Dawn Watling, we further discuss the conceptual and methodological challenges that arise when attempting to study beliefs about social withdrawal (1) in the unique cultural context of China and (2) in the unique developmental age period of early childhood. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Cross-reactions to desoximetasone and mometasone furoate in a patient with multiple topical corticosteroid allergies.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jeffrey C H; Dekoven, Joel G

    2006-09-01

    A 60-year-old man developed a bullous contact dermatitis after topical corticosteroid treatment of dermatitis on his lower leg. Subsequent patch testing showed cross-reactions to numerous group B and group D corticosteroids as well as cross-reactions to group C desoximetasone and group D1 mometasone furoate. His patch-test result was negative for the group A corticosteroids hydrocortisone and tixocortol pivalate. We discuss the uncommon finding of cross-reactions to desoximetasone and mometasone furoate.

  1. Effects of corticosteroids on hyposmia in persistent allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    CATANA, IULIU V.; CHIRILA, MAGDALENA; NEGOIAS, SIMONA; BOLOGA, RAMONA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Objective To asses the effects of two topical nasal corticosteroids sprays on hyposmia in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Material and Methods The study was a prospective clinical trial and it included twenty four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) and hyposmia (H). The patients were divided into two groups depending on the type of corticosteroid topical nasal spray treatment: group A, 200 micrograms dose of mometasone furoate (MF) and group B, 110 micrograms dose of fluticasone furoate (FF) both administered in the morning for 4 weeks. The olfactory function of the patients was evaluated with the extended Test battery „Sniffin’ Sticks”. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the assessment of hyposmia, nasal discharge. The level of the nasal obstruction, before and after the treatment, was evaluated through the anterior rhinomanometry. Results The comparisons between the two types of topical corticosteroids showed a significant improvement separately between scores of the odor threshold (OT), odor discrimination (OD) and odor identification (OI) and also on the final olfactory score (SDI) before and after 4 weeks of the treatment. The comparisons of the VAS scores pre and post treatment showed a significant improvement in hyposmia and nasal obstruction. The nasal airflow and the nasal discharge scores were improved, but the differences were not statistically significant between the groups. The final statistical analysis found no significant differences between the two patients groups. Conclusion The study concludes that fluticasone furoate and mometasone furoate have quite the same effects on hyposmia and on the classical symptoms from PER. PMID:26527931

  2. Corticosteroid-exacerbated symptoms in an Andersen's syndrome kindred.

    PubMed

    Bendahhou, Saïd; Fournier, Emmanuel; Gallet, Serge; Ménard, Dominique; Larroque, Marie-Madeleine; Barhanin, Jacques

    2007-04-15

    Periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia and bone features are the hallmark of Andersen's syndrome (AS), a rare disorder caused by mutations in the KCNJ2 gene that encodes for the inward rectifier K(+)-channel Kir2.1. Rest following strenuous physical activity, carbohydrate ingestion, emotional stress and exposure to cold are the precipitating triggers. Most of the mutations act in a dominant-negative fashion, either through a trafficking dysfunction or through Kir2.1-phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate binding defect. We have identified two families that were diagnosed with periodic paralysis and cardiac abnormalities, but only discrete development features. The proband in one of the two families reported having his symptoms occurring twice within the day following corticosteroids ingestion, and alleviated after stopping the corticosteroid treatment. Electromyographic evaluations pointed out to a typical hypokalemic periodic paralysis pattern. Molecular screening of the KCNJ2 gene identified two mutations leading to C54F and T305P substitutions in the Kir2.1 protein. Functional expression in mammalian cells revealed a loss-of-function of the mutated channels and a dominant-negative effect when both mutants and wild-type channels are present in the same cell. However, channel trafficking and assembly are not affected. Substitutions at these residues may interfere with phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate binding to Kir2.1 channels. Sensitivity of our patients to multiple corticosteroid administrations shows that care must be taken in the use of such treatments in AS patients. Taken together, our data suggest the inclusion of the KCNJ2 gene in the molecular screening of patients with periodic paralysis, even when the classical AS dysmorphic features are not present.

  3. Should corticosteroids be used in bacterial meningitis in children?

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Semino, Margherita; Picciolli, Irene; Principi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections in infants and children, with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite the spreading of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), the most important pneumococcal serotypes and serogroup C meningococcus has reduced the incidence of this infection in developed countries, it still remains a global public health problem and an important cause of mortality and disability. Whether corticosteroids should be used as a complementary therapy to antibacterials is still not clear because of the disparate findings from clinical trials and clinical evidence. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence on the impact of corticosteroid therapy in infants and children with bacterial meningitis in developed countries in order to define whether they should be added routinely in the empiric therapy of such disease. Our analysis concluded that in high-income countries dexamethasone has shown good results to prevent hearing loss in Hib meningitis if administered before or at the same time as the first dose of antibiotics. Dexamethasone should be evaluated in pneumococcal meningitis: it may be less beneficial in children with delayed presentation to medical attention and may be unfavourable in case of cephalosporin-resistant pneumococci. On the contrary, there is no evidence to recommend the use of corticosteroids in meningococcal meningitis. Further studies that take into account the epidemiologic changes of recent years, consider enrolment based on the onset of symptoms and evaluate outcomes such as hearing loss and neurologic sequelae with advanced techniques are urgently needed. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  5. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of nasal corticosteroids in the treatment of rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O

    2011-08-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are the first choice for rhinitis pharmacotherapy. This preference is because of their broad range of actions that result in reductions of proinflammatory mediators, cytokines, and cells. Over the past 30 years, INSs have been modified to improve their pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and delivery system properties, with attention to improving characteristics such as receptor binding affinity, lipophilicity, low systemic bioavailability, and patient preference. Clinically, they have been shown to be the most effective class of nasal medications for treating allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinopathy, with no clear evidence that any specific INS is superior to others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. WITHDRAWN: Corticosteroids for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rodrigo A; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2009-04-15

    Inflammation and oedema of the facial nerve are implicated in causing Bell's palsy. Corticosteroids have a potent anti-inflammatory action which should minimise nerve damage and thereby improve the outcome of patients suffering from this condition. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of steroid therapy in the recovery of patients with Bell's palsy. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group register (searched November 2005) for randomised trials, as well as MEDLINE (January 1966 to November 2005), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2005) and LILACS (January 1982 to November 2005). We contacted known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished trials. Randomised trials comparing different routes of administration and dosage schemes of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone therapy versus a control group where no therapy considered effective for this condition was administered, unless it was also given in a similar way to the experimental group. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility, trial quality, and extracted the data. Four trials with a total of 179 patients were included. One trial compared cortisone acetate with placebo; one compared prednisone plus vitamins, with vitamins alone; one compared high-dose prednisone administered intravenously against saline solution, and one, not-placebo controlled, tested the efficacy of methylprednisolone. Allocation concealment was appropriate in two trials, and the data reported allowed an intention-to-treat analysis. The data included in the meta-analyses were collected from three trials with a total of 117 patients. Overall 13/59 (22%) of the patients allocated to steroid therapy had incomplete recovery of facial motor function six months after randomisation, compared with 15/58 (26%) in the control group. This reduction was not significant (relative risk 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.59). The reduction in the proportion of patients with

  8. Corticosteroid injection for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O'Gradaigh, D; Merry, P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare low and high dose, and short and long acting corticosteroids in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.
METHODS—A randomised, controlled, single blind trial with electromyographic and subjective outcome measures.
RESULTS—25 mg hydrocortisone is as effective as higher doses or long acting triamcinolone at a six week and six month follow up.
CONCLUSION—As low dose steroid is as effective, and potentially less toxic, this should be the recommended dose for injection of carpal tunnel syndrome.

 PMID:11053073

  9. Time to relapse after epilepsy surgery in children: AED withdrawal policies are a contributing factor.

    PubMed

    Boshuisen, Kim; Schmidt, Dieter; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Braun, Kees P J; Study Group, TimeToStop

    2014-09-01

    It was recently suggested that early postoperative seizure relapse implicates a failure to define and resect the epileptogenic zone, that late recurrences reflect the persistence or re-emergence of epileptogenic pathology, and that early recurrences are associated with poor treatment response. Timing of antiepileptic drugs withdrawal policies, however, have never been taken into account when investigating time to relapse following epilepsy surgery. Of the European paediatric epilepsy surgery cohort from the "TimeToStop" study, all 95 children with postoperative seizure recurrence following antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal were selected. We investigated how time intervals from surgery to AED withdrawal, as well as other previously suggested determinants of (timing of) seizure recurrence, related to time to relapse and to relapse treatability. Uni- and multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used. Based on multivariable analysis, a shorter interval to AED reduction was the only independent predictor of a shorter time to relapse. Based on univariable analysis, incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone related to a shorter time to recurrence. Timing of recurrence was not related to the chance of regaining seizure freedom after reinstallation of medical treatment. For children in whom AED reduction is initiated following epilepsy surgery, the time to relapse is largely influenced by the timing of AED withdrawal, rather than by disease or surgery-specific factors. We could not confirm a relationship between time to recurrence and treatment response. Timing of AED withdrawal should be taken into account when studying time to relapse following epilepsy surgery, as early withdrawal reveals more rapidly whether surgery had the intended curative effect, independently of the other factors involved.

  10. High doses of corticosteroid suppress resistance to Ichthyophonus in starry flounder

    Perry, J.A.; Kocan, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Application of pharmacological doses of the corticosteroid dexamethasone phosphate to starry flounder Platichthys stellatus resulted in a predisposition to clinical ichthyophoniasis and a progression from latent Ichthyophonus infections to patent, histologically identifiable infections. Among Ichthyophonus-challenged starry flounder, the prevalences of clinical infections and histologically identifiable infections were significantly greater in two groups that received dexamethasone (100% and 31%, respectively) than in the respective control groups (8% and 0%). Proliferation of Ichthyophonus infections in corticosteroid-treated groups may have resulted from suppression of the cellular immune response that typically follows corticosteroid application; however, further studies are needed to determine whether these effects occur at lower, physiological concentrations of corticosteroids.

  11. Comparison of combined leflunomide and low-dose corticosteroid therapy with full-dose corticosteroid monotherapy for progressive IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Min, Lulin; Wang, Qin; Cao, Liou; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Jiangzi; Zhang, Minfang; Che, Xiajing; Mou, Shan; Fang, Wei; Gu, Leyi; Zhu, Mingli; Wang, Ling; Yu, Zanzhe; Qian, Jiaqi; Ni, Zhaohui

    2017-07-18

    IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis and one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. We performed a randomized, controlled, prospective, open-label trial to determine whether leflunomide combined with low-dose corticosteroid is safe and effective for the treatment of progressive IgA nephropathy, as compared to full-dose corticosteroid monotherapy. Biopsy-proved primary IgA nephropathy patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73m2 and proteinuria ≥1.0 g/24h were randomly assigned to receive leflunomide+low-dose corticosteroid (leflunomide group; n = 40) or full-dose corticosteroid (corticosteroids group; n = 45). The primary outcome was renal survival; secondary outcomes were proteinuria and adverse events. After 12 months of treatment and an average follow-up of 88 months, 11.1% vs. 7.5% of patients reached end-stage renal disease and 20% versus 10% of patients had a ≥ 50% increase in serum creatinine in the corticosteroids and leflunomide groups, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis did not reveal a between-group difference in these outcomes. Decreases in 24-hour proteinuria were similar in the two groups during the treatment period, but a more marked reduction was observed during follow-up in the leflunomide group. Although the incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups, serious adverse events were observed only in the corticosteroid group. Thus, leflunomide combined with low-dose corticosteroid is at least as effective as corticosteroid alone for the treatment of progressive IgA nephropathy, and showed a greater reduction of proteinuria during long-term follow-up and fewer severe adverse events.

  12. Effects of the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone on bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Thompson, Jesse; Ma, Fangrui; Eudy, James; Jones, Clinton

    2017-05-01

    Sensory neurons are a primary site for life-long latency of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). The synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone induces reactivation from latency and productive infection, in part because the BoHV-1 genome contains more than 100 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsive elements (GREs). Two GREs in the immediate early transcription unit 1 promoter are required for dexamethasone induction. Recent studies also demonstrated that the serum and glucocorticoid receptor protein kinase (SGK) family stimulated BoHV-1 replication. Consequently, we hypothesized that dexamethasone influences several aspects of productive infection. In this study, we demonstrated that dexamethasone increased expression of the immediate early protein bICP4, certain late transcripts, and UL23 (thymidine kinase) by four hours after infection. SGK1 expression and Akt phosphorylation were also stimulated during early stages of infection and dexamethasone treatment further increased this effect. These studies suggest that stress, as mimicked by dexamethasone treatment, has the potential to stimulate productive infection by multiple pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  14. Prenatal glucocorticoid programming of brain corticosteroid receptors and corticotrophin-releasing hormone: possible implications for behaviour.

    PubMed

    Welberg, L A; Seckl, J R; Holmes, M C

    2001-01-01

    Glucocorticoids may underlie the association between low birth weight and adult disorders such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes and affective dysfunction. We investigated the behavioural and molecular consequences of two paradigms of prenatal dexamethasone administration in rats. Rats received dexamethasone (100 microg/kg per day) throughout pregnancy (DEX1-3), in the last third of pregnancy only (DEX3) or vehicle. Both dexamethasone treatments reduced birth weight, only DEX1-3 offspring had reduced body weight in adulthood. In adult offspring, both prenatal dexamethasone paradigms reduced exploratory behaviour in an open field. In contrast, only DEX3 reduced exploration in an elevated plus-maze and impaired behavioural responses and learning in a forced-swim test. This behavioural inhibition may reflect increased baseline corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels (30% higher) in the central nucleus of the amygdala in both dexamethasone-exposed groups. Adult DEX3 offspring also showed increased corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA with unaltered glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, suggesting reduced hippocampal sensitivity to glucocorticoid suppression of the stress axis. In contrast, DEX1-3 rats had no changes in hippocampal corticosteroid receptors, but showed increased mRNA levels for both receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. From this data we suggest that prenatal glucocorticoid exposure programs behavioural inhibition perhaps via increased amygdalar corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels, while DEX3 also impairs coping and learning in aversive situations, possibly via altered hippocampal corticosteroid receptor levels. Overexposure to glucocorticoids, especially late in gestation, may explain the link between reduced early growth and adult affective dysfunction.

  15. The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress.

    PubMed

    Allsop, David J; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Fu, Shanlin; Budney, Alan J

    2011-12-01

    Rates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of cannabis withdrawal. A volunteer sample of 49 dependent cannabis users provided daily scores on the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale during a baseline week and 2 weeks of abstinence. Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.91), test-retest stability (average intra-class correlation=0.95) and content validity analysis show that the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale has excellent psychometric properties. Nightmares and/or strange dreams was the most valid item (Wald χ²=105.6, P<0.0001), but caused relatively little associated distress (Wald χ²=25.11, P=0.03). Angry outbursts were considered intense (Wald χ²=73.69, P<0.0001) and caused much associated distress (Wald χ²=45.54, P<0.0001). Trouble getting to sleep was also an intense withdrawal symptom (Wald χ²=42.31, P<0.0001) and caused significant associated distress (Wald χ²=47.76, P<0.0001). Scores on the Severity of Dependence Scale predicted cannabis withdrawal. The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale can be used as a diagnostic instrument in clinical and research settings where regular monitoring of withdrawal symptoms is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corticosteroid for IgA Nephropathy: Are They Really Therapeutic?

    PubMed

    Lin, Yujia; Jia, Junya; Guo, Yipeng; He, Dandan; Zhang, Yaru; Wang, Fuzhen; Yan, Tiekun; Liu, Youxia; Lin, Shan

    2018-06-06

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common chronic glomerular disease that, in most patients, slowly progresses to end-stage kidney disease. The therapy with corticosteroid in IgAN is still a worldwide problem that is confusing the clinicians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and article reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared corticosteroids with placebo and any other non-immunosuppressive agents in treating IgAN. Twelve RCTs involving 1,057 patients were included. Overall, we found that steroids had statistically significant effects in preventing the decline in renal function (relative risk 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.71, p < 0.001) and reducing proteinuria (SMD: -0.58 g/day, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.36 g/day) in patients with IgAN. The association between glucocorticoid and risk of kidney outcome was not modified by steroids' type (prednisone or methylprednisone), dose (≤30 or > 30 mg/day), duration (≤8 or > 8 months), or serum creatinine (< 1.10 or ≥1.10 mg/dL). But steroids increased the risk of side effects such as gastrointestinal and endocrinium symptoms. This study provides the clear beneficial effects of the steroids therapy on the kidney function and proteinuria, although it should be used with caution. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Adrenal suppression in bronchiectasis and the impact of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Holme, J; Tomlinson, J W; Stockley, R A; Stewart, P M; Barlow, N; Sullivan, A L

    2008-10-01

    The present study identified three patients with bronchiectasis receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) who had symptomatic adrenal suppression secondary to ICS. The prevalence of adrenal suppression is unknown in bronchiectasis. The frequency of adrenal suppression and the impact of ICS use in bronchiectasis patients were examined. In total, 50 outpatients (33 receiving ICSs) underwent a short Synacthen test and completed a St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Symptoms of adrenal suppression, steroid use and lung function were compared between subjects who were suppressed and those who were not. Adrenal suppression was evident in 23.5% of subjects who did not receive ICSs and 48.5% of those who did. Basal cortisol and the increments by which cortisol increased 30 min after Synacthen were lower in suppressed than in nonsuppressed subjects. The incremental cortisol rise was negatively correlated with SGRQ impacts and total score, suggesting a worse quality of life in those who had an impaired adrenal response. The greatest frequency of generalised symptoms was seen in the suppressed group. A significant proportion of subjects with bronchiectasis have evidence of adrenal suppression, and this is increased when inhaled corticosteroids are also used. Impairment of the cortisol response to stimulation is associated with poorer health status.

  18. Patients' preferences for different corticosteroid vehicles are highly variable.

    PubMed

    Felix, Kayla; Unrue, Emily; Inyang, Meyene; Cardwell, Leah A; Oussedik, Elias; Richardson, Irma; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-05-17

    Topical corticosteroids, available in an array of vehicles are used to control a variety of inflammatory skin diseases. Patients' preferences for different vehicles may affect their willingness to use treatment. We assess corticosteroid vehicle preference and potential impact of topical characteristics on adherence and quality of life in patients with psoriasis. Subjects with psoriasis were recruited from Wake Forest University Dermatology Clinic. Subjects sampled desoximetasone 0.25% spray, betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream, triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment, fluocinonide 0.05% gel, betamethasone valerate 0.1% lotion, clobetasol propionate 0.05% foam, and fluocinonide 0.05% solution in a predetermined randomized order. Subjects completed a Vehicle Preference Measure, Determinants of Adherence Measure and a Determinants of Quality of Life Measure. Patients preferences for the various products were highly variable. Regarding determinants of adherence, patients' perception of absorption of the medication was ranked as 'quite important/extremely important' by 85% of total subjects. A majority of patients rated medication side effects as 'quite important/extremely important' when asked to consider topical characteristics' effect on quality of life. There was wide variation in patient preference for topical medication vehicles used for treating psoriasis. Several vehicle characteristics were considered important to adherence. Given the marked variation in vehicle preference, topical treatment should be individualized according to patients' preferences.

  19. Nutrition and corticosteroids in the treatment of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bast, Aalt; Semen, Khrystyna O; Drent, Marjolein

    2018-06-22

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease, which is routinely treated with corticosteroids. Steroid resistance or steroid-induced adverse effects require alternatives. Other immune-modulating pharmacological treatments have been developed, and therefore expanded tremendously. Until now, the role of nutrition in the overall management of sarcoidosis has been neglected although anti-inflammatory properties of nutritional components have been known for many years now. New nutritional possibilities emerge from already existing data and offer new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of sarcoidosis. Various dietary components have been shown to reduce pulmonary inflammatory processes. It is increasingly recognized, however, that the specificity and magnitude of the effect of nutrition differs from pharmacological interventions. Conventional randomized clinical trials are less suitable to test the effect of nutrition in comparison with testing drugs. Mechanistic knowledge on the action of dietary components in conjunction with an increasing understanding of the molecular processes underlying steroid resistance (as investigated in asthma and COPD and unfortunately hardly in sarcoidosis) lead to exciting suggestions on combinations of nutrition/nutritional bioactive compounds and corticosteroids that may benefit sarcoidosis patients. In order to understand the effects of nutrition in chronic disease, it is important to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of effects. Several complementing lines of evidence should be integrated in order to be able to advise sarcoidosis patients on a healthy diet as such or in combination with prescribed anti-inflammatory therapy.

  20. Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis responsive to intravitreal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Waseem H; Browne, Andrew W; Singh, Rishi P

    2017-04-01

    To report the case of an adult male with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) who presented with cystoid macular edema (CME) that responded consistently to treatment with intravitreal steroids. A 39 year old male with unilateral presentation of CME after repair of a retinal detachment secondary to XLRS responded initially to an injection of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA). Central subfield thickness on OCT was reduced. Three months later, the CME recurred and he was unresponsive to topical treatment so repeat IVTA was given, and the CME once again was reduced dramatically. After the next recurrence, intravitreal dexamethasone implant treatment was initiated and successful at treating recurrences in 3 month intervals for 5 additional injections. Finally, an intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant was surgically placed with control of CME. Corticosteroids have never been reported to be effective in CME related to XLRS. Here, we document a case of a man who successfully had decrease of intraretinal fluid and schisis with treatment of intravitreal corticosteroids as demonstrated by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

  1. Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids for Cosmetic Purpose in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ranaivo, I. M.; Andrianarison, M.; Razanakoto, N. H.; Ramarozatovo, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16–73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone. “Pandalao,” which contains salicylic acid, peppermint oil, lanolin, powder of Juanes de Vigo (mercury powder), and Vaseline, is the most handcrafted cosmetic combined with TC in our study (used by 29,4% respondents). Only one (0,26%) had obtained the TC by physician's prescription, 234 (61%) from cosmetic retailers, 92 (23%) directly from local pharmacies, 49 (12%) from beauticians, and 15 (4%) from unspecified sources. Lightening of skin color was the main reason for using TC in 44,8% of respondents in the absence of any primary dermatosis. Pigmentation disorders (63,2%) and cutaneous atrophy (52,1%) were the most adverse effects noted. PMID:28904977

  2. Misuse of Topical Corticosteroids for Cosmetic Purpose in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Sendrasoa, F A; Ranaivo, I M; Andrianarison, M; Raharolahy, O; Razanakoto, N H; Ramarozatovo, L S; Rapelanoro Rabenja, F

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16-73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone. "Pandalao," which contains salicylic acid, peppermint oil, lanolin, powder of Juanes de Vigo (mercury powder), and Vaseline, is the most handcrafted cosmetic combined with TC in our study (used by 29,4% respondents). Only one (0,26%) had obtained the TC by physician's prescription, 234 (61%) from cosmetic retailers, 92 (23%) directly from local pharmacies, 49 (12%) from beauticians, and 15 (4%) from unspecified sources. Lightening of skin color was the main reason for using TC in 44,8% of respondents in the absence of any primary dermatosis. Pigmentation disorders (63,2%) and cutaneous atrophy (52,1%) were the most adverse effects noted.

  3. The effects of withdrawals and drought on groundwater availability in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Guam

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to population growth, freshwater demand on Guam has increased in the past and will likely increase in the future. During the early 1970s to 2010, groundwater withdrawals from the limestone Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, the main source of freshwater on the island, tripled from about 15 to 45 million gallons per day. Because of proposed military relocation to Guam and expected population growth, freshwater demand on Guam is projected to increase further. The expected increased demand for groundwater has led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow and transport model was developed to simulate the effects of hypothetical withdrawal and recharge scenarios on water levels and on the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. The model was constructed by using average recharge during 1961–2005 and withdrawals from 2010. Hydraulic properties used to construct the model were initially based on published estimates but ultimately were adjusted to obtain better agreement between simulated and measured water levels and salinity profiles in the modeled area. Two hypothetical groundwater withdrawal scenarios were simulated: no withdrawal to simulate predevelopment conditions and withdrawal at 2010 rates under a 5-year drought. Simulation results indicate that prior to pumping; the fresh-water lens was 10 to 50 feet thicker in the Yigo-Tumon basin and more than 50 feet thicker in the Hagåtña basin. Results also indicate that continuing the 2010 withdrawal distribution during a 5-year drought would result in decreased water levels, a thinner freshwater lens, and increased salinity of water pumped from wells. The available water with an acceptable salinity (chloride concentration less than 200 milligrams per liter) would decrease from about 34 million gallons per day to 11.5 million gallons per day after 5 years but recover to pre-drought levels 5 years after the

  4. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    PubMed

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  5. [Treatment of gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Strand, Niels August Willer; Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Nielsen, Lars Martin; Boegevig, Soren

    2017-12-11

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse, for which physical addiction develops quickly. GHB withdrawal can develop into a life-threatening condition and has previously been treated mainly with benzodiazepines. These have not always proven effective, leading to long hospitalizations in intensive care units. Based on successful Dutch treatment results for using GHB to treat GHB withdrawal symptoms, we propose to implement a similar method in Denmark. The method requires an interdisciplinary effort for which The Danish Poison Information Centre should be consulted for expertise.

  6. Children's judgements of social withdrawal behaviours.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn

    2015-06-01

    Ding et al. (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol., 2015; 33, 159-173) demonstrated that Chinese children discriminate between the three subtypes of social withdrawal: Shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance. This commentary on the Ding et al.'s paper highlights the need to further explore the following: (1) children's understanding of the implications of being shy, unsociable, or socially avoidant, including assessing these which we know are associated with outcomes for socially withdrawn children; (2) what additional subtypes might exist naturally within the Chinese culture; and (3) consider the implications of social withdrawal on children's developing social skills. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Withdrawal Phenomena: A Concept Analysis for the Development of a Nursing Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dändliker, This; Kolbe, Nina

    This study explored the concept of withdrawal phenomena from the perspective of nurses, with the aim of developing a nursing diagnosis. Concept analysis was used as the framework of the study, a systematized review was conducted to identify relevant studies, and interpretation was based on qualitative content analysis. Specifying aspects, defining characteristics, related factors, and risk factors were extracted and classified into categories. Thirteen studies were identified as a basis for the construction of two nursing diagnoses: "withdrawal phenomena" and "risk of withdrawal complications." The proposed nursing diagnoses require further discussion. The NANDA International Diagnosis Development Committee was asked to examine the proposed diagnoses. However, it was too early to determine implications for nursing practice based on the results of this study.

  8. Successful Treatment of Corticosteroid with Antiviral Therapy for a Neonatal Liver Failure with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maeba, Shinji; Hasegawa, Shunji; Shimomura, Maiko; Ichimura, Takuya; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Motoyama, Masashi; Fukunaga, Shinnosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection carries one of the poorest outcomes of neonatal liver failure (NLF). Neonates with disseminated HSV infection can develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and occasionally need orthotopic liver transplantation. Early interventions may be critical for the cure of NLF. Case Report We describe herewith a 6-day-old neonate with fulminant hepatic failure due to disseminated HSV-1 infection, who successfully responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy 72 hours after the onset of disease. Preceding acyclovir, gamma globulin, and exchange blood transfusion therapies failed to control the disease. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy led to a drastic improvement of liver function and cytokine storms, and prevented the disease progression to HLH. Sustained levels of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid HSV DNA declined after prolonged acyclovir therapy. Bilateral lesions of the periventricular white matter areas, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, disappeared at 3 months of age. The infant showed normal growth and development at 4 years of age. Conclusion Early anti-hypercytokinemia therapy using corticosteroid, and prolonged antiviral therapy might only provide the transplantation-free cure of NLF with HSV dissemination. PMID:26495160

  9. Development of the caffeine withdrawal symptom questionnaire: caffeine withdrawal symptoms cluster into 7 factors.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Laura M; Huntley, Edward D; Harrell, Paul T; Westerman, Ashley T

    2012-08-01

    Habitual caffeine consumers who abstain from caffeine experience withdrawal symptoms such as headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and flu-like symptoms (Juliano and Griffiths, 2004). The caffeine withdrawal syndrome has been documented across many experimental studies; however, little is known about how withdrawal symptoms co-vary during a discrete episode. Furthermore, a validated measure of caffeine withdrawal is lacking. To develop, evaluate, and reduce a 23-item measure of caffeine withdrawal symptoms; the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ), to a set of composite variables. Caffeine consumers (N=213) completed the CWSQ after 16h of caffeine abstinence. A subset of participants also completed the CWSQ during a preceding baseline period and/or after double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee. Principal components analysis resulted in a solution comprised of 7-factors: (1) Fatigue/drowsiness; (2) Low alertness/difficulty concentrating; (3) Mood disturbances; (4) Low sociability/motivation to work; (5) Nausea/upset stomach; (6) Flu-like feelings; and (7) Headache. With the exception of nausea/upset stomach, the CWSQ total score and individual composite scores were significantly greater during caffeine abstinence relative to both baseline and double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee, thereby demonstrating sensitivity of the measure. Compared to non-daily coffee consumers, daily consumers had greater increases in total withdrawal, fatigue/drowsiness, low alertness/difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and headache. Future directions include replication, assessment on a clinical population, and further examination of psychometric properties of the CWSQ. The CWSQ should facilitate the assessment and diagnosis of caffeine withdrawal and increase our knowledge of the caffeine withdrawal syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of erythropoietin + corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone in methanol-induced optic nerve neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shojaei, Maziar; Rahimian, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Following methanol intoxication, optic nerve neuropathy may occur, which is currently treated by different therapeutic regimens. Erythropoietin (EPO) has recently been introduced as a good therapeutic option in methanol-induced optic neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of EPO in improvement of the visual disturbances in methanol-intoxicated patients. In a case-control study, all patients who had referred to our toxicology centre with confirmed diagnosis of methanol toxicity were considered to be included. Of them, those who had referred with visual disturbances, survived, and their visual disturbances had not improved after haemodialysis were entered. Cases received EPO and corticosteroids while controls only received corticosteroids. They were then compared regarding their visual outcome. All five patients in the control group mentioned that after discharge, their visual acuity had improved while in the cases, three mentioned visual improvement, two mentioned their visual acuity had deteriorated after discharge, two mentioned no change in their visual acuity and three mentioned that their visual acuity had first improved but then deteriorated with a mean two-month interval period. In fundoscopic evaluations, two controls had normal fundospcopy while eight cases had abnormal fundoscopy (p = 0.055). Protective effect of EPO on methanol-induced optic nerve may be strong at the beginning of the intervention but is probably transient.

  11. Maternal education, dental visits and age of pacifier withdrawal: pediatric dentist role in malocclusion prevention.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Suárez, V; Carrillo-Diaz, M; Crego, A; Romero, M

    2013-01-01

    Although discouraged, pacifier usage is widespread and often practiced beyond two years of age. The current study explored the effects of maternal education and dental visits on the age of pacifier withdrawal. The dental histories of 213 children (53.1% male) attending a primary school in Madrid were obtained along with maternal education level and age at pacifier withdrawal. Data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA two-way ANOVA and a complementary non-parametric approach was also used. There was a significant effect of maternal education on the age of pacifier withdrawal; the higher the maternal education, the younger the age of withdrawal. The frequency of dental visits influenced the relationship between maternal education and the age of pacifier withdrawal. Dental visits considerably shortened pacifier use among children with low- and medium-educated mothers. Pediatric dentists play a critical role in the correction of unhealthy oral habits such as prolonged pacifier use. The educational component of pediatric dentistry could reverse the lack of knowledge or misinformation among high-risk groups (e.g. low maternal education). As a consequence, we recommend that children start dental visits at an early age and maintain visits with a high frequency.

  12. Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: Are they linked?

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, M.; Egli, M.; Crabbe, J.C.; Becker, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A “self-medication” framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that, in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3 – 6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: 1) Are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence? 2) Is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal? 3) To what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? PMID:20148778

  13. Intra-articular corticosteroids versus intra-articular corticosteroids plus methotrexate in oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Angelo; Davì, Sergio; Bracciolini, Giulia; Pistorio, Angela; Consolaro, Alessandro; van Dijkhuizen, Evert Hendrik Pieter; Lattanzi, Bianca; Filocamo, Giovanni; Verazza, Sara; Gerloni, Valeria; Gattinara, Maurizio; Pontikaki, Irene; Insalaco, Antonella; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Civino, Adele; Presta, Giuseppe; Breda, Luciana; Marzetti, Valentina; Pastore, Serena; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Garofalo, Franco; Rigante, Donato; Gattorno, Marco; Malattia, Clara; Picco, Paolo; Viola, Stefania; Lanni, Stefano; Ruperto, Nicolino; Martini, Alberto

    2017-03-04

    Little evidence-based information is available to guide the treatment of oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We aimed to investigate whether oral methotrexate increases the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid therapy. We did this prospective, open-label, randomised trial at ten hospitals in Italy. Using a concealed computer-generated list, children younger than 18 years with oligoarticular-onset disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to intra-articular corticosteroids alone or in combination with oral methotrexate (15 mg/m 2 ; maximum 20 mg). Corticosteroids used were triamcinolone hexacetonide (shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, and tibiotalar joints) or methylprednisolone acetate (ie, subtalar and tarsal joints). We did not mask patients or investigators to treatment assignments. Our primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the intention-to-treat population who had remission of arthritis in all injected joints at 12 months. This trial is registered with European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2008-006741-70. Between July 7, 2009, and March 31, 2013, we screened 226 participants and randomly assigned 102 to intra-articular corticosteroids alone and 105 to intra-articular corticosteroids plus methotrexate. 33 (32%) patients assigned to intra-articular corticosteroids alone and 39 (37%) assigned to intra-articular corticosteroids and methotrexate therapy had remission of arthritis in all injected joints (p=0·48). Adverse events were recorded for 20 (17%) patients who received methotrexate, which led to permanent treatment discontinuation in two patients (one due to increased liver transaminases and one due to gastrointestinal discomfort). No patient had a serious adverse event. Concomitant administration of methotrexate did not augment the effectiveness of intra-articular corticosteroid therapy. Future studies are needed to define the optimal therapeutic strategies for oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Italian Agency

  14. Corticosteroid Treatment for Prolonged Fever in Hepatosplenic Cat-Scratch Disease: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Phan, Amanda; Castagnini, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease (CSD) may cause prolonged fever. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with confirmed hepatosplenic CSD with fever lasting 3 months despite use of multiple different antimicrobial agents. The patient became afebrile soon after corticosteroid therapy was started. Our case indicates corticosteroids may be useful in patients with hepatosplenic CSD and prolonged fever.

  15. Contact allergy to corticosteroids and Malassezia furfur in seborrhoeic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevic, S; Lipozencic, J; Basta-Juzbasic, A

    2011-06-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic skin disease, requiring long-term treatment, which might promote sensitization. Malassezia furfur (Mf) plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitivity in SD patients. A total of 100 patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were investigated: 50 suffering from SD with no previous local corticosteroid treatment (SDN), 50 SD patients treated with local corticosteroids (SDC). Mycological examination for Mf was performed. All patients were patch tested with the baseline standard, corticosteroid series, with 12 commercial corticosteroid preparations frequently used in Croatia; and also with Mf. Malassezia furfur was found in 44 (88%) SDN, 37 (74%) SDC, and in 4 (20%) HC; patch test reaction to Mf was positive in one SDN and in three SDC. Positive patch tests to standard allergens were observed in 17 (34%) SDN, 33 (66%) SDC and 2 (10%) HC. Patch tests to the corticosteroid series revealed positive reactions in 4 SDC and to commercial corticosteroids in seven patients, i.e. 2 SD and 5 SDC. Patch tests to the baseline series and to both individual corticosteroid and commercial corticosteroid preparations should be performed in SD patients with persistent dermatitis, as contact-allergic reactions may complicate their dermatitis. Sensitization to Mf was found to be infrequent. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Motor impairment: a new ethanol withdrawal phenotype in mice

    PubMed Central

    Philibin, Scott D.; Cameron, Andy J.; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental risk factors. The presence of withdrawal symptoms is one criterion for alcohol dependence. Genetic animal models have followed a reductionist approach by quantifying various effects of ethanol withdrawal separately. Different ethanol withdrawal symptoms may have distinct genetic etiologies, and therefore differentiating distinct neurobiological mechanisms related to separate signs of withdrawal would increase our understanding of various aspects of the complex phenotype. This study establishes motor incoordination as a new phenotype of alcohol withdrawal in mice. Mice were made physically dependent on ethanol by exposure to ethanol vapor for 72 h. The effects of ethanol withdrawal in mice from different genetic backgrounds were measured on the accelerating rotarod, a simple motor task. Ethanol withdrawal disrupted accelerating rotarod behavior in mice. The disruptive effects of withdrawal suggest a performance rather than a learning deficit. Inbred strain comparisons suggest genetic differences in magnitude of this withdrawal phenotype. The withdrawal-induced deficits were not correlated with the selection response difference in handling convulsion severity in selectively bred Withdrawal Seizure-Prone and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant lines. The accelerating rotarod seems to be a simple behavioral measure of ethanol withdrawal that is suitable for comparing genotypes. PMID:18690115

  17. Metabolic effects of human growth hormone in corticosteroid-treated children

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Helen G.; Jorgensen, Jacqueline R.; Elrick, Harold; Goldsmith, Richard E.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of administered human growth hormone (HGH) were evaluated in dwarfed, prepubertal children who were receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy for a chronic disease. During 11 complete metabolic balance studies, the eight corticosteroid-treated children demonstrated impaired response to large doses of HGH with minimal nitrogen and no phosphorus retention. In contrast, two hypopituitary subjects and two asthmatic children not receiving corticosteroid responded to the same preparations of HGH with nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus retention. Six corticosteroid-treated children were given large doses of HGH (40-120 mg/wk for 4 to 8 months and showed no improvement in their retarded rate of growth, whereas the hypopituitary subjects showed accelerated growth during administration of 10-15 mg of HGH/wk. It is concluded that dwarfism in steroid-treated children results from corticosteroid-induced antagonism of the effects of HGH at the peripheral tissue level. PMID:5637134

  18. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  19. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

  20. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  1. Why Students Withdraw from Initial Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Gary M.; Roper, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Describes a research project that investigated: why preservice teachers in the United Kingdom withdrew from initial teacher training; how those reasons correlated with the views of schools where students completed student teaching; and measures administrators could take to reduce withdrawal rates (e.g., focus on how to change the interview process…

  2. 21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal procedures. 601.92 Section 601.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.92...

  3. 21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal procedures. 601.92 Section 601.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.92...

  4. 21 CFR 601.92 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal procedures. 601.92 Section 601.92 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.92...

  5. 43 CFR 2091.5 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawals. 2091.5 Section 2091.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of...

  6. Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

  7. 21 CFR 601.43 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research or the Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on the Center's proposal to withdraw the... hearing. The committee will be asked to review the issues involved and to provide advice and...

  8. 21 CFR 601.43 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for Biologics Evaluation and Research or the Director of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on the Center's proposal to withdraw the... hearing. The committee will be asked to review the issues involved and to provide advice and...

  9. MDMA attenuates THC withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Touriño, Clara; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2007-07-01

    3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis are widely abused illicit drugs that are frequently consumed in combination. Interactions between these two drugs have been reported in several pharmacological responses observed in animals, such as body temperature, anxiety, cognition, and reward. However, the interaction between MDMA and cannabis in addictive processes such as physical dependence has not been elucidated yet. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic MDMA were evaluated on the behavioral manifestations of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) abstinence in mice. THC withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by injecting the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice chronically treated with THC and receiving MDMA (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline just before the withdrawal induction or chronically after the THC administration. Both chronic and acute MDMA decreased in a dose-dependent manner the severity of THC withdrawal. In vivo microdialysis experiments showed that acute MDMA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration increased extracellular serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex, but not dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Our results also indicate that the attenuation of THC abstinence symptoms was not due to a direct interaction between rimonabant and MDMA nor to the result of the locomotor stimulating effects of MDMA. The modulation of the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by acute or chronic MDMA suggests a possible mechanism to explain the associated consumption of these two drugs in humans.

  10. Psychological distress in corticosteroid-naive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Omori, M; Katsumata, Y; Sato, E; Kawaguchi, Y; Harigai, M; Yamanaka, H; Ishigooka, J

    2016-04-01

    Psychological distress, such as depression and anxiety, has been intensively studied in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, those studies have mostly included patients who were treated with corticosteroids, which might themselves induce mood disturbances. We investigated psychological distress in corticosteroid-naive patients with SLE who did not exhibit any overt neuropsychiatric manifestations. Forty-three SLE in-patients with no current or past abnormal neuropsychiatric history participated in the study. Patients and 30 healthy control subjects with similar demographic and personality characteristics were administered a comprehensive battery of psychological/neuropsychological tests. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to assess depression and anxiety. Results of clinical, laboratory, and neurological tests were compared with regard to their presence. Prevalence of depression was higher in patients (n = 11, 25.6%) than in controls (n = 2, 6.7%; p = 0.035), although prevalence of anxiety did not differ across groups (patients: 34.9%, n = 15; controls: 16.7%, n = 5; p = 0.147). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified avoidance coping methods (OR, 1.3; 95% CI 1.030-1.644; p = 0.027) as an independent risk factor for depression. Our results indicate that depression presents more frequently in corticosteroid-naive patients with early-stage, active SLE than in the normal population, but anxiety does not. Depression may be related to psychological reactions to suffering from the disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. 37 CFR 10.40 - Withdrawal from employment,

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such request or such withdrawal is because: (1) The petitioner's client: (i) Insists upon presenting a... the Office, that the Office will find the existence of other good cause for withdrawal. ...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.16 - Required withdrawal date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.16 Required withdrawal date. (a) A... date described in paragraph (a) of this section, but is not required to do so. (c) In the event that a...

  13. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection therapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: 12-year care experience.

    PubMed

    Young, Cody M; Shiels, William E; Coley, Brian D; Hogan, Mark J; Murakami, James W; Jones, Karla; Higgins, Gloria C; Rennebohm, Robert M

    2012-12-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are a safe and effective treatment for patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The potential scope of care in ultrasound-guided corticosteroid therapy in children and a joint-based corticosteroid dose protocol designed to optimize interdisciplinary care are not found in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to report the spectrum of care, technique and safety of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection therapy in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and to propose an age-weight-joint-based corticosteroid dose protocol. A retrospective analysis was performed of 198 patients (ages 21 months to 28 years) referred for treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis with corticosteroid therapy. Symptomatic joints and tendon sheaths were treated as prescribed by the referring rheumatologist. An age-weight-joint-based dose protocol was developed and utilized for corticosteroid dose prescription. A total of 1,444 corticosteroid injections (1,340 joints, 104 tendon sheaths) were performed under US guidance. Injection sites included small, medium and large appendicular skeletal joints (upper extremity 497, lower extremity 837) and six temporomandibular joints. For patients with recurrent symptoms, 414 repeat injections were performed, with an average time interval of 17.7 months (range, 0.5-101.5 months) between injections. Complications occurred in 2.6% of injections and included subcutaneous tissue atrophy, skin hypopigmentation, erythema and pruritis. US-guided corticosteroid injection therapy provides dynamic, precise and safe treatment of a broad spectrum of joints and tendon sheaths throughout the entire pediatric musculoskeletal system. An age-weight-joint-based corticosteroid dose protocol is effective and integral to interdisciplinary care of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  14. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment modulates ZNF432 gene variant's effect on bronchodilator response in asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann C.; Himes, Blanca E.; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Litonjua, Augusto; Peters, Stephen P.; Lima, John; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Qiu, Weiliang; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence a patient's response to inhaled corticosteroids and β2-agonists, and the effect of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is synergistic with the effect of β2-agonists. We hypothesized that use of inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of SNPs associated with bronchodilator response. Objective To assess whether, among asthma subjects, the association of SNPs with bronchodilator response is different between those treated with inhaled corticosteroids vs. those on placebo. Methods A genome-wide association analysis was conducted using 581 white subjects from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Using data for 449,540 SNPs, we conducted a gene by environment analysis in PLINK with inhaled corticosteroid treatment as the environmental exposure and bronchodilator response as the outcome measure. We attempted to replicate the top 12 SNPs in the Leukotriene Modifier Or Corticosteroid or Corticosteroid-Salmeterol (LOCCS) Trial. Results The combined P-value for the CAMP and LOCCS populations was 4.81E-08 for rs3752120, which is located in the zinc finger protein gene ZNF432, and has unknown function. Conclusions Inhaled corticosteroids appear to modulate the association of bronchodilator response with variant(s) in the ZNF432 gene among adults and children with asthma. Clinical Implications Clinicians who treat asthma patients with inhaled corticosteroids should be aware that the patient's genetic makeup likely influences response as measured in lung function. Capsule Summary Our study suggests that inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of multiple SNPs associated with bronchodilator response across the genome. PMID:24280104

  15. Topical corticosteroids in the treatment of acute sunburn: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Wulf, Hans C

    2008-05-01

    To examine the effect of topical corticosteroid treatment on acute sunburn. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. University dermatology department. Twenty healthy volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I (highly sensitive, always burns easily, tans minimally) through III (sun-sensitive skin, sometimes burns, slowly tans to light brown). Seven 34-cm(2) areas were marked on the upper aspect of the back of each participant. An untreated area was tested to determine UV sensitivity. Two areas were treated with excess amounts (2 mg/cm(2)) of either a moderate-potency corticosteroid or a high-potency corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure as controls. Six or 23 hours after exposure to radiation, the remaining areas were treated with the 2 corticosteroid preparations. The sunburn improvement factor (SIF) was determined by the following equation: SIF = MED (minimal erythema dose) on treated skin/MED on nontreated skin. An SIF greater than 1 indicated an effect of topical corticosteroids in sunburn relief. The SIFs in the areas treated with either topical corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure or high-potency corticosteroid 6 hours after UV-B exposure were significantly different from SIFs in areas that received no treatment (SIF 1.1-1.7; P < .05). Only the median SIF of 1.7 in the areas treated with high-potency corticosteroid 30 minutes before UV-B exposure was clinically relevant. The areas treated 23 hours after UV-B exposure and the areas treated with a moderate-potency corticosteroid 6 hours after UV-B exposure showed no significant reduction in redness. Treatment with topical moderate-potency or high-potency corticosteroids does not provide a clinically useful decrease in the acute sunburn reaction when applied 6 or 23 hours after UV exposure.

  16. Intranasal corticosteroids topical characteristics: side effects, formulation, and volume.

    PubMed

    Petty, David A; Blaiss, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines from throughout the world recommend intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) as first-line treatment for most patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis. In general, limited comparative studies between different INSs have not indicated that one particular steroid moiety is more effective than another in controlling symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, there are numerous formulations available with different ingredients that may influence a patient's adherence to treatment. This article looks at topical features with these agents, specifically, formulations, vehicles (aqueous vs aerosol), and side effects such as epistaxis and nasal septal perforation. Topical side effects are minimal with INSs with the exception of epistaxis. There are major differences in formulations, volumes, and vehicles between INSs, which could affect adherence. Physicians need to be aware of the different INS attributes to try to match patients' preferences in order to achieve better adherence and improve outcomes in sufferers of allergic rhinitis.

  17. Multiple courses of pulse corticosteroid therapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-09-01

    Various systemic corticosteroid therapies are used for alopecia areata (AA). Pulse therapy using methylprednisolone is a treatment approach for AA. The efficacy of multiple courses of pulse therapy for various severities of AA was evaluated. AA patients with less than 50% hair loss, less than or equal to 6 months after AA onset, needed 1.9 courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. On the other hand, AA patients with more than 50% hair loss, less than 6 months after AA onset, needed more courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. Regardless of the disease duration, AA patients with less than 50% hair loss showed a good response rate (100%) after both a short period and a long period after therapy. After receiving multiple courses of pulse therapy, the AA patients with more than 50% hair loss also showed improvement with limited adverse reactions. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-associated Encephalopathy Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takashi; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The encephalopathy that occurs in association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), has a high mortality rate and patients sometimes present sequelae. We herein describe the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed encephalopathy during the convalescent stage of HUS caused by E.coli O26. Hyperintense lesions were detected in the pons, basal ganglia, and cortex on diffusion-weighted brain MRI. From the onset of HUS encephalopathy, we treated the patient with methylprednisolone (mPSL) pulse therapy alone. Her condition improved, and she did not present sequelae. Our study shows that corticosteroids appear to be effective for the treatment of some patients with HUS encephalopathy.

  19. Giant cell myositis responsive to combined corticosteroids and immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Pace, A; Hilton, D; Househam, E; Weatherby, S

    2015-12-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with respiratory distress and proximal muscle weakness shortly after biopsy of a left forearm mass. The biopsy showed giant cell myositis, and serological investigations identified a grossly elevated serum creatine kinase level, suggesting skeletal muscle damage. Serum troponin T was also high, but troponin I was normal. Serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies were positive, and imaging showed a thymoma. He recovered well following intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids, and later underwent thymectomy. He is currently in sustained remission, with no clinically detectable myasthenia, but subsequently, developed hypogammaglobulinaemia. Neurologists should remember giant cell myositis/myocarditis can occur in patients who have myasthenia gravis with thymoma, as it is potentially fatal, but may respond to immunosuppression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to flavocoxid: are corticosteroids necessary?

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Veena; Atienza, Jonessa; Kumar, Anupam; Metersky, Mark L

    2013-02-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare adverse event with flavocoxid (Limbrel) use. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms after exposure to an inciting agent. A 42-year-old female presented with worsening dyspnea on exertion and pleuritic midsternal chest pain. Her symptoms failed to abate with outpatient azithromycin for a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. She was seen again at the emergency department (ED) due to symptom progression and exertional hypoxia. Chest reoentgenogram (x-ray) and computed tomography (CT) chest revealed bilateral infiltrates. Her history was significant for initiation of flavocoxid (Limbrel) two weeks prior, and a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was made. Once flavocoxid was discontinued, symptoms and radiologic studies improved without requiring biopsy or steroids. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is associated with many pharmacological agents and is challenging to diagnose, given nonspecific symptoms and radiologic findings. In the absence of specific indications to use corticosteroids, symptoms of HP might resolve with cessation of the offending agent, as proven by this case.

  1. The site of action of corticosteroid antipyresis in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Willies, G H; Woolf, C J

    1980-01-01

    1. The antipyretic effects of corticosteroids on the fevers produced by bacterial and endogenous pyrogens in the rabbit were investigated. 2. Intravenous infusions of hydrocortisone and methyl prednisolone, when administered simultaneously with bacterial or endogenous pyrogens, failed to produce an antipyresis. 3. Pretreatment of rabbits with methyl prednisolone for 3 days diminished the febrile effect of both bacterial and endogenous pyrogens. 4. The fever produced by intrahypothalamic micro-injections of endogenous pyrogen was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous micro-injection of methyl prednisolone. 5. These results indicate that the antipyretic effect of steroids in the rabbit is the result not of a peripheral inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production, but rather of an action on the central nervous system. PMID:7381781

  2. Research participation and the right to withdraw.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2005-04-01

    Most ethics committees which review research protocols insist that potential research participants reserve unconditional or absolute 'right' of withdrawal at any time and without giving any reason. In this paper, I examine what consent means for research participation and a sense of commitment in relation to this right to withdraw. I suggest that, once consent has been given (and here I am excluding incompetent minors and adults), participants should not necessarily have unconditional or absolute rights to withdraw. This does not imply that there should be a complete absence of rights, or, indeed, an abandonment of the right to withdraw. The point of this paper is to show that the supposed unconditional or absolute nature of these rights may be self-defeating and so fail to respect the autonomy of participants. In addition, and on a more positive note, I suggest that, attaching certain conditions on the right to withdraw, may better respect the autonomy of these participants by underlining the idea that autonomy is more than mere whim or indifference to the fate of others. On the contrary, research staff are currently unable to 'push' participants, who may merely have logistical difficulties unrelated to the research itself, but who really want to stay the course, for fear of coercing them. Furthermore, researchers now try to 'screen out' people they think may be unreliable to protect the science of the study and so groups at risk of dropping out may be unfairly denied access to research treatments. I conclude that on-going negotiation between the relevant parties could be on balance the only truly acceptable way forward but concede certain important limitations to take into account.

  3. [Intratympanic corticosteroid perfusion in the therapy of Meniere's disease].

    PubMed

    Sanković-Babić, Snezana; Kosanović, Rade; Ivanković, Zoran; Babac, Snezana; Tatović, Milica

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades the intratympanic perfusion of corticosteroids has been used as a minimally invasive surgical therapy of Meniere's disease. According to experimental studies the antiinflammatory, immunoprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective role of the locally perfused corticosteroids was noticed in the inner ear structures. The recovery of action potentials in the cells of the Corti organ was confirmed as well as a decreased expression of aquaporine-1, a glycoprotein responsible for labyrinth hydrops and N and K ions derangement. The study showed results of intratympanic perfusion therapy with dexamethasone in patients with retractable Meniere's disease who are resistant to conservative treatment. Single doses of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone were given intratympanically in 19 patients with retractable Meniere's disease. Six single successive doses of dexamethasone were administered in the posteroinferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane. Follow-up of the patients was conducted by using a clinical questionnaire a month after completed perfusion series as well as on every third month up to one year. One month after completed first course of perfusions, in 78% of patients, vertigo problems completely ceased or were markedly reduced. The recovery of hearing function was recorded in 68% and marked tinnitus reduction in 84% of patients. After a year of follow-up, in 63% of patients the reduction of vertigo persisted, while hearing function was satisfactory in 52%. Tinitus reduction was present in 73% of patients. Intratympanic perfusion of dexamethasone in patients with Meniere's disease is a minimally invasive therapeutic method that contributes to the reduction of the intensity of vertigo recurrent attacks, decrease of the intensity of tinnitus and improvement of the average hearing threshold. Patients with chronic diseases and Meniere's disease who are contraindicted for systemic administration of cortocosteroids (hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, peptic

  4. Combining the audit questionnaire and biochemical markers to assess alcohol use and risk of alcohol withdrawal in medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Jonathan M; Hawkes, Neil D

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often under-reported in patients admitted to general hospitals with acute illness. For alcohol-dependent individuals hospital admission results in an enforced period of abstinence with potential alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and possible life threatening complications. Early detection of alcohol use is therefore beneficial to patients and health services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in the acute medical setting, and the effect of combining routine biological markers-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on its performance in the early identification of in-patients with alcohol use disorders and at risk of developing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prospective study in consecutive patients admitted to an acute medical admissions ward. All patients were screened using the AUDIT questionnaire and routine blood tests. Patients were then monitored for symptoms of withdrawal using clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Of the 874 patients screened using the AUDIT, 98 (11%) screened positive of whom 17 (2% of the 874) experienced clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms, when using serial CIWA-Ar. The AUDIT and serial CIWA-Ar detected all patients who went on to manifest acute withdrawal symptoms. There was no loss of sensitivity at an AUDIT cut-off of 13 or more compared with the lower cut-off of 8 or more. A positive predictive value of 17.3% for an AUDIT score of 8 or more in the detection of withdrawal, increased to 47.1% when found in combination with at least two abnormal biological markers whilst maintaining a sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.9%. These findings confirm that AUDIT is a useful alcohol screen in general medical settings and that its ability to correctly predict which patients will experience alcohol withdrawal is

  5. Nitrendipine decreases benzodiazepine withdrawal seizures but not the development of benzodiazepine tolerance or withdrawal signs.

    PubMed Central

    Dolin, S. J.; Patch, T. L.; Rabbani, M.; Siarey, R. J.; Bowhay, A. R.; Little, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of the calcium channel blocking agent, nitrendipine, were studied on seizures in mice produced during withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine treatment and on the development of tolerance to benzodiazepines. 2. Nitrendipine produced a dose-dependent decrease in seizure incidence, when seizures were produced by the partial inverse agonist FG7142 during withdrawal from seven days treatment with flurazepam. 3. Nitrendipine did not raise the seizure thresholds in naïve mice to the full inverse agonist methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), or to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline. 4. When given concurrently with flurazepam for seven days, nitrendipine did not affect the incidence of seizures during flurazepam withdrawal. 5. When given concurrently with the benzodiazepines, nitrendipine did not prevent the development of tolerance to midazolam general anaesthesia or tolerance to the ataxic actions of flurazepam or midazolam. 6. Chronic treatment with flurazepam for seven days did not affect the Kd or Bmax of [3H]-nimodipine binding in mouse whole brain or cerebral cortex. 7. These results with benzodiazepines are partially in contrast with those for ethanol, where nitrendipine not only decreased ethanol withdrawal seizures when given acutely, but also prevented the development of tolerance and withdrawal signs when given concurrently with ethanol. However, they do confirm the selectivity of nitrendipine for withdrawal-induced seizures. PMID:1963805

  6. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provided in § 141.61(e) of this chapter. (b) Withdrawal for exportation to Canada or Mexico. A withdrawal... withdrawal of cigars, cigarettes, or cigarette papers or tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement... will be finally due upon liquidation. (e) Permit for release of merchandise. When the duties and other...

  7. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided in § 141.61(e) of this chapter. (b) Withdrawal for exportation to Canada or Mexico. A withdrawal... withdrawal of cigars, cigarettes, or cigarette papers or tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement... will be finally due upon liquidation. (e) Permit for release of merchandise. When the duties and other...

  8. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provided in § 141.61(e) of this chapter. (b) Withdrawal for exportation to Canada or Mexico. A withdrawal... withdrawal of cigars, cigarettes, or cigarette papers or tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement... will be finally due upon liquidation. (e) Permit for release of merchandise. When the duties and other...

  9. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided in § 141.61(e) of this chapter. (b) Withdrawal for exportation to Canada or Mexico. A withdrawal... withdrawal of cigars, cigarettes, or cigarette papers or tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement... will be finally due upon liquidation. (e) Permit for release of merchandise. When the duties and other...

  10. Blocking microglial pannexin-1 channels alleviates morphine withdrawal in rodents.

    PubMed

    Burma, Nicole E; Bonin, Robert P; Leduc-Pessah, Heather; Baimel, Corey; Cairncross, Zoe F; Mousseau, Michael; Shankara, Jhenkruthi Vijaya; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Baimoukhametova, Dinara; Bains, Jaideep S; Antle, Michael C; Zamponi, Gerald W; Cahill, Catherine M; Borgland, Stephanie L; De Koninck, Yves; Trang, Tuan

    2017-03-01

    Opiates are essential for treating pain, but termination of opiate therapy can cause a debilitating withdrawal syndrome in chronic users. To alleviate or avoid the aversive symptoms of withdrawal, many of these individuals continue to use opiates. Withdrawal is therefore a key determinant of opiate use in dependent individuals, yet its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and effective therapies are lacking. Here, we identify the pannexin-1 (Panx1) channel as a therapeutic target in opiate withdrawal. We show that withdrawal from morphine induces long-term synaptic facilitation in lamina I and II neurons within the rodent spinal dorsal horn, a principal site of action for opiate analgesia. Genetic ablation of Panx1 in microglia abolished the spinal synaptic facilitation and ameliorated the sequelae of morphine withdrawal. Panx1 is unique in its permeability to molecules up to 1 kDa in size and its release of ATP. We show that Panx1 activation drives ATP release from microglia during morphine withdrawal and that degrading endogenous spinal ATP by administering apyrase produces a reduction in withdrawal behaviors. Conversely, we found that pharmacological inhibition of ATP breakdown exacerbates withdrawal. Treatment with a Panx1-blocking peptide ( 10 panx) or the clinically used broad-spectrum Panx1 blockers, mefloquine or probenecid, suppressed ATP release and reduced withdrawal severity. Our results demonstrate that Panx1-mediated ATP release from microglia is required for morphine withdrawal in rodents and that blocking Panx1 alleviates the severity of withdrawal without affecting opiate analgesia.

  11. Factors Associated with Student Withdrawal from Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoggin, Donna; Styron, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Research was designed to identify commonalities of personal, enrollment, withdrawal, and evaluative factors as they relate to student withdrawal from community college. The study sought to identify interrelationships between identified reasons for student withdrawal and the variables of gender, race, classification status, degree sought, plans for…

  12. 28 CFR 29.10 - Owner withdrawal from the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Owner withdrawal from the program. 29.10 Section 29.10 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.10 Owner withdrawal from the program. An owner may withdraw from the program at any time by...

  13. 9 CFR 362.4 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 362.4... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY POULTRY INSPECTION REGULATIONS § 362.4 Denial or withdrawal of service...) For correctable cause—(1) Basis for denial or withdrawal. An application or request for service may be...

  14. 9 CFR 362.4 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 362.4... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY POULTRY INSPECTION REGULATIONS § 362.4 Denial or withdrawal of service...) For correctable cause—(1) Basis for denial or withdrawal. An application or request for service may be...

  15. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or other...

  16. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at the...

  17. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at the...

  18. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at the...

  19. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a...

  20. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a...

  1. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a...

  2. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a...

  3. 29 CFR 1626.13 - Withdrawal of charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of charge. 1626.13 Section 1626.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.13 Withdrawal of charge. Charging parties may request withdrawal of a...

  4. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors and Their Relationship with Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemli, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Situation: People experience ups and downs in their job satisfaction and motivation levels at different points of their work lives for various reasons. One of the outputs of low job satisfaction and motivation is defined as "withdrawal behaviors" in the literature. Withdrawal behaviors are any employee behavior of withdrawal from…

  5. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided in § 141.61(e) of this chapter. (b) Withdrawal for exportation to Canada or Mexico. A withdrawal... withdrawal of cigars, cigarettes, or cigarette papers or tubes subject to internal revenue tax, the statement... will be finally due upon liquidation. (e) Permit for release of merchandise. When the duties and other...

  6. 5 CFR 362.407 - Withdrawal and readmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal and readmission. 362.407 Section 362.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS PROGRAMS Presidential Management Fellows Program § 362.407 Withdrawal and readmission. (a) Withdrawal. (1...

  7. 5 CFR 362.407 - Withdrawal and readmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal and readmission. 362.407 Section 362.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS PROGRAMS Presidential Management Fellows Program § 362.407 Withdrawal and readmission. (a) Withdrawal. (1...

  8. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at the...

  9. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible to...

  10. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible to...

  11. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible to...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible to...

  13. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible to...

  14. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or other...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs...

  16. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw an...

  17. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw an...

  18. 12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26 Section 925.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from...

  19. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of... any further consideration. (b) Withdrawal of a disability retirement application does not ensure the...

  20. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application...

  1. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of...

  2. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of...

  3. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of...

  4. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of USCIS. USCIS may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary Protected...

  5. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of USCIS. USCIS may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary Protected...

  6. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of...

  7. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of...

  8. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status... TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of USCIS. USCIS may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary Protected...

  9. 20 CFR 416.355 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an application. 416.355 Section 416.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Filing of Applications Withdrawal of Application § 416.355 Withdrawal of an...

  10. 20 CFR 404.640 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an application. 404.640 Section 404.640 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms Withdrawal of Application § 404.640 Withdrawal of...

  11. 45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301... Waivers and Withdrawals § 400.301 Withdrawal from the refugee program. (a) In the event that a State... assistance, social services, preventive health, and an unaccompanied minors program if appropriate. A State...

  12. INFANT EMOTIONAL WITHDRAWAL: A PRECURSOR OF AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DISTURBANCE IN FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Carter, R. Colin; Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that emotional withdrawal is an early indicator of affective disorder in infants heavily exposed prenatally to alcohol, which is independent of alcohol-related effects on mother-infant interaction and temperament and discriminated between children later diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) and predicted cognitive and affective outcomes at 5 and 9 years. Methods The sample consisted of Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) infants, whose mothers were interviewed during pregnancy regarding their alcohol consumption using a timeline follow-back approach. Infant emotional withdrawal (n = 85) was assessed on the Alarm Distress Baby Scale at 6.5 months. Mother-infant interaction was evaluated from video recordings during free play and infant feeding at 6.5 months (n = 127). Infant temperament was assessed by maternal report on the EAS Temperament Survey at 13 months (n = 119). Socio-demographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use and infant iron deficiency were examined as potential confounders. The children were diagnosed for FAS/PFAS by expert dysmorphologists at 5 years; cognitive and affective function, at 5 and 9 years. Results Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased infant emotional withdrawal and decreased activity, but unrelated to mother-infant interaction or any other temperament measures. Children later diagnosed with FAS and PFAS at 5 years exhibited more emotional withdrawal and less responsivity and activity as infants. Infant withdrawal, responsivity, quality of interaction, and maternal sensitivity also predicted poorer IQ and affective response at 5 and 9 years. When all four infant affective measures were examined simultaneously in a regression analysis, only infant emotional withdrawal persisted as a significant predictor of 9-year IQ. Conclusions This study is the first to document a direct effect of fetal alcohol exposure on emotional withdrawal in infancy

  13. Infant emotional withdrawal: a precursor of affective and cognitive disturbance in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Carter, R Colin; Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-02-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that emotional withdrawal is an early indicator of affective disorder in infants heavily exposed prenatally to alcohol, which is independent of alcohol-related effects on mother-infant interaction and temperament and discriminated between children later diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) and predicted cognitive and affective outcomes at 5 and 9 years. The sample consisted of Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) infants, whose mothers were interviewed during pregnancy regarding their alcohol consumption using a timeline follow-back approach. Infant emotional withdrawal (n = 85) was assessed on the Alarm Distress Baby Scale at 6.5 months. Mother-infant interaction was evaluated from video recordings during free play and infant feeding at 6.5 months (n = 127). Infant temperament was assessed by maternal report on the EAS Temperament Survey at 13 months (n = 119). Sociodemographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use and infant iron deficiency were examined as potential confounders. The children were diagnosed for FAS/PFAS by expert dysmorphologists at 5 years, cognitive and affective function at 5 and 9 years. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased infant emotional withdrawal and decreased activity, but unrelated to mother-infant interaction or any other temperament measures. Children later diagnosed with FAS and PFAS at 5 years exhibited more emotional withdrawal and less responsivity and activity as infants. Infant withdrawal, responsivity, quality of interaction, and maternal sensitivity also predicted poorer IQ and affective response at 5 and 9 years. When all 4 infant affective measures were examined simultaneously in a regression analysis, only infant emotional withdrawal persisted as a significant predictor of 9-year IQ. This study is the first to document a direct effect of fetal alcohol exposure on emotional withdrawal in infancy. These data link

  14. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciT

    Crowe, Andrew, E-mail: a.p.crowe@curtin.edu.au; Tan, Ai May

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of onlymore » 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially

  15. CRHR1 Gene SNPs and Response to Systemic Corticosteroids in Indian Asthmatic Children During Acute Exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shally; Gupta, Sarika; Agarwal, Sarita; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-09-01

    To determine association of corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs242939 (A>G) and rs242941 (G>T) with response to systemic corticosteroids in North Indian asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. This was a hospital based cross-sectional study. Sixty-eight children aged 1 to 12 y with acute exacerbation of asthma were included in the study. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from parents/guardians of recruited children. GINA guidelines 2008, were used for classification and treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma. As per the GINA guidelines 2008, children who had good response to injectable corticosteroid were classified as "Corticosteroid Responders" (CR). Rest of the children with incomplete or poor response to injectable corticosteroid were classified as "Corticosteroid Non Responders" (CNR). Among 68 hospitalized children, 45 (66.17 %) children were CR whereas 23 (33.83 %) children were CNR. On analyzing as dominant model, children with one or two copies of mutant allele of SNP rs242941 had statistically significant better response to systemic corticosteroid (OR = 5.00; 95 %CI = 1.32-19.64; p 0.013) as compared to children with no mutant allele. Thus, CRHR1 gene SNP rs242941 polymorphism is associated with better response to systemic corticosteroid during acute exacerbation of asthma.

  16. Corticosteroid receptor gene expression is related to sex and social behaviour in a social fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Rodela, Tammy M; Mileva, Viktoria R; Balshine, Sigal; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2013-03-01

    Circulating corticosteroids have been related to social status in a variety of species. However, our understanding of corticosteroid receptor expression and its relationship with sociality is still in its infancy. Knowledge of variation in receptor expression is critical to understand the physiological relevance of differences in circulating corticosteroid concentrations. In this study, we examined corticosteroid receptor gene expression in relation to dominance rank, sex, and social behaviour in the highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. We examined the relative gene expression of the three known teleost corticosteroid receptors: glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1), glucocorticoid receptor 2 (GR2), and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in liver and brain tissue of dominant and subordinate N. pulcher males and females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the N. pulcher gene originally described as GR2, clustered with other teleost GR1 genes, while the originally-described N. pulcher GR1 gene clustered with the GR2 genes of other teleosts. Therefore we propose a change in the original nomenclature of the N. pulcher GRs: GR1 (formerly GR2) and GR2 (formerly GR1) and adopt this new nomenclature throughout this manuscript. Liver MR transcript levels were higher in males than females, and positively related to submissive behaviour. Liver GR2 (formerly GR1) transcript levels were also higher in males than females. Collectively, the results demonstrate sex differences in corticosteroid receptor abundance, and suggest tissue- and receptor-specific roles for corticosteroid receptors in mediating aspects of social behaviour. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The pattern of topical corticosteroid prescribing in the United States, 1989-1991.

    PubMed

    Stern, R S

    1996-08-01

    Topical corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. These preparations vary greatly in potency. They are available in both brand name and generic formulations, as well as in combination products. Our purpose was to determine the pattern of topical corticosteroids prescribing in the United States and the relation of patient and prescriber attributes to the type of corticosteroid preparation prescribed. Data from the 1989 to 1991 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to estimate the number of visits with a topical corticosteroid preparation prescribed and to identify prescribers with specific characteristics. In the United States, topical corticosteroids are prescribed or recommended at an average of 14 million visits per year to office-based health practitioners. Forty percent of these visits were to dermatologists. Dermatologists were 3.9 times more likely to prescribe very high potency steroids than were other physicians. Physicians other than dermatologists were 8.4 times more likely than dermatologists to prescribe combination agents containing moderate- or high-potency topical corticosteroids and an antiinfective agent. The pattern of topical corticosteroid prescribing is substantially different for dermatologists and other physicians. These differences may reflect differences in severity or complexity of the disease or differences in prescribing habits. The importance of these differences to the outcome of treated patients is not established.

  18. Comparison of interval duration between single course antenatal corticosteroid administration and delivery on neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sekhavat, Leila; Firouzabadi, Raziah Dehghani; Karbasi, Sedighah Akhavan

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of antenatal corticosteroid the interval between administration and delivery affect on neonatal outcomes. An observational study was performed on all deliveries between 28-34 weeks gestation where delivery occurred vaginally after completing a single course of antenatal corticosteroid (dexamethasone). Women were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the interval from first corticosteroid dose to delivery (<2 days, 2-7 and >7 days). The primary outcome was the need for neonatal resuscitation and the secondary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which was described as "need for ventilation with positive pressure O2 during the first 24 hrs of life". P value <0.05 was significant. Of 104 neonates whose mothers received a full course of antenatal corticosteroid, 29 delivered <2 days, 41 delivered 2-7 days, and 34 delivered more than 7 days after the initial dose. Overall, those delivering within 2 days after the first injection of corticosteroid had more need for resuscitation and ventilation than those infants delivering between 2-7 days and after 7 days. Infants delivering between 2-7 days had a lower incidence of need for resuscitation and receiving respiratory support for more than 24 hours. We found that the interval between corticosteroid administration and delivery influences the incidence of need for resuscitation and ventilation. Infants delivering less than 2 days of corticosteroid exposure have a higher frequency of need for resuscitation and ventilation than delivering between 2-7 days and after 7 days.

  19. Effects of lamotrigine on hippocampal activation in corticosteroid-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, E Sherwood; Zaidel, Liam; Allen, Greg; McColl, Roderick; Vazquez, Miguel; Ringe, Wendy K

    2010-11-01

    An extensive animal literature suggests that stress or excessive corticosteroid exposure is associated with changes in hippocampal function and memory. These findings are pertinent to psychiatric disorders with elevated cortisol, Cushing's disease and the millions of patients receiving prescription corticosteroids. In animals, agents that decrease glutamate release attenuate the effects of corticosteroids on the hippocampus. Minimal data are available on preventing or reversing the effects of corticosteroids on the human hippocampus. We previously reported improvement in memory in corticosteroid-treated patients given lamotrigine. In this report, we examined the impact of lamotrigine on task-related hippocampal activation in patients taking prescription corticosteroids. A total of 28 outpatients taking long-term oral prednisone for medical conditions, such as renal transplant rejection, were randomized to lamotrigine or placebo for 24 weeks. Hippocampal activation in response to a visual memory task was assessed with blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Consistent with a reduction in glutamate release, the right posterior hippocampus showed a significant decrease in task-related activation in the lamotrigine group as compared to the placebo group. The modest sample size and an assessment period of only 24 weeks are study limitations. Between-group differences in hippocampal activation were observed. The results suggest that an agent that modulates glutamate may modify the effects of long-term corticosteroid exposure on the human hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Restoration of Corticosteroid Sensitivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Akihisa; Ito, Kazuhiro; Vuppusetty, Chaitanya; Barnes, Peter J; Mercado, Nicolas

    2016-01-15

    Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to the effective treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed, such as activations of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. However, the mechanism for corticosteroid resistance is still not fully elucidated. To investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in corticosteroid sensitivity in COPD. The corticosteroid sensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from patients with COPD, smokers, and nonsmoking control subjects, or of human monocytic U937 cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), was quantified as the dexamethasone concentration required to achieve 30% inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced CXCL8 production in the presence or absence of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. mTOR activity was determined as the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, using Western blotting. mTOR activity was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD, and treatment with rapamycin inhibited this as well as restoring corticosteroid sensitivity. In U937 cells, CSE stimulated mTOR activity and c-Jun expression, but pretreatment with rapamycin inhibited both and also reversed CSE-induced corticosteroid insensitivity. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin restores corticosteroid sensitivity via inhibition of c-Jun expression, and thus mTOR is a potential novel therapeutic target for COPD.

  1. Pharmacological therapies for management of opium withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Gholami, Jaleh; Amato, Laura; Hoseinie, Leila; Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh

    2018-06-21

    Pharmacologic therapies for management of heroin withdrawal have been studied and reviewed widely. Opium dependence is generally associated with less severe dependence and milder withdrawal symptoms than heroin. The evidence on withdrawal management of heroin might therefore not be exactly applicable for opium. To assess the effectiveness and safety of various pharmacologic therapies for the management of the acute phase of opium withdrawal. We searched the following sources up to September 2017: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, regional and national databases (IMEMR, Iranmedex, and IranPsych), main electronic sources of ongoing trials, and reference lists of all relevant papers. In addition, we contacted known investigators to obtain missing data or incomplete trials. Controlled clinical trials and randomised controlled trials on pharmacological therapies, compared with no intervention, placebo, other pharmacologic treatments, different doses of the same drug, and psychosocial intervention, to manage acute withdrawal from opium in a maximum duration of 30 days. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 13 trials involving 1096 participants. No pooled analysis was possible. Studies were carried out in three countries, Iran, India, and Thailand, in outpatient and inpatient settings. The quality of the evidence was generally very low.When the mean of withdrawal symptoms was provided for several days, we mainly focused on day 3. The reason for this was that the highest severity of opium withdrawal is in the second to fourth day.Comparing different pharmacological treatments with each other, clonidine was twice as good as methadone for completion of treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69 to 2.38; 361 participants, 1 study, low-quality evidence). All the other results showed no differences between the considered drugs: baclofen versus clonidine (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.80; 66 participants, 1

  2. Effect of erythropoietin on the survival of retinal neurocytes in culture upon serum withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi-Sheng; Yao, Hui-Ping; Deng, Lian-Fu; Cheng, Yu; Min, Ying-Jun

    2010-07-01

    To clarify whether erythropoietin (EPO) could substitute for the serum component in cultured retinal neurocytes suffering from serum withdrawal. The study was performed in the Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Shanghai, China between April 2008 and March 2009. A total of 160 postnatal 2-3 day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. After the retinal neurocytes were cultured for 48 hours, the culture media was replaced with serum-free media, and the cells were exposed to 1 U/ml, 3 U/ml, and 6 U/ml EPO for another 24 or 48 hours, the cell body diameter was then assessed using a computerized image-analysis system, and the survival and apoptosis rates of those cells were estimated by method of transcription and translation assay and flow cytometry. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect EPO and erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) expression. The retinal neurocytes had obvious EPO/ EPOR expression. The early (p = 0.002) and total (p = 0.049) apoptosis rates of retinal neurocytes cultured with serum withdrawal were significantly higher than that of neurocytes cultured with serum, and the cell viability of neurocytes cultured with serum withdrawal was significantly lower than that of neurocytes cultured with serum (p = 0.047). The EPO had no effect on the cell body diameter of cultured retinal neurocytes. The cell viability and the apoptosis rates of retinal neurocytes were not significantly different from that of simple serum-withdrawal culture at any EPO concentration. As the addition of EPO immediately after serum withdrawal had no effect in preventing retinal neurocytes apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, EPO cannot substitute for the serum component.

  3. Corticosteroid therapy in critical illness due to seasonal and pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Philippe; Adhikari, Neill KJ; Masse, Vincent; Fowler, Robert A; Xiong, Wei; McGeer, Allison; Cann, Darlene; Rudnick, Wallis; Green, Karen; Meade, Maureen O; Valiquette, Louis; Lamontagne, François

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability. OBJECTIVE: To describe variables independently associated with systemic corticosteroid therapy during an influenza outbreak. METHODS: The present analysis was retrospective cohort study involving critically ill patients with influenza in two Canadian cities. Hospital records were reviewed for critically ill patients treated in the intensive care units (ICUs) of eight hospitals in Canada during the 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010 influenza outbreaks. Abstracted data included demographic information, symptoms at disease onset, chronic comorbidities and baseline illness severity scores. Corticosteroid use data were extracted for every ICU day and expressed as hydrocortisone dose equivalent in mg. Multivariable regression models were constructed to identify variables independently associated with corticosteroid therapy in the ICU. RESULTS: The study cohort included 90 patients with a mean (± SD) age of 55.0±17.3 years and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 19.8±8.3. Patients in 2009 to 2010 were younger with more severe lung injury but similar exposure to corticosteroids. Overall, 54% of patients received corticosteroids at a mean daily dose of 343±330 mg of hydrocortisone for 8.5±4.8 days. Variables independently associated with corticosteroid therapy in the ICU were history of airway obstruction (OR 4.8 [95% CI 1.6 to 14.9]) and hemodynamic instability (OR 4.6 [95% CI 1.2 to 17.8]). CONCLUSION: Observational data revealed that hemodynamic instability and airway obstruction were associated with corticosteroid therapy in the critical care setting, similar to a recent survey of stated practice. Efforts to determine the effects of corticosteroids in the ICU for these specific clinical situations are warranted. PMID

  4. Corticosteroid therapy in critical illness due to seasonal and pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Yale, Philippe; Adhikari, Neill K J; Masse, Vincent; Fowler, Robert A; Xiong, Wei; McGeer, Allison; Cann, Darlene; Rudnick, Wallis; Green, Karen; Meade, Maureen O; Valiquette, Louis; Lamontagne, François

    2015-01-01

    Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability. To describe variables independently associated with systemic corticosteroid therapy during an influenza outbreak. The present analysis was retrospective cohort study involving critically ill patients with influenza in two Canadian cities. Hospital records were reviewed for critically ill patients treated in the intensive care units (ICUs) of eight hospitals in Canada during the 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010 influenza outbreaks. Abstracted data included demographic information, symptoms at disease onset, chronic comorbidities and baseline illness severity scores. Corticosteroid use data were extracted for every ICU day and expressed as hydrocortisone dose equivalent in mg. Multivariable regression models were constructed to identify variables independently associated with corticosteroid therapy in the ICU. The study cohort included 90 patients with a mean (± SD) age of 55.0 ± 17.3 years and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 19.8 ± 8.3. Patients in 2009 to 2010 were younger with more severe lung injury but similar exposure to corticosteroids. Overall, 54% of patients received corticosteroids at a mean daily dose of 343 ± 330 mg of hydrocortisone for 8.5 ± 4.8 days. Variables independently associated with corticosteroid therapy in the ICU were history of airway obstruction (OR 4.8 [95% CI 1.6 to 14.9]) and hemodynamic instability (OR 4.6 [95% CI 1.2 to 17.8]). Observational data revealed that hemodynamic instability and airway obstruction were associated with corticosteroid therapy in the critical care setting, similar to a recent survey of stated practice. Efforts to determine the effects of corticosteroids in the ICU for these specific clinical situations are warranted.

  5. Withdrawing may be preferable to withholding

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    The majority of deaths on the intensive care unit now occur following a decision to limit life-sustaining therapy, and end-of-life decision making is an accepted and important part of modern intensive care medical practice. Such decisions can essentially take one of two forms: withdrawing – the removal of a therapy that has been started in an attempt to sustain life but is not, or is no longer, effective – and withholding – the decision not to make further therapeutic interventions. Despite wide agreement by Western ethicists that there is no ethical difference between these two approaches, these issues continue to generate considerable debate. In this article, I will provide arguments why, although the two actions are indeed ethically equivalent, withdrawing life-sustaining therapy may in fact be preferable to withholding. PMID:15987405

  6. SSRI and SNRI withdrawal symptoms reported on an internet forum.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Tom; Odegbaro, Dolapo; Timimi, Sami; Moncrieff, Joanna

    2018-05-09

    Antidepressant withdrawal symptoms are well-recognised, but their potential duration remains uncertain. We aimed to describe the characteristics of withdrawal associated with two popular classes of antidepressants, including duration. We analysed the content of a sample of posts on an antidepressant withdrawal website. We compared the characteristics of withdrawal associated with SSRIs and SNRIs, including time of onset, duration and nature of symptoms. 110 posts about SSRI withdrawal, and 63 concerning SNRI withdrawal, were analysed. The mean duration of withdrawal symptoms was significantly longer with SSRIs than SNRIs: 90.5 weeks (standard deviation, SD, 150.0) and 50.8 weeks (SD 76.0) respectively; p = 0.043). Neurological symptoms, such as 'brain zaps,' were more common among SNRI users (p = 0.023). Psychosexual/genitourinary symptoms may be more common among SSRI users (p = 0.054). The website aims to help people with antidepressant withdrawal, and is therefore likely to attract people who have difficulties. Length of prior use of antidepressants was long, with a mean of 252.2 weeks (SD 250.8). People accessing antidepressant withdrawal websites report experiencing protracted withdrawal symptoms. There are some differences in the characteristics of withdrawal associated with different classes of antidepressants.

  7. Bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with central serous chorioretinopathy in a patient treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Rueda, T; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Llerena-Manzorro, L; Medina-Tapia, A; González-García, L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; López-Herrero, F; Muñoz-Morales, A; Ortega, L S; Herrador-Montiel, Á

    2017-10-01

    The case is presented on a 54-year-old woman with a central serous chorioretinopathy, misdiagnosed as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and treated with systemic corticosteroids. The patient presented with a bilateral bullous exudative retinal detachment. Discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy, surgical drainage of subretinal fluid, and photodynamic therapy, led to anatomical and functional improvement. The recognition of an atypical presentation of central serous chorioretinopathy may avoid complications of the inappropriate treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute oral administration of the novel, competitive and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34517 reduces the severity of ethanol withdrawal and related hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis activation

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Anna R.; Saunders, Meredith A.; Brewton, Honoree’ W.; Winchester, Sydney R.; Elgumati, Ibrahim S.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of ethanol dependence is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and activation of type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR). These effects may contribute to withdrawal-associated anxiety, craving and relapse to drinking. The present studies examined acute and oral administration of the novel, selective and competitive GR antagonist ORG 34517 on the severity of ethanol withdrawal. Methods Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol (4g/kg/i.g.) twice daily for 5 days followed by 2 days of withdrawal for 1, 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Blood ethanol levels (BELs) were determined at 0930 on Day 4 of each week, while blood corticosterone levels (BCLs) were obtained at 1100 hrs on the first day of each ethanol withdrawal. During early withdrawal, subjects received oral administration of ORG 345617 (60 mg/kg/i.g.) or a placebo and withdrawal was monitored. Results Peak BELs of 225.52 mg/dl were observed during the third week. Withdrawal from three cycles of the regimen produced marked behavioral abnormalities (e.g. aggression, rigidity, and hypoactivity) and significant increases in BCLs of ethanol-dependent subjects. Acute, oral administration of ORG 34517 during early withdrawal significantly reduced both the severity of ethanol withdrawal, as reflected in reduced rigidity, aggression, and hypoactivity, and elevations in BCL without producing any sedative-like effects. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal is associated with significant behavioral abnormalities and dysregulation of HPA axis activation. Further these data suggest that selective GR antagonists should be further considered as putative pharmacotherapies for treatment of ethanol dependence. PMID:26143299

  9. Acute oral administration of the novel, competitive and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34517 reduces the severity of ethanol withdrawal and related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Anna R; Saunders, Meredith A; Brewton, Honoree' W; Winchester, Sydney R; Elgumati, Ibrahim S; Prendergast, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The development of ethanol dependence is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and activation of type II glucocorticoid receptors (GR). These effects may contribute to withdrawal-associated anxiety, craving and relapse to drinking. The present studies examined acute and oral administration of the novel, selective and competitive GR antagonist ORG 34517 on the severity of ethanol withdrawal. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered ethanol (4g/kg/i.g.) twice daily for 5 days followed by 2 days of withdrawal for 1, 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Blood ethanol levels (BELs) were determined at 0930 on Day 4 of each week, while blood corticosterone levels (BCLs) were obtained at 11:00hours on the first day of each ethanol withdrawal. During early withdrawal, subjects received oral administration of ORG 345617 (60mg/kg/i.g.) or a placebo and withdrawal was monitored. Peak BELs of 225.52mg/dl were observed during the third week. Withdrawal from three cycles of the regimen produced marked behavioral abnormalities (e.g., aggression, rigidity, and hypoactivity) and significant increases in BCLs of ethanol-dependent subjects. Acute, oral administration of ORG 34517 during early withdrawal significantly reduced both the severity of ethanol withdrawal, as reflected in reduced rigidity, aggression, and hypoactivity, and elevations in BCL without producing any sedative-like effects. The present findings demonstrate that repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal is associated with significant behavioral abnormalities and dysregulation of HPA axis activation. Further these data suggest that selective GR antagonists should be further considered as putative pharmacotherapies for treatment of ethanol dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic Criteria for Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Levin, Kenneth H.; Copersino, Marc L.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Liu, Fang; Boggs, Douglas L.; Kelly, Deanna L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cannabis withdrawal occurs in frequent users who quit, but there are no accepted diagnostic criteria for a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS). This study evaluated diagnostic criteria for CWS proposed in DSM-V and two earlier proposals. Method A convenience sample of 384 adult, non-treatment-seeking lifetime cannabis smokers provided retrospective self-report data on their “most difficult” quit attempt without formal treatment, which was used in this secondary analysis. Prevalence, time of onset, and peak intensity (5-point Likert scale) for 39 withdrawal symptoms (drawn from the literature) were assessed via computer-administered questionnaire. Subject groups were compared using chi-square or ANOVA. Symptom clustering was evaluated with principal components analysis. Results 40.9% of subjects met the DSM-V criterion of ≥ 3 symptoms from a list of 7. There were no associations with sex, race, or type of cannabis preparation used. There were significant positive associations between duration or frequency of cannabis use prior to the quit attempt and experiencing CWS. Subjects with CWS had a significantly shorter duration of abstinence. Alternative syndromal criteria (dropping physical symptoms from DSM-V list; requiring ≥ 2or ≥ 4 symptoms from a list of 11) yielded a similar prevalence of CWS and similar associations with prior cannabis use and relapse. The PCA yielded 12 factors, including some symptom clusters not included in DSM-V. Conclusions Findings support the concurrent and predictive validity of the proposed DSM-V CWS, but suggest that the list of withdrawal symptoms and number required for diagnosis warrant further evaluation. PMID:22153944

  11. PERIOCULAR CORTICOSTEROID INJECTIONS IN UVEITIS: EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Vitale, Susan; Gangaputra, Sapna S.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Kempen, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the benefits and complications of periocular depot corticosteroid injections in patients with ocular inflammatory disorders. Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Participants A total of 914 patients (1192 eyes) who had received at least one periocular corticosteroid injection at 5 tertiary uveitis clinics in the United States. Methods Patients were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases (SITE) Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at every visit via medical record review by trained reviewers. Main Outcome Measures Control of inflammation, improvement of visual acuity to 20/40 or better, improvement of visual acuity loss attributed to macular edema, incident cataract affecting visual acuity, cataract surgery, ocular hypertension and glaucoma surgery. Results Among 914 patients (1192 eyes) who received at least one periocular injection during follow-up, 286 (31.3%) were classified as having anterior uveitis, 303 (33.3%) as intermediate uveitis, 324 (35.4%) as posterior or panuveitis. Cumulatively by ≤6 months, 72.7% [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 69.1-76.3] of the eyes achieved complete control of inflammation and 49.7% [95%CI:45.5-54.1] showed an improvement in visual acuity (VA) from worse than 20/40 to 20/40 or better. Among the subset with VA worse than 20/40 attributed to macular edema, 33.1% [95%CI: 25.2-42.7] improved to 20/40 or better. By 12 months, the cumulative incidence of one or more visits with an intraocular pressure≥24 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg was 34.0% [95%CI: 24.8-45.4] and 15.0% [95%CI: 11.8-19.1] respectively; glaucoma surgery was performed in 2.4% [95%CI: 1.4-3.9] of eyes. Within 12 months, among phakic eyes initially 20/40 or better, the incidence of a reduction in VA to worse than 20/40 attributed to cataract was 20.2% [95%CI: 15.9-25.6]; cataract surgery was performed within 12 months in 13.8 % [95%CI: 11.1-17.2] of the initially phakic eyes

  12. Smoking-specific experiential avoidance cognition: explanatory relevance to pre- and post-cessation nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-05-01

    Negative-reinforcement based cognitive processes have been implicated in the maintenance of cigarette smoking. Given the expectation that smoking will attenuate aversive internal experiences, smokers may be particularly unwilling to experience or remain in contact with smoking-related distress (i.e., experiential avoidance). Yet, there is little known about a cognitive-based process termed smoking-specific experiential avoidance with regard to withdrawal, craving, or negative affect during a quit attempt. Data were collected from adult daily smokers (n = 259) participating in a larger smoking cessation trial. Pre- and post-quit experiences of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect were examined in terms of cognitive-based smoking-specific experimental avoidance, measured by the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS). Results indicated that baseline smoking-specific experiential avoidance was associated with greater overall levels of withdrawal, craving, and negative affect at treatment initiation (pre-cessation). Reductions in smoking-specific experiential avoidance from baseline to quit day were associated with increased likelihood of quit day abstinence. Such reductions were also predictive of lower levels of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and negative affect on quit day. Also, less reduction in experiential avoidance was associated with experiencing greater withdrawal in the early phase of quitting. The impact of cognitive-based experiential avoidance pertaining to smoking impacts both pre- and post-cessation experiences in terms of negative affect, withdrawal, and smoking cravings and may represent an important treatment target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Love withdrawal predicts electrocortical responses to emotional faces with performance feedback: a follow-up and extension.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Alink, Lenneke R A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-06-02

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. In addition, recent studies have begun to show that experiences of love withdrawal also relate to the neural processing of socio-emotional information relevant to a performance-relational consequence link, and can moderate effects of oxytocin on social information processing and behavior. The current study follows-up on our previous results by attempting to confirm and extend previous findings indicating that experiences of maternal love withdrawal are related to electrocortical responses to emotional faces presented with performance feedback. More maternal love withdrawal was related to enhanced early processing of facial feedback stimuli (reflected in more positive VPP amplitudes, and confirming previous findings). However, attentional engagement with and processing of the stimuli at a later stage were diminished in those reporting higher maternal love withdrawal (reflected in less positive LPP amplitudes, and diverging from previous findings). Maternal love withdrawal affects the processing of emotional faces presented with performance feedback differently in different stages of neural processing.

  14. Serotonin modulates anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal from adolescent anabolic–androgenic steroid exposure in Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    From the U.S. to Europe and Australia anabolic steroid abuse remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of pathological anxiety that often appears during withdrawal from use. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of anxiety during AAS withdrawal that is modulated by serotonin (5HT) neural signaling. In the first two sets of experiments, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were tested for anxiety 21 days after the cessation of AAS administration (i.e., during AAS withdrawal) using the elevated plus maze (EPM), dark/light (DL), and seed finding (SF) tests and then examined for differences in 5HT afferent innervation to select areas of the brain important for anxiety. In the EPM and DL tests, adolescent AAS exposure leads to significant increases in anxiety-like response during AAS withdrawal. AAS-treated hamsters showed long-term reductions in 5HT innervation within several areas of the hamster brain implicated in anxiety, most notably the anterior hypothalamus and the central and medial amygdala. However, no differences in 5HT were found in other anxiety areas, e.g., frontal cortex and lateral septum. In the last experiment, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were scored for anxiety on the 21st day of AAS withdrawal following the systemic administration of saline or one of three doses of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Saline-treated hamsters showed high levels of AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety, while treatment with fluoxetine reduced AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety. These findings indicate that early AAS exposure has potent anxiogenic effects during AAS withdrawal that are modulated, in part, by 5HT signaling. PMID:23026540

  15. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David A; Jeffery, Heather E; Cole, Michael J

    2010-10-06

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to opiate withdrawal may result in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, sleep-wake abnormalities, feeding difficulties, weight loss and seizures. Treatments used to ameliorate symptoms and reduce morbidity include opiates, sedatives and non-pharmacological treatments. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using a sedative compared to a non-opiate control for NAS due to withdrawal from opiates, and to determine which type of sedative is most effective and safe. This update included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2010), MEDLINE 1966 to April 2010 and abstracts of conference proceedings. Trials enrolling infants with NAS born to mothers with an opiate dependence with > 80% follow-up and using random or quasi-random allocation to sedative or control. Control could include another sedative or non-pharmacological treatment. Each author assessed study quality and extracted data independently. Seven studies enrolling 385 patients were included. There were substantial methodological concerns for most studies including the use of quasi-random allocation methods and sizeable, largely unexplained differences in reported numbers allocated to each group.One study reported phenobarbitone compared to supportive care alone did not reduce treatment failure or time to regain birthweight, but resulted in a significant reduction in duration of supportive care (MD -162.1 min/day, 95% CI -249.2, -75.1). Comparing phenobarbitone to diazepam, meta-analysis of two studies found phenobarbitone resulted in a significant reduction in treatment failure (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.62). Comparing phenobarbitone with chlorpromazine, one study reported no significant difference in treatment failure.In infants treated with an opiate, one study reported addition of clonidine resulted in no significant difference in treatment failure, seizures or mortality. In infants treated with an opiate, one study

  16. Impact of attention biases to threat and effortful control on individual variations in negative affect and social withdrawal in very young children.

    PubMed

    Cole, Claire E; Zapp, Daniel J; Fettig, Nicole B; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2016-01-01

    Early temperamental sensitivity may form the basis for the later development of socioemotional maladjustment. In particular, temperamental negative affect places children at risk for the development of anxiety. However, not all children who show negative affect go on to develop anxiety or extreme social withdrawal. Recent research indicates that reactive control, in the form of attention to threat, may serve as a bridge between early temperament and the development of later social difficulties. In addition, variation in effortful control may also modulate this trajectory. Children (mean age=5.57 years) were assessed for attention bias to threatening and pleasant faces using a dot-probe paradigm. Attention bias to threatening (but not happy) faces moderated the direct positive relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Children with threat biases showed a significant link between negative affect and social withdrawal, whereas children who avoided threat did not. In contrast, effortful control did not moderate the relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Rather, there was a direct negative relation between effortful control and social withdrawal. The findings from this short report indicate that the relations among temperament, attention bias, and social withdrawal appears early in life and point to early emerging specificity in reactive and regulatory functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Attention Biases to Threat and Effortful Control on Individual Variations in Negative Affect and Social Withdrawal in Very Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Zapp, Daniel J.; Fettig, Nicole B.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2015-01-01

    Early temperamental sensitivity may form the basis for the later development of socioemotional maladjustment. In particular, temperamental negative affect places children at risk for the development of anxiety. However, not all children who show negative affect go on to develop anxiety or extreme social withdrawal. Recent research indicates that reactive control, in the form of attention to threat, may serve as a bridge between early temperament and the development of later social difficulties. In addition, variation in effortful control may also modulate this trajectory. Children (MeanAge=5.57 years) were assessed for attention bias to threatening and pleasant faces using a dot-probe paradigm. Attention bias to threatening (but not happy) faces moderated the direct positive relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Children with threat biases showed a significant link between negative affect and social withdrawal, while children who avoided threat did not. In contrast, effortful control did not moderate the relation between negative affect and social withdrawal. Rather, there was a direct negative relation between effortful control and social withdrawal. The findings from this short report indicate that the relation amongst temperament, attention bias, and social withdrawal appears early in life and point to early emerging specificity in reactive and regulatory functioning. PMID:26477597

  18. Safety of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of persistent asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are the most effective medications available for patients with persistent asthma of all severities and currently are recommended as the preferred asthma controller therapy by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Nevertheless, lingering concerns about potential adverse systemic effects of ICSs contribute to their underuse. This review discusses the safety of ICSs with respect to potential systemic effects of most concern to physicians and patients. METHODS: Articles reporting on the safety of ICSs in children and adults with persistent asthma were identified from the Medline database from January 1966 through December 2003, reference lists of review articles and international respiratory meetings. RESULTS: Ocular effects of ICSs and ICS effects on bone mineral density and adrenal function are minimal in patients maintained on recommended ICS doses. One-year growth studies in children have shown decreased growth velocity with ICSs, but long-term studies with inhaled budesonide and beclomethasone show no effect on final adult height, suggesting that these effects are transient. In addition, extensive data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry show no increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes when inhaled budesonide is administered to pregnant women with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: ICSs have minimal systemic effects in most patients when taken at recommended doses. The benefits of ICS therapy clearly outweigh the risks of uncontrolled asthma, and ICSs should be prescribed routinely as first-line therapy for children and adults with persistent disease. PMID:16775906

  19. Expression of corticosteroid binding globulin in the rat olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Dölz, Wilfried; Eitner, Annett; Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to act on the olfactory system although their mode of action is still unclear since nuclear glucocorticoid receptors are mostly absent in the olfactory mucosa. In this study we used immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR to study the expression and distribution of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) in the rat olfactory system. Mucosal goblet cells could be immunostained for CBG. Nasal secretion contained measurable amounts of CBG suggesting that CBG is liberated. CBG immunoreactivity was localized in many of the basal cells of the olfactory mucosa, while mature sensory cells contained CBG only in processes as determined by double immunostaining with the olfactory marker protein OMP. This staining was most pronounced in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). The appearance of CBG in the non-sensory and sensory parts of the VNO and in nerve terminals in the accessory bulb indicated axonal transport. Portions of the periglomerular cells, the mitral cells and the tufted cells were also CBG positive. CBG encoding transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR in homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and VNO. Olfactory CBG may be significant for uptake, accumulation and transport of glucocorticoids, including aerosolic cortisol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The association of antenatal corticosteroids with neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Kate E; Tran, Susan H; Lee, Erin; Caughey, Aaron B

    2014-05-01

    While antenatal corticosteroids reduce the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality, perhaps the maternal hyperglycemia they produce has other neonatal effects. Thus, we sought to examine the association between antenatal betamethasone exposure and neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia. We designed a retrospective cohort study of all preterm deliveries from 32 to 37 weeks of gestation at a single university hospital from 1990 to 2007. Data were collected on antenatal betamethasone administration and the neonatal outcomes. Univariable, multivariable and stratified analyses were conducted. Of 6675 preterm deliveries, significantly higher rates of neonatal hypoglycemia (5.7% versus 4.2%, p<0.05) and hyperbilirubinemia (45.9% versus 24.1%, p<0.05) were observed in neonates exposed to antenatal betamethasone. Controlling for potential confounders including gestational age, these findings persisted with betamethasone-exposed neonates 1.6 times more likely to have hypoglycemia (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.24-2.07) and 3.2 times more likely to have hyperbilirubinemia (aOR 3.23, 95% CI 2.92-3.58). Antenatal betamethasone was associated with neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Further work to determine whether this association is related to maternal hyperglycemia should be conducted, given this could be addressed with strict maternal glycemic control during betamethasone administration.

  1. [Inhaled corticosteroids and growth: should we be worried?].

    PubMed

    Pouessel, G; Gueorguieva, I; Bernaczyk, Y; Flammarion, S; Thumerelle, C; Deschildre, A

    2015-08-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are the cornerstone and the first stage of asthma treatment. The objective of this study was to synthesize data on the potential effects of ICSs on growth in children. Studies on the short-term impact of ICSs on growth evaluated by knemometry cannot be extrapolated to the medium or long term and therefore have no utility in real life for a given person. In the medium term, the various ICSs given at the usual doses cause a small reduction in growth after 6 months of treatment. This slowdown occurs at the beginning of treatment, especially in younger children, and the growth velocity corrects itself later but without catching up. In the long term, the prolonged use of ICSs seems to induce a small reduction in the final size in adulthood (close to 1cm) occurring in the first 2 years of treatment without worsening over time. The impact of gender, age at onset of treatment, different ICSs, modes of inhalation, and severity of asthma should also be studied further. The benefit of ICSs in asthma treatment is greater than the risk of side effects, including on growth. The majority of the therapeutic effect is obtained for small to moderate doses of ICSs. Regular adjustment of ICS dose for optimal asthma control should also reduce ICS dose and the impact on growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Corticosteroid-induced asthma: a manifestation of limited hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Sen, P; Gil, C; Estrellas, B; Middleton, J R

    1995-09-01

    Inadequate therapeutic response to parenteral corticosteroids in patients with acute bronchial asthma is infrequent. We report four patients whose bronchial asthma symptoms worsened after treatment with parenteral corticosteroids. All had larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the stool. The new attack or the exacerbation of asthma appeared to be precipitated by systemic corticosteroid administration. The paradoxic therapeutic response of asthma to glucocorticoides was the major pulmonary manifestation of Strongyloides superinfection; there was no evidence of other organ involvement. Individuals with new onset of bronchial asthma or worsening of asthmatic episodes concurrent with the use of systemic corticosteroids should have thorough investigation for possible superinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. This is particularly important for patients who have resided in areas where intestinal helminthic infections are endemic. Discontinuance of steroid therapy or reduction in dosage of parenteral steroids appears necessary. Treatment with thiabendazole appears to be effective in patients with limited hyperinfection syndrome.

  3. Plasma corticosteroid dynamics in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), during and after oxygen depletion

    Tomasso J.R., Davis; Parker, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma corticosteroid concentrations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, (normally 1.0 ± 0.3 μg/100 ml) increased significantly (to 5.9 ± 1.2μg/100 ml) in response to acute oxygen depletion and then returned to control levels within 30 min after the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased; however, a secondary increase in plasma corticosteroid levels was observed 6 h after exposure. Corticosteroid levels also increased in fish exposed to dissolved oxygen concentration of <0.2 mg/1 for three days. Methylene blue was not effective in preventing interrenal response to low dissolved oxygen. No diurnal plasma corticosteroid rhythm was observed in fish exposed to diurnal chemical rhythms of culture ponds.

  4. Analysis of serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Kojima, K; Ohno, K; Kanemoto, H; Goto-Koshino, Y; Fukushima, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2017-05-01

    To reveal the relationship between canine corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity and hepatobiliary diseases. Retrospective analysis of the relationship between serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity and diagnosis, serum cortisol concentration and alanine transferase activity in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. Dogs with a history of glucocorticoid administration were excluded. Seventy-two dogs with hepatobiliary diseases were analysed. The serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase concentration was increased in dogs with hepatobiliary diseases. There was no correlation between serum cortisol concentration and serum corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase percentage or activity. Dogs with hepatobiliary disease can exhibit high serum alkaline phosphatase activity even if the dogs have not been administrated glucocorticoids and the serum cortisol concentration is normal. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Effect of antenatal corticosteroids on fetal growth and gestational age at birth.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kellie E; Willan, Andrew R; Hannah, Mary E; Ohlsson, Arne; Kelly, Edmond N; Matthews, Stephen G; Saigal, Saroj; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Ross, Susan; Delisle, Marie-France; Amankwah, Kofi; Guselle, Patricia; Gafni, Amiram; Lee, Shoo K; Armson, B Anthony

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the effect of multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids on neonatal size, controlling for gestational age at birth and other confounders, and to determine whether there was a dose-response relationship between number of courses of antenatal corticosteroids and neonatal size. This is a secondary analysis of the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study, a double-blind randomized controlled trial of single compared with multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth and in which fetuses administered multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids weighed less, were shorter, and had smaller head circumferences at birth. All women (n=1,858) and children (n=2,304) enrolled in the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study were included in the current analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were undertaken. Compared with placebo, neonates in the antenatal corticosteroids group were born earlier (estimated difference and confidence interval [CI]: -0.428 weeks, CI -0.10264 to -0.75336; P=.01). Controlling for gestational age at birth and confounding factors, multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with a decrease in birth weight (-33.50 g, CI -66.27120 to -0.72880; P=.045), length (-0.339 cm, CI -0.6212 to -0.05676]; P=.019), and head circumference (-0.296 cm, -0.45672 to -0.13528; P<.001). For each additional course of antenatal corticosteroids, there was a trend toward an incremental decrease in birth weight, length, and head circumference. Fetuses exposed to multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were smaller at birth. The reduction in size was partially attributed to being born at an earlier gestational age but also was attributed to decreased fetal growth. Finally, a dose-response relationship exists between the number of corticosteroid courses and a decrease in fetal growth. The long-term effect of these findings is unknown

  6. Anxiety level and correlates in methamphetamine-dependent patients during acute withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wenwei; Xie, Ying; Tao, Jingyan; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2017-04-01

    Anxiety is often a core element of withdrawal symptoms; however, risk factors associated with anxiety symptoms during the early stage of withdrawal in methamphetamine (METH) users are not well understood. Two hundred ten METH-dependent subjects who had been abstinent for 1 to 7 days were recruited. We used a set of self-administrative questionnaires eliciting information on sociodemographics, detailed drug use history and anxiety. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. METH users had a mean BAI score of 6.9; 72 (34.3%) of the study sample had anxiety symptoms during acute METH withdrawal, including 42 (20.0%) with mild anxiety, 25 (11.9%) with moderate anxiety, and 5 (2.4%) with severe anxiety. In addition, gender (female), higher frequency of drug use, and history of polysubstance use were significantly correlated with anxiety symptoms during acute METH withdrawal. Anxiety symptoms appear to be common during the first week of METH abstinence, and several risk factors are identified.

  7. Biomechanical and organisational stressors and associations with employment withdrawal among pregnant workers: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of exposure to biomechanical and organisational job stressors (BOJS) and associations with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave, unemployment) was examined in a case-control study of 1114 pregnant workers in California. We performed descriptive and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses. At pregnancy onset, 57% were exposed to one or more biomechanical stressors, including frequent bending, heavy lifting and prolonged standing. One-third were simultaneously exposed to BOJS. Exposure to biomechanical stressors declined as pregnancy progressed and cessation often (41%) coincided with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave and unemployment). In multivariate modelling, whether we adjusted for or considered organisational stressors as coincident exposures, results showed that pregnant workers exposed to biomechanical stressors had increased employment withdrawal compared to the unexposed. Work schedule accommodations moderate this association. Paid antenatal leave, available to few US women, was an important strategy for mitigating exposure to BOJS. Implications for science and policy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This case-control study showed that exposure to biomechanical stressors decline throughout pregnancy. Antenatal leave was an important strategy used for mitigating exposure among sampled California women with access to paid benefits. Employment withdrawal among workers exposed to BJOS may be reduced by proactive administrative and engineering efforts applied early in pregnancy.

  8. Ritonavir and Topical Ocular Corticosteroid Induced Cushing's Syndrome in an Adolescent With HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Rainsbury, Paul G; Sharp, Jessica; Tappin, Alison; Hussey, Martin; Lenko, Alexandra; Foster, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome after topical ocular corticosteroid use is extremely rare. We describe a case of symptomatic Cushing's syndrome in an adolescent male with sight-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection that included ritonavir, a potent cytochrome p450 CYP3A4 inhibitor. CYP3A4 inhibition reduces the metabolism of exogenous corticosteroids leading to suppression of endogenous steroid production and Cushing's syndrome.

  9. Editorial Commentary: Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injection at the Time of Knee Arthroscopy Is Not Recommended.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    In a population of Medicare patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of postoperative infection at 3 and 6 months was found in patients who received an intra-articular corticosteroid injection at the time of knee arthroscopy compared with a matched control group that did not receive an injection. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection at the time of knee arthroscopy is not recommended. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Corticosteroids Still Have a Role in the Management of Third Molar Surgery?

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Lim, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The use of corticosteroids to reduce the post-operative sequelae of lower third molar surgery, namely pain, swelling and trismus, has been well studied by many researchers over the past 6 decades. This study reviewed the reported outcome of corticosteroids used in controlling the above sequalae after third molar surgery. A PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Google search was undertaken of all controlled clinical trials on the effects of corticosteroids on pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery. The review was limited to studies published over the last 10 years (2006-2015). Of the 46 initially retrieved articles, 34 were finally included. Eleven studies compared the effect of 2 similar (but different dose) or different group of corticosteroids. Thirty-one studies reported the effects of corticosteroids on all sequale, 2 reported the outcome on swelling and trismus and another 1 on swelling and pain only. In 16 of the studies, corticosteroid use resulted in significant reductions in pain after third molar removal. Twenty-two out of 29 studies reported reduced swelling against negative control while 18 out of 25 studies reported improved mouth opening. Fourteen studies reported the benefit of corticosteroids on all 3 sequelae, with 71.4% resulted from the use of methylprednisolone. Although there are some conflicting effects, the results of this analysis shows in general the benefits derived from short-term use of corticosteroids in relation to pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgical extraction, with no side effects observed. This work was supported by the University of Malaya's High Impact Research grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/05.

  11. Adjunct Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Outpatient Setting.

    PubMed

    Ambroggio, Lilliam; Test, Matthew; Metlay, Joshua P; Graf, Thomas R; Blosky, Mary Ann; Macaluso, Maurizio; Shah, Samir S

    2015-03-01

    The role of adjunct systemic corticosteroid therapy in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not known. The objective was to determine the association between adjunct systemic corticosteroid therapy and treatment failure in children who received antibiotics for treatment of CAP in the outpatient setting. The study included a retrospective cohort study of children, aged 1-18 years, with a diagnosis of CAP who were managed at an outpatient practice affiliated with Geisinger Health System from January 1, 2008 to January 31, 2010. The primary exposure was the receipt of adjunct corticosteroid therapy. The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as a respiratory-associated follow-up within 14 days of diagnosis in which the participant received a change in antibiotic therapy. The probability of receiving adjunct systemic corticosteroid therapy was calculated using a matched propensity score. A multivariable conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between adjunct corticosteroids and treatment failure. Of 2244 children with CAP, 293 (13%) received adjunct corticosteroids, 517 (23%) had underlying asthma, and 624 (28%) presented with wheezing. Most patients received macrolide monotherapy for their CAP diagnosis (n = 1329; 59%). Overall, treatment failure was not associated with adjunct corticosteroid treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 and 3.19), but the association was statistically significant among patients with no history of asthma (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.03 and 5.52), with no statistical association among patients with a history of asthma. Adjunct corticosteroid therapy was associated with treatment failure among children diagnosed with CAP who did not have underlying asthma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Case of Subacute Encephalopathy Developing After Treatment With Clofarabine and Methotrexate That Resolved With Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Tzachanis, Dimitrios; Haider, Mintallah; Papazisis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This is the case of a 24-year-old woman with relapsed acute undifferentiated leukemia who developed subacute encephalopathy with hemiparesis and dysarthria after treatment with high dose and intrathecal methotrexate, clofarabine, and cytarabine that resolved rapidly and completely after the administration of corticosteroids. We hypothesize that clofarabine might predispose to methotrexate-induced central nervous system toxicity by increasing endothelial permeability (capillary leak syndrome) and suggest that corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of this type of encephalopathy.

  13. Corticosteroids reduce IL-6 in ASM cells via up-regulation of MKP-1.

    PubMed

    Quante, Timo; Ng, Yee Ching; Ramsay, Emma E; Henness, Sheridan; Allen, Jodi C; Parmentier, Johannes; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms by which corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation are not completely understood. Traditionally, corticosteroids were thought to inhibit cytokines exclusively at the transcriptional level. Our recent evidence, obtained in airway smooth muscle (ASM), no longer supports this view. We have found that corticosteroids do not act at the transcriptional level to reduce TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 gene expression. Rather, corticosteroids inhibit TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion by reducing the stability of the IL-6 mRNA transcript. TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 mRNA decays at a significantly faster rate in ASM cells pretreated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone (t(1/2) = 2.4 h), compared to vehicle (t(1/2) = 9.0 h; P < 0.05) (results are expressed as decay constants [k] [mean +/- SEM] and half-life [h]). Interestingly, the underlying mechanism of inhibition by corticosteroids is via the up-regulation of an endogenous mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Corticosteroids rapidly up-regulate MKP-1 in a time-dependent manner (44.6 +/- 10.5-fold increase after 24 h treatment with dexamethasone; P < 0.05), and MKP-1 up-regulation was temporally related to the inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Moreover, TNF-alpha acts via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway to stabilize the IL-6 mRNA transcript (TNF-alpha, t(1/2) = 9.6 h; SB203580 + TNF-alpha, t(1/2) = 1.5 h), exogenous expression of MKP-1 significantly inhibits TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion and MKP-1 siRNA reverses the inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 secretion by dexamethasone. Taken together, these results suggest that corticosteroid-induced MKP-1 contributes to the repression of IL-6 secretion in ASM cells.

  14. Synergistic effect of oral corticosteroids use on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk populations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2018-06-01

    Little evidence is available on the relationship between oral corticosteroids use and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate whether oral corticosteroids use correlates with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk populations in Taiwan. Using representative claims database established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program with a population coverage rate of 99.6%, we identified 102,182 subjects aged 20-84 years with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in 2000-2011 as the cases and 102,182 randomly selected subjects aged 20-84 years without hepatocellular carcinoma as the matched controls. In subjects with any one of comorbidities including alcohol-related disease, chronic liver disease, and diabetes mellitus, the adjusted OR of hepatocellular carcinoma was 29.9 (95% CI 28.7, 31.1) for subjects with never use of oral corticosteroids, and the adjusted OR would increase to 33.7 (95% CI 32.3, 35.3) for those with ever use of oral corticosteroids. The adjusted OR of hepatocellular carcinoma was 1.03 for subjects with increasing cumulative duration of oral corticosteroids use for every one year (95% CI 1.01, 1.06), with a duration-dependent effect. The largest OR occurred in subjects with ever use of oral corticosteroids and concurrently comorbid with alcohol-related disease, chronic liver disease, and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 122.7, 95% CI 108.5, 138.8). There is a synergistic effect between oral corticosteroids use and the traditional risk factors on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. People with risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma should receive regular ultrasound surveillance, particularly when they currently use oral corticosteroids. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Corticosteroid, and Placebo.

    PubMed

    Mahindra, Pankaj; Yamin, Mohammad; Selhi, Harpal S; Singla, Sonia; Soni, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. It is a disabling disease in its chronic form. It is a degenerative tissue condition of the plantar fascia rather than an inflammation. Various treatment options are available, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, orthosis, and physiotherapy. This study compared the effects of local platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, and placebo injections in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. In this double-blind study, patients were divided randomly into 3 groups. Local injections of platelet-rich plasma, corticosteroid, or normal saline were given. Patients were assessed with the visual analog scale for pain and with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle and Hindfoot score before injection, at 3 weeks, and at 3-month follow-up. Mean visual analog scale score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups decreased from 7.44 and 7.72 preinjection to 2.52 and 3.64 at final follow-up, respectively. Mean AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups improved from 51.56 and 55.72 preinjection to 88.24 and 81.32 at final follow-up, respectively. There was a significant improvement in visual analog scale score and AOFAS score in the platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid groups at 3 weeks and at 3-month follow-up. There was no significant improvement in visual analog scale score or AOFAS score in the placebo group at any stage of the study. The authors concluded that local injection of platelet-rich plasma or corticosteroid is an effective treatment option for chronic plantar fasciitis. Platelet-rich plasma injection is as effective as or more effective than corticosteroid injection in treating chronic plantar fasciitis. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Use of corticosteroids for pain control in cancer patients with bone metastases: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fiona M Y; Bobrowski, Adam; Agarwal, Arnav; Silva, Mauricio F

    2017-06-01

    Despite a limited understanding of the exact mechanism, corticosteroids are commonly employed for pain control in patients with bone metastases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid-mediated pain control in patients with bone metastases associated with solid cancers. A literature search was conducted using OVID MEDLINE and Embase databases (from 1946 up to July 19, 2016). Studies involving patients with bone metastases receiving corticosteroids as the primary means of pain control were included. Screening and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers, with consensus established by discussion, or a third adjudicator. A total of 12 studies were included. Rates of pain relief achieved with corticosteroid use varied from 30 to 70%, but generally reflected moderate pain control. Corticosteroid use significantly reduced the incidence of pain flare alongside radiotherapy, reportedly by almost half of baseline pain severity. Adverse events were not documented consistently across studies, though grade two to three hyperglycemia was noted in approximately 2% of patients by some studies. Recent evidence suggests that short-term corticosteroid use may provide moderate pain and pain flare control with radiotherapy for patients with bone metastases. The risk of developing adverse effects should be carefully considered prior to therapy initiation on a case-by-case basis.

  17. General practitioners knowledge about use of topical corticosteroids in paediatric atopic dermatitis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Saxon D; Harris, Victoria; Lee, Andrew; Blaszczynski, Alex; Fischer, Gayle

    2017-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids are the standard of care in paediatric atopic dermatitis (pAD). However, messages that overstress possible side effects can have a negative impact on perceptions of safety and contribute to treatment non-adherence. The aim of this study was to assess general practitioners' (GPs') perception of the safety of topical corticosteroids in pAD treatment. Australian GPs participating in continuing professional development programs were assessed before an education session on pAD. Responses were recorded via an electronic survey. A total of 257 GPs were surveyed. More than one-third (40.7%) of the GPs instructed parents to apply topical corticosteroids for two weeks or less. Nearly half (47.7%) instructed parents to apply topical corticosteroids sparingly or with the smallest amount possible. Furthermore, nearly one-third (30.2%) reported skin atrophy as the most common side effect of topical corticosteroids. Advice to patients given by Australian GPs may carry unintentional risk messages contributing to treatment non‑adherence. Evidence-based information on the safety of topical corticosteroids is needed to empower GPs to improve treatment outcomes in pAD.

  18. [Effect of corticosteroids on the balance of Th cytokines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-fu; Li, Jie; Shi, Wei

    2002-12-28

    To investigate the levels of Th cell-derived cytokines and the effect of corticosteroids on the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-eight SLE patients were treated with corticosteroids. Their IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were detected by ELISA before and after the treatment with corticosteroids respectively; and the SLEDAI scores of the patients were compared before and after the treatment. Before the treatment, the serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 were higher than those of the healthy controls (P < 0.05). After the treatment with corticosteroids, the elevated levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 in the SLE patients were all significantly reduced than those before the treatment (P < 0.05). At the same time, the SLEDAI scores were significantly lower than those before the treatment (P < 0.01). The serum level of IFN-gamma was significantly decreased in the patients with SLE compared with the healthy controls (P < 0.05). By contrast, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 of the patients with SLE were significantly increased compared with the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Corticosteroids may induce a shift from the Th1 to Th2 profile of cytokine secretion. This may be one aspect of the mechanisms for corticosteroids treatment.

  19. Comparison of corticosteroid, autologous blood or sclerosant injections for chronic tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Branson, R; Naidu, K; du Toit, C; Rotstein, A H; Kiss, R; McMillan, D; Fooks, L; Coombes, B K; Vicenzino, B

    2017-06-01

    To compare three different ultrasound-guided injections for chronic tennis elbow. Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled comparative trial. 44 patients with clinically diagnosed tennis elbow, confirmed by Doppler ultrasound, received under ultrasound guidance, a single corticosteroid injection (n=14), or two injections (separated by 4 weeks) of either autologous blood (n=14) or polidocanol (n=16). Clinical and ultrasound examination was performed at baseline, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Complete recovery or much improvement was greater for corticosteroid injection than autologous blood and polidocanol at 4 weeks (p<0.001, number needed to treat 1 (95% CI 1-2)). In contrast, at 26 weeks corticosteroid was significantly worse than polidocanol (p=0.004, number needed to harm 2 (1-6)). Recurrence after corticosteroid injection was significantly higher than autologous blood or polidocanol (p=0.007, number needed to harm 2 (1-4)). Corticosteroid injection produced greater reduction in tendon thickness and vascularity than autologous blood at 4 weeks only. Compared to autologous blood, polidocanol reduced tendon thickness at 4 and 12 weeks and reduced echogenicity and hyperaemia after 12 or 26 weeks respectively. Injections of corticosteroid cannot be recommended over polidocanol or autologous blood, because despite beneficial short-term effect there were inferior long-term effects. Whether polidocanol or autologous blood injections are effective is unknown, especially as their global effect profiles are not unlike previously reported for wait-and-see. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Friends Also Matter: Examining Friendship Adjustment Indices as Moderators of Anxious-Withdrawal and Trajectories of Change in Psychological Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51%…

  1. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  2. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  3. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  4. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciT

    NONE

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  5. Antenatal corticosteroids in impending preterm deliveries before 25 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mangesh; Patole, Sanjay

    2018-03-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid (ANC) use before 25 weeks' gestation is controversial. Our previous systematic review (eight observational studies, n=10 109) showed that ANC exposure was associated with significantly reduced mortality and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)/periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in neonates born <25 weeks. We update our review by adding data (n=3334) from a recent study. We used Cochrane methodology and summarised the results using GRADE (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) guidelines. Nine high-quality observational studies were included. Meta-analysis (random effects model) showed reduced mortality (n=13 443; OR=0.48 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.55) P<0.00001; level of evidence (LOE): moderate) and IVH or PVL (n=8418; OR=0.70 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.79), P<0.00001; LOE: moderate) in neonates born <25 weeks exposed to ANC. There was no difference in necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) ≥stage II (n=8737; OR=1.01 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.22), P=0.89; LOE: low); incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) was higher (n=7983; OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.67), P=0.02; LOE: low) in ANC group. Composite outcomes of death/major morbidities (eg, severe IVH, NEC, CLD) were improved after ANC exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Corticosteroid therapy in ulcerative colitis: Clinical response and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Sheng, Jian-Qiu; Yan, Wen-Feng; Ma, Min-Xing; Fan, Ru-Ying; Gu, Fang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Chen, Da-Fan; Zheng, Ping; Gu, Yu-Pei; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hong; Qian, Jia-Ming; Hu, Pin-Jin; Xia, Bing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate clinical response to initial corticosteroid (CS) treatment in Chinese ulcerative colitis patients (UC) and identify predictors of clinical response. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-three UC patients who were initially treated with oral or intravenous CS from 2007 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed at eight inflammatory bowel disease centers in China, and 101 consecutive cases with one-year follow-up were analyzed further for clinical response and predictors. Short-term outcomes within one month were classified as primary response and primary non-response. Long-term outcomes within one year were classified as prolonged CS response, CS dependence and secondary non-response. CS refractoriness included primary and secondary non-response. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors associated with clinical response. RESULTS: Within one month, 95.0% and 5.0% of the cases were classified into primary response and non-response, respectively. Within one year, 41.6% of cases were assessed as prolonged CS response, while 49.5% as CS dependence and 4.0% as secondary non-response. The rate of CS refractoriness was 8.9%, while the cumulative rate of surgery was 6.9% within one year. After multivariate analysis of all the variables, tenesmus was found to be a negative predictor of CS dependence (OR = 0.336; 95%CI: 0.147-0.768; P = 0.013) and weight loss as a predictor of CS refractoriness (OR = 5.662; 95%CI: 1.111-28.857; P = 0.040). After one-month treatment, sustained high Sutherland score (≥ 6) also predicted CS dependence (OR = 2.347; 95%CI: 0.935-5.890; P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Tenesmus was a negative predictor of CS dependence, while weight loss and sustained high Sutherland score were strongly associated with poor CS response. PMID:25780299

  7. Systemic Allergy to Corticosteroids: Clinical Features and Cross Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick; Waton, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Systemic hypersensitivity (HS) to corticosteroids (CS) is paradoxical but does exist. Some patients with a previous contact allergy to topical CS may develop a systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) while receiving CS orally or intravenously. However, a previous contact sensitization is not mandatory for developing a systemic HS to CS. Acute or delayed urticaria can occur in immediate HS. Immediate HS can be due to excipients, mainly carboxymethylcellulose or to CS themselves. Delayed reactions, mainly maculopapular rash and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis can occur. Skin tests with systemic CS have to be standardized. It is necessary to determine if IDT with CS frequently induce skin atrophy or not and if such skin atrophy is transient by doing prospective studies using an standardized method and a limited injected volume (0.02 ml). Patch tests can be done in delayed HS, with readings at day 2, 4 and 7. In SCD, the Baeck's classification of CS in 3 chemical groups could explain cross reactivity between systemic CS. However, this classification is not applicable to explain cross-reactions between in systemic HS. According to the literature, 52/79 patients had a HS reaction to a group confirmed by a positive allergological investigations, but had a negative provocation test with another CS belonging to the same group. In case of non-severe cutaneous adverse reactions and when skin tests are negative, provocation tests have to be performed to find an alternative CS, even if it belongs to the same chemical group as those responsible for the initial reaction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Practice guideline update summary: Corticosteroid treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gloss, David; Moxley, Richard T.; Ashwal, Stephen; Oskoui, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To update the 2005 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline on corticosteroid treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature from January 2004 to July 2014 using the AAN classification scheme for therapeutic articles and predicated recommendations on the strength of the evidence. Results: Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Recommendations: In children with DMD, prednisone should be offered for improving strength (Level B) and pulmonary function (Level B). Prednisone may be offered for improving timed motor function (Level C), reducing the need for scoliosis surgery (Level C), and delaying cardiomyopathy onset by 18 years of age (Level C). Deflazacort may be offered for improving strength and timed motor function and delaying age at loss of ambulation by 1.4–2.5 years (Level C). Deflazacort may be offered for improving pulmonary function, reducing the need for scoliosis surgery, delaying cardiomyopathy onset, and increasing survival at 5–15 years of follow-up (Level C for each). Deflazacort and prednisone may be equivalent in improving motor function (Level C). Prednisone may be associated with greater weight gain in the first years of treatment than deflazacort (Level C). Deflazacort may be associated with a greater risk of cataracts than prednisone (Level C). The preferred dosing regimen of prednisone is 0.75 mg/kg/d (Level B). Over 12 months, prednisone 10 mg/kg/weekend is equally effective (Level B), with no long-term data available. Prednisone 0.75 mg/kg/d is associated with significant risk of weight gain, hirsutism, and cushingoid appearance (Level B). PMID:26833937

  9. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  10. Withdrawing low risk women from cervical screening programmes: mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S; Jenkins, D

    1999-02-06

    To evaluate the impact of policies for removing women before the recommended age of 64 from screening programmes for cervical cancer in the United Kingdom. A mathematical model of the clinical course of precancerous lesions which accounts for the influence of infection with the human papillomavirus, the effects of screening on the progression of disease, and the accuracy of the testing procedures. Two policies are compared: one in which women are withdrawn from the programme if their current smear is negative and they have a recent history of regular, negative results and one in which women are withdrawn if their current smear test is negative and a simultaneous test is negative for exposure to high risk types of human papillomavirus. United Kingdom cervical screening programme. The incidence of invasive cervical cancer and the use of resources. Early withdrawal of selected women from the programme is predicted to give rise to resource savings of up to 25% for smear tests and 18% for colposcopies when withdrawal occurs from age 50, the youngest age considered in the study. An increase in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer, by up to 2 cases/100 000 women each year is predicted. Testing for human papillomavirus infection to determine which women should be withdrawn from the programme makes little difference to outcome. This model systematically analyses the consequences of screening options using available data and the clinical course of precancerous lesions. If further audit studies confirm the model's forecasts, a policy of early withdrawal might be considered. This would be likely to release substantial resources which could be channelled into other aspects of health care or may be more effectively used within the cervical screening programme to counteract the possible increase in cancer incidence that early withdrawal might bring.

  11. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... year is designated “Period (aa)”; the period between the end of a party's tax year and the party's tax...). Constructive deposits and withdrawals shall be permissible only during the Period (aa) during which a written... Period (aa), if any, which occurs before the Secretary executes the Interim CCF Agreement previously...

  12. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... year is designated “Period (aa)”; the period between the end of a party's tax year and the party's tax...). Constructive deposits and withdrawals shall be permissible only during the Period (aa) during which a written... Period (aa), if any, which occurs before the Secretary executes the Interim CCF Agreement previously...

  13. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... year is designated “Period (aa)”; the period between the end of a party's tax year and the party's tax...). Constructive deposits and withdrawals shall be permissible only during the Period (aa) during which a written... Period (aa), if any, which occurs before the Secretary executes the Interim CCF Agreement previously...

  14. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... year is designated “Period (aa)”; the period between the end of a party's tax year and the party's tax...). Constructive deposits and withdrawals shall be permissible only during the Period (aa) during which a written... Period (aa), if any, which occurs before the Secretary executes the Interim CCF Agreement previously...

  15. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... year is designated “Period (aa)”; the period between the end of a party's tax year and the party's tax...). Constructive deposits and withdrawals shall be permissible only during the Period (aa) during which a written... Period (aa), if any, which occurs before the Secretary executes the Interim CCF Agreement previously...

  16. Usefulness of salicylate and thiopurine coprescription in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis and withdrawal strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Fernando; Gisbert, Javier P.

    2010-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and thiopurines (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) are the most common drugs used as a maintenance treatment for ulcerative colitis. A considerable proportion of these patients develop corticosteroid dependency, and thiopurines are the standard treatment in this scenario. Dual prescriptions of both thiopurines and 5-ASA are common practice in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis, in an attempt to optimize the efficacy of therapy. On the one hand, the potential protective role of 5-ASA against colorectal cancer argues in favour of prescription of both medications. The possible synergism between the two drugs, because of the inhibition of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme activity by 5-ASA, has been postulated as another justification for dual prescription. However, existing evidence does not support that this combined strategy is superior to monotherapy with thiopurines. On the other hand, in patients showing prolonged disease remission, the possibility of discontinuing maintenance treatment can be considered on an individualized basis. The high frequency of relapses after thiopurine withdrawal should always be taken into account, but the potential adverse effects of the medication also need to be considered. A properly indicated treatment with thiopurines may need to be continued for life in many patients. PMID:23251733

  17. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome dynamics during treatment with nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas)].

    PubMed

    Agibalova, T V; Buzik, O Zh; Rychkova, O V; Smyshlyaev, A V; Rumbesht, V V

    2018-01-01

    To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period. There were significant between-group differences on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (МFI-20). However, patients exhibited no excessive activity. No adverse side-effects were observed.

  18. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 15 CFR 921.41 - Withdrawal of designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... withdraw designation of an estuarine area as a National Estuarine Research Reserve pursuant to and in...

  20. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, D A; Jeffery, H E; Cole, M J

    2005-07-20

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to opiate withdrawal may result in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, sleep-wake abnormalities, feeding difficulties, weight loss and seizures. Treatments used to ameliorate symptoms and reduce morbidity include opiates, sedatives and non-pharmacological treatments. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using a sedative compared to a non-opiate control for NAS due to withdrawal from opiates, and to determine which type of sedative is most effective and safe. The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review Group was used. This update included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE 1966-March 2005 and abstracts of conference proceedings. Trials enrolling infants with NAS born to mothers with an opiate dependence, with > 80% follow up and using random or quasi-random allocation to sedative or control. Control could include another sedative or non-pharmacological treatment. Each author assessed study quality and extracted data independently. Primary outcomes included treatment failure (failure to achieve symptom control or use of additional drug treatment), seizure occurrence, mortality and neurodevelopment. Treatment effect was expressed using (RR), risk difference (RD), mean difference (MD) and weighted mean difference (WMD). Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effect model. Six studies enrolling a total of 305 patients met inclusion criteria (Coyle 2002; Finnegan 1984; Kahn 1969; Kaltenbach 1986; Khoo 1995; Madden 1977); however, two (Finnegan 1984; Kaltenbach 1986) may be sequential reports that include some identical patients. Methodological concerns included the use of quasi-random allocation methods in four studies, and sizeable, largely unexplained differences in reported numbers allocated to each group in three studies. Phenobarbitone compared to supportive care alone has not been shown to reduce treatment failure or

  2. Corticosteroid-induced gene expression in allergen-challenged asthmatic subjects taking inhaled budesonide

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, MM; King, EM; Rider, CF; Gwozd, C; Holden, NS; Eddleston, J; Zuraw, B; Leigh, R; O'Byrne, PM; Newton, R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma pharmacotherapy and, acting via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reduce inflammatory gene expression. While this is often attributed to a direct inhibitory effect of the GR on inflammatory gene transcription, corticosteroids also induce the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in vitro. As there are no data to support this effect in asthmatic subjects taking ICS, we have assessed whether ICS induce anti-inflammatory gene expression in subjects with atopic asthma. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Bronchial biopsies from allergen-challenged atopic asthmatic subjects taking inhaled budesonide or placebo were subjected to gene expression analysis using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR for the corticosteroid-inducible genes (official gene symbols with aliases in parentheses): TSC22D3 [glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ)], dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (MAPK phosphatase-1), both anti-inflammatory effectors, and FKBP5 [FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51)], a regulator of GR function. Cultured pulmonary epithelial and smooth muscle cells were also treated with corticosteroids before gene expression analysis. KEY RESULTS Compared with placebo, GILZ and FKBP51 mRNA expression was significantly elevated in budesonide-treated subjects. Budesonide also increased GILZ expression in human epithelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. Immunostaining of bronchial biopsies revealed GILZ expression in the airways epithelium and smooth muscle of asthmatic subjects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Expression of the corticosteroid-induced genes, GILZ and FKBP51, is up-regulated in the airways of allergen-challenged asthmatic subjects taking inhaled budesonide. Consequently, the biological effects of corticosteroid-induced genes should be considered when assessing the actions of ICS. Treatment modalities that increase or decrease GR-dependent transcription may correspondingly affect corticosteroid efficacy

  3. The Association of Industry Payments to Physicians with Prescription of Brand-Name Intranasal Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Morse, Elliot; Fujiwara, Rance J T; Mehra, Saral

    2018-06-01

    Objectives To examine the association of industry payments for brand-name intranasal corticosteroids with prescribing patterns. Study Design Cross-sectional retrospective analysis. Setting Nationwide. Subjects and Methods We identified physicians prescribing intranasal corticosteroids to Medicare beneficiaries 2014-2015 and physicians receiving payment for the brand-name intranasal corticosteroids Dymista and Nasonex. Prescription and payment data were linked by physician, and we compared the proportion of prescriptions written for brand-name intranasal corticosteroids in industry-compensated vs non-industry-compensated physicians. We associated the number and dollar amount of industry payments with the relative frequency of brand-name prescriptions. Results In total, 164,587 physicians prescribing intranasal corticosteroids were identified, including 7937 (5%) otolaryngologists; 10,800 and 3886 physicians received industry compensation for Dymista and Nasonex, respectively. Physicians receiving industry payment for Dymista prescribed more Dymista as a proportion of total intranasal corticosteroid prescriptions than noncompensated physicians (3.1% [SD = 9.6%] vs 0.2% [SD = 2.5%], respectively, P < .001). Similar trends were seen for Nasonex (12.0% [SD = 16.8%] vs 4.8% [SD = 13.6%], P < .001). The number and dollar amount of payment were significantly correlated to the relative frequency of Dymista (ρ = 0.26, P < .001 and ρ = 0.20, P < .001, respectively) and Nasonex prescriptions (ρ = 0.09, P < .001 and ρ = 0.15, P < .001, respectively). For Dymista, this association was stronger in otolaryngologists than general practitioners ( P < .001). There was a stronger correlation between the percentage of prescriptions and the number and dollar amount of payments for Dymista than for Nasonex ( P = .014 and P < .001). Conclusions Industry compensation for brand-name intranasal corticosteroids is significantly associated with prescribing patterns. The magnitude of

  4. Laser-assisted topical corticosteroid delivery for the treatment of keloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hye; Chun, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Hee

    2017-04-01

    Laser-assisted drug delivery has generated intense interest. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the clinical benefit of laser-assisted corticosteroid delivery and to compare this technique to corticosteroid intralesional injection, a standard treatment for keloids. Patients with keloids on the left shoulder after BCG vaccination were enrolled in this study. The entire lesion was first treated with an ablative fractional erbium-YAG laser. After this treatment, the lesion was divided into two halves. The first half received an intralesional injection of corticosteroid, whereas the second half received topical application of corticosteroids that were occluded for 3 hours. Four treatment sessions were conducted, with treatments occurring once every 6 weeks. Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Pain was self-assessed by the patient during the procedure. The mean keloid VSS score before treatment was 8.59 ± 1.23 for the corticosteroid injection site and 8.31 ± 2.09 for the topical site. After treatment, the mean keloid VSS score was decreased on both sides (4.56 ± 1.09 vs 5.02 ± 0.87, respectively, P > 0.05). Patients rated their satisfaction level as "moderate" on both sides. However, the mean pain score was 1.1 out of 10 on the topical side versus 6.1 on the corticosteroid injection site. The combination of ablative fractional laser treatment and topical corticosteroid application is a promising modality for the treatment of keloids. Moreover, this procedure was not associated with any serious adverse reactions or unbearable pain.

  5. Corticosteroids as an adjunct to antibiotics and surgical drainage for the treatment of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Draeger, Reid W; Singh, Bikramjit; Bynum, Donald K; Dahners, Laurence E

    2010-11-17

    Many similarities exist between pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis and other closed-space infections such as septic arthritis. Previous studies have demonstrated that corticosteroids in conjunction with antibiotics considerably improve treatment outcomes in patients with septic arthritis. Using a chicken model, we investigated whether or not corticosteroids in combination with antibiotics and/or surgical drainage could minimize the loss of range of motion typically associated with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis. We inoculated the flexor tendon sheath of the right long toe of broiler chickens with Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29523 NA) (6 × 10(9) colony-forming units/mL) and twenty-four hours later administered one of six treatments to groups of fourteen or fifteen chickens. Treatment combinations included systemic or intrasynovial antibiotics, surgical drainage with catheter irrigation or no surgical drainage, and local corticosteroid injections or no corticosteroid injections. Measurements of active digital flexion at the proximal and middle interphalangeal joints were performed before inoculation and treatment and at seven, fourteen, and twenty-eight days after treatment. Flexion measurements were compared between groups as well as with similar measurements in the contralateral, uninfected, control long toe. At twenty-eight days, two of three groups treated with locally administered corticosteroids and the group treated with intrasynovial antibiotics alone (without surgery) regained significantly more active flexion in comparison with chickens treated with systemic antibiotics and surgical drainage (the current standard of care). Pooled data revealed that the corticosteroid-treated groups regained significantly more active flexion at all post-treatment time points. Our data support the hypothesis that adding locally administered corticosteroids to the treatment regimen for pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis in a chicken model can significantly

  6. Comparison of interval duration between single course antenatal corticosteroid administration and delivery on neonatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sekhavat, Leila; Firouzabadi, Raziah Dehghani; Karbasi, Sedighah Akhavan

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to determine the effect of antenatal corticosteroid the interval between administration and delivery affect on neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods An observational study was performed on all deliveries between 28–34 weeks gestation where delivery occurred vaginally after completing a single course of antenatal corticosteroid (dexamethasone). Women were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the interval from first corticosteroid dose to delivery (<2 days, 2–7 and >7 days). The primary outcome was the need for neonatal resuscitation and the secondary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which was described as “need for ventilation with positive pressure O2 during the first 24 hrs of life”. P value <0.05 was significant. Results Of 104 neonates whose mothers received a full course of antenatal corticosteroid, 29 delivered <2 days, 41 delivered 2–7 days, and 34 delivered more than 7 days after the initial dose. Overall, those delivering within 2 days after the first injection of corticosteroid had more need for resuscitation and ventilation than those infants delivering between 2–7 days and after 7 days. Infants delivering between 2–7 days had a lower incidence of need for resuscitation and receiving respiratory support for more than 24 hours. Conclusion We found that the interval between corticosteroid administration and delivery influences the incidence of need for resuscitation and ventilation. Infants delivering less than 2 days of corticosteroid exposure have a higher frequency of need for resuscitation and ventilation than delivering between 2–7 days and after 7 days. PMID:24591968

  7. Primary central nervous system lymphoma can be histologically diagnosed after previous corticosteroid use: a pilot study to determine whether corticosteroids prevent the diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Porter, Alyx B; Giannini, Caterina; Kaufmann, Timothy; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Wu, Wenting; Decker, Paul A; Atkinson, John L D; O'Neill, Brian Patrick

    2008-05-01

    The objective is to determine whether corticosteroid administration before biopsy prevents histopathological diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A retrospective review was performed of immunocompetent PCNSL patients from 1985 to 2005. A total of 109 patients was identified. Sixty-eight (63.6%) patients received corticosteroids before diagnosis. Thirteen patients (of 109; 12%) had undergone repeat brain biopsy to confirm PCNSL. These included 8 (of 68) patients who had received corticosteroids (12%), and 5 (of 39) who had not (13%) (p = 1.0). The majority of PCNSL patients who received corticosteroids before diagnosis did not experience significant radiographic change or require second biopsy for diagnosis.

  8. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety- eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  9. Progestin withdrawal at parturition in the mare.

    PubMed

    Legacki, Erin L; Corbin, C J; Ball, B A; Wynn, M; Loux, S; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian pregnancies need progestogenic support and birth requires progestin withdrawal. The absence of progesterone in pregnant mares, and the progestogenic bioactivity of 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP), led us to reexamine progestin withdrawal at foaling. Systemic pregnane concentrations (DHP, allopregnanolone, pregnenolone, 5α-pregnane-3β, 20α-diol (3β,20αDHP), 20α-hydroxy-5α-dihydroprogesterone (20αDHP)) and progesterone) were monitored in mares for 10days before foaling (n=7) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The biopotency of dominant metabolites was assessed using luciferase reporter assays. Stable transfected Chinese hamster ovarian cells expressing the equine progesterone receptor (ePGR) were transfected with an MMTV-luciferase expression plasmid responsive to steroid agonists. Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0-100nM) of progesterone, 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP. The concentrations of circulating pregnanes in periparturient mares were (highest to lowest) 3α,20βDHP and 20αDHP (800-400ng/mL respectively), DHP and allopregnanolone (90 and 30ng/mL respectively), and pregnenolone and progesterone (4-2ng/mL). Concentrations of all measured pregnanes declined on average by 50% from prepartum peaks to the day before foaling. Maximum activation of the ePGR by progesterone occurred at 30nM; 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP were significantly less biopotent. At prepartum concentrations, both 20αDHP and 3α,20βDHP exhibited significant ePGR activation. Progestogenic support of pregnancy declines from 3 to 5days before foaling. Prepartum peak concentrations indicate that DHP is the major progestin, but other pregnanes like 20αDHP are present in sufficient concentrations to play a physiological role in the absence of DHP. The authors conclude that progestin withdrawal associated with parturition in mares involves cessation of pregnane synthesis by the placenta. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Working definitions, subjective and objective assessments and experimental paradigms in a study exploring social withdrawal in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van der Wee, Nic J A; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Cabello, Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose L; Saris, Ilya M J; Giltay, Erik J; Penninx, Brenda Wjh; Arango, Celso; Post, Anke; Porcelli, Stefano

    2018-06-24

    Social withdrawal is one of the first and common signs of early social dysfunction in a number of important neuropsychiatric disorders, likely because of the enormous amount and complexity of brain processes required to initiate and maintain social relationships (Adolphs, 2009). The Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers (PRISM) project focusses on the shared and unique neurobiological basis of social withdrawal in schizophrenia, Alzheimer and depression. In this paper, we discuss the working definition of social withdrawal for this study and the selection of objective and subjective rating scales to assess social withdrawal chosen or adapted for this project. We also discuss the MRI and EEG paradigms selected to study the systems and neural circuitry thought to underlie social functioning and more particularly to be involved in social withdrawal in humans, such as the social perception and the social affiliation networks. A number of behavioral paradigms were selected to assess complementary aspects of social cognition. Also, a digital phenotyping method (a smartphone application) was chosen to obtain real-life data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Severe Vaso-Occlusive Episodes Associated with Use of Systemic Corticosteroids in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Darbari, Deepika S.; Castro, Oswaldo; Taylor, James G.; Fasano, Ross; Rehm, Jeffrey; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Minniti, Caterina P.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are occasionally prescribed systemic corticosteroids to treat steroid-responsive conditions. Additionally, use of systemic corticosteroids for sickle cell pain episodes and acute chest syndrome is under investigation. We report 4 patients with SCD who developed severe vaso-occlusive events following the administration of systemic steroids. We also review similar cases from the literature and suggest measures for reducing the potential risk associated with use of systemic corticosteroids in this group of patients. We conclude that corticosteroids should be used with caution in patients with SCD. PMID:28643632

  12. Association of antenatal corticosteroids with mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at 22–25 weeks gestation

    PubMed Central

    Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Vohr, Betty R.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Andrews, William W.; Wallace, Dennis; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Davis, Alexis S.; Schibler, Kurt; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Faix, Roger G.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Context Current guidelines, initially published in 1995, recommend antenatal corticosteroids for mothers with preterm labor from 24–34 weeks gestational age, but not before 24 weeks because of lack of data. However, many infants born before 24 weeks are provided intensive care now. Objective To determine if antenatal corticosteroids are associated with improvement in major outcomes in infants born at 22 and 23 weeks. Design, Setting, Participants Data for this cohort study were collected prospectively on 401–1000 gram inborn infants (N=10,541) of 22–25 weeks gestation born between 1993–2009 at 23 academic perinatal centers in the United States. Certified examiners unaware of exposure to antenatal corticosteroids performed follow-up examinations on 4,924 (86.5%) of the infants born in 1993–2008 who survived to 18–22 months. Logistic regression models generated adjusted odds ratios, controlling for maternal and neonatal variables. Main Outcome Measures Mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months corrected age RESULTS Death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18–22 months was lower for infants whose mothers received antenatal corticosteroids born at 23 weeks (antenatal corticosteroids, 83.4% vs no antenatal corticosteroids, 90.5%; adjusted odds ratio 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42–0.80), at 24 weeks (antenatal corticosteroids, 68.4% vs no antenatal corticosteroids, 80.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49–0.78), and at 25 weeks (antenatal corticosteroids, 52.7% vs no antenatal corticosteroids, 67.9%; adjusted odds ratio 0.61; 95% CI, 0.50–0.74) but not at 22 weeks (antenatal corticosteroids, 90.2% vs no antenatal corticosteroids, 93.1%; adjusted odds ratio 0.80; 95% CI, 0.29–12.21). Death by 18–22 months, hospital death, death/intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia, and death/necrotizing enterocolitis were significantly lower for infants born at 23, 24, and 25 weeks gestational age if the mothers had received

  13. Management of Granulomatous Mastitis: A Series of 13 Patients Who Were Evaluated for Treatment Without Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, Masao; Watatani, Masahiro; Isono, Sayuri; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tsujie, Masanori; Kitani, Kotaro; Hara, Johji; Kato, Hiroaki; Takeyama, Hiroshi; Kanaizumi, Hirofumi; Kogata, Shuhei; Ohta, Yoshio; Inoue, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a rare chronic inflammatory breast condition with unknown etiology. There is still no generally accepted optimal treatment for GM. Corticosteroid treatment and/or wide excision is most commonly reported in the literature. Incision and drainage or limited excision alone has little benefit because of a strong tendency of recurrence. Corticosteroids also have a high failure rate and possible side effects. In the current series, we treated GM patients without corticosteroids, except for one patient. We also devised multidirectional deep drainage for advanced and complicated abscesses, which are characteristic of GM. This retrospective study included 13 women who met the required histologic criteria of GM. The mean age of the patients was 41 years. All of the patients were premenopausal. Six patients had breast-fed in the last 5 years. Five patients were under medication with antidepressants. A total of 11 patients developed abscesses during the clinical course, and the abscesses penetrated the retromammary space in 4 patients. We treated 2 of these 4 patients with multidirectional deep drainage and obtained complete remission in 5 and 6.5 months, respectively. These times were much shorter than those in the other 2 patients. The time to resolution in 11 patients was 4 to 28 months. This overall outcome was comparable with that of corticosteroid treatment reported in the literature. Because the natural history of GM is thought to be self-limiting, close observation and minimally required drainage of abscesses without corticosteroid administration remain the treatment modality of choice. PMID:26011195

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Corticosteroids for Management of Oral Chronic Graft versus Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Basma Abdelaleem; Ahmed, Eman Magdy; Aghbary, Sana Maher Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Oral chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication in transplantation community, a problem that can be addressed with topical intervention. Topical corticosteroids are the first line of treatment although the choice remains challenging as none of the available treatments is supported by strong clinical evidence. This systematic review aims to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of topical corticosteroids for the management of the mucosal alterations of oral cGVHD. Electronic search of different databases was conducted: PubMed, Cochrane library, Grey literature, WHO, and clinical trials.gov for clinical trial registration as well as hand search in the references of relevant articles up to November 2016. Extracted pieces of information were intervention, population, sample sizes, and outcomes. Six studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 3 cohort studies, and 1 pre-post clinical trial. There is a limited evidence concerning clinical efficacy of topical corticosteroids. Clobetasol, dexamethasone, and budesonide were the topical corticosteroid of choice. The highest level of evidence score was given to clobetasol followed by budesonide with a lower evidence level. All three topical corticosteroid preparations are effective for management of oral chronic GVHD with minimal easily avoided side effects.

  15. A simple prediction tool for inhaled corticosteroid response in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Fan; Su, Ming-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lee, Yungling L

    2017-12-07

    Inhaled corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line controller medication for childhood asthma owing to their multiple clinical benefits. However, heterogeneity in the response towards these drugs remains a significant clinical problem. Children aged 5 to 18 years with mild to moderate persistent asthma were recruited into the Taiwanese Consortium of Childhood Asthma Study. Their responses to inhaled corticosteroids were assessed based on their improvements in the asthma control test and peak expiratory flow. The predictors of responsiveness were demographic and clinical features that were available in primary care settings. We have developed a prediction model using logistic regression and have simplified it to formulate a practical tool. We assessed its predictive performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Of the 73 asthmatic children with baseline and follow-up outcome measurements for inhaled corticosteroids treatment, 24 (33%) were defined as non-responders. The tool we have developed consisted of three predictors yielding a total score between 0 and 5, which are comprised of the following parameters: the age at physician-diagnosis of asthma, sex, and exhaled nitric oxide. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool for prediction of inhaled corticosteroids non-responsiveness, for a score of 3, were 0.75 and 0.69, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction tool was 0.763. Our prediction tool represents a simple and low-cost method for predicting the response of inhaled corticosteroids treatment in asthmatic children.

  16. Short- and long-term response to corticosteroid therapy in chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Adam, S; El Khatib, A; Guillon, F; Brauner, M W; Lamberto, C; Lepage, V; Naccache, J-M; Valeyre, D

    2008-09-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder that affects the lung after exposure to beryllium. The present study reports short- and long-term evolution of granulomatous and fibrotic components in eight patients with severe CBD receiving corticosteroid therapy. Eight patients with confirmed CBD were studied at baseline, after initial corticosteroid treatment (4-12 months), at relapse and at the final visit. Beryllium exposure, Glu(69) (HLA-DPB1 genes coding for glutamate at position beta69) polymorphism, symptoms, pulmonary function tests (PFT), serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) quantification of pulmonary lesions were analysed. The CBD patients were observed for a median (range) of 69 (20-180) months. After stopping beryllium exposure, corticosteroids improved symptoms and PFT (vital capacity +26%, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide +15%), and decreased SACE level and active lesion HRCT score. In total, 18 clinical relapses occurred after the treatment was tapered and these were associated with SACE and active lesion HRCT score impairment. At the final visit, corticosteroids had completely stabilised all parameters including both HRCT scores of active lesions and fibrotic lesions in six out of eight patients. Corticosteroids were beneficial in chronic beryllium disease. They were effective in suppressing granulomatosis lesions in all cases and in stopping the evolution to pulmonary fibrosis in six out of eight patients.

  17. Impact of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on muscle healing impaired by systemic corticosteroid application.

    PubMed

    Pevec, Danira; Novinscak, Tomislav; Brcic, Luka; Sipos, Kristijan; Jukic, Ivana; Staresinic, Mario; Mise, Sandro; Brcic, Iva; Kolenc, Danijela; Klicek, Robert; Banic, Tihomir; Sever, Marko; Kocijan, Ana; Berkopic, Lidija; Radic, Bozo; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Zoricic, Ivan; Bojanic, Ivan; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2010-03-01

    The effect of systemic and local peptide treatment effective in muscle contusion and then on counteraction of corticosteroid-induced impairment was tested. The pentadecapeptide BPC 157, given without a carrier, improved the healing of transected quadriceps muscle. It also improved muscle healing in rats with muscle crush injury when applied systemically or locally. Importantly, it counteracted corticosteroid-impairment in tendon to bone healing. Thus BPC 157 is proposed as an effective treatment that can improve muscle healing in spite of corticosteroid treatment. After the gastrocnemius muscle complex had been injured, rats received BPC 157 (intraperitoneally or locally as a cream) and/or 6alpha-methylprednisolone (intraperitoneally) only once (immediately after injury, sacrifice at 2 h) or once daily (final dose 24 hours before sacrifice and/or assessment procedure at days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14). Muscle healing was evaluated functionally, macroscopically, and histologically. Without therapy, crushed gastrocnemius muscle complex controls showed limited improvement. 6alpha-methylprednisolone markedly aggravated healing. In contrast, BPC 157 induced faster muscle healing and full function restoration and improved muscle healing despite systemic corticosteroid treatment when given intraperitoneally or locally and demonstrated functionally, macroscopically, and histologically at all investigated intervals. BPC 157 completely reversed systemic corticosteroid-impaired muscle healing.

  18. Deterioration of glycemic control after corticosteroid administration in islet autotransplant recipients: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh; Sutherland, David E R; Beilman, Gregory J; Bellin, Melena D

    2014-02-01

    Islet autotransplantation (IAT) is performed at the time of total pancreatectomy (TP) to prevent or minimize post-surgical diabetes. Corticosteroids induce insulin resistance and present a risk to islet autografts, through glucotoxicity and increased metabolic demand on a marginal islet mass. We present four IAT recipients treated with oral or injected corticosteroids after transplant for medical conditions unrelated to chronic pancreatitis or TPIAT. Hyperglycemia or insulin resistance was evident in all four patients, including reversion to long-term insulin therapy in two patients. One patient receiving corticosteroid injections had a transient increase in hemoglobin A1c (+0.6% above baseline), and one patient given a one time dose of oral dexamethasone exhibited hyperglycemia despite high insulin (>200 mU/L) and C-peptide (15.3 ng/mL) production on an oral glucose tolerance test. IAT recipients have insufficient islet mass to compensate for the insulin resistance induced by corticosteroids. Caution should be given to using these agents in IAT recipients. When corticosteroids are medically necessary, insulin therapy should be administered temporarily to compensate for the increased metabolic demand and minimize long-term risks on the islet graft.

  19. The short term fetal cardiovascular effects of corticosteroids used in obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Antonia; Welsh, Alec

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Corticosteroids are widely used in obstetrics due to their striking effect on perinatal morbidity and mortality of premature neonates. Despite this, relatively few studies have explored short term fetal effects of corticosteroids as measured by ultrasound. Objectives: 1) To present a literature review of short term fetal cardiovascular effects of corticosteroids 2) To describe the protocol of a current observational study (SUPER‐A*STEROID) of cardiovascular effects of dexamethasone and betamethasone in the first week after their administration. This trial is nested within the A*STEROID blinded multicentre randomised controlled trial of the two steroid preparations. Findings: Existing data suggest corticosteroids have little effect on the major measured fetal blood vessels when the baseline ultrasound is normal. In the compromised fetus, where the umbilical artery end‐diastolic flow is abnormal prior to maternal corticosteroids, flow is temporarily restored in approximately 50% of cases. Whether such changes are beneficial is uncertain. Very little data exist that directly compare the short‐term effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone. The SUPER‐ A*STEROID study described will help provide this information. PMID:28191187

  20. Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids: update and review on cross-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Cassano, Nicoletta; Buquicchio, Rosalba; Vena, Gino A

    2009-01-01

    Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids (TCs) is an emerging problem, whose diagnosis can be complex owing to the peculiar characteristics of steroid allergens and the possible inadequacy of current diagnostic methods, including concentration and vehicle used in patch testing. The occurrence of cross-reactions among different TCs is not rare, but prediction of these is not sufficiently reliable. Moreover, the distinction between true cross-reactivity and concomitant sensitization may be difficult. The original classification proposed by Coopman et al. has been distinguished corticosteroids into four groups according to their molecular structure. These authors hypothesized that allergic contact reactions were more frequent with corticosteroids belonging to the same group. However, the clinical practice has evidenced that cross reactivity exists also among corticosteroids belonging to different groups. The potential to cross-react among corticosteroids is thought to be related not only to the structural homology but also to the stereoisomerism and metabolism of these drugs. Recent evidence suggests that mechanisms responsible for cross-reactivity may occur at T lymphocyte level during antigen presentation. Further investigations are needed to gain a more complete understanding of this important topic. This article also reviews some patents related to the treatment of contact dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases.

  1. Chromosome 17: association of a large inversion polymorphism with corticosteroid response in asthma.

    PubMed

    Tantisira, Kelan G; Lazarus, Ross; Litonjua, Augusto A; Klanderman, Barbara; Weiss, Scott T

    2008-08-01

    A 900-kb inversion exists within a large region of conserved linkage disequilibrium (LD) on chromosome 17. CRHR1 is located within the inversion region and associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in asthma. We hypothesized that CRHR1 variants are in LD with the inversion, supporting a potential role for natural selection in the genetic response to corticosteroids. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning chromosome 17: 40,410,565-42,372,240, including four SNPs defining inversion status. Similar allele frequencies and strong LD were noted between the inversion and a CRHR1 SNP previously associated with lung function response to inhaled corticosteroids. Each inversion-defining SNP was strongly associated with inhaled corticosteroid response in adult asthma (P values 0.002-0.005). The CRHR1 response to inhaled corticosteroids may thus be explained by natural selection resulting from inversion status or by long-range LD with another gene. Additional pharmacogenetic investigations into regions of chromosomal diversity, including copy number variation and inversions, are warranted.

  2. Variations in the neonatal environment modulate adult behavioral and brain responses to palatable food withdrawal in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Colman, Juliana Barcellos; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Krolow, Rachel; Dalmaz, Carla; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-02-01

    Early handling alters adult behavioral responses to palatable food and to its withdrawal following a period of chronic exposure. However, the central mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not known. Since neonatal handling has persistent effects on stress and anxiety responses, we hypothesized that its involvement in the aforementioned association may be associated with differential neuroadaptations in the amygdala during withdrawal periods. Litters were randomized into two groups: handled (H, removed from their dam for 10min per day from the first to the tenth postnatal day and placed in an incubator at 32°C) and non-handled (NH). Experiment 1: on PNDs 80-100, females were assigned to receive palatable food+rat chow for 15 or 30 days, and these two groups were compared in terms of palatable food preference, body weight and abdominal fat deposition. In Experiment 2, H and NH rats were exposed to a chronic diet of palatable food+rat chow for 15 days, followed by (a) no withdrawal, (b) 24h withdrawal from palatable food (receiving only rat chow) or (c) 7-day withdrawal from palatable food (receiving only rat chow). Body weight, 10-min rebound palatable food intake, abdominal fat deposition, serum corticosterone as well as TH and pCREB levels in the amygdala were then compared between groups. Experiment 1-chronic exposure to palatable food induces comparable metabolic effects after 15 and 30 days. Experiment 2-neonatal handling is associated with a peculiar response to palatable food withdrawal following chronic exposure for 15 days. Rats exposed to early handling ingested less of this food after a 24h withdrawal period, and displayed increased amygdala TH and pCREB levels. Variations in the neonatal environment affect both behavioral responses and amygdala neuroadaptation to acute withdrawal from a palatable diet. These findings contribute to the comprehension of the mechanisms that link early life events and altered feeding behavior and related morbidities

  3. Parallel Demand-Withdraw Processes in Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Kristina N.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Shoham, Varda

    2013-01-01

    Isomorphism, or parallel process, occurs in family therapy when patterns of therapist-client interaction replicate problematic interaction patterns within the family. This study investigated parallel demand-withdraw processes in Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, hypothesizing that therapist-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (TD/AW) cycles observed early in treatment would predict poor adolescent outcomes at follow-up for families who exhibited entrenched parent-demand/adolescent-withdraw interaction (PD/AW) before treatment began. Participants were 91 families who received at least 4 sessions of BSFT in a multi-site clinical trial on adolescent drug abuse (Robbins et al., 2011). Prior to receiving therapy, families completed videotaped family interaction tasks from which trained observers coded PD/AW. Another team of raters coded TD/AW during two early BSFT sessions. The main dependent variable was the number of drug use days that adolescents reported in Timeline Follow-Back interviews 7 to 12 months after family therapy began. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses supported the main hypothesis, showing that PD/AW and TD/AW interacted to predict adolescent drug use at follow-up. For adolescents in high PD/AW families, higher levels of TD/AW predicted significant increases in drug use at follow-up, whereas for low PD/AW families, TD/AW and follow-up drug use were unrelated. Results suggest that attending to parallel demand-withdraw processes in parent/adolescent and therapist/adolescent dyads may be useful in family therapy for substance-using adolescents. PMID:23438248

  4. Corticosteroid implants for chronic non-infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Law, Hua Andrew; Rahimy, Ehsan; Reddy, Rahul; Sieving, Pamela C; Garg, Sunir J; Tang, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background Uveitis is a term used to describe a heterogeneous group of intraocular inflammatory diseases of the anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, choroid). Uveitis is the fifth most common cause of vision loss in high-income countries, accounting for 5% to 20% of legal blindness, with the highest incidence of disease in the working-age population. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of acute treatment for all anatomical subtypes of non-infectious uveitis and can be administered orally, topically with drops or ointments, by periocular (around the eye) or intravitreal (inside the eye) injection, or by surgical implantation. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of steroid implants in people with chronic non-infectious posterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, and panuveitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 10, 2015), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2015), PubMed (1948 to November 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to November 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlledtrials.com) (last searched 15 April 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform(ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en).We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for studies. We last searched the electronic databases on 6 November 2015. We also searched reference lists of included study reports, citation databases, and abstracts and clinical study presentations from professional meetings. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing either fluocinolone acetonide (FA) or dexamethasone intravitreal implants with standard

  5. 75 FR 12804 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0103] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6 AGENCY: Nuclear...[uuml]ller Counters.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Harriet Karagiannis, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing...

  6. Mental health consequences of exercise withdrawal: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ali A; Koehmstedt, Christine; Kop, Willem J

    2017-11-01

    A sedentary lifestyle has been associated with mental health disorders. Many medical conditions result in the cessation of exercise, which may increase the risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the literature examining the effects of exercise withdrawal on mental health. Literature was searched using PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTdiscus for studies that experimentally manipulated the withdrawal of exercise and included mental health as outcome measure. A total of 19 studies met inclusion criteria (total N=689 with 385 individuals participating in an exercise withdrawal condition). Exercise withdrawal consistently resulted in increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety. Other mental health outcomes were investigated infrequently. Severe mental health issues requiring clinical intervention after experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal was rare. Heterogeneity in methods and outcomes was observed, especially in terms of the duration of exercise withdrawal (range 1 to 42days, median=7days), with stronger effects if exercise withdrawal exceeded 2weeks. Experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal has adverse consequences for mental health. These observations in healthy individuals may help to understand the onset of mental health problems in response to acute and chronic medical conditions associated with reduced physical activity. Future research is needed to investigate potential mechanisms explaining the adverse mental health consequences of cessation of exercise that will provide new targets for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal of...

  8. 37 CFR 1.313 - Withdrawal from issue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from issue. 1.313... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.313 Withdrawal from issue. (a) Applications may be withdrawn from issue for further action at...

  9. 46 CFR 287.10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... obligations or liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments of withdrawal to meet obligations under a... subsequently incurred purchase-money indebtedness, after having been executed by the taxpayer, shall be... proposed withdrawal, including properly certified invoices or other supporting papers. Such instruments of...

  10. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquidation. (1) Checks, drafts, or other instruments of withdrawal to meet obligations under a contract for... subsequently incurred purchase-money indebtedness, after having been executed by the taxpayer, shall be... proposed withdrawal, including properly certified invoices or other supporting papers. Such instruments of...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1800 Withdrawal-infusion...

  12. 12 CFR 269b.113 - Withdrawal or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or settlement. 269b.113 Section 269b.113 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... Withdrawal or settlement. A charge may be withdrawn or settlement of the matter may be reached without...

  13. 76 FR 2726 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0010] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.154, ``Format and Content of Plant-Specific Pressurized Thermal Shock Safety Analysis Reports for Pressurized Water Reactors.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mekonen M. Bayssie,...

  14. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 598.704 Section 598.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If, after considering any...

  15. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 598.704 Section 598.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If, after considering any...

  16. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 598.704 Section 598.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If, after considering any...

  17. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 598.704 Section 598.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If, after considering any...

  18. 31 CFR 598.704 - Penalty imposition or withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty imposition or withdrawal. 598.704 Section 598.704 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Penalties § 598.704 Penalty imposition or withdrawal. (a) No violation. If, after considering any...

  19. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published... substantial public impact, that it does not duplicate a standard published by a private standards-writing...

  20. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substantial public impact, that it does not duplicate a standard published by a private standards-writing...) Before withdrawing a standard published under these procedures, the Director will review the relative... years. (2) Public notice of intent to withdraw an existing standard published under these procedures...