Science.gov

Sample records for early cretaceous continental

  1. Isotopic evidence for continental ice sheet in mid-latitude region in the supergreenhouse Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu-Bin; Niu, He-Cai; Sun, Wei-Dong; Shan, Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Li, Ning-Bo; Li, Cong-Ying; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Xu, Xing; Jiang, Yu-Hang; Yu, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cretaceous represents one of the hottest greenhouse periods in the Earth's history, but some recent studies suggest that small ice caps might be present in non-polar regions during certain periods in the Early Cretaceous. Here we report extremely negative δ18O values of −18.12‰ to −13.19‰ for early Aptian hydrothermal zircon from an A-type granite at Baerzhe in northeastern China. Given that A-type granite is anhydrous and that magmatic zircon of the Baerzhe granite has δ18O value close to mantle values, the extremely negative δ18O values for hydrothermal zircon are attributed to addition of meteoric water with extremely low δ18O, mostly likely transported by glaciers. Considering the paleoaltitude of the region, continental glaciation is suggested to occur in the early Aptian, indicating much larger temperature fluctuations than previously thought during the supergreenhouse Cretaceous. This may have impact on the evolution of major organism in the Jehol Group during this period. PMID:24061068

  2. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.

    1981-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  3. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  4. Estimating long-wavelength dynamic topographic change of passive continental margins since the Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dietmar; Hassan, Rakib; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The influence of mantle convection on dynamic topographic change along continental margins is difficult to unravel, because their stratigraphic record is dominated by tectonic subsidence caused by rifting. Yet, dynamic topography can potentially introduce significant depth anomalies along passive margins, influencing their water depth, sedimentary environments and geohistory. Here we follow a three-fold approach to estimate changes in dynamic topography along both continental interiors and passive margins based on a set of seven global mantle convection models. These models include different methodologies (forward and hybrid backward-forward methods), different plate reconstructions and alternative mantle rheologies. We demonstrate that a geodynamic forward model that includes adiabatic heating in addition to internal heating from radiogenic sources, and a mantle viscosity profile with a gradual increase in viscosity below the mantle transition zone, provides a greatly improved match to the spectral range of residual topography end-members as compared with previous models at very long wavelengths (spherical degrees 2-3). We combine global sea level estimates with predicted surface dynamic topography to evaluate the match between predicted continental flooding patterns and published paleo-coastlines by comparing predicted versus geologically reconstructed land fractions and spatial overlaps of flooded regions for individual continents since 140 Ma. Modelled versus geologically reconstructed land fractions match within 10% for most models, and the spatial overlaps of inundated regions are mostly between 85% and 100% for the Cenozoic, dropping to about 75-100% in the Cretaceous. We categorise the evolution of modelled dynamic topography in both continental interiors and along passive margins using cluster analysis to investigate how clusters of similar dynamic topography time series are distributed spatially. A subdivision of four clusters is found to best reveal end

  5. Taxonomic Composition and Trophic Structure of the Continental Bony Fish Assemblage from the Early Late Cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to ‘Stromerichthys’ from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large ‘Lepidotes’ plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa. PMID:26018561

  6. Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the continental bony fish assemblage from the early late cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to 'Stromerichthys' from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large 'Lepidotes' plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa.

  7. Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous dioritic dikes in the Shanyang-Zhashui area, South Qinling, central China: Evidence for partial melting of thickened lower continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Kunming

    2018-06-01

    environments in the Early Cretaceous. This process resulted in the upwelling of the asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle, causing partial melting of the mafic lower crust and forming the adakitic dioritic melts.

  8. Early cretaceous dinosaurs from the sahara.

    PubMed

    Sereno, P C; Wilson, J A; Larsson, H C; Dutheil, D B; Sues, H D

    1994-10-14

    A major question in Mesozoic biogeography is how the land-based dinosaurian radiation responded to fragmentation of Pangaea. A rich fossil record has been uncovered on northern continents that spans the Cretaceous, when continental isolation reached its peak. In contrast, dinosaur remains on southern continents are scarce. The discovery of dinosaurian skeletons from Lower Cretaceous beds in the southern Sahara shows that several lineages of tetanuran theropods and broad-toothed sauropods had a cosmopolitan distribution across Pangaea before the onset of continental fragmentation. The distinct dinosaurian faunas of Africa, South America, and Asiamerica arose during the Cretaceous by differential survival of once widespread lineages on land masses that were becoming increasingly isolated from one another.

  9. Cretaceous-Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2017-11-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane in the south and South China in the north and the two blocks have long been assumed to be conjugate margins. However, the paleogeographic history of the Palawan Continental Terrane remains an issue of uncertainty and controversy, especially regarding the questions of where and when it was separated from South China. Here we employ detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral analysis on Cretaceous and Eocene strata from the northern South China Sea and Palawan to constrain the Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic provenance and paleogeographic evolution of the region testing possible connection between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin. In addition to a revision of the regional stratigraphic framework using the youngest zircon U-Pb ages, these analyses show that while the Upper Cretaceous strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are characterized by a dominance of zircon with crystallization ages clustering around the Cretaceous, the Eocene strata feature a large range of zircon ages and a new mineral group of rutile, anatase, and monazite. On the one hand, this change of sediment compositions seems to exclude the possibility of a latest Cretaceous drift of the Palawan Continental Terrane in response to the Proto-South China Sea opening as previously inferred. On the other hand, the zircon age signatures of the Cretaceous-Eocene strata from the Palawan Continental Terrane are largely comparable to those of contemporary samples from the northeastern South China Sea region, suggesting a possible conjugate relationship between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin. Thus, the Palawan Continental

  10. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  11. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  12. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic-Early

  13. Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological divergence is thought to be coupled with evolutionary radiations, yet the strength of this coupling is unclear. When birds diversified ecologically has received much less attention than their hotly debated crown divergence time. Here, we quantify how accurately skeletal morphology can predict ecology in living and extinct birds, and show that the earliest known assemblage of birds (= pygostylians) from the Jehol Biota (≈ 125 Ma) was substantially impoverished ecologically. The Jehol avifauna has few representatives of highly preservable ecomorphs (e.g. aquatic forms) and a notable lack of ecomorphological overlap with the pterosaur assemblage (e.g. no large or aerially foraging pygostylians). Comparisons of the Jehol functional diversity with modern and subfossil avian assemblages show that taphonomic bias alone cannot explain the ecomorphological impoverishment. However, evolutionary simulations suggest that the constrained ecological diversity of the Early Cretaceous pygostylians is consistent with what is expected from a relatively young radiation. Regardless of the proximate biological explanation, the anomalously low functional diversity of the Jehol birds is evidence both for ecological vacancies in Cretaceous ecosystems, which were subsequently filled by the radiation of crown Aves, and for discordance between taxonomic richness and ecological diversity in the best-known Mesozoic ecosystem. PMID:24870044

  14. Mid-Mesozoic (Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) evolution of the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf: Sedimentology of the Conoco 145-1 well

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Stanton, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Conoco 145-1 exploratory well, located in the southeastern portion of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4303 m below the sea floor. The oldest sedimentary rocks sampled are of Middle Jurassic age (Late Bathonian-Callovian). A dolomite-limestone-evaporite sequence dominates the section below 3917 m; limestone is the predominant lithology in the intervals of 3271-3774 m, 2274-3158 m, and 1548-1981 m. Siliciclastics dominate the remainder of the drilled section. Calcite tightly cements most of the rocks below 1548 m; dolomite, silica, siderite, and diagenetic clay cements are locally important. Restricted inner marine environments, representing lagoonal and tidal flat conditions, prevailed at the wellsite during much of the deposition recorded by the Callovian-Bathonian age Iroquois Formation. These environments gave way to a carbonate platform, which formed part of the > 5,000 km long Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform that lasted through the end of the Late Jurassic (encompassing the uppermost portion of the Iroquois Formation and the Scatarie Limestone and Bacarro Limestone Members of the Abenaki Formation). The absence of a skeletal-reef association and the dominance of muddy limestone fabrics are evidence that the 145-1 wellsite was located on the platform interior. Major periods of siticiclastic deposition interrupted carbonate deposition, and they are recorded by stratigraphic equivalents of the Mohican Formation, Misaine Shale Member of the Abenaki Formation, and the Mohawk and Mic Mac Formations. A series of sustained prograding delta systems, the earliest of which is preserved as the Missisauga Formation, buried the carbonate platform following its drowning in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian). The sparser, primarily allochthonous lignite content and better-sorted, glauconite-bearing sands of the Missisauga strata at the 145-1 wellsite suggest that shallow marine or barrier-bar environments were more prevalent than the low

  15. Tribosphenic mammal from the North American Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, R L

    1999-09-23

    The main groups of living mammals, marsupials and eutherians, are presumed to have diverged in the Early Cretaceous, but their early history and biogeography are poorly understood. Dental remains have suggested that the eutherians may have originated in Asia, spreading to North America in the Late Cretaceous, where an endemic radiation of marsupials was already well underway. Here I describe a new tribosphenic mammal (a mammal with lower molar heels that are three-cusped and basined) from the Early Cretaceous of North America, based on an unusually complete specimen. The new taxon bears characteristics (molarized last premolar, reduction to three molars) otherwise known only for Eutheria among the tribosphenic mammals. Morphometric analysis and character comparisons show, however, that its molar structure is primitive (and thus phylogenetically uninformative), emphasizing the need for caution in interpretation of isolated teeth. The new mammal is approximately contemporaneous with the oldest known Eutheria from Asia. If it is a eutherian, as is indicated by the available evidence, then this group was far more widely distributed in the Early Cretaceous than previously appreciated. An early presence of Eutheria in North America offers a potential source for the continent's Late Cretaceous radiations, which have, in part, proven difficult to relate to contemporary taxa in Asia.

  16. Impact of CO2 and continental configuration on Late Cretaceous ocean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puceat, Emmanuelle; Donnadieu, Yannick; Moiroud, Mathieu; Guillocheau, François; Deconinck, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous period is characterized by a long-term climatic cooling (Huber et al., 1995; Pucéat et al., 2003; Friedrich et al., 2012) and by major changes in continental configuration with the widening of the Atlantic Ocean, the initiation of the Tethyan ocean closure, and the deepening of the Central Atlantic Gateway. The Late Cretaceous also marks the end of the occurrence of Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), that are associated to enhanced organic carbon burial, to major crises of calcifying organisms, and to possible ocean acidification (Jenkyns, 2010). It has been suggested that the evolution in continental configuration and climate occurring during the Late Cretaceous could have induced a reorganization in the oceanic circulation, that may have impacted the oxygenation state of the oceanic basins and contributed to the disappearance of OAEs (Robinson et al., 2010; Robinson and Vance, 2012). Yet there is no consensus existing on the oceanic circulation modes and on their possible evolution during the Late Cretaceous, despite recent improvement of the spatial and temporal coverage of neodymium isotopic data (ɛNd), a proxy of oceanic circulation (MacLeod et al., 2008; Robinson et al., 2010; Murphy and Thomas, 2012; Robinson and Vance, 2012; Martin et al., 2012; Moiroud et al., 2012). Using the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Model FOAM, we explore in this work the impact on oceanic circulation of changes in continental configuration between the mid- and latest Cretaceous. Two paleogeography published by Sewall et al. (2007) were used, for the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary and for the Maastrichtian. For each paleogeography, 3 simulations have been realized, at 2x, 4x, and 8x the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 level, in order to test the sensitivity of the modelled circulation to CO2. Our results show for both continental configurations a bipolar mode for the oceanic circulation displayed by FOAM. Using the Cenomanian/Turonian land-sea mask

  17. Evidence of cretaceous to recent West African intertropical vegetation from continental sediment spore-pollen analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salard-Cheboldaeff, M.; Dejax, J.

    The succession of spore-pollen assemblages during the Cretaceous and Tertiary, as defined in each of the basin from Senegal to Angola, gives the possibility to consider the intertropical African flora evolution for the past 120 M.a. During the Early Cretaceous, xeric-adapted gymnosperms and various ferns were predominant the flora which nevertheless comprises previously unknown early angiosperm pollen. During the Middle Cretaceous, gymnospers were gradually replaced by angiosperms; these became more and more abundant, along with the diversification of new genera and species. During the Paleocene, the radiation of the monocotyledons (mainly that of the palm-trees) as well as a greater diversification among the dicotyledons and ferms are noteworthy. Since gymnosperms had almost disappeared by the Eocene, the diversification of the dicotyledons went on until the neogene, when all extinct pollen types are already present. These important modifications of the vegetation reflect evolutionary trends as well as climatic changes during the Cretaceous: the climate, firstly hot, dry and perhaps arid, did probably induced salt deposition, and later became gradually more humid under oceanic influences which arose in connection with the Gondwana break-up.

  18. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah

    Kirkland, J.I.; Zanno, L.E.; Sampson, S.D.; Clark, J.M.; DeBlieux, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Therizinosauroids are an enigmatic group of dinosaurs known mostly from the Cretaceous period of Asia, whose derived members are characterized by elongate necks, laterally expanded pelves, small, leaf-shaped teeth, edentulous rostra and mandibular symphyses that probably bore keratinized beaks. Although more than a dozen therizinosauroid taxa are known, their relationships within Dinosauria have remained controversial because of fragmentary remains and an unusual suite of characters. The recently discovered 'feathered' therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of China helped to clarify the theropod affinities of the group. However, Beipiaosaurus is also poorly represented. Here we describe a new, primitive therizinosauroid from an extensive paucispecific bonebed at the base of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous) of east-central Utah. This new taxon represents the most complete and most basal therizinosauroid yet discovered. Phylogenetic analysis of coelurosaurian theropods incorporating this taxon places it at the base of the clade Therizinosauroiden, indicating that this species documents the earliest known stage in the poorly understood transition from carnivory to herbivory within Therizinosauroidea. The taxon provides the first documentation, to our knowledge, of therizinosauroids in North America during the Early Cretaceous.

  19. Early Cretaceous greenhouse pumped higher taxa diversification in spiders.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lili; Li, Shuqiang

    2018-05-24

    The Cretaceous experienced one of the most remarkable greenhouse periods in geological history. During this time, ecosystem reorganizations significantly impacted the diversification of many groups of organisms. The rise of angiosperms marked a major biome turnover. Notwithstanding, relatively little remains known about how the Cretaceous global ecosystem impacted the evolution of spiders, which constitute one of the most abundant groups of predators. Herein, we evaluate the transcriptomes of 91 taxa representing more than half of the spider families. We add 23 newly sequenced taxa to the existing database to obtain a robust phylogenomic assessment. Phylogenetic reconstructions using different datasets and methods obtain novel placements of some groups, especially in the Synspermiata and the group having a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). Molecular analyses indicate an expansion of the RTA clade at the Early Cretaceous with a hunting predatory strategy shift. Fossil analyses show a 7-fold increase of diversification rate at the same period, but this likely owes to the first occurrences spider in amber deposits. Additional analyses of fossil abundance show an accumulation of spider lineages in the Early Cretaceous. We speculate that the establishment of a warm greenhouse climate pumped the diversification of spiders, in particular among webless forms tracking the abundance of insect prey. Our study offers a new pathway for future investigations of spider phylogeny and diversification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A new hadrosauroid dinosaur from the early late cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae.

  1. Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rifting on the Chortis Block in Honduras: Implications for proto-Caribbean opening (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Emmet, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Regional mapping integrated with facies analysis, age constraints and airborne geophysical data reveal WNW and NE trends of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous basins which intersect in southeast Honduras that we interpret as the result of rifting associated with the breakup of the Americas and opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway. The WNW-trending rift is 250 km long by 90 km wide and defined by a basal 200 to 800 m thick sequence of Middle to Late Jurassic fluvial channel and overbank deposits overlain by transgressive clastic shelf strata. At least three sub-basins are apparent. Flanking the WNW trending rift basins are fault bounded exposures of the pre-Jurassic continental basement of the Chortis block which is the source of the conglomeratic channel facies that delineate the axes of the rifts. Cretaceous terrigenous strata mantle the exposed basement-cored rift flanks. Lower Cretaceous clastic strata and shallow marine limestone strata are dominant along this trend indicating that post-rift related subsidence continued through the Early Cretaceous. The rifts coincide with a regional high in the total magnetic intensity data. We interpret these trends to reflect NNE-WSW extension active from the Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous. These rifts were inverted during Late Cretaceous shortening oriented normal to the rift axes. To the east and at a 120 degree angle to the WNW trending rift is the 300 km long NE trending Guayape fault system that forms the western shoulder of the Late Jurassic Agua Fria rift basin filled by > 2 km thickness of clastic marine shelf and slope strata. This NE trending basin coincides with the eastern extent of the surface exposure of continental basement rocks and a northeast-trending fabric of the Jurassic (?) metasedimentary basement rocks. We have previously interpreted the eastern basin to be the Jurassic rifted margin of the Chortis block with the Guayape originating as a normal fault system. These two rifts basin intersect

  2. Warm Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, H. C.; Schouten-Huibers, L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-02-01

    Although a division of the Phanerozoic climatic modes of the Earth into "greenhouse" and "icehouse" phases is widely accepted, whether or not polar ice developed during the relatively warm Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods is still under debate. In particular, there is a range of isotopic and biotic evidence that favours the concept of discrete "cold snaps", marked particularly by migration of certain biota towards lower latitudes. Extension of the use of the palaeotemperature proxy TEX86 back to the Middle Jurassic indicates that relatively warm sea-surface conditions (26-30 °C) existed from this interval (∼160 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (∼115 Ma) in the Southern Ocean, with a general warming trend through the Late Jurassic followed by a general cooling trend through the Early Cretaceous. The lowest sea-surface temperatures are recorded from around the Callovian-Oxfordian boundary, an interval identified in Europe as relatively cool, but do not fall below 25 °C. The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event, identified on the basis of published biostratigraphy, total organic carbon and carbon-isotope stratigraphy, records an interval with the lowest, albeit fluctuating Early Cretaceous palaeotemperatures (∼26 °C), recalling similar phenomena recorded from Europe and the tropical Pacific Ocean. Extant belemnite δ18O data, assuming an isotopic composition of waters inhabited by these fossils of -1‰ SMOW, give palaeotemperatures throughout the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous interval that are consistently lower by ∼14 °C than does TEX86 and the molluscs likely record conditions below the thermocline. The long-term, warm climatic conditions indicated by the TEX86 data would only be compatible with the existence of continental ice if appreciable areas of high altitude existed on Antarctica, and/or in other polar regions, during the Mesozoic Era.

  3. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciT

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences onmore » the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.« less

  4. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciT

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-02-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences onmore » the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.« less

  5. Early Cretaceous adakitic magmatism in central eastern China controlled by ridge subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, M.; Luo, Z.; Sun, W.

    2017-12-01

    Early Cretaceous adakites are widely distributed in central eastern China, e.g., Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), Dabie orogen and south Tan-Lu Fault (STLF) area. Adakite from the LYRB is closely associated with mineralization, while adakites from Dabie orogen and STLF are ore barren. Their origins, however, remain controversial. Detailed geochemical comparison between these adakites indicates that the LYRB adakite are formed by partial melting of oceanic crust, i.e., slab melting, whereas those from Dabie orogen and STLF (e.g., Guandian pluton) have origin of lower continental crust (LCC) 1,2. Base on the distribution of igneous rocks, e.g., adakite, A-type granite and Nb-enriched basalts, as well as other lines of evidence, ridge subduction of the Pacific and Izanagi plates was proposed to explain the genesis of Cretaceous magmatism and associated mineralization in the LYRB 1. Ridge subduction is a special plate tectonic process that can provide both physical erosion and thermal erosion 3. Flat subduction of a spreading ridge will result in strong physical subduction-related erosion, and trigger destruction (e.g., in the Dabie orogen) or delamination (e.g., in the STLF) of the thickened LCC. Subsequently, ridge subduction, accompanied by opening of a slab window, will facilitate partial melting of the LCC by thermal erosion. References: 1. Ling, M. X. et al. Cretaceous ridge subduction along the Lower Yangtze river belt, eastern China. Econ. Geol. 104, 303-321, doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.104.2.303 (2009). 2. Ling, M. X., Wang, F. Y., Ding, X., Zhou, J. B. & Sun, W. D. Different origins of adakites from the Dabie Mountains and the Lower Yangtze River Belt, eastern China: Geochemical constraints. International Geology Review 53, 727-740 (2011). 3. Ling, M. X. et al. Destruction of the North China Craton Induced by Ridge Subductions. Journal of Geology 121, 197-213 (2013).

  6. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  7. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation. PMID:25999978

  8. Early Cretaceous ice rafting and climate zonation in Australia

    SciT

    Frakes, L.A.; Alley, N.F.; Deynoux, M.

    1995-07-01

    Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian) strata of the southwestern Eromanga and Carpentaria basins of central and northern Australia, respectively, provide evidence of strongly seasonal climates at high paleolatitudes. These include dispersed clasts (lonestones) in fine sediments and pseudomorphs of calcite after ikaite (glendonites), the latter being known to form only at temperatures below about 7{degrees}C. Rafting is regarded as the transport mechanism for clasts up to boulder size (lonestones) enclosed within dark mudrocks; this interpretation rests on rare occurrences of penetration by clasts into substrate layers. Driftwood and large floating algae are eliminated as possible rafts because fossil wood ismore » found mainly concentrated in nearshore areas of the basins and large algal masses have not been observed. Rafting by icebergs is considered unlikely in view of the global lack of tillites and related glacial deposits of this age. Our interpretation is that seasonal ice, formed in winter along stream courses and strandlines, incorporated clasts which, during the melt season, were dropped into muddy sediments in both basins. Eromanga fine-sediment and concentrations of large clasts and associated sand lenses, both lying above local erosion surfaces. In the Carpentaria Basin, local dumping of sediment from raft surfaces resulted in accumulation of pods of small clasts. Three zones can be identified for the Early Cretaceous climate of eastern Australia: (1) a very cold southern region, at latitudes above about 72{degrees} S, characterized by meteoric waters possibly originating as Antarctic glacial meltwaters; (2) a zone of strongly seasonal climates, with freezing winters and warm summers, between about 72{degrees} and 53{degrees} S.Lat.; and (3) a mid-latitude zone (below about 50{degrees} S. Lat.), where freezing temperatures were not common. 60 refs., 7 figs.« less

  9. Vertebrate assemblages from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern Morocco: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavin, L.; Tong, H.; Boudad, L.; Meister, C.; Piuz, A.; Tabouelle, J.; Aarab, M.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Dyke, G.; Hua, S.; Le Loeuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    Fossils of vertebrates have been found in great abundance in the continental and marine early Late Cretaceous sediments of Southeastern Morocco for more than 50 years. About 80 vertebrate taxa have so far been recorded from this region, many of which were recognised and diagnosed for the first time based on specimens recovered from these sediments. In this paper, we use published data together with new field data to present an updated overview of Moroccan early Late Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages. The Cretaceous series we have studied encompasses three Formations, the Ifezouane and Aoufous Formations, which are continental and deltaic in origin and are often grouped under the name "Kem Kem beds", and the Akrabou Formation which is marine in origin. New field observations allow us to place four recognised vertebrate clusters, corresponding to one compound assemblage and three assemblages, within a general temporal framework. In particular, two ammonite bioevents characterise the lower part of the Upper Cenomanian ( Calycoceras guerangeri Zone) at the base of the Akrabou Formation and the upper part of the Lower Turonian ( Mammites nodosoides Zone), that may extend into the Middle Turonian within the Akrabou Formation, and allow for more accurate dating of the marine sequence in the study area. We are not yet able to distinguish a specific assemblage that characterises the Ifezouane Formation when compared to the similar Aoufous Formation, and as a result we regard the oldest of the four vertebrate "assemblages" in this region to be the compound assemblage of the "Kem Kem beds". This well-known vertebrate assemblage comprises a mixture of terrestrial (and aerial), freshwater and brackish vertebrates. The archosaur component of this fauna appears to show an intriguingly high proportion of large-bodied carnivorous taxa, which may indicate a peculiar trophic chain, although collecting biases alter this palaeontological signal. A small and restricted assemblage, the

  10. Composition and depositional environment of concretionary strata of early Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) age, Johnson County, Wyoming

    Merewether, E.A.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    Unusual, concretion-bearing mudrocks of early Late Cretaceous age, which were deposited in an early Cenomanian epeiric sea, have been recognized at outcrops in eastern Wyoming and in adjoining areas of Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Colorado. In Johnson County, Wyo., on the western flank of the Powder River Basin, these strata are in the lower part of the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier Formation. At a core hole in south-central Johnson County, they are informally named Unit 2. These strata are about 34 m (110 ft) thick and consist mainly of medium- to dark-gray, noncalcareous, silty shale and clayey or sandy siltstone; and light-gray to grayish-red bentonite. The shale and siltstone are either bioturbated or interlaminated; the laminae are discontinuous, parallel, and even or wavy. Several ichnogenera of deposit feeders are common in the unit but filter feeders are sparse. The unit also contains marine and continental palynomorphs and, near the top, a few arenaceous foraminifers. No invertebrate macrofossils have been found in these rocks. Unit 2 conformably overlies lower Cenomanian shale in the lowermost Belle Fourche Member, informally named Unit 3, and is conformably overlain by lower and middle Cenomanian shale, siltstone, and sandstone within the member, which are informally named Unit 1. The mineral and chemical composition of the three Cenomanian units is comparable and similar to that of shale and siltstone in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, except that these units contain more SiO2 and less CaO, carbonate carbon, and manganese. Silica is generally more abundant and CaO is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. The composition of Unit 2 contrasts significantly with that of the underlying and overlying units. Unit 2 contains no pyrite and dolomite and much less sulfur than Units 1 and 3. Sulfate is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. Unit 2 also includes sideritic and calcitic concretions, whereas Units

  11. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  12. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  13. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Wilson, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary. PMID:25589872

  14. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L; Wilson, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary.

  15. First report on Cretaceous paleoweathering rates in western Panthalassa: Evidence of global enhancement of continental weathering during OAE 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.

    2013-12-01

    Mid-Cretaceous is characterized by intensified oceanic anoxia (Oceanic Anoxic Events: OAEs) that raised global deposition of organic black shales. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the OAEs in conjunction with Cretaceous global warmth, active volcanism, sea-level changes and others. For example, Weissert et al. (1998) proposed a mechanism called 'weathering hypothesis'. In this model, the cause of the OAEs is explained in a following chain reaction, (1) global warmth and increase in atmospheric CO2 enhanced weathering of continental crust, (2) enhanced land weathering led excessive influx of nutrients from continents to oceans, (3) eutrophication enhanced primary productivity, (4) the excessive primary producers consumed dissolved oceanic oxygen that finally led to the OAEs. Several studies, in fact, revealed a causal relation between enhanced weathering and OAEs in northern Tethys region. However, it is necessary to collect worldwide information to unravel the global response of weathering hypothesis as a cause of OAEs. For such reason, the present contribution conducted measurements of the degree of hinterland paleoweathering during OAEs in northern Japan, for the purpose to provide a first report on the relation between continental weathering and OAEs in open ocean, the western Panthalassa Ocean. Aptian to Campanian forearc basin mudstones (Yezo Group) were analyzed by XRF and the degree of hinterland weathering was evaluated by geochemical weathering index (W index; Ohta and Arai, 2007). The W values obtained for the Yezo Group are 30~50, which is equivalent to the W values of recent soils developed in temperate mid-latitude climate. The W values show a fluctuation pattern that is concordant with the Cretaceous paleotemperature changes. This match indicates that the change in paleotemperature governed the weathering rates of East Asian continental crust. In addition, hinterland weathering rates show instantaneous increase during the OAE

  16. Assessing the duration of drowning episodes during the Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, A.; Föllmi, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Drowning unconformities are stratigraphic key surfaces in the history of carbonate platforms. They mostly consist in the deposition of deep marine facies on top of shallow marine limestones. Although large-scale depositional geometries mimic lowstand systems track architecture, these sedimentary turnovers are developed in relation with major sea level rise, inducing an increase in the rate of creation of accommodation space that outpaces the capacity of carbonate to keep up. This so-called paradox of carbonate platform drowning implies that other parameters than purely eustatic fluctuations are involved in the demise of shallow marine ecosystems. Worldwide and at different time during Earth history, in-depth studies of drowning unconformities revealed that changes in nutrient input, clastic delivery, temperature, or a combination of them may be responsible for a decrease in light penetration in the water column and the progressive suffocation and poisoning of photosynthetic carbonate producers. The examination of such case examples from various stratigraphic intervals and palaeogeographical settings thus helps in identifying and hierarchizing potential triggering mechanisms for drowning unconformities. This is complemented by new data from Early Cretaceous successions from the Helvetic Alps. During this time period, the Helvetic carbonate platform developed along the northern Tethyan margin using both photozoan and heterozoan communities. Phases of healthy production were interrupted by several drowning episodes. The latter are marked in the sedimentary record by condensation and associated phosphogenesis and glauconitisation. From the earliest Valanginian to the early to late Barremian, three drowning unconformities reflect the intermittent installation of a more humid climate and subsequent enhanced trophic conditions, which first induced a switch from photozoan to heterozoan communities and then to long-lasting drowning phases. The latter encompass several sea

  17. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  18. Preliminary study on the L ate Cretaceous ostracods from continental scientific drilling SK1 in the Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Dangpeng; Qu, Haiying; Shi, Zhongye; Wan, Xiaoqiao

    2017-04-01

    Songliao Basin is one of the biggest lacustrine systems in Asia during Cretaceous age. Widespread deposits in the basin are mainly composed of clastic sediments which contain abundant fossils including gastropod, bivalves, ostracods, vertebrates and others. These well preserved ostracod fossils provide us valuable information about past climate changes and biotic responses in a greenhouse environment.The Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling in the Songliao Basin (SK1) offers a rare opportunity to study Late Cretaceous non-marine ostracod. The SK1 was drilled separately in two boreholes: the lower 959.55-meter-thick south core (SK1(s)), and the upper 1636.72-meter-thick north core (SK1 (n)), containing the Upper Quantou, Qingshankou, Yaojia, Nenjiang Formation, Sifangtai, Mingshui and lower Taikang formations. Here we establish high-resolution non-marine ostracod biostratigraphy based on SK1. 80 species belonging to 12 genera in the SK1(S) and 45 species assigned to 20 genera in the SK1(n) have been recovered. Nineteen ostracod assemblage zones have been recognized: 1. Mongolocypris longicaudata-Cypridea Assemblage Zone, 2.Triangulicypris torsuosus-Triangulicypris torsuosus. nota Assemblage Zone, 3. Cypridea dekhoinensis-Cypridea gibbosa Assemblage Zone, 4.Cypridea nota-Sunliavia tumida Assemblage Zone, 5.Cypridea edentula-Lycopterocypris grandis Assemblage Zone, 6.Cypridea fuyuensis-Triangulicypris symmetrica Assemblage Zone, 7.Triangulicypris vestilus-Triangulicypris fusiformis-Triangulicypris pumilis Assemblage Zone, 8.Cypridea panda-Mongolocypris obscura Assemblage Zone, 9. Cypridea exornata-Cypridea dongfangensis Assemblage Zone, 10.Cypridea favosa-Mongolocypris tabulata Assemblage Zone, 11.Cypridea formosa-Cypridea sunghuajiangensis Assemblage Zone, 12. Cypridea anonyma-Candona fabiforma Assemblage Zone, 13.Cypridea gracila-Cypridea gunsulinensis Assemblage Zone, 14.Mongolocypris magna-Mongolocypris heiluntszianensis Assemblage Zone, 15.Cypridea

  19. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. PMID:26336172

  20. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A

    2015-09-07

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the ‘Lower Formation’ of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3–4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian. PMID:23536594

  2. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-22

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the 'Lower Formation' of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3-4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian.

  3. Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene Climate Change Linked to Tectonic Eevolution of Neo-Tethyan Subduction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, O. E.; Royden, L.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we demonstrate that the two tectonic events in the late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary triggered the two distinct cooling events that followed the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum (CTM). During much of the Cretaceous time, the northern Neo Tethyan ocean was dominated by two east-west striking subduction system. Subduction underneath Eurasia formed a continental arc on the southern margin of Eurasia and intra oceanic subduction in the equatorial region of the Neo Tethys formed and intra oceanic arc. Beginning at ~85-90 Ma the western part of the TTSS collided southward with the Afro-Arabian continental margin, terminating subduction. This resulted in southward obduction of the peri-Arabian ophiolite belt, which extends for ~4000 km along strike and includes the Cypus, Semail and Zagros ophiolites. At the same time also the eastern part of the TTS collided northwards wit Eurasia. After this collisional event, only the central part of the subduction system remained active until it collided with the northern margin of the Indian continent at ~50-55 Ma. The collision of the arc with the Indian margin, over a length of ~3000 km, also resulted in the obduction of arc material and ophiolitic rocks. Remnants of these rocks are preserved today as the Kohistan-Ladakh arc and ophiolites of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone of the Himalayas. Both of these collision events occurred in the equatorial region, near or within the ITCZ, where chemical weathering rates are high and are contemporaneous with the onset of the global cooling events that mark the end of the CTM and the EECO. The tectonic collision events resulted in a shut down of subduction zone magmatism, a major CO2 source and emplacement of highly weatherable basaltic rocks within the ITCZ (CO2 sink). In order to explore the effect of the events in the TTSS on atmospheric CO2, we model the potential contribution of subduction zone volcanism (source) and ophiolite obduction (sink) to the global atmospheric CO2

  4. A complete skull of an early cretaceous sauropod and the evolution of advanced titanosaurians.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Hussam; Pol, Diego; Carvalho, Alberto B; Nascimento, Paulo M; Riccomini, Claudio; Larson, Peter; Juarez-Valieri, Rubén; Pires-Domingues, Ricardo; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Campos, Diógenes de Almeida

    2011-02-07

    Advanced titanosaurian sauropods, such as nemegtosaurids and saltasaurids, were diverse and one of the most important groups of herbivores in the terrestrial biotas of the Late Cretaceous. However, little is known about their rise and diversification prior to the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been largely hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved cranial remains. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil represents the earliest advanced titanosaurian known to date, demonstrating that the initial diversification of advanced titanosaurians was well under way at least 30 million years before their known radiation in the latest Cretaceous. The new taxon also preserves the most complete skull among titanosaurians, further revealing that their low and elongated diplodocid-like skull morphology appeared much earlier than previously thought.

  5. Late Cretaceous sub-volcanic structure in the continental shelf off Portugal and its implications on tectonics and seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Terrinha, Pedro; Custódio, Susana; Noiva, João; Brito, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Long-lasting and widespread alkaline magmatism is recognized in the west Portuguese margin. Offshore, several volcanic seamounts punctuate the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Estremadura Spur, with known ages between 80 and 100 Ma. Onshore, the major events are the Monchique (69-73 Ma), Sines (75-77 Ma) and Sintra (75-82 Ma) plutons - whose location (aligned along 200 km) and age discrepancy inspired some geodynamic models for Iberia during the Cretaceous - and the Lisbon Volcanic Complex (90-100 Ma). Structural links between them have been proposed but no direct evidence was yet found for it. In this work we present new magnetic data from recent marine magnetic surveys (ROCHEL and MINEPLAT project) conducted off the west Portuguese coast on the continental shelf and slope. A total area of about 3000 km2 between Sintra and Sines was surveyed with line spacing of 1 mile. Very high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles were simultaneously acquired with the magnetics covering an area of 400 km2 off Sines. Two main primary outcomes arise from these data. On one hand, higher-resolution mapping in regions where magnetic anomalies were already known allows a better understanding of the buried sub-volcanic system. On the other hand, previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies were identified along the coast off Sines, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatic intrusives. The presence of magmatic bodies was up to now unknown in this region, and these findings reignite the discussion about a structural link connecting the three main on land intrusive complexes, Sintra, Sines and Monchique. In addition to the structural control of the magmatic complexes, seismicity is also an issue as a cluster of seismicity coincident with the Monchique complex has long been known. Smaller clusters coincide with the magnetic anomalies mapped during the ROCHEL and MINEPLAT surveys, as well. We interpret these results in the light of the tectono-magmatism of

  6. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  7. Early environmental effects of the terminal Cretaceous impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, Iain; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Anders, Edward

    1988-01-01

    The environmental aftereffects of the terminal Cretaceous impact are examined on the basis of the carbon and nitrogen geochemistry in the basal layer of the K-T boundary clay at Woodside Creek, New Zealand. It is shown that organic carbon and nitrogen at this level are enriched by 15 and 20 times Cretaceous values, respectively. Also, it is found that the N abundances and, to a lesser extent, the organic C abundances are closely correlated with the Ir abundances. The changes in carbon and nitrogen content through the basal layer are outlined, focusing on the possible environmental conditions which could have caused enrichment. In addition, consideration is given to the soot and pyrotoxin content. Possible scenarios for the K-T event and the importance of selective extinction are discussed.

  8. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  9. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous convergent margins of Northeastern Asia with Northwestern Pacific and Proto-Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Luchitskaya, Marina; Tuchkova, Marianna; Moiseev, Artem; Ledneva, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin of Northeastern Asia includes many island arc terranes that differ in age and tectonic position. Two convergent margins are reconstructed for Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous time: Uda-Murgal and Alazeya - Oloy island arc systems. A long tectonic zone composed of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks is recognized along the Asian continent margin from the Mongol-Okhotsk thrust-fold belt on the south to the Chukotka Peninsula on the north. This belt represents the Uda-Murgal arc, which was developed along the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern Meso-Pacific. Several segments are identified in this arc based upon the volcanic and sedimentary rock assemblages, their respective compositions and basement structures. The southern and central parts of the Uda-Murgal island arc system were a continental margin belt with heterogeneous basement represented by metamorphic rocks of the Siberian craton, the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex of Siberian passive margin and the Koni-Taigonos late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic island arc with accreted oceanic terranes. At the present day latitude of the Pekulney and Chukotka segments there was an ensimatic island arc with relicts of the South Anyui oceanic basin in backarc basin. Alazeya-Oloy island arc systems consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic complexes that belong to the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Proto-Artic Ocean. It separated structures of the North American and Siberian continents. The Siberian margin was active whereas the North American margin was passive. The Late Jurassic was characterized by termination of a spreading in the Proto-Arctic Ocean and transformation of the latter into the closing South Anyui turbidite basin. In the beginning the oceanic lithosphere and then the Chukotka microcontinent had been subducted beneath the Alazeya-Oloy volcanic belt

  10. Correlation of aptian-albian carbon isotope excursions in continental strata of the cretaceous Foreland Basin, Eastern Utah, U.S.A.

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Joeckel, R.M.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Gulbranson, E.L.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hunt, G.J.; Kirkland, J.I.; Madsen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nodular carbonates ("calcretes") in continental foreland-basin strata of the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) in eastern Utah yield ??13C and ??O records of changes in the exogenic carbon cycle related to oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial paleoclimate. Chemostratigraphic profiles of both forebulge and foredeep sections show two prominent positive ??13C excursions, each with a peak value of -3% VPDB, and having background ??13C values of about -6% VPDB. These excursions correlate with the global early Aptian (Ap7) and late Aptian-early Albian (Apl2-All) carbon isotope excursions. Aptian-Albian positive ??13C excursions in the CMF also correspond to 3-4 per mil increases in carbonate ??18O. These phenomena record local aridification events. The chemostratigraphic profile on the thinner forebulge section of the CMF is calibrated, for the first time, by a radiogenic U-Pb date of 119.4 ?? 2.6 Ma on a carbonate bed, and by detrital zircon U-Pb dates on two bounding sandstone units (maximum depositional ages of 146 Ma and 112 Ma). P??trographie observations and diagenetic analyses of micritic to microsparitic carbonates from nodules indicate palustrine origins and demonstrate that they crystallized in shallow early meteoric phreatic environments. Meteoric calcite lines derived from CMF carbonates have ??18O values ranging between -8.1 to -7.5%o VPDB, supporting an estimate of zonal mean groundwater ??18O of -6% VSMOW for an Aptian-Albian paleolatitude of 34?? N. Furthermore, our two chemostratigraphic profiles exhibit a generally proportionate thinning of correlative strata from the foredeep on to the forebulge, suggesting that there were consistently lower rates of accumulation on the forebulge during the Aptian-Albian. Identification of the global Aptian-Albian ??13C excursions in purely continental strata, as demonstrated in this paper, opens a new avenue of research by identifying specific stratigraphie intervals that record the terrestrial

  11. The Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Record: New Data, Revised Ages, and Updated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristall, B.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a time of significant transformation with the continued break-up of Pangea, the emplacement of several LIPs, and a climatic shift from a cool greenhouse to a warm greenhouse. The timing of these major events and their relationship to seawater geochemistry (as recorded in isotope records) is critical for understanding changes in global biogeochemical cycles during this time. Within this context, recent revisions to the Cretaceous portion of the geologic timescale necessitate a reevaluation of the Cretaceous S isotope record as recorded in marine barite (Paytan et al., 2004). We present a revised Early Cretaceous S isotope record and present new δ34Sbarite data that extend the record further back in time and provide more detail during two major S isotope shifts of the Early Cretaceous. The new data maintain the major ~5‰ negative shift but raise questions on the timing and structure of this perturbation. Furthermore, recently updated estimates for global rates of marine microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) (Bowles et al., 2014) and sulfate burial during the Phanerozoic (Halevy et al., 2012) require notable revisions in the fluxes and isotopic values used to model the global S cycle. We present a revised global S cycle box model and reconstruct the evolution of the Early Cretaceous S isotope record primarily through perturbations in volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes (e.g., submarine LIPs). Changes to the weathering and pyrite burial fluxes and the global integrated fractionation factor for MSR are also used to modulate, balance, and smooth the LIP-driven perturbation. The massive evaporite burial during the Late Aptian post dates the major -5‰ shift and has little affect on the modeled S isotope composition of seawater sulfate, despite causing a major drop in sulfate concentration. The S cycle box model is coupled to a Sr cycle box model to provide additional constraints on the magnitude and timing of perturbations within the S isotope record.

  12. Fossil evidence of avian crops from the Early Cretaceous of China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Martin, Larry D.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Burnham, David A.; Zhang, Fucheng; Miao, Desui

    2011-01-01

    The crop is characteristic of seed-eating birds today, yet little is known about its early history despite remarkable discoveries of many Mesozoic seed-eating birds in the past decade. Here we report the discovery of some early fossil evidence for the presence of a crop in birds. Two Early Cretaceous birds, the basal ornithurine Hongshanornis and a basal avian Sapeornis, demonstrate that an essentially modern avian digestive system formed early in avian evolution. The discovery of a crop in two phylogenetically remote lineages of Early Cretaceous birds and its absence in most intervening forms indicates that it was independently acquired as a specialized seed-eating adaptation. Finally, the reduction or loss of teeth in the forms showing seed-filled crops suggests that granivory was possibly one of the factors that resulted in the reduction of teeth in early birds. PMID:21896733

  13. Snakefly diversity in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain (Neuropterida, Raphidioptera)

    PubMed Central

    la Fuente, Ricardo Pérez-de; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Albian amber from Spain presently harbors the greatest number and diversity of amber adult fossil snakeflies (Raphidioptera). Within Baissopteridae, Baissoptera? cretaceoelectra sp. n., from the Peñacerrada I outcrop (Moraza, Burgos), is the first amber inclusion belonging to the family and described from western Eurasia, thus substantially expanding the paleogeographical range of the family formerly known from the Cretaceous of Brazil and eastern Asia. Within the family Mesoraphidiidae, Necroraphidia arcuata gen. et sp. n. and Amarantoraphidia ventolina gen. et sp. n. are described from the El Soplao outcrop (Rábago, Cantabria), whereas Styporaphidia? hispanica sp. n. and Alavaraphidia imperterrita gen. et sp. n. are describedfrom Peñacerrada I. In addition, three morphospecies are recognized from fragmentary remains. The following combinations are restored: Yanoraphidia gaoi Ren, 1995, stat. rest., Mesoraphidia durlstonensis Jepson, Coram and Jarzembowski, 2009, stat. rest., and Mesoraphidia heteroneura Ren, 1997, stat. rest. The singularity of this rich paleodiversity could be due to the paleogeographic isolation of the Iberian territory and also the prevalence of wildfires during the Cretaceous. PMID:22787417

  14. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous

    Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North Atlantic. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North Atlantic and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic. These eastern North Atlantic sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North Atlantic, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North Atlantic Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North Atlantic along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% CaCO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.

  15. The Cretaceous (Cenomanian) continental record of the Laje do Coringa flagstone (Alcântara Formation), northeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Manuel Alfredo; Lindoso, Rafael Matos; Mendes, Ighor Dienes; Carvalho, Ismar de Souza

    2014-08-01

    The fossil taxa of the Cenomanian continental flora and fauna of São Luís Basin are observed primarily in the bone bed of the Laje do Coringa, Alcântara Formation. Many of the disarticulated fish and tetrapod skeletal and dental elements are remarkably similar to the chronocorrelate fauna of Northern Africa. In this study, we present a summary of the continental flora and fauna of the Laje do Coringa bone-bed. The record emphasizes the existence of a trans-oceanic typical fauna, at least until the early Cenomanian, which may be interpreted as minor evolutionary changes after a major vicariant event or as a result of a land bridge across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, thereby allowing interchanges between South America and Africa. The paleoenvironmental conditions in the northern Maranhão State coast during that time were inferred as forested humid areas surrounded by an arid to semi-arid landscape.

  16. A nearly modern amphibious bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China.

    PubMed

    You, Hai-Lu; Lamanna, Matthew C; Harris, Jerald D; Chiappe, Luis M; O'connor, Jingmai; Ji, Shu-An; Lü, Jun-Chang; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Li, Da-Qing; Zhang, Xing; Lacovara, Kenneth J; Dodson, Peter; Ji, Qiang

    2006-06-16

    Three-dimensional specimens of the volant fossil bird Gansus yumenensis from the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of northwestern China demonstrate that this taxon possesses advanced anatomical features previously known only in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic ornithuran birds. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gansus within the Ornithurae, making it the oldest known member of the clade. The Xiagou Formation preserves the oldest known ornithuromorph-dominated avian assemblage. The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that modern birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches.

  17. Changes to Cretaceous surface fire behaviour influenced the spread of the early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Hudspith, Victoria A

    2017-02-01

    Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour. Variations in ignition, driven by weedy angiosperms alone, were found to have been a less important feedback to changes in Cretaceous fire activity than previously estimated. Our model estimates suggest that fires in shrub and fern understories had significantly greater fireline intensities than those fuelled by conifer litter or weedy angiosperms, and whilst fern understories supported the most rapid fire spread, angiosperm shrubs delivered the largest amount of heat per unit area. The higher fireline intensities predicted by the models led to estimates of enhanced scorch of the gymnosperm canopy and a greater chance of transitioning to crown fires. Therefore, changes in fire behaviour driven by the addition of new Cretaceous fuel groups may have assisted the angiosperm expansion. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Tectonic setting of the pebble and other copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits within the evolving middle cretaceous continental margin of Northwestern North America

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Anderson, Eric; Hart, Craig J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska, containing the largest gold resource of any known porphyry in the world, developed in a tectonic setting significantly different from that of the present-day. It is one of a series of metalliferous middle Cretaceous porphyritic granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and diorite bodies, evolved from lower crust and metasomatized lithospheric mantle melts, which formed along much of the length of the North American craton suture with the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia arc. The porphyry deposits were emplaced within the northernmost two of a series of ca. 130 to 80 Ma flysch basins that define the suture, as well as into arc rocks immediately seaward of the two basins. Deposits include the ca. 100 to 90 Ma Pebble, Neacola, and other porphyry prospects along the Kahiltna basin-Peninsula terrane boundary, and the ca. 115 to 105 Ma Baultoff, Carl Creek, Horsfeld, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, and Chisna porphyries along the Nutzotin basin-Wrangellia terrane boundary.The porphyry deposits probably formed along the craton margin more than 1,000 km to the south of their present latitude. Palinspastic reconstructions of plate kinematics from this period are particularly difficult because magmatism overlaps the 119 to 83 Ma Cretaceous Normal Superchron, a period when sea-floor magnetic data are lacking. Our favored scenario is that ore formation broadly overlaps the cessation of sedimentation and contraction and the transition to a transpressional continental margin regime, such that the remnant ocean basins were converted to strike-slip basins. The basins and outboard Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia composite superterrane, which are all located seaward of the deep crustal Denali-Farewell fault system, were subjected to northerly dextral transpression for as long as perhaps 50 m.y., beginning at ca. 95 ± 10 Ma. The onset of this transpression was marked by development of the mineralized bodies along fault segments on the seaward side

  19. Allostratigraphy of the U.S. middle Atlantic continental margin; characteristics, distribution, and depositional history of principal unconformity-bounded upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary units

    Poag, C. Wylie; Ward, Lauck W.

    1993-01-01

    Publication of Volumes 93 and 95 ('The New Jersey Transect') of the Deep Sea Drilling Project's Initial Reports completed a major phase of geological and geophysical research along the middle segment of the U. S. Atlantic continental margin. Relying heavily on data from these and related published records, we have integrated outcrop, borehole, and seismic-reflection data from this large area (500,000 km^2 ) to define the regional allostratigraphic framework for Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The framework consists of 12 alloformations, which record the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic depositional history of the contiguous Baltimore Canyon trough (including its onshore margin) and Hatteras basin (northern part). We propose stratotype sections for each alloformation and present a regional allostratigraphic reference section, which crosses these basins from the inner edge of the coastal plain to the inner edge of the abyssal plain. Selected supplementary reference sections on the coastal plain allow observation of the alloformations and their bounding unconformities in outcrop. Our analyses show that sediment supply and its initial dispersal on the middle segment of the U. S. Atlantic margin have been governed, in large part, by hinterland tectonism and subsequently have been modified by paleoclimate, sea-level changes, and oceanic current systems. Notable events in the Late Cretaceous to Holocene sedimentary evolution of this margin include (1) development of continental-rise depocenters in the northern part of the Hatteras basin during the Late Cretaceous; (2) the appear ance of a dual shelf-edge system, a marked decline in siliciclastic sediment accumulation rates, and widespread acceleration of carbonate production during high sea levels of the Paleogene; (3) rapid deposition and progradation of thick terrigenous delta complexes and development of abyssal depocenters during the middle Miocene to Quaternary interval; and (4) deep incision of the

  20. Morphologically Specialized Termite Castes and Advanced Sociality in the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Barden, Phillip; Riccio, Mark L; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-22

    A hallmark of animals that are eusocial, or those with advanced sociality, is reproductive specialization into worker and queen castes. In the most derived societies, these divisions are essentially fixed and in some arthropods, include further specialization--a tripartite system with a soldier caste that defends the colony. Eusociality has originated numerous times among insects but is believed to have appeared first in the termites (Isoptera), in the Early Cretaceous. However, all termites known from the Cretaceous have, until now, only been winged reproductives (alates and dealates); the earliest soldiers and definitive workers were known from just the Miocene (ca. 17-20 million years ago [mya]). Here, we report six termite species preserved in Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 mya) amber from Myanmar, one described as Krishnatermes yoddha gen. et sp. nov., comprising the worker/pseudergate, winged reproductive, and soldier, and a second species, Gigantotermes rex gen. et sp. nov., based on one of the largest soldier termites yet known. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Krishnatermes are in the basal "Meiatermes-grade" of Cretaceous termites. Workers/pseudergates of another four species are briefly described, but not named. One of these workers/pseudergates reveals that ants--the most serious enemies of modern termites--lived in close proximity to termites in the Burmese paleofauna. These discoveries demonstrate the Mesozoic antiquity of specialized termite caste systems and corroborate that among all social species, termites probably had the original societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New Crocodyliform specimens from Recôncavo-Tucano Basin (Early Cretaceous) of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael G DE; Campos, Diogenes A

    2018-04-16

    In 1940, L.I. Price and A. Oliveira recovered four crocodyliform specimens from the Early Cretaceous Bahia Supergroup (Recôncavo-Tucano Basin). In the present work, we describe four different fossil specimens: an osteoderm, a fibula, a tibia, and some autopodial bones. No further identification besides Mesoeucrocodylia was made due to their fragmentary nature and the reduced number of recognized synapomorphies for more inclusive clades. With exception of the fibula, all other specimens have at least one particular feature, which with new specimens could represent new species. The new specimens described here increase the known diversity of Early Cretaceous crocodyliforms from Brazil. This work highlights the great fossiliferous potential of Recôncavo-Tucano Basin with regard to crocodyliform remains.

  2. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M L G; Ravizza, G; Suzuki, K; Paquay, F S

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with (187)Os/(188)Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism.

  3. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tejada, M. L. G.; Ravizza, G.; Suzuki, K.; Paquay, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with 187Os/188Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism. PMID:22355780

  4. The early cretaceous evolution of carbonate platforms from northern Oman

    SciT

    Masse, J.P.; Borgomano, J.; Maskiry, S.Al.

    1993-09-01

    In northern Oman (Jebel Akhdar and foothills) Hauterivian to early Aptian shallow carbonate platforms are widely extending and pass laterally to slope and basin environments in the Nakhl zone. Progradational geometries are identified in that zone where significant correlation between thickness and sediment types supports a prominent tectonic control. The platform records four main sedimentary breaks (drowning events). Early Barremian (lower Lekhwair Formation), Late Barremian (basal Kharaib Formation), lowermost early Aptian (upper Kharaib Formation) and middle Aptian (Shuaiba-Al Hassanat formations boundary). The late Aptian-early Albian hiatus (pre-Nahr Umr unconformity) is regarded as an early Albian tectonically driven erosion. In themore » Nakhl zone, coral-rudist limestones of late Aptian-early Albian (lower Al Hassanat Formation) document an east-west ribbon platform, the southward extension of which was obscured by the middle Albian erosions and rudist limestones of middle to late Albian (upper Al Hassanat Formation), a lateral equivalent of the Nahr Umr circa littoral shaly sediments, document an east-west-trending linear platform. The foregoing points out a northward progradation coeval with a southward transgressive major trend for the Hauterivian-early Aptian interval, a faulted margin corresponding with the Nakhl zone active during the Aptian-Albian, a late Aptian ribbon platform coeval with the Bab basin initiation southward, a regional uplifting and truncation during the early-Albian (Austrian phase), whereas shallow-water carbonates are still forming at the edge of the former platform, and an active linear platform at the northern edge of the Nahr Umr basin, the corresponding drowning contemporaneous with the onset of the Cenomanian platform eastward.« less

  5. A New Sail-Backed Styracosternan (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Morella, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, José Miguel; Escaso, Fernando; Narváez, Iván; Ortega, Francisco; Sanz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    A new styracosternan ornithopod genus and species is here described based on a partial postcranial skeleton and an associated dentary tooth of a single specimen from the Arcillas de Morella Formation (Early Cretaceous, late Barremian) at the Morella locality, (Castellón, Spain). Morelladon beltrani gen. et sp. nov. is diagnosed by eight autapomorphic features. The set of autapomorphies includes: very elongated and vertical neural spines of the dorsal vertebrae, midline keel on ventral surface of the second to fourth sacral vertebrae restricted to the anterior half of the centrum, a posterodorsally inclined medial ridge on the postacetabular process of the ilium that meets its dorsal margin and distal end of the straight ischial shaft laterally expanded, among others. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the new Iberian form is more closely related to its synchronic and sympatric contemporary European taxa Iguanodon bernissartensis and Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis, known from Western Europe, than to other Early Cretaceous Iberian styracosternans (Delapparentia turolensis and Proa valdearinnoensis). The recognition of Morelladon beltrani gen. et sp. nov. indicates that the Iberian Peninsula was home to a highly diverse medium to large bodied styracosternan assemblage during the Early Cretaceous.

  6. Application of geochemical logging for palaeoenvironmental research in the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project-SK-2e, Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Zou, Changchun; Pan, Li; Niu, Yixiong

    2017-08-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project of the Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) provides an excellent opportunity to understand the response of terrestrial environments to greenhouse climate change in the Cretaceous. We conducted a palaeoenvironmental study of the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn) based on geochemical log data from the SK-2 east borehole. According to the characteristic of Ti mainly from terrigenous minerals, the content of authigenic elements was calculated. Correlation space was proposed to study the variation of the correlation between two log curves along the depth. Palaeoenvironmental proxies were selected from log data to study the evolution of the climate and lake, productivity of the paleolake, and organic matter deposition. The results demonstrate that the productivity of the paleolake was driven by chemical weathering in K2qn, in which the first section of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) has higher productivity than the second and third sections of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn2+3). The high content of pyrite in several thin layers reveals lake water of high sulfate concentration. This may have been caused by acid rain related to large volcanic activity. In K2qn2+3, several periods of high productivity without the formation of source rocks and high organic matter content were identified. This may show that organic matter deposition was limited by low accommodation space or oxidation environment. Therefore, the preservation condition is suggested as the main controlling factor of organic matter deposition in K2qn.

  7. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  8. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    lower model Th/U. These Pb isotope differences are inferred to result from differences in their respective post-1.7 Ga magmatic histories. Throughout Arizona, Pb isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and associated sulfide minerals are distinct from those of Jurassic plutons and also middle Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals. These differences most likely reflect changes in tectonic setting and magmatic sources. Within Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that host economic porphyry copper deposits, there is commonly a decrease in Pb isotope composition from older to younger plutons. This decrease in Pb isotope values with time suggests an increasing involvement of crust with lower U/Pb than average crust in the source(s) of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary magmas. Lead isotope compositions of the youngest porphyries in the igneous complexes are similar to those in most sulfide minerals within the associated porphyry copper deposit. This Pb isotope similarity argues for a genetic link between them. However, not all Pb in the sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits is magmatically derived. Some sulfide minerals, particularly those that are late stage, or distal to the main orebody, or in Proterozoic or Paleozoic rocks, have elevated Pb isotope compositions displaced toward the gross average Pb isotope composition of the local country rocks. The more radiogenic isotopic compositions argue for a contribution of Pb from those rocks at the site of ore deposition. Combining the Pb isotope data with available geochemical, isotopic, and petrologic data suggests derivation of the young porphyry copper-related plutons, most of their Pb, and other metals from a hybridized lower continental crustal source. Because of the likely involvement of subduction-related mantle-derived basaltic magma in the hybridized lower crustal source, an indiscernible mantle contribution is probable in the porphyry magmas. Clearly, in addition

  9. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  10. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  11. A total petroleum system of the Browse Basin, Australia; Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Browse Basin Province 3913, offshore northern Australia, contains one important petroleum system, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic. It is comprised of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous source rocks deposited in restricted marine environments and various Mesozoic reservoir rocks deposited in deep-water fan to fluvial settings. Jurassic age intraformational shales and claystones and Cretaceous regional claystones seal the reservoirs. Since 1967, when exploration began in this 105,000 km2 area, fewer than 40 wells have been drilled and only one recent oil discovery is considered potentially commercial. Prior to the most recent oil discovery, on the eastern side of the basin, a giant gas field was discovered in 1971, under a modern reef on the west side of the basin. Several additional oil and gas discoveries and shows were made elsewhere. A portion of the Vulcan sub-basin lies within Province 3913 where a small field, confirmed in 1987, produced 18.8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) up to 1995 and has since been shut in.

  12. A Cretaceous eutriconodont and integument evolution in early mammals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Vullo, Romain; Martín-Abad, Hugo; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Buscalioni, Angela D

    2015-10-15

    The Mesozoic era (252-66 million years ago), known as the domain of dinosaurs, witnessed a remarkable ecomorphological diversity of early mammals. The key mammalian characteristics originated during this period and were prerequisite for their evolutionary success after extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Many ecomorphotypes familiar to modern mammal fauna evolved independently early in mammalian evolutionary history. Here we report a 125-million-year-old eutriconodontan mammal from Spain with extraordinary preservation of skin and pelage that extends the record of key mammalian integumentary features into the Mesozoic era. The new mammalian specimen exhibits such typical mammalian features as pelage, mane, pinna, and a variety of skin structures: keratinous dermal scutes, protospines composed of hair-like tubules, and compound follicles with primary and secondary hairs. The skin structures of this new Mesozoic mammal encompass the same combination of integumentary features as those evolved independently in other crown Mammalia, with similarly broad structural variations as in extant mammals. Soft tissues in the thorax and abdomen (alveolar lungs and liver) suggest the presence of a muscular diaphragm. The eutriconodont has molariform tooth replacement, ossified Meckel's cartilage of the middle ear, and specialized xenarthrous articulations of posterior dorsal vertebrae, convergent with extant xenarthran mammals, which strengthened the vertebral column for locomotion.

  13. Evolution of volcanically-induced palaeoenvironmental changes leading to the onset of OAE1a (early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During the Cretaceous, several major volcanic events occurred that initiated climate warming, altered marine circulation and increased marine productivity, which in turn often resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Therefore the negative C-isotope excursion covers the interval between the time, when volcanic activity became important enough to be recorded in the C-isotope composition of the oceans to the onset of widespread anoxic conditions (OAE1a). We chose this interval at the locality of Pusiano (N-Italy) to study the effect of a volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 on the marine palaeoenvironment and to observe the evolving palaeoenvironmental conditions that finally led to OAE1a. The Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation) was deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and has been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). We selected 18 samples from 12 black shale horizons for palynofacies analyses. Palynofacies assemblages consist of several types of particulate organic matter, providing information on the origin of the organic matter (terrestrial/marine) and conditions during deposition (oxic/anoxic). We then linked the palynofacies results to high-resolution inorganic and organic C-isotope values and total organic carbon content measurements. The pelagic Pusiano section consists of repeated limestone-black shale couplets, which are interpreted to be the result of changes in oxygenation of bottom waters. Towards the end of the negative C-isotope excursion we observe enhanced preservation of the fragile amorphous organic matter resulting in increased

  14. Dolomitization in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Platform Carbonates (Berdiga Formation), Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon), NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Merve; Ziya Kırmacı, Mehmet; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pontides constitute an E-W trending orogenic mountain belt that extends about 1100 km along the northern side of Turkey from the immediate east of Istanbul to the Georgian border at the east. Tectono-stratigraphically, the Pontides are divided into three different parts: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. The Eastern Pontides, including the studied area, comprise an area of 500 km in length and 100 km in width, extending along the southeast coast of the Black Sea from the Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak Rivers in the vicinity of Samsun to the Little Caucasus. This area is bordered by the Eastern Black Sea basin to the north and the Ankara-Erzincan Neotethyan suture zone to the south. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platform carbonates are widely exposed in E-W direction in the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey). The Platform carbonates shows varying lithofacies changing from supratidal to platform margin reef laterally and vertically, and was buried until the end of Late Cretaceous. The studied Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon, NE Turkey) area comprises one of the best typical exposures of formation in northern zone of Eastern Pontides. In this area, the lower parts of the formation are pervasively dolomitized by fabric-destructive and fabric-preserving replacement dolomite which are Ca-rich and nonstoichiometric (Ca56-66Mg34-44). Replacement dolomites (Rd) are represented by D18O values of -19.0 to -4.2 (VPDB), D13C values of 4.4 to 2.1 \\permil (VPDB) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70889 to 0.70636. Petrographic and geochemical data indicate that Rd dolomites are formed prior to compaction at shallow-moderate burial depths from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous seawater and/or partly modified seawater as a result of water/rock interaction and they were recrystallized at elevated temperatures during subsequent burial. In the subsequent diagenetic process during the Late Cretaceous when the region became a magmatic arc, as a result of interaction with Early Jurassic volcanic

  15. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-05-01

    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the “Plutonic squishy lid” tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  16. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism.

    PubMed

    Rozel, A B; Golabek, G J; Jain, C; Tackley, P J; Gerya, T

    2017-05-18

    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the "Plutonic squishy lid" tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  17. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  18. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  19. A Diplodocid Sauropod Survivor from the Early Cretaceous of South America

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, Pablo A.; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Haluza, Alejandro; Canale, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation) of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere. PMID:24828328

  20. A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Pablo A; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Haluza, Alejandro; Canale, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation) of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere.

  1. Early cretaceous topographic growth of the Lhasaplano, Tibetan plateau: Constraints from the Damxung conglomerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Xiao-Chi; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Constraining the timing of early topographic growth on the Tibetan plateau is critical for any models of India-Asia collision, Himalayan orogeny and subsequent plateau development in the Cenozoic. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Cretaceous red-beds of the Damxung Conglomerate provide new key information to reconstruct the paleogeography and the tectonic evolution of the Lhasa terrane at the time. The over 700-m-thick Damxung Conglomerate documents distal alluvial fan to braidplain sedimentation passing upward to proximal alluvial fan sedimentation. Deposition began near sea level, as documented by limestone beds occurring at the base of the unit. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded tuff layers constrain deposition age at ca. 111 Ma. Abundance of volcanic clasts, Cretaceous U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons yielding mainly negative ɛHf(t) values together with paleocurrent data indicate an active volcanic source located in the North Lhasa subterrane. Pre-Mesozoic-aged zircon, recycled quartz and (meta) sedimentary rock fragments increase up-section, indicating progressive erosional exhumation of the Paleozoic sedimentary/metasedimentary basement. The Damxung Conglomerate thus records a significant uplift and unroofing stage in the source region, implying initial topographic growth on the Lhasa terrane at early Albian time. Early Cretaceous topographic growth on the Lhasa terrane is supported by the stratigraphic record in the Linzhou basin, the Xigaze forearc basin and the southern Nima basin. In contrast, marine strata in the central-western Lhasa terrane lasted until the early Cenomanian (ca. 96 Ma), indicating diachronous marine regression on the Lhasa terrane from east to west.

  2. Early to mid Cretaceous vegetation of northern Gondwana - the onset of angiosperm radiation and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some

  3. Precious metals associated with Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Miller, Marti L.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Miller, Lance D.

    1997-01-01

    Placer gold and precious metal-bearing lode deposits of southwestern Alaska lie within a region 550 by 350 km, herein referred to as the Kuskokwim mineral belt. This mineral belt has yielded 100,240 kg (3.22 Moz) of gold, 12, 813 kg (412,000 oz) of silver, 1,377,412 kg (39,960 flasks) of mercury, and modest amounts of antimony and tungsten derived primarily from the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous complexes of four major types: (1) alkali-calcic, comagmatic volcanic-plutonic complexes and isolated plutons, (2) calc-alkaline, meta-aluminous reduced plutons, (3) peraluminous alaskite or granite-porphyry sills and dike swarms, and (4) andesite-rhyolite subaerial volcanic rocks.About 80 percent of the 77 to 52 Ma intrusive and volcanic rocks intrude or overlie the middle to Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group sedimentary and volcanic rocks, as well as the Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks of the Nixon Fork, Innoko, Goodnews, and Ruby preaccretionary terranes.The major precious metal-bearing deposit types related to Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous complexes of the Kuskokwim mineral belt are subdivided as follows: (1) plutonic-hosted copper-gold polymetallic stockwork, skarn, and vein deposits, (2) peraluminous granite-porphory-hosted gold polymetallic deposits, (3) plutonic-related, boron-enriched silver-tin polymetallic breccia pipes and replacement deposits, (4) gold and silver mineralization in epithermal systems, and (5) gold polymetallic heavy mineral placer deposits. Ten deposits genetically related to Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary intrusions contain minimum, inferred reserves amounting to 162,572 kg (5.23 Moz) of gold, 201,015 kg (6.46 Moz) silver, 12,160 metric tons (t) of tin, and 28,088 t of copper.The lodes occur in veins, stockworks, breccia pipes, and replacement deposits that formed in epithermal to mesothermal temperature-pressure conditions. Fluid inclusion, isotopic age, mineral assemblage, alteration assemblage, and structural data indicate that

  4. Plant-arthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Sommer, Margot Guerra

    2009-02-01

    Plant-arthropod interactions provide the first relevant data for addressing evidence of phytophagy for an assemblage of coniferous silicified woods from the pre-rift phase in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. A complex system of borings, sometimes filled with small, oval to hexagonal coprolites, allow inferences to be made about the activities of termites (Isoptera). Previous dendrological data indicated that the climate during the Early Cretaceous on the landmasses of the northern Afro-Brazilian Depression was dry and savanna like, where termite borings were common. Features of wood preservation demonstrate that the damage was probably caused by herbivores, not detritivores.

  5. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-07-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials.

  6. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-01-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. Images PMID:2740336

  7. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Wang, Min; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-12-06

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody-antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils.

  8. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E.; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody–antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils. PMID:27872291

  9. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Discussion on ``Dextral transpression in Late Cretaceous continental collision, Sanandaj Sirjan Zone, western Iran'' [Journal of Structural Geology, 22(8) (2000) 1125 1139

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numan, Nazar M. S.

    2001-12-01

    The NW-SE trending Alpine Zagros Thrust Belt passes from southwest Iran into northeastern Iraq. Mohajjel and Fergusson contend in their work in Iran on the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (with a consistent Zagros trend) that collision of the Afro-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent took place in the Late Cretaceous. It seems that tectonostratigraphic evidence from the neighbouring Iraqi territories, namely the Zagros Thrust Belt in the northern part, the Foreland Belt and the Quasiplatform of the north and the Platform in the western and southern deserts (Fig. 1), chronicles the subductional history in this part of the world to a fair degree of accuracy. It rather provides for an Eocene age of the continental collision between Arabia and the Iranian microcontinent.

  11. The connection between iron ore formations and "mud-shrimp" colonizations around sunken wood debris and hydrothermal sediments in a Lower Cretaceous continental rift basin, Mecsek Mts., Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáger, Viktor; Molnár, Ferenc; Buchs, David; Koděra, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In the Early Cretaceous, the continental rift basin of the Mecsek Mts. (Hungary), was situated on the southern edge of the European plate. The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean created a dilatational regime that expanded to the southern edge of the European plate, where several extensional basins and submarine volcanoes were formed during the Early Cretaceous epoch. Permanent seaquake activity caused high swell events during which a large amount of terrestrial wood fragments entered into submarine canyons from rivers or suspended woods which had sunk into the deep seafloor. These fragments created extended wood-fall deposits which contributed large-scale flourishing of numerous burrowing thalassinid crustaceans. Twelve different thalassinid coprolite ichnospecies can be found in the Berriasian-Hauterivian volcano-sedimentary formations. According to the seladonitic crustacean burrows which associated with framboidal pyrite containing Zoophycos and Chondrites ichnofossils (i.e. a "fodinichnia" trace fossil association), the bottom water was aerobic and the pore water was anaerobic; in the latter sulfate reduction occurred. The preservation of wood fragments around thalassinid burrows can be explained by rapid sedimentation related to turbidity currents. Due to the low temperature hydrothermal circulations of seawater, large amounts of iron were released from intrusive, pillowed basaltic sills; these sills intruded into soft, water-saturated sediments containing large amounts of thalassinid excrement. In the coprolites can be found idiomorphic mineral particles originating from the basalts, and coprolites can often be found in peperitic interpillow sediments. This indicates that the life-activity of the decapoda crustaceans in many Lower Cretaceous occurrences initially preceded the first magmatic eruptions. The paroxysm of the rift volcanism took place during the Valanginian age, when some submarine volcanoes emerged above sea level, reaching a maximum height of

  12. Large-scale removal of lithosphere underneath the North China Craton in the Early Cretaceous: Geochemical constraints from volcanic lavas in the Bohai Bay Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xiaoguang; Qi, Jiafu

    2017-11-01

    Cratons are generally considered as the most stable tectonic units on the Earth. Rare magmatism, seismic activity, and intracrustal ductile deformation occur in them. However, several cratons experienced entirely different fates, including the North China Craton (NCC), and were subsequently destroyed. Geodynamic mechanisms and timing of the cratonic destruction are strongly debated. In this paper, we investigate a suite of Mesozoic intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks which are collected from boreholes in the Liaohe Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin the eastern NCC. These volcanic rocks have Precambrian basement-like Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics, consistent with derivation from the lower continental crust underneath the NCC. The Late Jurassic ( 165 Ma) intermediate volcanic rocks don't exhibit markedly negative Eu anomalies, which require a source beyond the plagioclase stability field. And the low heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) contents of these samples indicate that their source has garnet as residue. The Early Cretaceous ( 122 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks are depleted in HREEs but with remarkable Eu anomalies, suggesting that their source have both garnet and plagioclase. The crust thicknesses, estimated from the geochemistry of the intermediate and felsic rocks, are ≥ 50 km at 165 Ma and 30-50 km at 122 Ma, respectively. The crustal thinning is attributed to lithospheric delamination beneath the NCC. Our results combined with previous studies imply that the large-scale lithospheric removal occurred in the Early Cretaceous, between 140 and 120 Ma.

  13. Similarity and Differences of Cretaceous Magmatism in the Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyve, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers Cretaceous magmatism at the continental margin of the Arctic Region. It is shown that Cretaceous igneous rocks of this region are rather heterogeneous in age, composition, and geodynamic formation setting. This differentiates them from rocks of typical large igneous provinces (LIPs). Local areas of magmatic activity, their substantial remoteness them from one another, and significant distinctions in age, composition of rocks, and formation conditions prevent us from unreservedly combining all occurrences of Cretaceous magmatism at the continental margin of the Arctic Region into a common igneous province. The stage of tholeiitic magmatism in the Svalbard Archipelago, Franz Josef Land, Arctic Canada, and the Alpha-Mendeleev Rise, which can be considered an LIP, began in the Early Cretaceous and continued for a long time, at least until the Campanian. The magmatism apparently had a plume source and was caused by extension during opening of the Canada Basin. Tholeiitic magmatism gave way to the alkaline magmatism stage from the Campanian to the onset of the Paleocene, related to continental rifting at the initial stage of formation of Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Region. No convincing evidence for a genetic link between Early Cretaceous tholeiitic and Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatism is known at present, nor for the alkaline magmatism belonging to a plume source.

  14. Early Cretaceous Umkomasia from Mongolia: implications for homology of corystosperm cupules.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gongle; Leslie, Andrew B; Herendeen, Patrick S; Herrera, Fabiany; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Takahashi, Masamichi; Knopf, Patrick; Crane, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    Corystosperms, a key extinct group of Late Permian to Early Cretaceous plants, are important for understanding seed plant phylogeny, including the evolution of the angiosperm carpel and anatropous bitegmic ovule. Here, we describe a new species of corystosperm seed-bearing organ, Umkomasia mongolica sp. nov., based on hundreds of three-dimensionally preserved mesofossils from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia. Individual seed-bearing units of U. mongolica consist of a bract subtending an axis that bifurcates, with each fork (cupule stalk) bearing a cupule near the tip. Each cupule is formed by the strongly reflexed cupule stalk and two lateral flaps that partially enclose an erect seed. The seed is borne at, or close to, the tip of the reflexed cupule stalk, with the micropyle oriented towards the stalk base. The corystosperm cupule is generally interpreted as a modified leaf that bears a seed on its abaxial surface. However, U. mongolica suggests that an earlier interpretation, in which the seed is borne directly on an axis (shoot), is equally likely. The 'axial' interpretation suggests a possible relationship of corystosperms to Ginkgo. It also suggests that the cupules of corystosperms may be less distinct from those of Caytonia than has previously been supposed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  17. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  18. Field guide to the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    Pillmore, C.L.; Nichols, D.J.; ,

    1999-01-01

    This guide consists of three general sections: an introduction that includes discussions of Raton basin stratigraphy and the Cretaceous Tertiary (K-T) boundary; descriptions of the geology along the route from Denver, Colorado, to Raton, New Mexico; and descriptions of several K-T sites in the Raton basin. Much of the information is from previous articles and field guides by the authors together with R. M. Flores and from road logs co-authored with Glenn R. Scott, both of the U.S.Geological Survey.

  19. Cretaceous and Eocene Adakites in the Sikhote-Alin area (Russian Far East) and their correlation with adakitic rocks in the East Asia continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. J.; Jahn, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Adakitic rocks of the Sikhote-Alin area were emplaced during two main periods: the Cretaceous (132-98 Ma) and Eocene (46-39 Ma). These rocks primarily occur in the Khanka Block and, less commonly, in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt. The adakitic rocks record the following chemical compositions: SiO2 = 57-74%, Al2O3 = 15-18%, Na2O = 3.5-6.1%, K2O = 0.7-3.2%, Na2O/K2O = 1.1-3.9, Sr/Y = 33-145, and (La/Yb)N = 11-53. The HREE and HFSE in these rocks are remarkably depleted. The Early Cretaceous adakites record ɛNd(T) = -1.0 to +3.2 and ISr = 0.7040-0.7090, and the Eocene adakitic rocks record Nd(T) = -2.0 to +2.2 and ISr = 0.7042-0.7058. Adakitic features suggest different modes of magma generation; a comparison of the Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and geochemical data on Harker diagrams between the two periods of adakitic rocks reveals differences in their petrogenesis. The Cretaceous adakites may have been generated by the partial melting of meta-basic rocks in a subduction zone, accompanied by the emplacement of volcanic arc granitoids. Therefore, the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Sikhote-Alin was probably initiated during this time. The Eocene rocks, which record increasing adakitic features with increasing silica content, are most likely the product of andesite that underwent fractionation of mineral assemblage including clinopyoxene, orthopyroxene, garnet and amphibole. These rocks and associated basalts and rhyolite were formed after Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area and were most likely generated by rollback of the subducting Pacific Plate after the Eocene. Abundant adakitic granitoids of Early Cretaceous and Eocene age occur in the Kitakami and Abukuma Mountains of NE Japan. Consequently, it is highly probable that a geological correlation existed between Sikhote-Alin and North Japan, particularly before the opening of the Japan Sea.

  20. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Robert P; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Norman, Marc D

    2003-10-09

    The tectonic setting in which the first continental crust formed, and the extent to which modern processes of arc magmatism at convergent plate margins were operative on the early Earth, are matters of debate. Geochemical studies have shown that felsic rocks in both Archaean high-grade metamorphic ('grey gneiss') and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are comprised dominantly of sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite of rocks. Here we present direct experimental evidence showing that partial melting of hydrous basalt in the eclogite facies produces granitoid liquids with major- and trace-element compositions equivalent to Archaean TTG, including the low Nb/Ta and high Zr/Sm ratios of 'average' Archaean TTG, but from a source with initially subchondritic Nb/Ta. In modern environments, basalts with low Nb/Ta form by partial melting of subduction-modified depleted mantle, notably in intraoceanic arc settings in the forearc and back-arc regimes. These observations suggest that TTG magmatism may have taken place beneath granite-greenstone complexes developing along Archaean intraoceanic island arcs by imbricate thrust-stacking and tectonic accretion of a diversity of subduction-related terranes. Partial melting accompanying dehydration of these generally basaltic source materials at the base of thickened, 'arc-like' crust would produce compositionally appropriate TTG granitoids in equilibrium with eclogite residues.

  1. Late Cretaceous to Miocene phosphatic sediments in the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    Poppe, L.J.; Manheim, F. T.; Popenoe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorite and phosphatic sediments are present in the Georges Bank Basin in marine, Late Cretaceous to Miocene strata equivalent to the Dawson Canyon Formation and Banquereau Formation of offshore Nova Scotia. The Late Cretaceous to Paleocene phosphorite occurs predominantely as sand- and gravel-sized pellets and as cement in conglomeratic aggregates. The Eocene and Miocene phosphate occurs mainly as fine-very fine sand-size spheroidal-avoidal pellets in unconsolidated clayey silts. The older phosphorites form intraformational conglomerates that are the result of a winnowed finer-grained matrix, leaving lag deposits of phosphorite. We present evidence that most of the Eocene and Miocene phosphate is primary and formed during marine trangressions. Our observations extend the geographic and temporal limits of the major phosphogenic system of the Western North Atlantic northward and through time. However, compared to the well-known phosphorite deposits along the southeastern margin of the U.S.A., these northern deposits are not of commercial scale due to a high terrigenous input and the lack of a mechanism capable of driving persistant upwelling. ?? 1992.

  2. Petrogenesis of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite - Quartz diorite from eastern Guangdong, SE China: Implications for tectono-magmatic evolution and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lihui; Mao, Jingwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive petrological, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopes, whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes data are presented for the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province, Southeast (SE) China, with an aim to constrain the petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution and evaluate the implication for porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. The Xinwei intrusion is composed of granodiorite and quartz diorite, whilst the Sanrao intrusion consists of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages show that both intrusions were emplaced at ca. 106-102 Ma. All rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and they are characterized by LREEs enrichment, depletion in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and strongly fractionated LREEs to HREEs. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7055 to 0.7059, and εNd(t) values range from -3.9 to -3.0. Together with the relatively high εHf(t) values (-3.2 to 3.3) and low δ18O values (4.9‰ to 6.6‰), these data suggest that the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions were derived from a mixed source: including the mantle-derived mafic magmas and lower continental crustal magmas. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the magmatic evolution of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions, as well as the high water content and oxidation state of their parental magmas, are similar to those of the ore-bearing granodiorites of the Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Fujian Province, neighbouring east to the Guangdong Province, indicating that the late Early Cretaceous granodioritic intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province may also have Cu-Au-Mo mineralization potential. The late Early Cretaceous magmatic event is firstly reported in eastern Guangdong, and represents a positive response of large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, triggered by the changing subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate from oblique subduction to

  3. Hydrocarbons related to early Cretaceous source rocks, reservoirs and seals, trapped in northeastern Neuqun basin, Argentina

    SciT

    Gulisano, C.; Minniti, S.; Rossi, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Jurassic-Cretaceous backarc Neuqun Basin, located in the west central part of Argentina, is currently the most prolific oil basin of the country. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate an Early Cretaceous to Tertiary petroleum system in the northeastern portion of the basin, where oil and gas occurrences (e.g., Puesto Hernandez, Chihuido de la Sierra Negra, El Trapial and Filo Morado oil fields, among others) provide 82 MMBO/yr comprising 67% of the basin oil production and 31% of Argentina. The source rocks are represented by two thick sections of basinal kerogen type I and II organic-rich shales,more » deposited during transgressive peaks (Agrio Formation), with TOC content up to 5.1%. Lowstand sandstones bodies, 10 to 100 m thick, are composed of eolian and fluvial facies with good reservoir conditions (Avil and Troncoso Sandstones). The seals are provided by the organic-rich shales resting sharply upon the Avil Sandstone and a widespread Aptian-Albian evaporitic event (Huitrin Formation) on top of the Troncoso reservoir. Tertiary structural traps (duplex anticlines) are developed in the outer foothills, whereas structural, combined and stratigraphic traps are present in the adjacent stable structural platform. Oil-to-source rock and oil-to-oil correlation by chromatographic and biomarker fingerprints, carbon isotopic composition and the geological evidences support the proposed oil system.« less

  4. Eobowenia gen. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia: indication for an early divergence of Bowenia?

    PubMed

    Coiro, Mario; Pott, Christian

    2017-04-07

    Even if they are considered the quintessential "living fossils", the fossil record of the extant genera of the Cycadales is quite poor, and only extends as far back as the Cenozoic. This lack of data represents a huge hindrance for the reconstruction of the recent history of this important group. Among extant genera, Bowenia (or cuticles resembling those of extant Bowenia) has been recorded in sediments from the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene of Australia, but its phylogenetic placement and the inference from molecular dating still imply a long ghost lineage for this genus. We re-examine the fossil foliage Almargemia incrassata from the Lower Cretaceous Anfiteatro de Ticó Formation in Patagonia, Argentina, in the light of a comparative cuticular analysis of extant Zamiaceae. We identify important differences with the other member of the genus, viz. A. dentata, and bring to light some interesting characters shared exclusively between A. incrassata and extant Bowenia. We interpret our results to necessitate the erection of the new genus Eobowenia to accommodate the fossil leaf earlier assigned as Almargemia incrassata. We then perfom phylogenetic analyses, including the first combined morphological and molecular analysis of the Cycadales, that indicate that the newly erected genus could be related to extant Bowenia. Eobowenia incrassata could represent an important clue for the understanding of evolution and biogeography of the extant genus Bowenia, as the presence of Eobowenia in Patagonia is yet another piece of the biogeographic puzzle that links southern South America with Australasia.

  5. Continental weathering as a driver of Late Cretaceous cooling: new insights from clay mineralogy of Campanian sediments from the southern Tethyan margin to the Boreal realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Elise; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Pellenard, Pierre; Guiraud, Michel; Jaubert, Maxime; Jarvis, Ian; Thibault, Nicolas; Cocquerez, Théophile; Bruneau, Ludovic; Razmjooei, Mohammad J.; Boussaha, Myriam; Richard, James; Sizun, Jean-Pierre; Stemmerik, Lars

    2018-03-01

    New clay mineralogical analyses have been performed on Campanian sediments from the Tethyan and Boreal realms along a palaeolatitudinal transect from 45° to 20°N (Danish Basin, North Sea, Paris Basin, Mons Basin, Aquitaine Basin, Umbria-Marche Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Significant terrigenous inputs are evidenced by increasing proportions of detrital clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite and chlorite at various levels in the mid- to upper Campanian, while smectitic minerals predominate and represented the background of the Late Cretaceous clay sedimentation. Our new results highlight a distinct latitudinal distribution of clay minerals, with the occurrence of kaolinite in southern sections and an almost total absence of this mineral in northern areas. This latitudinal trend points to an at least partial climatic control on clay mineral sedimentation, with a humid zone developed between 20° and 35°N. The association and co-evolution of illite, chlorite and kaolinite in most sections suggest a reworking of these minerals from basement rocks weathered by hydrolysis, which we link to the formation of relief around the Tethys due to compression associated with incipient Tethyan closure. Diachronism in the occurrence of detrital minerals between sections, with detrital input starting earlier during the Santonian in the south than in the north, highlights the northward progression of the deformation related to the anticlockwise rotation of Africa. Increasing continental weathering and erosion, evidenced by our clay mineralogical data through the Campanian, may have resulted in enhanced CO2 consumption by silicate weathering, thereby contributing to Late Cretaceous climatic cooling.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of a new Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Sayit, Kaan; Catanzariti, Rita; Frassi, Chiara; Cemal Göncüoǧlu, M.; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey), south of Tosya, a tectonic unit consisting of not-metamorphic volcanic rocks and overlying sedimentary succession is exposed inside a fault-bounded elongated block. It is restrained within a wide shear zone, where the Intra-Pontide suture zone, the Sakarya terrane and the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone are juxtaposed as result of strike-slip activity of the North Anatolian shear zone. The volcanic rocks are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites (with their pyroclastic equivalents) associated with a volcaniclastic formation made up of breccias and sandstones that are stratigraphically overlain by a Marly-calcareous turbidite formation. The calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy points to a late Santonian-middle Campanian age (CC17-CC21 Zones) for the sedimentary succession. The geochemistry of the volcanic rocks reveals an active continental margin setting as evidenced by the enrichment in Th and LREE over HFSE, and the Nb-enriched nature of these lavas relative to N-MORB. As highlighted by the performed arenite petrography, the occurrence of continent-derived clastics in the sedimentary succession supports the hypothesis of a continental arc-derived volcanic succession. Alternative geodynamic reconstructions are proposed, where this tectonic unit could represent a slice derived from the northern continental margin of the Intra- Pontide or Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic basins.

  7. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    . The spatial and temporal distribution of Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphic rocks in this region is associated with the bimodal magmatism within a short period of 120-130 Ma in the postcollisional stage. This provides a direct link in petrogenesis between the granulitic, migmatic and magmatic rocks in the collisional orogen to active continental rifting, whereby high heat flow was transferred from the asthenospheric mantle into the thinned orogenic lithosphere for partial melting.

  8. Flight aerodynamics in enantiornithines: Information from a new Chinese Early Cretaceous bird

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Di; Serrano, Francisco; Habib, Michael; Zhang, Yuguang; Meng, Qinjing

    2017-01-01

    We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China’s Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines. BMNHC-PH-919 represents the first record of a Jehol enantiornithine from Inner Mongolia, thus extending the known distribution of these birds into the eastern portion of this region. Furthermore, its well-preserved skeleton and wing outline provide insight into the aerodynamic performance of enantiornithines, suggesting that these birds had evolved bounding flight—a flight mode common to passeriforms and other small living birds—as early as 125 million years ago. PMID:29020077

  9. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  10. Flight aerodynamics in enantiornithines: Information from a new Chinese Early Cretaceous bird.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Chiappe, Luis M; Serrano, Francisco; Habib, Michael; Zhang, Yuguang; Meng, Qinjing

    2017-01-01

    We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China's Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines. BMNHC-PH-919 represents the first record of a Jehol enantiornithine from Inner Mongolia, thus extending the known distribution of these birds into the eastern portion of this region. Furthermore, its well-preserved skeleton and wing outline provide insight into the aerodynamic performance of enantiornithines, suggesting that these birds had evolved bounding flight-a flight mode common to passeriforms and other small living birds-as early as 125 million years ago.

  11. Astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage (Early Cretaceous) : implications for the origin of the Weissert Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Reboulet, Stéphane; Riquier, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    13C measurements in the Maiolica Formation (Central Italy). By anchoring this proposed astrochronology with available radioisotopic ages for the Berriasian-Hauterivian interval, it appears that the Paraná-Etendeka activity started ~2 myr after the onset of the Weissert Event and therefore can not have induced the carbon-isotope excursion. Instead, following Westermann et al. (2010), we propose that continental carbon organic storage accompanied by carbonate-platform drownings are responsible for the first major carbon-isotope shift of the Cretaceous. Bibliography : Westermann, S., Föllmi, K.B., Adatte, T., Matera, V., Schnyder, J., Fleitmann, D., Fiet, N., Ploch, I., Duchamp-Alphonse, S., 2010. The Valanginian δ13C excrusion may no be an expression of a global oceanic anoxic event. EPSL 290, 118-131.

  12. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  13. Palaeomagnetic time and space constraints of the Early Cretaceous Rhenodanubian Flysch zone (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, Edoardo; Kirscher, Uwe; Hauck, Jürgen; Hesse, Reinhard; Bachtadse, Valerian; Wortmann, Ulrich Georg

    2018-06-01

    The Rhenodanubian Flysch zone (RDF) is a Lower Cretaceous-lower Palaeocene turbidite succession extending for ˜500 km from the Danube at Vienna to the Rhine Valley (Eastern Alps). It consists of calcareous and siliciclastic turbidite systems deposited in a trench abyssal plain. The age of deposition has been estimated through micropalaeontologic dating. However, palaeomagnetic studies constraining the age and the palaeolatitude of deposition of the RDF are still missing. Here, we present palaeomagnetic data from the Early Cretaceous Tristel and Rehbreingraben Formations of the RDF from two localities in the Bavarian Alps (Rehbrein Creek and Lainbach Valley, southern Germany), and from the stratigraphic equivalent of the Falknis Nappe (Liechtenstein). The quality of the palaeomagnetic signal has been assessed by either fold test (FT) or reversal test (RT). Sediments from the Falknis Nappe are characterized by a pervasive syntectonic magnetic overprint as tested by negative FT, and are thus excluded from the study. The sediments of the Rehbreingraben Formation at Rehbrein Creek, with positive RT, straddle magnetic polarity Chron M0r and the younger M΄-1r΄ reverse event, with an age of ˜127-123 Ma (late Barremian-early Aptian). At Lainbach Valley, no polarity reversals have been observed, but a positive FT gives confidence on the reliability of the data. The primary palaeomagnetic directions, after correction for inclination shallowing, allow to precisely constrain the depositional palaeolatitude of the Tristel and Rehbreingraben Formations around ˜28°N. In a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the Alpine Tethys at the Barremian/Aptian boundary, the RDF is located on the western margin of the Briançonnais terrain, which was separated from the European continent by the narrow Valais Ocean.

  14. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Raine, J. Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76–66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60–50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  15. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  16. Reinterpreting the Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Records: Implications for the Evolution of Seawater Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, J. V.; Gomes, M. L.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.; Hurtgen, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The geologic record of the Cretaceous is punctuated by several periods of high organic carbon burial interpreted to represent global Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs). In addition to the short-term (<1-Myr) changes in carbon (C) cycling associated with OAEs, evidence from a number of geochemical proxies has been interpreted to represent large-scale changes in ocean chemistry during the period. Specifically, the sulfur (S) isotope composition of early Cretaceous seawater sulfate as recorded in marine barite exhibits an ~5 permil shift in d34Ssulfate that persists for ~15Myr before returning to pre-excursion values. Superimposed upon this long-term shift in S-isotopes is OAE1a, the second major anoxic event recognized in the Cretaceous. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this S isotope perturbation: (1) massive evaporite deposition associated with rifting during the opening of the South Atlantic and a corresponding decrease in pyrite burial rates and (2) increased inputs of volcanic-derived S due to extensive LIP-volcanism. While there is geologic evidence for both evaporite deposition and enhanced hydrothermal activity, the relative influence of these potential driving factors remains largely unconstrained. Variation in the strontium (Sr) isotope composition of marine carbonates provides a tool for distinguishing between these influences. We examine the S isotope composition of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) spanning the Barremian through Aptian from Resolution Guyot (ODP Site 866) and compare the S isotope record to time equivalent records of carbon and strontium isotopes. Correlative changes in the C, S, and Sr cycles are observed: an ~5 permil shift in d34Ssulfate, which begins at the onset of OAE1a and continues after the positive d13Ccarb excursion, is accompanied by a contemporaneous, parallel shift in 87Sr/86Sr to unradiogenic values. The tight coupling observed between S and Sr throughout the interval is highly suggestive of a common driving mechanism

  17. Two early eudicot fossil flowers from the Kamikitaba assemblage (Coniacian, Late Cretaceous) in northeastern Japan

    SciT

    Takahashi, Masamichi; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Xiao, Xianghui

    Two new fossil taxa referable to the basal eudicot grade are described from the Kamikitaba locality (ca. 89 MYBP, early Coniacian: Late Cretaceous) in the Ashizawa Formation (Asamigawa Member) of Futaba Group in northeastern Japan. These charcoalified mesofossils exhibit well-preserved three-dimensional structure and were analyzed using synchrotron-radiation X-ray microtomography (SRXTM) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to document the composition and internal structure. Cathiaria japonica sp. nov. is represented by infructescence segments that consist of an axis bearing three to four fruits. The capsular fruits are sessile and dehiscent and consist of a gynoecium subtended by a bract. No perianthmore » parts are present. The gynoecium is monocarpellate containing two pendulous seeds. The carpel is ascidiate in the lower half and conduplicate in the upper part, style is deflected abaxially with a dorsiventral suture and a large, obliquely decurrent stigma. Pollen grains are tricolpate with a reticulate exine. The morphological features of Cathiaria are consistent with an assignment to the Buxaceae s. l. (including Didymelaceae). Archaeostella verticillata gen. et sp. nov. is represented by flowers that are small, actinomorphic, pedicellate, bisexual, semi-inferior, and multicarpellate. The floral receptacle is cup shaped with a perigynous perianth consisting of several tepals inserted around the rim. The androecium comprises ca. 120 stamens with clear differentiation into anther and filament. The anthers are basifixed and tetrasporangiate. The gynoecium consists of a whorl of ten conduplicate, laterally connate but distally distinct carpels with a conspicuous dorsal bulge, including a central cavity. The styles are short, becoming recurved with a ventrally decurrent stigma. The fruit type is a follicle. Seeds are ca. 10 per carpel, marginal, pendulous from the broad, oblique summit of the locule. Seeds are small, spindle-shaped, with a chalazal extension

  18. Two early eudicot fossil flowers from the Kamikitaba assemblage (Coniacian, Late Cretaceous) in northeastern Japan

    DOE PAGES

    Takahashi, Masamichi; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2017-05-11

    Two new fossil taxa referable to the basal eudicot grade are described from the Kamikitaba locality (ca. 89 MYBP, early Coniacian: Late Cretaceous) in the Ashizawa Formation (Asamigawa Member) of Futaba Group in northeastern Japan. These charcoalified mesofossils exhibit well-preserved three-dimensional structure and were analyzed using synchrotron-radiation X-ray microtomography (SRXTM) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to document the composition and internal structure. Cathiaria japonica sp. nov. is represented by infructescence segments that consist of an axis bearing three to four fruits. The capsular fruits are sessile and dehiscent and consist of a gynoecium subtended by a bract. No perianthmore » parts are present. The gynoecium is monocarpellate containing two pendulous seeds. The carpel is ascidiate in the lower half and conduplicate in the upper part, style is deflected abaxially with a dorsiventral suture and a large, obliquely decurrent stigma. Pollen grains are tricolpate with a reticulate exine. The morphological features of Cathiaria are consistent with an assignment to the Buxaceae s. l. (including Didymelaceae). Archaeostella verticillata gen. et sp. nov. is represented by flowers that are small, actinomorphic, pedicellate, bisexual, semi-inferior, and multicarpellate. The floral receptacle is cup shaped with a perigynous perianth consisting of several tepals inserted around the rim. The androecium comprises ca. 120 stamens with clear differentiation into anther and filament. The anthers are basifixed and tetrasporangiate. The gynoecium consists of a whorl of ten conduplicate, laterally connate but distally distinct carpels with a conspicuous dorsal bulge, including a central cavity. The styles are short, becoming recurved with a ventrally decurrent stigma. The fruit type is a follicle. Seeds are ca. 10 per carpel, marginal, pendulous from the broad, oblique summit of the locule. Seeds are small, spindle-shaped, with a chalazal extension

  19. Cycles and trends in the δ18O and δ13C records over the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Dera, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    The million-year fluctuations of the Mesozoic climate are explored through spectral analyses performed on an exhaustive compilation of δ18O and δ13C data measured on belemnite rostra. The data include more than 3500 data points, all coming from Western Tethys and Euro-boreal domains, and covering a time interval spanning 76 Myr from the Sinemurian (~197 Ma; Early Jurassic) to the Aptian (~123 Ma; Early Cretaceous) with an average sample step of ~0.04 Myr. Spectral analyses are performed using the multi-taper method and the evolutive Fast Fourier Transform in order to get an accurate estimate of significant periods and their evolution during geological times. The age uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale 2012 are taken into account to assess the impact of these uncertainties on the identification of the significant periods. After implementing an error model that simulates the uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale, two periods remains significant: the δ13C displays a high-amplitude period at 9.1 Myr, while the δ18O displays a high-amplitude period at 16.4 Myr. The 16.4-Myr period is only expressed in the Early and Middle Jurassic, with maximum amplitudes reached during the 'Toarcian Plateau' (Dera et al., 2011). It is probably a consequence of the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province and is an event in the δ18O rather than a true cycle. The 9.1-Myr period displays a spectacular continuity from the Toarcian to the Aptian, and could be related to this intriguing 9.1-Myr cycle observed in the δ13C from the Cenozoic, related to a Myr-amplitude modulation of the eccentricity cycles (Boulila et al., 2012). The δ13C in the Western Tethys thus appears to have a very rhythmic behaviour, interpreted here as a long-term orbital modulation of moisture and heat transfer from equatorial to higher latitudes, modulating in return continental weathering, nutrient and detrital exports to basins, neritic vs. pelagic productivity and finally preservation

  20. PTt path in metamorphic rocks of the Khoy region (northwest Iran) and their tectonic significance for Cretaceous Tertiary continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, H.; Moinevaziri, H.; Mohajjel, M.; Yagobpoor, A.

    2006-06-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the Khoy region are exposed between obducted ophiolites to the southwest and sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Paleozoic age to the northeast. The Qom formation (Oligocene-Miocene) with a basal conglomerate transgressively overlies all of these rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of both metasediments and metabasites. The metasediments are micaschist, garnet-staurolite schist and garnet-staurolite sillimanite schist with some meta-arkose, marble and quartzite. The metabasites are metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies from a basaltic and gabbroic protolith of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks. Geothermobarometry based on the equivalence of minerals stability and their paragenesis in these rocks and microprobe analyses by several different methods indicate that metamorphism occurred in a temperature range between 450 and 680 °C at 5.5 and 7.5 kb pressure. Rims of minerals reveal a considerable decrease of pressure (<2 kb) and insignificant decrease of temperature. The PTt path of this metamorphism is normal. The MFG line passes above the triple junction of Al 2SiO 5 polymorphs, and the average geothermal gradient during metamorphism was from 27 to 37 °C/km, which is more concordant with the temperature regime of collision zones. We infer that crustal thickening during post-Cretaceous (possibly Eocene) collision of the Arabian plate and the Azerbaijan-Albourz block was the main factor that caused the metamorphism in the studied area.

  1. The early evolution of feathers: fossil evidence from Cretaceous amber of France

    PubMed Central

    Perrichot, Vincent; Marion, Loïc; Néraudeau, Didier; Vullo, Romain; Tafforeau, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The developmental stages of feathers are of major importance in the evolution of body covering and the origin of avian flight. Until now, there were significant gaps in knowledge of early morphologies in theoretical stages of feathers as well as in palaeontological material. Here we report fossil evidence of an intermediate and critical stage in the incremental evolution of feathers which has been predicted by developmental theories but hitherto undocumented by evidence from both the recent and the fossil records. Seven feathers have been found in an Early Cretaceous (Late Albian, ca 100 Myr) amber of western France, which display a flattened shaft composed by the still distinct and incompletely fused bases of the barbs forming two irregular vanes. Considering their remarkably primitive features, and since recent discoveries have yielded feathers of modern type in some derived theropod dinosaurs, the Albian feathers from France might have been derived either from an early bird or from a non-avian dinosaur. PMID:18285280

  2. New type of kinematic indicator in bed-parallel veins, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina: E-W shortening during Late Cretaceous vein opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Lopez, Ramiro G.; Gale, Julia F. W.; Laubach, Stephen E.; Manceda, Rene

    2017-11-01

    In the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, previously unrecognized yet abundant structures constituting a new category of kinematic indicator occur within bed-parallel fibrous calcite veins (BPVs) in shale. Domal shapes result from localized shortening and thickening of BPVs and the intercalation of centimeter-thick, host-rock shale inclusions within fibrous calcite beef, forming thrust fault-bounded pop-up structures. Ellipsoidal and rounded structures show consistent orientations, lineaments of interlayered shale and fibrous calcite, and local centimeter-scale offset thrust faults that at least in some cases cut across the median line of the BPV and indicate E-W shortening. Continuity of crystal fibers shows the domal structures are contemporaneous with BPV formation and help establish timing of fibrous vein growth in the Late Cretaceous, when shortening directions were oriented E-W. Differences in the number of opening stages and the deformational style of the different BPVs indicate they may have opened at different times. The new domal kinematic indicators described in this study are small enough to be captured in core. When present in the subsurface, domal structures can be used to either infer paleostress orientation during the formation of BPVs or to orient core in cases where the paleostress is independently known.

  3. An enigmatic crocodyliform tooth from the bauxites of western Hungary suggests hidden mesoeucrocodylian diversity in the Early Cretaceous European archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Márton; Makádi, László

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Cretaceous of southern Europe was characterized by an archipelago setting with faunas of mixed composition of endemic, Laurasian and Gondwanan elements. However, little is known about the relative timing of these faunal influences. The Lower Cretaceous of East-Central Europe holds a great promise for understanding the biogeographic history of Cretaceous European biotas because of the former proximity of the area to Gondwana (as part of the Apulian microcontinent). However, East-Central European vertebrates are typically poorly known from this time period. Here, we report on a ziphodont crocodyliform tooth discovered in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Alsópere Bauxite Formation of Olaszfalu, western Hungary. Methods. The morphology of the tooth is described and compared with that of other similar Cretaceous crocodyliforms. Results. Based on the triangular, slightly distally curved, constricted and labiolingually flattened crown, the small, subequal-sized true serrations on the carinae mesially and distally, the longitudinal fluting labially, and the extended shelves along the carinae lingually the tooth is most similar to some peirosaurid, non-baurusuchian sebecosuchian, and uruguaysuchid notosuchians. In addition, the paralligatorid Wannchampsus also possesses similar anterior teeth, thus the Hungarian tooth is referred here to Mesoeucrocodylia indet. Discussion. Supposing a notosuchian affinity, this tooth is the earliest occurrence of the group in Europe and one of the earliest in Laurasia. In case of a paralligatorid relationship the Hungarian tooth would represent their first European record, further expanding their cosmopolitan distribution. In any case, the ziphodont tooth from the Albian bauxite deposit of western Hungary belongs to a group still unknown from the Early Cretaceous European archipelago and therefore implies a hidden diversity of crocodyliforms in the area. PMID:26339542

  4. The Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo batholith of southern coastal Peru: geology, geochronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely

  5. Facies architecture and paleohydrology of a synrift succession in the Early Cretaceous Choyr Basin, southeastern Mongolia

    Ito, M.; Matsukawa, M.; Saito, T.; Nichols, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Choyr Basin is one of several Early Cretaceous rift basins in southwestern Mongolia that developed in specific regions between north-south trending fold-and-thrust belts. The eastern margin of the basin is defined by high-angle normal and/or strike-slip faults that trend north-to-south and northeast-to-southwest and by the overall geometry of the basin, which is interpreted to be a half graben. The sedimentary succession of the Choyr Basin documents one of the various types of tectono-sedimentary processes that were active in the rift basins of East Asia during Early Cretaceous time. The sedimentary infill of the Choyr Basin is newly defined as the Khalzan Uul and Khuren Dukh formations based on detailed mapping of lateral and vertical variations in component lithofacies assemblages. These two formations are heterotopic deposits and constitute a third-order fluvio-lacustrine sequence that can be divided into transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lower part of the transgressive systems tract (TST) is characterized by sandy alluvial-fan and braided-river systems on the hanging wall along the western basin margin, and by a gravelly alluvial-fan system on the footwall along the eastern basin margin. The alluvial-fan and braided-river deposits along the western basin margin are fossiliferous and are interpreted to have developed in association with a perennial fluvial system. In contrast, alluvial-fan deposits along the eastern basin margin do not contain any distinct faunas or floras and are interpreted to have been influenced by a high-discharge ephemeral fluvial system associated with fluctuations in wetting and drying paleohydrologic processes. The lower part of the TST deposit fines upward to siltstone-dominated flood-plain and ephemeral-lake deposits that constitute the upper part of the TST and the lower part of the highstand systems tract (HST). These mudstone deposits eventually reduced the topographic irregularities typical of the early stage of

  6. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly < 0). Thus, the elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that the felsic magmas were generated by partial melting of source rocks comprising mantle-derived juvenile component and recycled crustal component. In addition to the occurrence in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Cretaceous to Early Paleogene magmatic rocks are also widespread in NE China, southern Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The

  7. Geochronology and geochemistry constraints of the Early Cretaceous Taibudai porphyry Cu deposit, northeast China, and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Wu, Xin-Li; Ouyang, Hen-Gen

    2015-05-01

    , suggests that the Early Cretaceous (∼140 Ma) was the peak metallogenic epoch for the Great Xing'an Range, and the mineralization in this period generally takes the form of porphyry, skarn, or hydrothermal polymetallic ore deposits in an active extensional continental margin environment. The Taibudai porphyry and associated mineralization provides a typical example of magmatism and metallogeny associated with a Paleo-Pacific plate subduction, continental margin, back-arc extensional setting.

  8. Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the

  9. Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico

    Lehmann, Christoph; Osleger, David A.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Sliter, William V.; Arnaud Vanneau, Annie; Banner, Jay L.

    1999-01-01

    middle Albian time. Restriction of the platform interior dissipated by middle to late Albian time with the deposition of peloidal, miliolid-rich packstones and grainstones of the Aurora Formation. The Coahuila platform was drowned during latest Albian to early Cenomanian time, and the deep-water laminites of the Cuesta del Cura Formation were deposited.This study fills in a substantial gap in the Cretaceous paleogeography of the eastern Gulf of Mexico coast, improving regional correlations with adjacent hydrocarbon-rich platforms. The enhanced temporal relations and chronology of events recorded in the Cupido and Coahuila platforms significantly improve global correlations with coeval, economically important platforms worldwide, perhaps contributing to the determination of global versus regional controls on carbonate platform evolution during middle Cretaceous time.

  10. Geomagnetic Reversals of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Captured in a North China Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, T.; Fu, R. R.; Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Tuchengzi formation in North China nominally spans nearly 20 million years of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, an interval during which age calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) based on seafloor magnetic anomalies is poorly known. The overlying Yixian formation is of special paleontological interest due to an abundance of spectacularly preserved macrofossils of feathered non-avian dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and insects. Scarce fossils in the Tuchengzi, sparse accurate radiometric dates on both the Tuchengzi and overlying Yixian formation, and scant previous paleomagnetic studies on these formations motivated our application of magnetostratigraphy as a geochronological tool. We constructed a geomagnetic reversal sequence from the upper 142m of a 200m core extracted in Liaoning Province at Huangbanjigou spanning the lower Yixian Formation and the unconformably underlying Tuchengzi Formation. Thermal demagnetization up to 680°C in steps of 25-50°C revealed predominantly normal overprints consistent with the modern day field with unblocking temperatures between 125°C and as high as 550°C, as well as normal and reverse characteristic components with unblocking temperatures between 500°C and 680°C. Going up from the base of the core, there is a reverse polarity magnetozone >6m thick, followed by a 5m normal magnetozone, a 10m reverse magnetozone, a 25m normal magnetozone, and a 6m reverse magnetozone truncated by the Yixian-Tuchengzi unconformity. Above the unconformity, all 81m of core were normal. These results indicate that a meaningful polarity stratigraphy can be recovered from the Tuchengzi and Yixian formations that will be invaluable for correlations across the Tuchengzi and potentially the Yixian formations, which span thousands of square kilometers and vary in thickness by many hundreds of meters. The results also demonstrate that, in combination with accurate and precise radiometric dates, the Tuchengzi Formation has the

  11. Marine vs. local control on seawater Nd-isotope ratios at the northwest coast of Africa during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Ulianov, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2013-12-01

    At the northwest corner of Africa excellent conditions existed for phosphate formation (i.e., stable upwelling system) during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene. This is probably in relation to stable tectonic evolution of shallow epicontinental basins at a passive continental margin and to their paleogeographic situation between the Atlantic and Tethys marine realms. To better comprehend paleoceanic conditions in this area, radiogenic isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd) and trace element compositions of fossil biogenic apatite are investigated from Maastrichtian to Ypresian shallow marine phosphorite deposits in Morocco (Ouled Abdoun and Ganntour Basins). Rare earth elements (REE) distributions in the fossils are compatible with early diagenetic marine pore fluid represented by negative Ce-anomaly and heavy REE enrichment. An overall shift in Ce-anomaly is apparent with gradually lower values in younger fossils along three distinct assemblages that correspond to Maastrichtian, Danian-Thanetian and Ypresian periods. The temporal change can be interpreted as presence of gradually more oxygenated seawater in the basins. Strontium isotopic ratios of the fossils follow the global Sr-evolution curve. However, the latest Cretaceous and the oldest Paleocene fossils yielded slightly higher ratios than the global ocean, which could reflect minor diagenetic alteration. Neodymium isotopic ratios are quite even along the phosphate series with ɛNd(t) values ranges from -6.8 to -5.8. These values are higher than those reported for average North Atlantic deep water and Tethyan seawater (e.g., Stille et al., 1996; Thomas et al., 2003). For the origin of the stable, high 143Nd/144Nd we propose three main hypotheses: (1) contribution of continental Nd-source, (2) locally controlled deep water Nd-isotope ratios near the coast from where upwelling originated in the area and (3) possible surface marine water contribution from the Pacific across the Atlantic. Stille, P., Steinmann

  12. Post-early cretaceous landform evolution along the western margin of the banca~nnia trough, western nsw

    Gibson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously undated post-Devonian sediments outcropping north of Fowlers Gap station near the western margin of the Bancannia Trough are shown by plant macro- and microfossil determinations to be of Early Cretaceous (most likely Neocomian and/or Aptian) age, and thus part of the Eromanga Basin. They are assigned to the previously defined Telephone Creek Formation. Study of the structural configuration of this unit and the unconformably underlying Devonian rocks suggests that the gross landscape architecture of the area results from post-Early Cretaceous monoclinal folding along blind faults at the western margin of the trough, combined with the effects of differential erosion. This study shows that, while landscape evolution in the area has been dynamic, the major changes that have occurred are on a geological rather than human timescale.

  13. Endocranial Morphology of the Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America

    PubMed Central

    Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Jacobs, Louis L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ankylosaurs are one of the least explored clades of dinosaurs regarding endocranial anatomy, with few available descriptions of braincase anatomy and even less information on brain and inner ear morphologies. The main goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the braincase and internal structures of the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli, based on recently made CT scans. Methodology/Principal Findings The skull of Pawpawsaurus was CT scanned at University of Texas at Austin (UTCT). Three-dimensional models were constructed using Mimics 18.0 (Materialise). The digital data and further processed 3D models revealed inaccessible anatomic structures, allowing a detailed description of the lateral wall of the braincase (obscured by other bones in the articulated skull), and endocranial structures such as the cranial endocast, the most complete inner ear morphology for a nodosaurid, and the interpretation of the airflow system within the nasal cavities. Conslusions/Significance The new information on the endocranial morphology of Pawpawsaurus adds anatomical data to the poorly understand ankylosaur paleoneurology. The new set of data has potential use not only in taxonomy and phylogeny, but also in paleobiological interpretations based on the relative development of sense organs, such as olfaction, hearing and balance. PMID:27007950

  14. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D

    2013-11-14

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  15. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater

    Sanford, Ward E.; Doughten, Michael W.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    High salinity groundwater more than 1000 metres deep in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States has been documented in several locations1,2, most recently within the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater3,4,5. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution6, osmosis6, and evaporation from heating7 associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) seawater. We find that the seawater is likely 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern seawater and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin8. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and paleontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient seawater in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA seawater persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  16. Glendonites as a paleoenvironmental tool: Implications for early Cretaceous high latitudinal climates in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lurio, Jennifer L.; Frakes, L. A.

    1999-04-01

    Glendonites, calcite pseudomorphs after the metastable mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O), occur in the Late Aptian interval of the Bulldog Shale in the Eromanga Basin, Australia and in other Early Cretaceous basins at high paleolatitudes. Ikaite precipitation in the marine environment requires near-freezing temperatures (not higher than 4°C), high alkalinity, increased levels of orthophosphate, and high P CO2. The rapid and complete transformation of ikaite to calcite at temperatures between 5 and 8°C provides an upper limit on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pore waters: -2.6 <δ w <-3.4‰SMOW. If it is assumed that these pore waters are representative of the shallow Eromanga Basin, the calculated δ w can be used to reassess belemnite fossil oxygen isotopic paleotemperatures - temperature recorded by fauna living in the basin at the time of ikaite precipitation. Data previously reported as 11 to 16°C (assuming δ w = 0.0‰SMOW) yield paleotemperatures ranging from -1 to 5°C, squarely in the range of ikaite stability. The low δ w indicates hyposaline conditions, most likely caused by mixing high latitude meteoric waters with seawater. The 18O depleted, low temperature waters suggest that the region was at least seasonally colder than previously accepted.

  17. Isotopic composition of low-latitude paleoprecipitation during the Early Cretaceous

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Vega, F.J.; Alvarado-Ortega, J.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the hydrologic cycle in global greenhouse conditions is important to our understanding of future climate change and to the calibration of global climate models. Past greenhouse conditions, such as those of the Cretaceous, can be used to provide empirical data with which to evaluate climate models. Recent empirical studies have utilized pedogenic carbonates to estimate the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and calculate precipitation rates for the AptianAlbian. These studies were limited to data from mid(35??N) to high (75??N) paleolatitudes, and thus future improvements in accuracy will require more estimates of meteoric water compositions from numerous localities around the globe. This study provides data for tropical latitudes (18.5??N paleolatitude) from the Tlayua Formation, Puebla, Mexico. In addition, the study confirms a shallow nearshore depositional environment for the Tlayua Formation. Petrographic observations of fenestral fabrics, gypsum crystal molds, stromatolitic structures, and pedogenic matrix birefringence fabric support the interpretation that the strata represent deposition in a tidal flat environment. Carbonate isotopic data from limestones of the Tlayua Formation provide evidence of early meteoric diagenesis in the form of meteoric calcite lines. These trends in ??18O versus ??13C were used to calculate the mean ??18O value of meteoric water, which is estimated at -5.46 ?? 0.56??? (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water [VSMOW]). Positive linear covariant trends in oxygen and carbon isotopic values from some horizons were used to estimate evaporative losses of vadose groundwater from tropical exposure surfaces during the Albian, and the resulting values range from 8% to 12%. However, the presence of evaporative mineral molds indicates more extensive evaporation. The added tropical data improve latitudinal coverage of paleoprecipitation ??18O estimates. The data presented here imply that earlier isotope mass balance models most

  18. Pinaceae-like reproductive morphology in Schizolepidopsis canicularis sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Glasspool, Ian; Herendeen, Patrick S; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Knopf, Patrick; Takahashi, Masamichi; Crane, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    Seed cone scales assigned to the genus Schizolepidopsis are widespread in Late Triassic to Cretaceous Eurasian deposits. They have been linked to the conifer family Pinaceae based on associated vegetative remains, but their exact affinities are uncertain. Recently discovered material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia reveals important new information concerning Schizolepidopsis cone scales and seeds, and provides support for a relationship between the genus and extant Pinaceae. Specimens were collected from Early Cretaceous (probable Aptian-Albian) lignite deposits in central Mongolia. Lignite samples were disaggregated, cleaned in hydrofluoric acid, and washed in water. Specimens were selected for further study using light and electron microscopy. Schizolepidopsis canicularis seed cones consist of loosely arranged, bilobed ovulate scales subtended by a small bract. A single inverted seed with an elongate micropyle is borne on each lobe of the ovulate scale. Each seed has a wing formed by the separation of the adaxial surface of the ovulate scale. Schizolepidopsis canicularis produced winged seeds that formed in a manner that is unique to Pinaceae among extant conifers. We do not definitively place this species in Pinaceae pending more complete information concerning its pollen cones and vegetative remains. Nevertheless, this material suggests that Schizolepidopsis may be important for understanding the early evolution of Pinaceae, and may potentially help reconcile the appearance of the family in the fossil record with results based on phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.

  19. Early Cretaceous Ductile Deformation of Marbles from the Western Hills of Beijing, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the Early Cretaceous tectonic lithosphere extension, the pre-mesozoic rocks from the Western Hills in the central part of the North China Craton suffered from weak metamorphism but intense shear deformation. The prominent features of the deformation structures are the coexisting layer-parallel shear zones and intrafolia folds, and the along-strike thickness variations of the marble layers from the highly sheared Mesoproterozoic Jing'eryu Formation. Platy marbles are well-developed in the thinner layers, while intrafolia folds are often observed in the thicker layers. Most folds are tight recumbent folds and their axial planes are parallel to the foliations and layerings of the marbles. The folds are A-type folds with hinges being always paralleling to the stretching lineations consistently oriented at 130°-310° directions throughout the entire area. SPO and microstructural analyses of the sheared marbles suggest that the thicker layers suffered from deformations homogeneously, while strain localization can be distinguished in the thinner layers. Calcite twin morphology and CPO analysis indicate that the deformation of marbles from both thinner and thicker layers happened at temperatures of 300 to 500°C. The above analysis suggests that marbles in the thicker layers experienced a progressive sequence of thermodynamic events: 1) regional metamorphism, 2) early ductile deformation dominated by relatively higher temperature conditions, during which all the mineral particles elongated and oriented limitedly and the calcite grains are deformed mainly by mechanical twinning, and 3) late superimposition of relatively lower temperature deformation and recrystallization, which superposed the early deformation, and made the calcites finely granulated, elongated and oriented by dynamical recrystallization along with other grains. Marbles from the thinner layers, however, experienced a similar, but different sequence of thermo-dynamic events, i.e. regional

  20. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutonism and deformation in the Skagit Gneiss Complex, north Cascade Range, Washington and British Columbia

    Haugerud, R.A.; Van Der Heyden, P.; Tabor, R.W.; Stacey, J.S.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Skagit Gneiss Complex forms a more-or-less continuous terrane within the North Cascade Range. The complex comprises abundant plutons intruded at mid-crustal depths into a variety of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks of both oceanic and volcanic-arc origin. U-Pb zircon ages from gneissis plutons within and near the Skagit Gneiss Complex indicate magmatic crystallziations between 75 and 60 Ma. Deformation, recrystallization, and migmatization in part postdate intrusion of the 75-60 Ma plutons. This latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary plutonism and migmatization may reflect thermal relaxation following early Late Cretaceous orogeny. The complex was ductilely extended northwest-southeast shortly after intrusion of granite dikes at ~45 Ma, but before emplacement of the earliest (~34 Ma) plutons of the Cascade arc. -from Authors

  1. Paleomagnetic results from the Early Cretaceous Lakang Formation lavas: Constraints on the paleolatitude of the Tethyan Himalaya and the India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianshui; Ma, Yiming; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Zhenyu; Ding, Jikai

    2015-10-01

    To better constrain the Early Cretaceous paleogeographic position of the Tethyan Himalaya and the India-Asia collision process, a paleomagnetic study was performed on the Lakang Formation lava flows in the Cuona area in the southeastern Tethyan Himalaya. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations successfully isolated reliable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions that include antipodal dual polarities and pass positive fold tests at the 99% confidence level and reversal tests at 95% confidence level, indicating prefolding primary magnetizations. The distribution patterns of ChRM directions from the Lakang Formation lava flows are consistent with young lava flows at similar latitudes, suggesting that secular variation has likely been averaged out. The tilt-corrected site-mean direction for 31 sites is D = 261.6 °, I = - 68.5 ° with α95 = 3.6 °, which provides a paleopole at 26.8°S, 315.2°E (A95 = 5.7 °), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 52.2 ° ± 5.7 °S for the study area. Comparison of the paleolatitude observed from the Lakang Formation lava flows with that expected from the apparent polar wander paths of India at 130 Ma show a paleolatitude difference of ∼2.1° (∼230 km), indicating that neither a great north-south continental crustal shortening occurred between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya after 130 Ma, nor that a wide ocean separated them at that time. Comparison with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic results observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane indicates that the latitudinal width of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean could have been up to ∼7000 km at 134-130 Ma and an extension should have existed between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. Furthermore, reliable paleomagnetic results suggest that the India-Asia collision was a dual-collision process, consisting of a first collision of the Tethyan Himalaya with the Lhasa terrane

  2. Berriasian (Early Cretaceous) radiometric ages from the Grindstone Creek Section, Sacramento Valley, California

    Bralower, T.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Obradovich, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Grindstone Creek Section, Glenn County, Northern California is a sequence of hemipelagic mudstone, siltstone and sandstone interbedded with concretionary limestone and a few thin tuffs and bentonites. Two tuffs have been collected from a narrow interval of this sequence and subjected to mineralogical and isotopic analyses. UPb isotopic analyses of zircon fractions from these volcanic horizons indicate an age of 137.1 + 1.6/-0.6 Ma. A detailed investigation has been conducted on the calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy of this section based on numerous samples with moderately preserved assemblages. The nannoflora is largely of Tethyan affinity, and allows direct correlation with the Berriasian stratotype section, with sections with published magnetostratigraphies and with a DSDP site drilled between known magnetic anomalies. The dated tuffs lie in the lower part of the upper Berriasian Cretarhabdus angustiforatus Zone (Assipetra infracretacea Subzone) and within the narrow range of Rhagodiscus nebulosus. At three different sections, this subzone can be correlated with M-sequence Polarity Zones M16 and M16n. An independent magnetostratigraphic correlation is provided at DSDP Site 387, drilled between anomalies M15 and M16, where basal sediments contain R. nebulosus. Buchia collected within a meter of the lower tuff lie within the B. uncitoides Zone which is Berriasian in age. The upper tuff level, which occurs 65 m above the lower tuff, is situated within the overlying B. pacifica Zone. This zone had previously been correlated with the early Valanginian, but is clearly also partly of Berriasian age based on nannofossil stratigraphy. Our results allow an estimate of the age of the Berriasian-Valanginian and Jurassic-Cretaceous boundaries of 135.1 Ma and 141.1 Ma, respectively, and these fall within the range of, but differ significantiy from, several published time-scales. ?? 1990.

  3. Structural implications of an offset Early Cretaceous shoreline in northern California

    Jones, D.L.; Irwin, W.P.

    1971-01-01

    Recognition of a nonmarine to marine transition in sedimentary rocks at Glade Creek and Big Bar in the southern Klamath Mountains permits reconstruction of the approximate position of a north-trending Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) shoreline. At the southern end of the Klamath Mountains, the shoreline is displaced 60 mi or more to the east by a west-northwest-trending fault zone. South of this fault zone the shoreline is buried at a much lower level beneath late Cenozoic rocks in the Great Valley. This large displacement probably is the result of differential movement along a system of left-lateral tear faults in the upper plate of the Coast Range thrust. The westward bulge of the Klamath arc also may have resulted from this faulting, as the amount and direction of the bulge is comparable with the displacement of the Valanginian shoreline.Basal clastic strata at both Glade Creek and Big Bar contain abundant fresh-water or brackish-water clams, many of which consist of unabraded paired valves. These are conformably overlain by Valanginian marine strata containing Buchia crassicollis solida.The position of the Valanginian shoreline beneath the Great Valley cannot be directly observed because it is buried by thick late Cenozoic deposits. However, its approximate westernmost limit must lie between the outcrop belt of marine strata on the west side of the valley and drill holes to basement on the east side, in which equivalent strata are absent.Franciscan rocks containing Valanginian fossils occur 10 mi southwest of Glade Creek, but these are deep-water marine eugeosynclinal rocks that were deposited far to the west of the shoreline. The deformation responsible for the displacement of the Valanginian shoreline and juxtaposition of the Franciscan rocks and Klamath Mountain basement rocks involved eastward under-thrusting of the Franciscan beneath the Coast Range thrust contemporaneous with differential movement along tear faults within the upper plate.

  4. Mating and aggregative behaviors among basal hexapods in the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca. 105 mya) give a detailed view of otherwise fleeting ethologies in Collembola. These occurrences are phylogenetically spaced across the class, and from species representing the two major clades of springtails-Symphypleona and Entomobryomorpha. Specifically, we report unique evidence from a symphypleonan male (Pseudosminthurides stoechus Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) with modified antennae that may have functioned as a clasping organ for securing females during mating on water's surface, and from an aggregation of entomobryomorphan individuals (Proisotoma communis Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) purportedly representing a swarming episode on the forest floor. We demonstrate that the mating behavioral repertoire in P. stoechus, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, likely implied elaborate courtship and maneuvering for guarantee sperm transfer in an epineustic species. These discoveries reveal significant behaviors consistent with modern counterparts and a generalized stasis for some ancient hexapod ethologies associated with complex mating and courtship and social or pre-social aggregations, so critical to specific constancy and dispersal.

  5. Mating and aggregative behaviors among basal hexapods in the Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca. 105 mya) give a detailed view of otherwise fleeting ethologies in Collembola. These occurrences are phylogenetically spaced across the class, and from species representing the two major clades of springtails—Symphypleona and Entomobryomorpha. Specifically, we report unique evidence from a symphypleonan male (Pseudosminthurides stoechus Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) with modified antennae that may have functioned as a clasping organ for securing females during mating on water’s surface, and from an aggregation of entomobryomorphan individuals (Proisotoma communis Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) purportedly representing a swarming episode on the forest floor. We demonstrate that the mating behavioral repertoire in P. stoechus, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, likely implied elaborate courtship and maneuvering for guarantee sperm transfer in an epineustic species. These discoveries reveal significant behaviors consistent with modern counterparts and a generalized stasis for some ancient hexapod ethologies associated with complex mating and courtship and social or pre-social aggregations, so critical to specific constancy and dispersal. PMID:29466382

  6. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports progress of our recent studies on the extensional structures in eastern North China craton and contiguous areas. We focus on characterizing and timing the formation/exhumation of the extensional structures, the Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) and the Dayingzi basin from the Liaodong peninsula, the Queshan mcc, the Wulian mcc and the Zhucheng basin from the Jiaodong peninsula, and the Dashan magmatic dome within the Sulu orogenic belt. Magmatic rocks (either volcanic or plutonic) are ubiquitous in association with the tectonic extension (both syn- and post-kinematic). Evidence for crustal-mantle magma mixing are popular in many syn-kinematic intrusions. Geochemical analysis reveals that basaltic, andesitic to rhyolitic magmas were generated during the tectonic extension. Sr-Nd isotopes of the syn-kinematic magmatic rocks suggest that they were dominantly originated from ancient or juvenile crust partly with mantle signatures. Post-kinematic mafic intrusions with ages from ca. 121 Ma to Cenozoic, however, are of characteristic oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Integrated studies on the extensional structures, geochemical signatures of syn-kinematic magmatic rocks (mostly of granitic) and the tectono-magmatic relationships suggest that extension of the crust and the mantle lithosphere triggered the magmatisms from both the crust and the mantle. The Early Cretaceous tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Eurasian continent is governed by the PET in which the tectonic processes is subdivided into two stages, i.e. an early stage of tectonic extension, and a late stage of collapse of the extended lithosphere and transformation of lithospheric mantle. During the early stage, tectonic extension of the lithosphere led to detachment faulting in both the crust and mantle, resulted in the loss of some of the subcontinental roots, gave rise to

  7. Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V; Strömberg, C A E; Leaché, A D; Samant, B; Patnaik, R; Tang, L; Mohabey, D M; Ge, S; Sahni, A

    2011-09-20

    Rice and its relatives are a focal point in agricultural and evolutionary science, but a paucity of fossils has obscured their deep-time history. Previously described cuticles with silica bodies (phytoliths) from the Late Cretaceous period (67-65 Ma) of India indicate that, by the latest Cretaceous, the grass family (Poaceae) consisted of members of the modern subclades PACMAD (Panicoideae-Aristidoideae-Chloridoideae-Micrairoideae-Arundinoideae-Danthonioideae) and BEP (Bambusoideae-Ehrhartoideae-Pooideae), including a taxon with proposed affinities to Ehrhartoideae. Here we describe additional fossils and show that, based on phylogenetic analyses that combine molecular genetic data and epidermal and phytolith features across Poaceae, these can be assigned to the rice tribe, Oryzeae, of grass subfamily Ehrhartoideae. The new Oryzeae fossils suggest substantial diversification within Ehrhartoideae by the Late Cretaceous, pushing back the time of origin of Poaceae as a whole. These results, therefore, necessitate a re-evaluation of current models for grass evolution and palaeobiogeography.

  8. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciT

    Pratt, B.R.; Smewing, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changedmore » in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Pennsylvanian and Early Permian paleogeography of east-central California: Implications for the shape of the continental margin and the timing of continental truncation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.

    1988-04-01

    Pennsylvanian and Early Permian paleogeographic features in east-central California include a southeast-trending carbonate shelf edge and turbidite basin that we infer paralleled a segment of the western margin of the North American continent. This segment of the continental margin was oblique to an adjoining segment on the north that trended southwestward across Nevada into easternmost California. We propose that the southeast-trending segment of the margin originated by tectonic truncation of the originally longer southwest-trending segment in Early or Middle Pennsylvanian to late Early Permian time, significantly earlier than a previously hypothesized Late Permian or Early Triassic continental truncation event. We interpret the truncating structure to have been a sinistral transform fault zone along which a continental fragment was removed and carried southeastward into the Caborca-Hermosillo region of northern Mexico, where it is now represented by exposures of Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic miogeoclinal rocks.

  10. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  11. A temporary pond in the Early Cretaceous of southern England: palaeoclimatic implications of nonmarine "Purbeck-Wealden" ostracod faunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, D. J.

    2009-04-01

    Excavation of the partial skeleton of an Iguanodon from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks near Ockley, Surrey, UK included detailed sampling for micropalaeontological and palynological and studies (Nye et al., 2008). Rich and well-preserved non-marine assemblages of pollen and spores include early angiosperms as well as freshwater green algae. Taphonomic analyses show the ostracod assemblages to be autochthonous thanatocoenoses, indicative of local environment at the time of deposition. Using a palaeobiological approach, the ostracods and palynomorphs demonstrate temporary / ephemeral freshwater conditions at the time when the Iguanodon died and the carcase was buried. Ostracod "faunicycles" in "Purbeck-Wealden" deposits may represent salinity variations in non-marine water-bodies, influenced by the balance between precipitation and evaporation, and/or the relative abundance of permanent and temporary waterbodies in the landscape; many assemblages resulted from post-mortem mixing, perhaps during flood events (Horne, 2002). Faunal alternations may therefore reflect shifts of the boundary between warm temperate and paratropical climate in the Early Cretaceous of NW Europe. The previously rejected suggestion that such assemblage variations record Milankovitch cyclicity deserves to be reconsidered, as does the possibility that they reflect changes on sub-Milankovitch timescales. Climate variability may have influenced the differential evolutionary success of sexual, mixed and parthenogenetic reproductive strategies in nonmarine ostracods. Latitudinally restricted distribution patterns and wind dispersal of resting eggs offer potential for inferring global climate patterns from ostracod palaeobiogeography, although dispersal by large animals (e.g., crocodiles, pterosaurs) is likely to have confused any aeolian transport patterns. References Horne, D. J. 2002. Ostracod biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Purbeck Limestone

  12. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Limited geochronological and geochemical data from Early Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Gangdese Belt have resulted in a dispute regarding the subduction history of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. To approach this issue, we performed detailed in-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks exposed in the Liqiongda area, southern Lhasa terrane. These volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline series, dominated by basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate rhyolites, with a bimodal suite. The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results of the basaltic andesites and rhyolites indicate that these volcanic rocks erupted during the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma). The basaltic rocks are high-alumina (average > 17 wt.%), enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), showing subduction-related characteristics. They display highly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.0 to + 16.3) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 5.38 to + 7.47). The silicic suite is characterized by low Al2O3 (< 15.4 wt.%), Mg# (< 40), and TiO2 (< 0.3 wt.%) abundances; enriched and variable concentrations of LILEs and REEs; and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.08-0.19), as well as depleted Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = + 4.9 to + 16.4) and Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = + 5.26 to + 6.71). Consequently, we envision a process of basaltic magmas similar to that of MORB extracted from a source metasomatized by slab-derived components for the petrogenesis of mafic rocks, whereas the subsequent mafic magma underplating triggered partial melting of the juvenile crust to generate acidic magma. Our results confirm the presence of Early Cretaceous volcanism in the southern Lhasa terrane. Combined with the distribution of the contemporary magmatism, deformation style, and sedimentary characteristics in the Lhasa terrane, we favor the suggestion that the Neo

  13. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Lockley, Martin G.; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25993285

  14. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  15. Magmatismes tholéiitique et alcalin des demi-grabens crétacés de Mayo Oulo Léré et de Babouri Figuil (Nord du Cameroun Sud du Tchad) en domaine d'extension continentaleTholeiitic and alkaline magmatisms of the Early-Cretaceous half-grabens of Mayo Oulo Léré and Babouri Figuil (Northern Cameroon Southern Chad) in extensional structural settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounouno, Ismaı̈la; Déruelle, Bernard; Guiraud, René; Vicat, Jean-Paul

    2001-08-01

    Two major dykes of basalts, microgabbros, olivine dolerites (continental tholeiites), and of camptonites and benmoreites (alkaline rocks) are respectively exposed in the Mayo Oulo-Léré and Babouri-Figuil Early Cretaceous half-grabens (Northern Cameroon-Southern Chad). The tholeiites were probably derived from an asthenospheric source in connection with a lithospheric thinning occurring between Santonian and Eocene times. In contrast, the alkaline rocks may be derived from a deeper metasomatized mantle source.

  16. Inversion of the Erlian Basin (NE China) in the early Late Cretaceous: Implications for the collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Xin; Shi, Yuan-Peng; Yang, Yong-Tai; Jiang, Shuan-Qi; Li, Lin-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    A significant transition in tectonic regime from extension to compression occurred throughout East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous and has stimulated much attention. However, the timing and driving mechanisms of the transition remain disputed. The Erlian Basin, a giant late Mesozoic intracontinental petroliferous basin located in the Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, contains important sedimentary and structural records related to the mid-Cretaceous compressional event. The stratigraphical, sedimentological and structural analyses reveal that a NW-SE compressional inversion occurred in the Erlian Basin between the depositions of the Lower Cretaceous Saihan and Upper Cretaceous Erlian formations, causing intense folding of the Saihan Formation and underlying strata, and the northwestward migration of the depocenters of the Erlian Formation. Based on the newly obtained detrital zircon U-Pb data and previously published paleomagnetism- and fossil-based ages, the Saihan and Erlian formations are suggested as latest Aptian-Albian and post-early Cenomanian in age, respectively, implying that the inversion in the Erlian Basin occurred in the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian time). Apatite fission-track thermochronological data record an early Late Cretaceous cooling/exhuming event in the basin, corresponding well with the aforementioned sedimentary, structural and chronological analyses. Combining with the tectono-sedimentary evolutions of the neighboring basins of the Erlian Basin, we suggest that the early Late Cretaceous inversional event in the Erlian Basin and the large scale tectonic transition in East Asia shared the common driving mechanism, probably resulting from the Okhotomorsk Block-East Asia collisional event at about 100-89 Ma.

  17. Geology of the offshore Southeast Georgia Embayment, U.S. Atlantic continental margin, based on multichannel seismic reflection profiles

    Buffler, Richard T.; Watkins, Joel S.; Dillon, William P.

    1979-01-01

    The sedimentary section is divided into three major seismic intervals. The intervals are separated by unconformities and can be mapped regionally. The oldest interval ranges in age from Early Cretaceous through middle Late Cretaceous, although it may contain Jurassic rocks where it thickens beneath the Blake Plateau. It probably consists of continental to nearshore clastic rocks where it onlaps basement and grades seaward to a restricted carbonate platform facies (dolomite-evaporite). The middle interval (Upper Cretaceous) is characterized by prograding clinoforms interpreted as open marine slope deposits. This interval represents a Late Cretaceous shift of the carbonate shelf margin from the Blake Escarpment shoreward to about its present location, probably due to a combination of co tinued subsidence, an overall Late Cretaceous rise in sea level, and strong currents across the Blake Plateau. The youngest (Cenozoic) interval represents a continued seaward progradation of the continental shelf and slope. Cenozoic sedimentation on the Blake Plateau was much abbreviated owing mainly to strong currents.

  18. Radio-astrochronology of the Agrio Formation (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) to reduce the uncertainties of the geological time scale in Early Cretaceous times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Beatriz, Aguirre-Urreta; Marina, Lescano; Julieta, Omarini; Maisa, Tunik; Thomas, Frederichs; Anna-Leah, Nickl; Heiko, Pälike

    2017-04-01

    Important discrepancies between the numerical ages stated by the Geological Time Scale 2016 and radio-astrochronological works have been reported in the last years (Aguirre-Urreta et al., 2015; Martinez et al., 2015; Ogg et al., 2016). Large uncertainties notably exist for the Valanginian-Hauterivian stages for which the recently provided timescales are still debated. Here, we present an astronomical calibration for the Agrio Formation (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) to better constraint the durations of the Valanginian and the Hauterivian stages. The formation is divided into a lower and an upper member (called Pilmatué and Agua de la Mula members, respectively) composed of marl-limestone alternations deposited in a semi-pelagic to outer ramp environment and related to an orbital forcing (Sagasti, 2005). A rapidly (<0.5 myr) deposited member of continental sandstone, separates these two members. A total of 2130 bulk-rock samples have been collected each 25 cm and their mass-corrected magnetic susceptibility has been measured to detect lithological cycles. Spectral analyses were performed using the multi-taper method and the time-frequency weighted fast Fourier transform. In the lower part of the Pilmatué Member (Lower Agrio), the record of the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle is obvious but its amplitude promptly decreases at younger intervals. However, the orbital cycles of precession, obliquity and 100-kyr eccentricity are recorded, allowing the duration of the Pilmatué Member to be assessed at 4.70 myr. Anchoring this duration to the CA-ID-TIMS age of 130.39 ± 0.16 Ma provided in the Pilmatué Member, the age of this member ranges from 133.76 to 129.07 ± 0.16 Ma. The age of the top of the Lower Agrio slightly overlaps the age of the base of the Upper Agrio (129.09 ± 0.16 Ma). Such an overlap falls in the range of the uncertainties in the CA-ID-TIMS ages. First correlations to the Tethyan area suggest that the early Hauterivian has a duration of 2.1 myr, falling in

  19. Recurrent Early Cretaceous, Indo-Madagascar (89-86 Ma) and Deccan (66 Ma) alkaline magmatism in the Sarnu-Dandali complex, Rajasthan: 40Ar/39Ar age evidence and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Pande, Kanchan; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Cucciniello, Ciro

    2017-07-01

    The Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex in Rajasthan, northwestern India, is considered to represent early, pre-flood basalt magmatism in the Deccan Traps province, based on a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 68.57 Ma. Rhyolites found in the complex are considered to be 750 Ma Malani basement. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 88.9-86.8 Ma (for syenites, nephelinite, phonolite and rhyolite) and 66.3 ± 0.4 Ma (2σ, melanephelinite) provide clear evidence that whereas the complex has Deccan-age (66 Ma) components, it is dominantly an older (by 20 million years) alkaline complex, with rhyolites included. Basalt is also known to underlie the Early Cretaceous Sarnu Sandstone. Sarnu-Dandali is thus a periodically rejuvenated alkaline igneous centre, active twice in the Late Cretaceous and also earlier. Many such centres with recurrent continental alkaline magmatism (sometimes over hundreds of millions of years) are known worldwide. The 88.9-86.8 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages for Sarnu-Dandali rocks fully overlap with those for the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt province formed during continental breakup between India (plus Seychelles) and Madagascar. Recent 40Ar/39Ar work on the Mundwara alkaline complex in Rajasthan, 120 km southeast of Sarnu-Dandali, has also shown polychronous emplacement (over ≥ 45 million years), and 84-80 Ma ages obtained from Mundwara also arguably represent post-breakup stages of the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt volcanism. Remnants of the Indo-Madagascar province are known from several localities in southern India but hitherto unknown from northwestern India 2000 km away. Additional equivalents buried under the vast Deccan Traps are highly likely.

  20. The conchostracan subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) from the Tacuarembó Formation (Late Jurassic-?Early Cretaceous, Uruguay) with notes on its geological age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanbin, Shen; Gallego, Oscar F.; Martínez, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    Conchostracans from the Tacuarembó Formation s.s. of Uruguay are reassigned to the subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) Chen and Shen. They show more similarities to genera of Late Jurassic age in the Congo Basin and China than to those of Early Cretaceous age. On the basis of the character of the conchostracans, we suggest that the Tacuarembó Formation is unlikely to be older than Late Jurassic. It is probably Kimmeridgian, but an Early Cretaceous age cannot be excluded. This finding is consistent with isotopic dating of the overlying basalts, as well as the age range of recently described fossil freshwater sharks.

  1. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds. PMID:26580402

  2. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  3. Closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean as Constrained by Late Permian to Early Cretaceous Paleomagnetic Data from the Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogne, J.; Kravchinsky, V.; Gilder, S.; Hankard, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Paleozoic Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean separated the Siberian craton to the north from a landmass composed of Amuria, Tarim, Qaidam, Tibet and the North and South China blocks to the south. Based on a comparison of paleomagnetic data from the NCB with the Eurasian apparent polar wander path, this ocean closed by the beginning of the Cretaceous. We present here a review of recent paleomagnetic studies of Late Permian to Early Cretaceous formations from the Transbaikal area of south Siberia, coming from localities situated on both sides of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The main conclusions that we draw from these studies are as follows. (1) A Late Permian ~4500 km latitude difference indeed existed between Amuria and the Siberia blocks at 110°E longitude. (2) In Middle-Late Jurassic times, a 1700 to 2700 km paleolatitudinal gap still existed between the two blocks. This contradicts geological interpretations of a Middle Jurassic closure of the ocean at this longitude. (3) Consistency of Early Cretaceous paleolatitudes from both sides of the suture demonstrates the closure of the ocean at that time. Altogether, these suggest a quite fast closure between the Middle Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, at about 15±11 cm/yr. Finally, all pre-Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles appear to be distributed along small-circles centered on site localities. We think this is due to continued deformation acting in the Mongol-Okhotsk suture region related to suturing. Conversely, the post-Early Cretaceous rotations may be related to Tertiary deformation under the effect of the India-Asia collision.

  4. Geological constraints on continental arc activity since 720 Ma: implications for the link between long-term climate variability and episodicity of continental arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Continental arc volcanoes have been suggested to release more CO2 than island arc volcanoes due to decarbonation of wallrock carbonates in the continental upper plate through which the magmas traverse (Lee et al., 2013). Continental arcs may thus play an important role in long-term climate. To test this hypothesis, we compiled geological maps to reconstruct the surface distribution of granitoid plutons and the lengths of ancient continental arcs. These results were then compiled into a GIS framework and incorporated into GPlates plate reconstructions. Our results show an episodic nature of global continental arc activity since 720 Ma. The lengths of continental arcs were at minimums during most of the Cryogenian ( 720-670 Ma), the middle Paleozoic ( 460-300 Ma) and the Cenozoic ( 50-0 Ma). Arc lengths were highest during the Ediacaran ( 640-570 Ma), the early Paleozoic ( 550-430 Ma) and the entire Mesozoic with peaks in the Early Triassic ( 250-240 Ma), Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ( 160-130 Ma), and Late Cretaceous ( 90-65 Ma). The extensive continental arcs in the Ediacaran and early Paleozoic reflect the Pan-African events and circum-Gondwana subduction during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent. The Early Triassic peak is coincident with the final closure of the paleo-Asian oceans and the onset of circum-Pacific subduction associated with the assembly of the Pangea supercontinent. The Jurassic-Cretaceous peaks reflect the extensive continental arcs established in the western Pacific, North and South American Cordillera, coincident with the initial dispersal of the Pangea. Continental arcs are favored during the final assembly and the early-stage dispersal of a supercontinent. Our compilation shows a temporal match between continental arc activity and long-term climate at least since 720 Ma. For example, continental arc activity was reduced during the Cryogenian icehouse event, and enhanced during the Early Paleozoic and Jurassic-Cretaceous greenhouse

  5. Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during Early Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until Early Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine

  6. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    ± 3 Ma and 115 Ma, which are close to the zircon ages of nearby calc-alkaline granite and diorite, which belong to an active continental margin arc that extends along the western side of the Shan-Thai block. The IBR accretionary complex and the active continental margin arc were generated during Early Cretaceous (115-128 Ma) subduction of the Neotethys Ocean.

  7. Major transgression during Late Cretaceous constrained by basin sediments in northern Africa: implication for global rise in sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kaixuan; Chen, Hanlin; Lin, Xiubin; Wang, Fang; Yang, Shufeng; Wen, Zhixin; Wang, Zhaoming; Zhang, Guangya; Tong, Xiaoguang

    2017-12-01

    The global rise in sea level during the Late Cretaceous has been an issue under discussion by the international geological community. Despite the significance, its impact on the deposition of continental basins is not well known. This paper presents the systematic review on stratigraphy and sedimentary facies compiled from 22 continental basins in northern Africa. The results indicate that the region was dominated by sediments of continental facies during Early Cretaceous, which were replaced by deposits of marine facies in Late Cretaceous. The spatio-temporal distribution of sedimentary facies suggests marine facies deposition reached as far south as Taoudeni-Iullemmeden-Chad-Al Kufra-Upper Egypt basins during Turonian to Campanian. These results indicate that northern Africa underwent significant transgression during Late Cretaceous reaching its peak during Turonian to Coniacian. This significant transgression has been attributed to the global high sea-level during this time. Previous studies show that global rise in sea level in Late Cretaceous may have been driven by an increase in the volume of ocean water (attributed to high CO2 concentration and subsequently warm climate) and a decrease in the volume of the ocean basin (attributed to rapid production of oceanic crust and seamounts). Tectonic mechanism of rapid production of oceanic crust and seamounts could play a fundamental role in driving the global rise in sea level and subsequent transgression in northern Africa during Late Cretaceous.

  8. New toothed flying reptile from Asia: close similarities between early Cretaceous pterosaur faunas from China and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Cheng, Xin

    2012-04-01

    Despite the great increase in pterosaur diversity in the last decades, particularly due to discoveries made in western Liaoning (China), very little is known regarding pterosaur biogeography. Here, we present the description of a new pterosaur from the Jiufotang Formation that adds significantly to our knowledge of pterosaur distribution and enhances the diversity of cranial anatomy found in those volant creatures. Guidraco venator gen. et sp. nov. has an unusual upward-directed frontal crest and large rostral teeth, some of which surpass the margins of the skull and lower jaw when occluded. The new species is closely related to a rare taxon from the Brazilian Crato Formation, posing an interesting paleobiogeographic problem and supporting the hypothesis that at least some early Cretaceous pterosaur clades, such as the Tapejaridae and the Anhangueridae, might have originated in Asia. The association of the new specimen with coprolites and the cranial morphology suggest that G. venator preyed on fish.

  9. Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models

    Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D.J.; Lockley, M.G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in

  10. Petroleum system elements within the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Nigeria's inland basins: An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dim, Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton; Onuoha, K. Mosto; Okeugo, Chukwudike Gabriel; Ozumba, Bertram Maduka

    2017-06-01

    Sequence stratigraphic studies have been carried out using subsurface well and 2D seismic data in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Anambra and proximal onshore section of Niger Delta Basin in the Southeastern Nigeria. The aim was to establish the stratigraphic framework for better understanding of the reservoir, source and seal rock presence and distribution in the basin. Thirteen stratigraphic bounding surfaces (consisting of six maximum flooding surfaces - MFSs and seven sequence boundaries - SBs) were recognized and calibrated using a newly modified chronostratigraphic chart. Stratigraphic surfaces were matched with corresponding foraminiferal and palynological biozones, aiding correlation across wells in this study. Well log sequence stratigraphic correlation reveals that stratal packages within the basin are segmented into six depositional sequences occurring from Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age. Generated gross depositional environment maps at various MFSs show that sediment packages deposited within shelfal to deep marine settings, reflect continuous rise and fall of sea levels within a regressive cycle. Each of these sequences consist of three system tracts (lowstand system tract - LST, transgressive system tract - TST and highstand system tract - HST) that are associated with mainly progradational and retrogradational sediment stacking patterns. Well correlation reveals that the sand and shale units of the LSTs, HSTs and TSTs, that constitute the reservoir and source/seal packages respectively are laterally continuous and thicken basinwards, due to structural influences. Result from interpretation of seismic section reveals the presence of hanging wall, footwall, horst block and collapsed crest structures. These structural features generally aid migration and offer entrapment mechanism for hydrocarbon accumulation. The combination of these reservoirs, sources, seals and trap elements form a good petroleum system that is viable

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from Lingshan Island in the Sulu Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuanku; Santosh, M.; Li, Rihui; Xu, Yang; Hou, Fanghui

    2018-07-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in eastern China marks the boundary between the Yangtze Block and the North China Block. Here we investigate a suite of volcanic rocks from Lingshan Island in the Sulu belt comprising rhyolite, trachyte, trachyandesite and basaltic trachyandesite. We present petrological, geochemical and zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hfsbnd O isotope data with a view to gain insights on the petrogenesis and tectonic implications. SHRIMP II analyses of zircon grains from the rhyolite yield 206Pb/238U age of 127.6 ± 1.3 Ma and LA-MC-ICP-MS dating show 126.3 ± 1.2 Ma and 127.3 ± 1.1 Ma, together constraining the eruption time as Early Cretaceous. LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses of zircon grains from the andesitic rocks yield 206Pb/238U ages of 129.0 ± 1.6 Ma, 129.8 ± 1.5 Ma and 130.9 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemically, the rhyolite shows shoshonitic features with low MgO and Cr, but high Na2O + K2O. The zircon grains from these rocks yield negative εHf(t) values and low δ18O values, and these together with the presence of Neoproterozoic inherited zircons suggest that the magma source involved melting of the Yangtze crust. The andesitic rocks, including basaltic trachyandesite, trachyandesite and trachyte, show a wide range of SiO2, Mg# values, and Cr, enriched in LILE and LREE, depleted in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti), and have significantly negative zircon εHf(t) values, suggesting derivation from subcontinental lithosphere mantle that was metasomatized by felsic melts. Our results, integrated with those from previous studies suggest heterogeneous magma involving the mixing of mantle and crustal sources within an extensional setting in the Early Cretaceous.

  12. A bizarre theropod from the Early Cretaceous of Japan highlighting mosaic evolution among coelurosaurians

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Yoichi; Xu, Xing; Shibata, Masateru; Kawabe, Soichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Imai, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of coelurosaurian evolution, particularly of bird origins, has been greatly improved, mainly due to numerous recently discovered fossils worldwide. Nearly all these discoveries are referable to the previously known coelurosaurian subgroups. Here, we report a new theropod, Fukuivenator paradoxus, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Kitadani Formation of the Tetori Group, Fukui, Japan. While Fukuivenator possesses a large number of morphological features unknown in any other theropod, it has a combination of primitive and derived features seen in different theropod subgroups, notably dromaeosaurid dinosaurs. Computed-tomography data indicate that Fukuivenator possesses inner ears whose morphology is intermediate between those of birds and non-avian dinosaurs. Our phylogenetic analysis recovers Fukuivenator as a basally branching maniraptoran theropod, yet is unable to refer it to any known coelurosaurian subgroups. The discovery of Fukuivenator considerably increases the morphological disparity of coelurosaurian dinosaurs and highlights the high levels of homoplasy in coelurosaurian evolution. PMID:26908367

  13. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  14. A stem acrodontan lizard in the Cretaceous of Brazil revises early lizard evolution in Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Simões, Tiago R; Wilner, Everton; Caldwell, Michael W; Weinschütz, Luiz C; Kellner, Alexander W A

    2015-08-26

    Iguanians are one of the most diverse groups of extant lizards (>1,700 species) with acrodontan iguanians dominating in the Old World, and non-acrodontans in the New World. A new lizard species presented herein is the first acrodontan from South America, indicating acrodontans radiated throughout Gondwana much earlier than previously thought, and that some of the first South American lizards were more closely related to their counterparts in Africa and Asia than to the modern fauna of South America. This suggests both groups of iguanians achieved a worldwide distribution before the final breakup of Pangaea. At some point, non-acrodontans replaced acrodontans and became the only iguanians in the Americas, contrary to what happened on most of the Old World. This discovery also expands the diversity of Cretaceous lizards in South America, which with recent findings, suggests sphenodontians were not the dominant lepidosaurs in that continent as previously hypothesized.

  15. How do I know if I’ve improved my continental scale flood early warning system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Hannah L.; Pappenberger, Florian; Smith, Paul J.; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2017-04-01

    Flood early warning systems mitigate damages and loss of life and are an economically efficient way of enhancing disaster resilience. The use of continental scale flood early warning systems is rapidly growing. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) is a pan-European flood early warning system forced by a multi-model ensemble of numerical weather predictions. Responses to scientific and technical changes can be complex in these computationally expensive continental scale systems, and improvements need to be tested by evaluating runs of the whole system. It is demonstrated here that forecast skill is not correlated with the value of warnings. In order to tell if the system has been improved an evaluation strategy is required that considers both forecast skill and warning value. The combination of a multi-forcing ensemble of EFAS flood forecasts is evaluated with a new skill-value strategy. The full multi-forcing ensemble is recommended for operational forecasting, but, there are spatial variations in the optimal forecast combination. Results indicate that optimizing forecasts based on value rather than skill alters the optimal forcing combination and the forecast performance. Also indicated is that model diversity and ensemble size are both important in achieving best overall performance. The use of several evaluation measures that consider both skill and value is strongly recommended when considering improvements to early warning systems.

  16. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    PubMed Central

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-01-01

    The western sector of the Qinling–Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous “Yanshanian” intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India–Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U–Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U–Th–Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India–Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India–Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27065503

  17. New Evidence for opening of the Black Sea; U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons and paleocurrent measurements of the Early Cretaceous turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, Remziye; Okay, Aral I.; Sunal, Gürsel; Tari, Gabor; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-04-01

    Shelf to submarine turbidite fan deposits of the Early Cretaceous crop out over a large area along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Early Cretaceous turbidites have a thickness of over 2000 meters in the Central Pontides. The shelf of this turbidite basin, represented by shallow marine clastics and carbonates, crops out along the Black Sea coast between Zonguldak and Amasra. Paleocurrent directions in the Lower Cretaceous turbidites were measured in 90 localities using mostly flute and groove casts and to a lesser extend cross-beds. At the eastern part of the basin, the paleocurrents were from north to south. It is scattered in the west of the basin, however, the main paleocurrent directions were from the north. Detrital zircons were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS in eleven samples from the turbiditic sandstones and two samples from the shelf sandstones. Four samples are from the western part (two samples from shelf sediments), four samples from the central part and five samples from the eastern part of the Lower Cretaceous basin. 1085 of 1348 zircon analyses are concordant with rates of 95-105% and the zircon ages range between 141 ± 4 Ma (Berriasian) and 3469 ± 8 Ma (Paleoarchean). 22% of the detrital zircon ages are Paleoproterozoic, 20% Archean, 16% Carboniferous, 13% Neoproterozoic, 8% Permian, 6% Triassic, 5% Mesoproterozoic and 11% other ages. In the western part of the basin the Carboniferous zircons constitute the main population with a less dominant peak at Ordovician, Cambrian and Late Neoproterozoic. The zircons from the center of the basin show scattered distribution with dominant populations in the Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous, Silurian, Paleoproterozoic, Early Neoproterozoic-Late Mesoproterozoic, and minor peak at Late Neoarchean. On the other hand, zircons from the eastern most part of the basin, show dominant peaks in the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoarchean and Permian with minor peaks in Triassic, Carboniferous and Silurian. Anatolia and the Balkans

  18. Geoligical outline of the Lower Cretaceous Bahia Supergroup, Brazil

    SciT

    Fonseca, J.I.

    1966-01-01

    The report area encompasses about 41,200 sq km covered by over 6,000 m of Lower Cretaceous sediments deposited in fresh to brackish water environment. These sediments, the Bahia Supergroup, represent most of the sedimentary section of the Almada, Reconcavo, Tucano and Jatoba basins. The Reconcavo basin is a half-graben filled with Lower Cretaceous rocks which tilt regionally to the SE. The sediments deposited in this basin were distorted by 2 major periods of deformation. As the result of the application of these systems of tensional forces, the sediments were broken into a complicated system of normal faults. Most of themore » oil production in Brazil, about 91,000 bpd, comes from the Reconcavo basin. During a great part of the Early Cretaceous the Reconcavo and Almada basins probably were connected with the Alagoas-Sergipe basin by the continental shelf. The continental drift theory may explain the presence of these fresh water sediments in the coast line and in the continental shelf of the Bahia and Alagoas-Sergipe states. This offshore area is very prospective and may contribute, in the future, with substantial quantities of hydrocarbons. (14 refs.)« less

  19. EAG Eminent Speaker: Two types of Archean continental crust: plume and plate tectonics on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Over 4.5 billion years, Earth has evolved from a molten ball to a cooler planet with large continental plates, but how and when continents grew and plate tectonics started remain poorly understood. In this paper, I review the evidence that 3.5-3.2 Ga continental nuclei of the Pilbara (Australia) and Kaapvaal (southern Africa) cratons formed as thick volcanic plateaux over hot, upwelling mantle and survived due to contemporaneous development of highly depleted, buoyant, unsubductable mantle roots. This type of crust is distinct from, but complimentary to, high-grade gneiss terranes, as exemplified by the North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland, which formed through subduction-accretion tectonics on what is envisaged as a vigorously convecting early Earth with small plates. Thus, it is proposed that two types of crust formed on early Earth, in much the same way as in modern Earth, but with distinct differences resulting from a hotter Archean mantle. Volcanic plateaux provided a variety of stable habitats for early life, including chemical nutrient rich, shallow-water hydrothermal systems and shallow marine carbonate platforms.

  20. A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China and the phylogeny of Cretaceous basal eucryptodiran turtles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is an emblematic turtle from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China, a geological rock unit that is famous for yielding perfectly preserved skeletons of fossil vertebrates, including that of feathered dinosaurs. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis was one of the first vertebrates described from this fauna, also known as the Jehol Biota. The holotype was lost during World War II and only one additional specimen has been described since. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is a critical taxon for unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of Cretaceous pancryptodires from Asia, a group that is considered to be of key importance for the origin of crown-group hidden-neck turtles (Cryptodira). Results A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is described here from the Jiufotang Formation of Qilinshan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China. This is the third specimen described and expands the range of this taxon from the Yixian Formation of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin in Liaoning to the Jiufotang Formation of the Chifeng-Yuanbaoshan Basin. A possible temporal extension of the range is less certain. The new finding adds to our understanding of the morphology of this taxon and invites a thorough revision of the phylogeny of Macrobaenidae, Sinemydidae, and closely allied forms. Conclusions Our comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Cretaceous Asian pancryptodires yielded two main competing hypotheses: in the first these taxa form a paraphyletic grade, whereas in the second they form a monophyletic clade. The inclusion of problematic tree changing taxa, such as Panpleurodires (stem + crown side-neck turtles) has a major influence on the phylogenetic relationships of Sinemydidae and closely allied forms. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis nests within Sinemydidae together with Sinemys spp. and Dracochelys bicuspis in the majority of our analyses. PMID:24707892

  1. Early Evolution of Modern Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; Bercovici, Antoine; Berv, Jacob S; Dunn, Regan; Fastovsky, David E; Lyson, Tyler R; Vajda, Vivi; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2018-06-04

    The fossil record and recent molecular phylogenies support an extraordinary early-Cenozoic radiation of crown birds (Neornithes) after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction [1-3]. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the survival of the deepest lineages within crown birds across the K-Pg boundary, particularly since this global catastrophe eliminated even the closest stem-group relatives of Neornithes [4]. Here, ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology reveal a strong bias toward taxa exhibiting predominantly non-arboreal lifestyles across the K-Pg, with multiple convergent transitions toward predominantly arboreal ecologies later in the Paleocene and Eocene. By contrast, ecomorphological inferences indicate predominantly arboreal lifestyles among enantiornithines, the most diverse and widespread Mesozoic avialans [5-7]. Global paleobotanical and palynological data show that the K-Pg Chicxulub impact triggered widespread destruction of forests [8, 9]. We suggest that ecological filtering due to the temporary loss of significant plant cover across the K-Pg boundary selected against any flying dinosaurs (Avialae [10]) committed to arboreal ecologies, resulting in a predominantly non-arboreal post-extinction neornithine avifauna composed of total-clade Palaeognathae, Galloanserae, and terrestrial total-clade Neoaves that rapidly diversified into the broad range of avian ecologies familiar today. The explanation proposed here provides a unifying hypothesis for the K-Pg-associated mass extinction of arboreal stem birds, as well as for the post-K-Pg radiation of arboreal crown birds. It also provides a baseline hypothesis to be further refined pending the discovery of additional neornithine fossils from the Latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-02-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  3. A synthesis of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous crustal evolution along the southern margin of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka microplate and implications for defining tectonic boundaries active during opening of Arctic Ocean basins

    Till, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    result of the rotation of Arctic Alaska into central and western Chukotka. In northeastern Chukotka, the thickened rocks are separated from the relatively little thickened continental crust of the remainder of Chukotka by the oceanic rocks of the Kolyuchin-Mechigmen zone. The zone is a candidate for an Early Cretaceous suture that separated most of Chukotka from northeast Chukotka and Alaska. Albian patterns of magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation in Chukotka and the Seward Peninsula may represent an example of escape tectonics that developed in response to final amalgamation of Chukotka with Eurasia.

  4. Litho- and biofacies of Early Cretaceous rudist-bearing carbonate sediments in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Shin-ichi

    1995-11-01

    Carbonate blocks of late Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) age occur in the Lower Yezo Group of central Hokkaido in northeast Japan. The shallow-water carbonates were emplaced by gravity sliding and rock fall into a deep-water flysch basin. Various lithofacies can be distinguished within the blocks including massive wackestone, bedded packstone and micro-oncoid grainstone, containing corals, rudists, an oyster, gastropods, calcareous algae and an orbitolinid foraminifer. Facies and palaeoecological analyses suggest deposition of low-energy biostromes and sand banks in open lagoonal and restricted environments with local higher-energy shoals and beaches. The presence of calcareous sandstones and abundant insoluble residues in limestones suggest deposition in an attached carbonate platform close to a supply of terrigenous material, rather than deposition upon seamounts within an oceanic setting. A narrow rimmed shelf in tropical-subtropical conditions would have been the depositional environment for these carbonates, which were subsequently deformed into blocks and transported into deep water as a result of the tectonic collapse of the platform.

  5. Stable Isotopes Reveal Rapid Enamel Elongation (Amelogenesis) Rates for the Early Cretaceous Iguanodontian Dinosaur Lanzhousaurus magnidens.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Celina A; You, Hai-Lu; Suarez, Marina B; Li, Da-Qing; Trieschmann, J B

    2017-11-10

    Lanzhousaurus magnidens, a large non-hadrosauriform iguanodontian dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group of Gansu Province, China has the largest known herbivorous dinosaur teeth. Unlike its hadrosauriform relatives possessing tooth batteries of many small teeth, Lanzhousaurus utilized a small number (14) of very large teeth (~10 cm long) to create a large, continuous surface for mastication. Here we investigate the significance of Lanzhousaurus in the evolutionary history of iguanodontian-hadrosauriform transition by using a combination of stable isotope analysis and CT imagery. We infer that Lanzhousaurus had a rapid rate of tooth enamel elongation or amelogenesis at 0.24 mm/day with dental tissues common to other Iguanodontian dinosaurs. Among ornithopods, high rates of amelogenesis have been previously observed in hadrosaurids, where they have been associated with a sophisticated masticatory apparatus. These data suggest rapid amelogenesis evolved among non-hadrosauriform iguanodontians such as Lanzhousaurus, representing a crucial step that was exapted for the evolution of the hadrosaurian feeding mechanism.

  6. Preliminary digital geologic map of the Penokean (early Proterozoic) continental margin in northern Michigan and Wisconsin

    Cannon, W.F.; Ottke, Doug

    1999-01-01

    The data on this CD consist of geographic information system (GIS) coverages and tabular data on the geology of Early Proterozoic and Archean rocks in part of the Early Proterozoic Penokean orogeny. The map emphasizes metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that were deposited along the southern margin of the Superior craton and were later deformed during continental collision at about 1850 Ma. The area includes the famous iron ranges of the south shore region of the Lake Superior district. Base maps, both as digital raster graphics (DRG) and digital line graphs (DLG) are also provided for the convenience of users. The map has been compiled from many individual studies, mostly by USGS researchers, completed during the past 50 years, including many detailed (1:24,000 scale) geologic maps. Data was compiled at 1:100,000 scale and preserves most of the details of source materials. This product is a preliminary release of the geologic map data bases during ongoing studies of the geology and metallogeny of the Penokean continental margin. Files are provided in three formats: Federal Spatial Data Transfer format (SDTS), Arc export format (.e00) files, and Arc coverages. All files can be accessed directly from the CD-ROM using either ARC/INFO 7.1.2 or later or Arc View 3.0 or later software. ESRI's Arc Explorer, a free GIS data viewer available at the web site: http://www.esri.com/software/arcexplorer/index.html also provides display and querying capability for these files.

  7. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and

  8. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  9. Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D; Price, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous interval represents a time of environmental upheaval and cataclysmic events, combined with disruptions to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Historically, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary was classified as one of eight mass extinctions. However, more recent research has largely overturned this view, revealing a much more complex pattern of biotic and abiotic dynamics than has previously been appreciated. Here, we present a synthesis of our current knowledge of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous events, focusing particularly on events closest to the J/K boundary. We find evidence for a combination of short-term catastrophic events, large-scale tectonic processes and environmental perturbations, and major clade interactions that led to a seemingly dramatic faunal and ecological turnover in both the marine and terrestrial realms. This is coupled with a great reduction in global biodiversity which might in part be explained by poor sampling. Very few groups appear to have been entirely resilient to this J/K boundary 'event', which hints at a 'cascade model' of ecosystem changes driving faunal dynamics. Within terrestrial ecosystems, larger, more-specialised organisms, such as saurischian dinosaurs, appear to have suffered the most. Medium-sized tetanuran theropods declined, and were replaced by larger-bodied groups, and basal eusauropods were replaced by neosauropod faunas. The ascent of paravian theropods is emphasised by escalated competition with contemporary pterosaur groups, culminating in the explosive radiation of birds, although the timing of this is obfuscated by biases in sampling. Smaller, more ecologically diverse terrestrial non-archosaurs, such as lissamphibians and mammaliaforms, were comparatively resilient to extinctions, instead documenting the origination of many extant groups around the J/K boundary. In the marine realm, extinctions were focused on low-latitude, shallow marine shelf-dwelling faunas

  10. Ontong Java volcanism initiated long-term climate warming that caused substantial changes in terrestrial vegetation several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a (Early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During Cretaceous times, several intense volcanic episodes are proposed as trigger for episodic climate warming, for changes in marine circulation patterns and for elevated marine productivity, which resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Volcanic outgassing results in an increased pCO2 and should lead to a rise in global temperatures. We therefore investigated if the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 at the onset of OAE1a in the early Aptian led to a temperature rise that was sufficient to affect terrestrial vegetation assemblages. In order to analyse changes in terrestrial palynomorph assemblages, we examined 15 samples from 12 black shale horizons throughout the early Aptian negative C-isotope spike interval of the Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation; N-Italy). These sediments were deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and have been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). In order to obtain a continuous palynological record of the negative C-isotope spike interval and the base of OAE1a, we combined this pre-OAE1a interval of Pusiano with the OAE1a interval of the nearby Cismon section (Hochuli et al., 1999). The sporomorph assemblages at the base of this composite succession feature abundant bisaccate pollen, which reflects a warm-temperate climate. Rather arid conditions are inferred from low trilete spore percentages. Several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a, C-isotope values started to decrease. Some thousand years later, bisaccate pollen began to decrease, whereas an increase of Classopollis spp. and Araucariacites spp

  11. Early Cretaceous MORB-type basalt and A-type rhyolite in northern Tibet: Evidence for ridge subduction in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Sun, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Wei; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2018-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, major- and trace-element data, and Hf isotopic compositions are presented for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Zhaga Formation (ZF) in the western-middle segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), northern Tibet. The genesis of these rocks is described, and implications for late-stage evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO) are considered. Detailed studies show that the ZF bimodal rocks, which occur as layers within a typical bathyal to abyssal flysch deposit, comprise MORB-type basalt that formed at a mid-ocean ridge, and low-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite derived from juvenile crust. The combination of MORB-type basalt, calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite, and bathyal to abyssal flysch deposits in the ZF leads us to propose that they formed as a result of ridge subduction. The A-type ZF rhyolites yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 118-112 Ma, indicating formation during the Early Cretaceous. Data from the present study, combined with regional geological data, indicate that the BNTO underwent conversion from ocean opening to ocean closure during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The eastern segment of the BNTO closed during this period, while the western and western-middle segments were still at least partially open and active during the Early Cretaceous, accompanied by ridge subduction within the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean.

  12. Dolomitization of felsic volcaniclastic rocks in continental strata: A study from the Lower Cretaceous of the A'nan Sag in Er'lian Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shifa; Yue, Hui; Zhu, Xiaomin; Sun, Shuyang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Jia, Ye

    2017-05-01

    Dolomitization of fine-grained volcaniclastic rocks is common in the Lower Cretaceous of the A'nan Sag in the Er'lian Basin of China. Analysis of core samples shows that the organic-rich volcaniclastic rocks are mainly composed of reworked felsic volcanic materials and terrigenous clay minerals. The fine-grained volcaniclastic rocks can be divided into four types: volcaniclastic rocks without carbonatization, volcaniclastic rocks with ferroan dolomites, dolomitized and calcified volcaniclastic rocks, and calcified volcaniclastic rocks. The parent rocks of the volcaniclastic rocks have high silicon and potassium contents and low iron and magnesium contents, and are probably felsic magma of the calc-alkaline series. The average values of δ13CPDB of the carbonate minerals are about 3.13‰; the average values of δ18OPDB are about - 16.74‰. The compositions of C and O isotopes are probably influenced by bacterial methanogenesis. Iron, magnesium, and calcium are probably derived from illitization of terrigenous smectite. A model for dolomitization of felsic volcaniclastic rock is proposed, including three stages: 1) mixed sedimentation and bacterial methanogenesis (< 75 °C); 2) transformation of clay minerals (> 70 °C) and dolomitization (75 to 97 °C); and 3) dissolution. Late dissolution of authigenic carbonate minerals, creating abundant secondary pores, is significant for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  13. Nannofossil carbonate fluxes during the Early Cretaceous: Phytoplankton response to nutrification episodes, atmospheric CO2, and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Tremolada, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Greenhouse episodes during the Valanginian and Aptian correlate with major perturbations in the C cycle and in marine ecosystems, carbonate crises, and widespread deposition of Corg-rich black shales. Quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite were conducted on continuous pelagic sections from the Southern Alps (northern Italy), where high-resolution integrated stratigraphy allows precise dating of Early Cretaceous geological events. Rock-forming calcareous nannofloras were quantified in smear slides and thin sections to obtain relative and absolute abundances and paleofluxes that are interpreted as the response of calcareous phytoplankton to global changes in the ocean-atmosphere system. Increased rates of volcanism during the formation of Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus and the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) are proposed to have caused the geological responses associated with early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a and the Valanginian event, respectively. Calcareous nannofloras reacted to the new conditions of higher pCO2 and fertility by drastically reducing calcification. The Valanginian event is marked by a 65% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes that would correspond to a 2-3 times increase in pCO2 during formation of the Paranà-Endenteka LIP. A 90% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes, which occurred in a 1.5 myr-long interval leading into OAE1a, is interpreted as the result of a 3-6 times increase in pCO2 produced by emplacement of the giant Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. High pCO2 was balanced back by an accelerated biological pump during the Valanginian episode, but not during OAE1a, suggesting persisting high levels of pCO2 in the late Aptian and/or the inability of calcareous phytoplankton to absorb excess pCO2 above threshold values.

  14. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous Guojialing-type granodiorites in northwestern Jiaodong terrane carry significant records for strong mantle-crust interaction during the destruction of North China Craton (NCC); however, the definite petrogenetic mechanism and detailed magmatic process remain an enigma. Titanite in igneous rocks can serve as an effective petrogenetic indicator. Here, we present integrated geochronological and geochemical studies on titanites from Guojialing-type granodiorites and their dioritic enclaves to constrain their petrogenesis. Titanites from granodiorites (G-type) and plagioclase-rich dioritic enclaves (E-type-I) present an identical U-Pb age ( 130 Ma) and an indistinguishable wide range of Zr and total REEs contents, and Th/U ratios. However, these two types of titanites exhibit distinct micro-scale textures and geochemical compositions. G-type titanites are characterized by oscillatory zonings with two Light BSE zones (LBZ) and two or three dark BSE zones, whereas E-type-I titanites are marked by core-mantle-rim zonings. Drastic increase of LREEs, Zr, Hf, and Fe and decrease of Nb, Ta, Al, and F contents are observed in LBZ of G-type titanites, whereas remarkable reduction of LREEs, Zr, and Hf and elevation of F contents are observed from the cores to the mantles of E-type-I titanites. Based on Zr-in-titanite thermometry, G-type titanites are interpreted to have experienced twice notable temperature increase, while E-type-I titanites are inferred to have undergone a rapid cooling process. Furthermore, we suggest that the drastic chemical changes in G-type and E-type-I titanites are ascribed to early-stage magma mixing between a colder felsic magma and a Fe-, REE-rich hotter dioritic magma. Compared to G-type and E-type-I titanites, titanites from plagioclase-poor dioritic enclaves (E-type-II) are characterized by their occurrence in interstitial space and present a relatively younger U-Pb age ( 128 Ma) and much narrower and lower range of Zr, total

  15. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan

    2016-02-17

    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = -65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1-124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma.

  16. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = -65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1-124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma.

  17. Siderite concretions: indicators of early diagenesis in the Gammon shale (Cretaceous).

    Gautier, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Gammon member of the Pierre shale of the northern Great Plains, USA, contains abundant siderite concretions. The relative depth and time of siderite precipitation can be inferred from the structure, mineralogy and isotopic composition of these concretions. Concretions that formed at shallow depths, early in the history of the sediment, contain a high percentage (75-85%) of carbonate, preserve uncompacted structures and have oxygen isotopic ratios similar to that of sea-water. In contrast, concretions that formed later and/or at greater depths have lower carbonate content and lower 18O/16O ratios. Concretions in rapidly deposited sediments formed at shallow depths (<10 m), and those in sediments that accumulated slowly formed at greater depths. These differences agree with the fossil evidence. Siderite did not form until nearly all the dissolved sulphur had been reduced and precipitated as pyrite; the excess organic matter produced methane at about the same time.-H.R.B.

  18. TEX 86 and stable δ 18O paleothermometry of early Cretaceous sediments: Implications for belemnite ecology and paleotemperature proxy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutterlose, Jörg; Malkoc, Matthias; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Forster, Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the unadjusted usage of Jurassic and Cretaceous δ 18O paleotemperature data derived from belemnites, since the latter data often reflect cooler paleotemperature estimates than would be expected. In this study we address this problem by analysing rocks of Barremian to early Aptian age from two outcrops in northern Germany using TEX 86 paleothermometry, along with 142 belemnite guards studied for their stable isotope (δ 13C, δ 18O) and trace element composition (magnesium, strontium, iron, and manganese). Both TEX 86 and δ 18O Bel indicate very warm water temperatures for a distinctive black shale sequence of late early Barremian age ("Hauptblätterton") with temperatures of up to 29 °C and 23 °C, respectively. We observe a constant offset of TEX 86 temperatures versus the 4 to 5 °C cooler δ 18O belemnite signal for this interval. The late Barremian sequence shows an increase of the δ 18O Bel values from - 1‰ to 0‰ reflecting temperatures around 16 to 12 °C, while the contemporaneous TEX 86 temperatures vary between 26 and 32 °C. The common occurrence of belemnites in the anoxic sediments of the early Barremian implies, however, clearly a nektonic way of life similar to that of recent teuthids, rather than a nektobenthic one like Sepia. This in turn suggests that the belemnites investigated here (genera Praeoxyteuthis, Aulacoteuthis, Oxyteuthis, and Neohibolites) were active swimmers, which inhabited a deeper habitat below the thermocline in an epicontinental sea of perhaps 100 to 250 m water depth. The offset of the TEX 86 and δ 18O Bel data is therefore interpreted to reflect temperature signals from two different depth habitats, i.e. the TEX 86 is selectively derived from warm sea-surface waters, and the belemnites likely occupied deeper and cooler waters with relative increasing salinities in the late Barremian. This study stresses the importance that the taxonomy, paleobiology and ecology of the belemnite taxa

  19. Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic Evolution of Mozambique Ridge in East African continental margin Yong Tang He Li ES.Mahanjane Second Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Hangzhou The East Africa passive continental margin is a depression area, with widely distributed sedimentary wedges from southern Mozambique to northern Somali (>6500km in length, and about 6km in thickness). It was resulted from the separation of East Gondwana, and was developed by three stages: (1) rifting in Early-Middle Jurassic; (2) spreading from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous; (3) drifting since the Cretaceous period. Tectonic evolution of the Mozambique continental margin is distinguished by two main settings separated by a fossil transform, the Davie Fracture Zone; (i) rifting and transform setting in the northern margin related to opening of the Somali and Rovuma basins, and (ii) rifting and volcanism setting during the opening of the Mozambique basin in the southern margin. 2D reflection seismic investigation of the crustal structure in the Zambezi Delta Depression, provided key piece of evidence for two rifting phases between Africa and Antarctica. The magma-rich Rift I phase evolved from rift-rift-rift style with remarkable emplacement of dyke swarms (between 182 and 170 Ma). Related onshore outcrops are extensively studied, the Karoo volcanics in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, all part of the Karoo "triple-junction". These igneous bodies flow and thicken eastwards and are now covered by up to 5 km of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments and recorded by seismic and oil exploration wells. Geophysical and geological data recorded during oceanographic cruises provide very controversial results regarding the nature of the Mozambique Ridge. Two conflicting opinions remains open, since the early expeditions to the Indian Ocean, postulating that its character is either magmatic (oceanic) or continental origin. We have carried out an China-Mozambique Joint Cruise(CMJC) on southern Mozambique Basin on 1st June to

  20. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA

    Lucas, S.G.; Voigt, S.; Lerner, A.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Continental trace fossils of Early Permian age are well known in the western United States from Wolfcampian (~. Asselian to Artinskian) strata, but few examples are known from Leonardian (~. Kungurian) deposits. A substantial ichnofauna from strata of the lower part of the Clear Fork Formation at Lake Kemp, Baylor County, Texas, augments the meager North American record of Leonardian continental trace fossil assemblages. Ichnofossils at Lake Kemp occur in the informally-named Craddock dolomite member of the Clear Fork Formation, which is 12-15. m above the local base of the Clear Fork. The trace-bearing stratum is an up-to-0.3. m thick, laminated to flaser-bedded, dolomitic siltstone that also contains mud cracks, raindrop impressions, microbially induced mat structures, and some land-plant impressions. We interpret the Craddock dolomite member as the feather-edge of a marine transgressive carbonate deposit of an irregular coastline marked by shallow bays or estuaries on the eastern shelf of the Midland basin, and the trace-fossil-bearing stratum at Lake Kemp is an unchannelized flow deposit on a muddy coastal plain. The fossil site at Lake Kemp yields a low to moderately diverse fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate traces. A sparse invertebrate ichnofauna consists of arthropod feeding and locomotion traces assigned to Walpia cf. W. hermitensis White, 1929 and Diplichnites gouldi Gevers in Gevers et al., 1971. Tetrapod footprints are most common and assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (Geinitz, 1861), cf. Amphisauropus kablikae (Geinitz and Deichm??ller, 1882), and Dromopus lacertoides (Geinitz, 1861), which represent small temnospondyl, seymouriamorph, and basal sauropsid trackmakers. Both the traces and sedimentary features of the fossil horizon indicate a freshwater setting at the time of track formation, and the trace assemblage represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies and the Batrachichnus ichnofacies in an overbank environment with sheet flooding and shallow

  1. Geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic implications of Early Cretaceous basalts from the western Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Dong, Yunpeng

    2018-01-01

    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt was formed by the collision of the North and South China Cratons during the Early Mesozoic and subsequently developed into an intracontinental tectonic process during late Mesozoic. Field investigations identified the presence of late Mesozoic basalts in the Duofutun and Hongqiang areas in the western Qinling orogenic belt. The petrogenesis of these basalts provides an important constraint on the late Mesozoic geodynamics of the orogen. The representative basaltic samples yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of about 112 Ma. These samples belong to the alkaline series and have SiO2 ranging from 44.98 wt.% to 48.19 wt.%, Na2O + K2O from 3.44 wt% to 5.44 wt%, and MgO from 7.25 wt.% to 12.19 wt.%. They demonstrate the right-sloping chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies (1.00-1.10) and PM-normalized patterns enriched in light rare earth element, large ion lithophile element and high field strength element, similar to those of OIB rocks. These samples additionally show an OIB-like Sr-Nd isotopic signature with εNd(t) values ranging from +6.13 to +10.15 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7028 to 0.7039, respectively. These samples are geochemically subdivided into two groups. Group 1 is characterized by low Al2O3 and high TiO2 and P2O5 contents, as well as high La/Yb ratios (>20), being the product of the high-pressure garnet fractionation from the OIB-derived magma. Group 2 shows higher Al2O3 but lower P2O5 contents and La/Yb ratios (<20) than Group 1, originating from asthenospheric mantle with input of delaminated lithospheric component. In combination with available data, it is proposed for the petrogenetic model of the Early Cretaceous thickened lithospheric delamination in response to the asthenospheric upwelling along the western Qinling orogenic belt.

  2. The toothless pterosaur Jidapterus edentus (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea) from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and its paleoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Andres, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota, the toothless pterosaurs flourished with the chaoyangopterids and tapejarids playing a key role in understanding the early diversity and evolution of the Azhdarchoidea. Unlike the more diverse tapejarids, the rarer chaoyangopterids are characterized by a long and low rostrum, supporting a close relationship with the huge azhdarchids. Unfortunately, our knowledge is still limited in the osteology, paleoecology, and taxonomy of the Chaoyangopteridae. As one of the best preserved skeletons, the type and only specimen of Jidapterus edentus provides an opportunity to understand the morphology and paleoecology of the chaoyangopterids. Results Our study of the osteology of Jidapterus edentus reveals valuable information about the morphology of the Chaoyangopteridae such as a rostrum with a curved dorsal profile, high Rostral Index (RI), larger angle between the dorsal and postorbital processes of the jugal, sequentially shorter fourth to seventh cervical vertebrae, sternum with a plate wider than long, contact of the metacarpal I with the distal syncarpal, pneumatic foramen on first wing phalanx, hatchet-like postacetabular process with unconstricted neck and small dorsal process, distinctly concave anterior margin of pubis, subrectangular pubic plate with nearly parallel anterior and posterior margins, longer proximal phalanges of pedal digits III and IV, as well as reduced and less curved pedal unguals. These features further support the validity of Jidapterus edentus as a distinct species and the close relationship of the chaoyangopterids with the azhdarchids. Paleoecologically, the chaoyangopterids are probably like the azhdarchids, more terrestrial than the contemporaneous and putatively arboreal tapejarids, which may have been limited to the forest-dominated ecosystem of the Jehol Biota. Discussion The osteology of Jidapterus edentus further supports the close relationship of the Chaoyangopteridae with the Azhdarchidae

  3. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter across continental Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections: Implications for paleoenvironment after the K-T impact event

    Maruoka, T.; Koeberl, C.; Bohor, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record ??13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, whereas siliceous sedimentary rocks record the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plants and microbiota. The microbiota ??13C value reflects not only the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, but also biological productivity. Therefore, the siliceous rocks from these sites yields information that differs from that obtained previously from coal beds. Across the freshwater K-T boundary at Brownie Butte, the ??13C values decrease by 2.6??? (from - 26.15??? below the boundary clay to - 28.78??? above the boundary clay), similar to the trend in carbonate at marine K-T sites. This means that the organic ??13C values reflect the variation of ??13C of atmospheric CO2, which is in equilibrium with carbon isotopes at the ocean surface. Although a decrease in ??13C values is observed across the K-T boundary at Dogie Creek (from - 25.32??? below the boundary clay to - 26.11??? above the boundary clay), the degree of ??13C-decrease at Dogie Creek is smaller than that at Brownie Butte and that for marine carbonate. About 2??? decrease in ??13C of atmospheric CO2 was expected from the ??13C variation of marine carbonate at the K-T boundary. This ??13C-decrease of atmospheric CO2 should affect the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plant tissue. As such a

  4. Late Eocene to early Oligocene quantitative paleotemperature record: Evidence from continental halite fluid inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-jun; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Cheng-lin; Liu, Bao-kun; Ma, Li-chun; Wang, Li-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes within Cenozoic extreme climate events such as the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum and the First Oligocene Glacial provide good opportunities to estimate the global climate trends in our present and future life. However, quantitative paleotemperatures data for Cenozoic climatic reconstruction are still lacking, hindering a better understanding of the past and future climate conditions. In this contribution, quantitative paleotemperatures were determined by fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) data from continental halite of the first member of the Shahejie Formation (SF1; probably late Eocene to early Oligocene) in Bohai Bay Basin, North China. The primary textures of the SF1 halite typified by cumulate and chevron halite suggest halite deposited in a shallow saline water and halite Th can serve as an temperature proxy. In total, one-hundred-twenty-one Th data from primary and single-phase aqueous fluid inclusions with different depths were acquired by the cooling nucleation method. The results show that all Th range from 17.7°C to 50.7°C,with the maximum homogenization temperatures (ThMAX) of 50.5°C at the depth of 3028.04 m and 50.7°C at 3188.61 m, respectively. Both the ThMAX presented here are significantly higher than the highest temperature recorded in this region since 1954and agree with global temperature models for the year 2100 predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PMID:25047483

  5. Oxidation state inherited from the magma source and implications for mineralization: Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granitoids, Central Lhasa subterrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; McInnes, Brent I. A.; Li, JinXiang; Zhao, JunXing

    2018-03-01

    Arc magmas are more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalts; however, there is continuing debate as to whether this higher oxidation state is inherited from the source magma or developed during late-stage magmatic differentiation processes. Well-constrained Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc-related intermediate to felsic rocks derived from distinct magma sources provide us with a good opportunity to resolve this enigma. A series of granitoids from the western Central Lhasa subterrane were analyzed for whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe2O3/FeO ratios, and trace elements in zircon. Compared to Late Jurassic samples (1.8 ± 2.0 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1, Fe3+/Fetotal = 0.32 ± 0.07, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* = 15.0 ± 13.4), Early Cretaceous rocks show higher whole-rock magnetic susceptibility (5.8 ± 2.5 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1), Fe3+/Fetotal ratios (0.43 ± 0.04), and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* values (23.9 ± 22.3). In addition, positive correlations among whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe3+/Fetotal ratios, and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* reveal a slight increase in oxidation state from fO2 = QFM to NNO in the Late Jurassic to fO2 = ˜NNO in the Early Cretaceous. Obvious linear correlation between oxidation indices (whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+*) and source signatures (zircon ɛHf(t), TDM C ages) indicates that the oxidation state was predominantly inherited from the source with only a minor contribution from magmatic differentiation. Thus, the sources for both the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rocks were probably influenced by mantle wedge-derived magma, contributing to the increased fO2. Compared to ore-forming rocks at giant porphyry Cu deposits, the relatively low oxidation state (QFM to NNO) and negative ɛHf(t) (-16 to 0) of the studied granitoids implies relative infertility. However, this study demonstrates two potential fast and effective indices ( fO2 and ɛHf(t)) to evaluate the fertility of granitoids for porphyry-style mineralization. In an

  6. Multi-stage metamorphism in the South Armenian Block during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous: Tectonics over south-dipping subduction of Northern branch of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hässig, M.; Rolland, Y.; Sahakyan, L.; Sosson, M.; Galoyan, G.; Avagyan, A.; Bosch, D.; Müller, C.

    2015-04-01

    The geologic evolution of the South Armenian Block (SAB) in the Mesozoic is reconstructed from a structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic study including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating. The South Armenian Block Crystalline Basement (SABCB) outcrops solely in a narrow tectonic window, NW of Yerevan. The study of this zone provides key and unprecedented information concerning closing of the Northern Neotethys oceanic domain north of the Taurides-Anatolides platform from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The basement comprises of presumed Proterozoic orthogneiss overlain by metamorphosed pelites as well as intrusions of granodiorite and leucogranite during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Structural, geochronological and petrological observations show a multiphased evolution of the northern margin of the SAB during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A south-dipping subduction under the East Anatolian Platform-South Armenian Block (EAP-SAB) is proposed in order to suit recent findings pertaining emplacement of relatively hot subduction related granodiorite as well as the metamorphic evolution of the crystalline basement in the Lesser Caucasus area. The metamorphism is interpreted as evidencing: (1) M1 Barrovian MP-MT conditions (staurolite-kyanite) at c. 157-160 Ma and intrusion of dioritic magmas at c. 150-156 Ma, (2) near-adiabatic decompression is featured by partial melting and production of leucogranites at c. 153 Ma, followed by M2 HT-LP conditions (andalusite-K-feldspar). A phase of shearing and recrystallization is ascribed to doming at c. 130-150 Ma and cooling at 400 °C by c. 123 Ma (M3). Structural observations show (1) top to the north shearing during M1 and (2) radial extension during M2. The extensional event ends by emplacement of a thick detrital series along radial S, E and W-dipping normal faults. Further, the crystalline basement is unconformably covered by Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene series dated by nannofossils, evolving from

  7. High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary events determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven

    1988-01-01

    A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and early Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the early Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure events across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T event, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic events in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction event, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.

  8. Geological and technological characterization of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous clay deposits (Jebel Ammar, northeastern Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek-Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Ben Salah, Imed; Ben Aissa, Lassaad; Bouaziz, Samir; Duplay, Joelle

    2017-05-01

    Late Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clays of the Jebel Ammar study site were used as raw materials for potential applications in ceramic industry. Physico-chemical characterization of the collected samples was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and dilatometry (Bugot's curve). Geotechnical study was also undertaken by the assessment of plasticity and liquidity limits. It was found that high concentrations of silica, alumina with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio characterized the studied clays; its high amounts of CaO and Fe2O3 in the Late Jurassic clays indicated their calcareous nature. In addition, technological tests indicated moderate to low plasticity values for the Late Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous clays, respectively. Clay fraction (<2 μm) reached 50% of the natural clay in some cases. Mineralogical analysis showed that Jurassic clays were dominated by smectite, illite and kaolinite, as clay mineral species; calcite was the main associated mineral. Lower Cretaceous clays were mainly composed of abundant illite accompanied by well-crystallized smectite and kaolinite. Kaolinite gradually increased upwards, reaching 70% of the total clay fraction (i.e. <2 μm). Quartz, calcite and feldspar were the main non-clay minerals. Based on these analyses, the clays meet technological requirements that would allow their use in the ceramic industry and for the manufacturing of ceramic tiles.

  9. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  10. Altered carbon cycling and coupled changes in Early Cretaceous weathering patterns: Evidence from integrated carbon isotope and sandstone records of the western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortmann, Ulrich Georg; Herrle, Jens Olaf; Weissert, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate if a major perturbation of the Early Cretaceous carbon cycle was accompanied by altered weathering and erosion rates. The large Aptian carbon isotope anomaly records the response of the biosphere to widespread volcanic activity and probably resulting changes in atmospheric pCO2 levels. Elevated pCO2 levels should also result in an accelerated hydrological cycle and increased silicate weathering, creating a negative feedback loop removing CO2 from the atmosphere. We propose to interpret the widespread occurrence of quartz sandstones in the Tethys-Atlantic seaway as a result of altered weathering and erosion rates in the wake of the Aptian carbon cycle excursion. We challenge the traditional notion that these are 'flysch' deposits associated with Early Cretaceous orogenic movements in the western Tethys. We propose that these sandstones were most likely part of a large conveyor belt system, acting along the Iberian and European margin of the Tethys seaway. Using chemostratigraphic correlations, we show that the activity of this system was only short-lived and coeval with changes in coastal ecology and the Aptian carbon cycle perturbations. We tentatively relate the existence of this system to a transient climate regime, characterized by fluctuating pCO2 levels.

  11. Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleontology, and sedimentary tectonics in Paris overthrust foredeep (western Wyoming and southeastern Idaho) compared with Quaternary features of indo-gangetic plain

    SciT

    Dorr, J.A. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Fluviatile clastics of the nonmarine, early Cretaceous Gannett and Wayan groups were deposited on wet alluvial megafans and on intervening interfan piedmont slopes which declined eastward into more poorly drained lowlands from a western highland source area uplifted episodically by movements of the Paris overthrust. Lacustrine episodes of deposition intercalated Peterson and Draney limestones with Gannett fluvial clastics. Westward marine transgressions (Skull Creek, Mowry) intercalated mixed lacustrine and brackish facies (Smiths and Cokedale formations) into Wayan fluviatile clastics. Newly discovered fossil vertebrate and invertebrate materials (all fragmentary but identifiable) include: Gannett Group - large reptiles including turtles; Thomas Fork Formationmore » - freshwater gastropods and unionid pelecypods, gastroliths, two types of turtles, large reptilian fragments (dinosaur), and abundant dinosaur eggshell fragments; Wayan Formation - perennially aquatic snails, turtles, unidentifiable large reptiles, two types of crocodilians, an iguanodontid dinosaur (Tenontosaurus), an ankylosaurian dinosaur, a large ornithopod dinosaur, gastroliths, abundant and ubiquitous dinosaur eggshell fragments (numerous types and sizes), and miscellaneous unidentifiable small vertebrate bone fragments. A census of analogous modern reptile reproductive behaviors supports the conclusion that the Wayan, and probably also the Gannett, alluvial fan environments were used as upland breeding grounds by dinosaurs and perhaps other reptiles. Comparison of these Early Cretaceous data with observations on the tectonic setting, sedimentology, and biology of the Quaternary indo-gangetic plain suggests many close analogies between the two sedimentary tectonic settings.« less

  12. Tectono-stratigraphy and low-grade metamorphism of Late Permian and Early Jurassic accretionary complexes within the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan: Implications for mechanisms of crustal displacement within active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We characterize the tectono-stratigraphic architecture and low-grade metamorphism of the accretionary complex preserved in the Kurosegawa belt of the Kitagawa district in eastern Shikoku, Southwest Japan, in order to understand its internal structure, tectono-metamorphic evolution, and assessments of displacement of continental fragments within the complex. We report the first ever documented occurrence of an Early Jurassic radiolarian assemblage within the accretionary complex of the Kurosegawa belt that has been previously classified as the Late Permian accretionary complex, thus providing a revised age interpretation for these rocks. The accretionary complex is subdivided into four distinct tectono-stratigraphic units: Late Permian mélange and phyllite units, and Early Jurassic mélange and sandstone units. The stratigraphy of these four units is structurally repeated due to an E-W striking, steeply dipping regional fault. We characterized low-grade metamorphism of the accretionary complex via illite crystallinity and Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material. The estimated pattern of low-grade metamorphism showed pronounced variability within the complex and revealed no discernible spatial trends. The primary thermal structure in these rocks was overprinted by later tectonic events. Based on geological and thermal structure, we conclude that continental fragments within the Kurosegawa belt were structurally translated into both the Late Permian and Early Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise a highly deformed zone affected by strike-slip tectonics during the Early Cretaceous. Different models have been proposed to explain the initial structural evolution of the Kurosegawa belt (i.e., micro-continent collision and klippe tectonic models). Even if we presuppose either model, the available geological evidence requires a new interpretation, whereby primary geological structures are overprinted and reconfigured by later tectonic events.

  13. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanism in the Duolong Cu mining district, western Tibet: Record of slab breakoff that triggered ca. 108-113 Ma magmatism in the western Qiangtang terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-gang; Tang, Ju-xing; Song, Yang; Liu, Zhi-bo; Feng, Jun; Li, Yan-bo

    2017-05-01

    We report new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions, and whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data for the Meiriqiecuo Formation (MF) bimodal volcanic rocks collected from the Duolong Cu mining district (DCMD) in the western Qiangtang terrane (QT), western Tibet. These data provide important constraints on the petrogenetic evolution and geodynamic setting of Early Cretaceous magmatism in the DCMD. The MF bimodal volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and andesite, with subordinate rhyolite. Four mafic samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 108.2-113.0 Ma, and one silicic sample has an age of 109.3 ± 2.2 Ma, indicating that the mafic and silicic eruptions were contemporaneous. The MF bimodal volcanic rocks belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline to shoshonite series. The rocks show arc-type affinities characterized by significant enrichment in light rare earth (LaN/YbN = 7.74-12.60) and large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Cs, K, and Pb), but depletions in the high-field-strength elements (Nb, Ta, and Ti), which geochemically resemble Andean arc basalts. Therefore, the MF bimodal volcanic rocks were likely emplaced at an Andean-type active continental margin and represent an Early Cretaceous magmatic arc that was located at the western QT margin. Moreover, the mafic volcanic rocks have high initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.705269-0.705413) and negative εNd(t) values of -1.5 to -0.6 compared with the silicic volcanic rocks ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.704770-0.704903; εNd(t) = +1.2 to +1.3). Zircons from silicic samples have significantly higher εHf(t) values (+11.6 to +15.5) and predominantly lower Paleoproterozoic Hf crustal model ages (TDMC = 180-428 Ma) than the mafic samples, which have variable εHf(t) values of +3.4 to +13.0 and TDMC ages of 346-952 Ma. These results indicate that the mafic and silicic end-members of the MF bimodal suite were generated from mantle and crustal sources, respectively. The basaltic andesite and andesite may have been

  14. Growth of early continental crust by water-present eclogite melting in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, A.; Stevens, G.

    2011-12-01

    The geochemistry of well preserved Paleo- to Meso-Archaean Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) suite rocks, such as the ca 3.45 Ga trondhjemites from the Barberton greenstone belt in South Africa, provides insight into the origins of Earth's early felsic continental crust. This is particularly well demonstrated by the high-Al2O3 variety of these magmas, such as the Barberton rocks, where the geochemistry requires that they are formed by high pressure (HP) melting of a garnet-rich metamafic source. This has been interpreted as evidence for the formation of these magmas by anatexis of the upper portions of slabs within Archaean subduction zones. Most of the experimental data relevant to Archaean TTG genesis has been generated by studies of fluid-absent melting of metabasaltic sources. However, water drives arc magmatism within Phanerozoic subduction zones and thus, understanding the behaviour of water in Archaean subduction zones, may have considerable value for understanding the genesis of these TTG magmas. Consequently, this study investigates the role of HP water-present melting of an eclogite-facies starting material, in the production of high-Al2O3 type TTG melts. Water-saturated partial melting experiments were conducted between 1.9 and 3.0GPa; and, 870°C and 900°C. The melting reaction is characterized by the breakdown of sodic Cpx, together with Qtz and H2O, to form melt in conjunction with a less sodic Cpx: Qtz + Cpx1 + Grt1 + H2O = Melt + Cpx2 + Grt2. In many of the experimental run products, melt segregated efficiently from residual crystals, allowing for the measurement of a full range of trace elements via Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. The experimental glasses produced by this study have the compositions of peraluminous trondhjemites; and they are light rare earth element, Zr and Sr enriched; and heavy rare earth element, Y and Nb depleted. The compositions of the experimental glasses are similar to high-Al2O3 type

  15. Composition, Age, and Origin of Cretaceous Granitic Magmatism on the Eastern Chukchi Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Pease, V.; Miller, E.; Belyatsky, B. V.

    2018-05-01

    New geochronological and isotopic geochemical data are given, which make it possible to recognize two types of granitic rocks on the eastern Chukchi Peninsula. Early Cretaceous Tkachen and Dolina granitic plutons with zircon ages (U-Pb SIMS) of 119-122 and 131-136 Ma are related to the first type. They cut through Devonian-Lower Carboniferous basement rocks and are overlain by the Aptian-Albian Etelkuyum Formation. Basal units of the latter contain fragments of granitic rocks. Late Cretaceous Provideniya and Rumilet granitic plutons, which contain zircons with ages of 94 and 85 Ma (U-Pb SIMS), respectively, belong to the second type. They cut through volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Etelkuyum and Leurvaam formations pertaining to the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt. In petrographic and geochemical features, the Early Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Tkachen Pluton are commensurable with I-type granites, while Late Cretaceous granite of the Rumilet Pluton is comparable to A2-type granite. The Sr-Nd isotopic data provide evidence that from the Early Cretaceous Tkachen and Dolina plutons to the Late Cretaceous Provideniya and Rumilet plutons, the degree of crustal assimilation of suprasubduction mantle-derived melts increases up to partial melting of heterogeneous continental crust enriched in rubidium. An unconformity and various degrees of secondary alteration of volcanic-sedimentary rocks have been established in the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, and this was apparently caused by transition of the tectonic setting from suprasubduction to a transform margin with local extension.

  16. The eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region during the Cretaceous: New evidence to constrain its tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosson, Marc; Stephenson, Randell; Sheremet, Yevgeniya; Rolland, Yann; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Yegorova, Tamara; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Danelian, Taniel; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Müller, Carla; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Mosar, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We report new observations in the eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Neotethys in the Cretaceous. At that time, the Neotethys oceanic plate was subducting northward below the continental Eurasia plate. Based on the analysis of the obducted ophiolites that crop out throughout Lesser Caucasus and East Anatolides, we show that a spreading center (AESA basin) existed within the Neotethys, between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Later, the spreading center was carried into the subduction with the Neotethys plate. We argue that the subduction of the spreading center opened a slab window that allowed asthenospheric material to move upward, in effect thermally and mechanically weakening the otherwise strong Eurasia upper plate. The local weakness zone favored the opening of the Black Sea back-arc basins. Later, in the Late Cretaceous, the AESA basin obducted onto the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia Microplate (TASAM), which then collided with Eurasia along a single suture zone (AESA suture).

  17. Reappraisal of Europe’s most complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian: Brancasaurus brancai Wegner, 1914 from the “Wealden facies” of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Jahn J.; Kear, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European “Wealden facies,” but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian). Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B. brancai has suffered damage both during, and after WWII. Sadly, these mishaps have resulted in the loss of substantial information, in particular many structures of the cranium and limb girdles, which are today only evidenced from published text and/or illustrations. This non-confirmable data has, however, proven crucial for determining the relationships of B. brancai within Plesiosauria: either as an early long-necked elasmosaurid, or a member of the controversial Early Cretaceous leptocleidid radiation. To evaluate these competing hypotheses and compile an updated osteological compendium, we undertook a comprehensive examination of the holotype as it is now preserved, and also assessed other Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian fossils to establish a morphological hypodigm. Phylogenetic simulations using the most species-rich datasets of Early Cretaceous plesiosaurians incorporating revised scores for B. brancai, together with a second recently named Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian Gronausaurus wegneri (Hampe, 2013), demonstrated that referral of these taxa to Leptocleididae was not unanimous, and that the topological stability of this clade is tenuous. In addition, the trait combinations manifested by B. brancai and G. wegneri were virtually identical. We therefore conclude that these monotypic individuals are ontogenetic morphs and G. wegneri is a junior synonym of B. brancai. Finally, anomalies detected in the diagnostic features for other

  18. Polychronous (Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene) emplacement of the Mundwara alkaline complex, Rajasthan, India: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, petrochemistry and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Kanchan; Cucciniello, Ciro; Sheth, Hetu; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Purohit, Ritesh; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Shinde, Sapna

    2017-07-01

    The Mundwara alkaline plutonic complex (Rajasthan, north-western India) is considered a part of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Deccan Traps flood basalt province, based on geochronological data (mainly 40Ar/39Ar, on whole rocks, biotite and hornblende). We have studied the petrology and mineral chemistry of some Mundwara mafic rocks containing mica and amphibole. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement of the complex at middle to upper crustal levels. We have obtained new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 80-84 Ma on biotite separates from mafic rocks and 102-110 Ma on whole-rock nepheline syenites. There is no evidence for excess 40Ar. The combined results show that some of the constituent intrusions of the Mundwara complex are of Deccan age, but others are older and unrelated to the Deccan Traps. The Mundwara alkaline complex is thus polychronous and similar to many alkaline complexes around the world that show recurrent magmatism, sometimes over hundreds of millions of years. The primary biotite and amphibole in Mundwara mafic rocks indicate hydrous parental magmas, derived from hydrated mantle peridotite at relatively low temperatures, thus ruling out a mantle plume. This hydration and metasomatism of the Rajasthan lithospheric mantle may have occurred during Jurassic subduction under Gondwanaland, or Precambrian subduction events. Low-degree decompression melting of this old, enriched lithospheric mantle, due to periodic diffuse lithospheric extension, gradually built the Mundwara complex from the Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene time.

  19. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early Cretaceous Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    PubMed

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia , Bartramiopsis , and Alophosia . Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  20. A new hynobiid-like salamander (Amphibia, Urodela) from Inner Mongolia, China, provides a rare case study of developmental features in an Early Cretaceous fossil urodele

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th–45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes. The new salamander appears to be closely related to hynobiids, although this inferred relationship awaits confirmation by research in progress by us on a morphological and molecular combined analysis of cryptobranchoid relationships. Comparison of adult with larval and postmetamorphic juvenile specimens provides insights into developmental patterns of cranial and postcranial skeletons in this fossil species, especially resorption of the palatine and anterior portions of the palatopterygoid in the palate and the coronoid in the mandible during metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic ossification of the mesopodium in both manus and pes. Thus, this study provides a rare case study of developmental features in a Mesozoic salamander. PMID:27761316

  1. Mid-Cretaceous carbon cycle perturbations and Oceanic Anoxic Events recorded in southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Kefan; Hu, Dongping; Sha, Jingeng

    2016-12-01

    The organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) curve for ~1.7-km-thick mid-Cretaceous strata of the Chaqiela section in Gamba area, southern Tibet is presented in this study. C-isotopic chemostratigraphic correlation combined with biostratigraphic constraints show that the Chaqiela section spans early Aptian through early Campanian period, and that almost all of the carbon cycle perturbations and Oceanic Anoxic Events during the mid-Cretaceous period are well recorded in the continental margin area of the southeastern Tethys Ocean. Significantly, two levels of methane-derived authigenic carbonates were identified at the onset of OAE1b near the Aptian-Albian boundary. We suggest that an increase in methane release from gas hydrates, potentially driven by sea-level fall and bottom water temperature increase, may have contributed to the large negative δ13Corg excursions and global warming during OAE1b.

  2. Did in-place rotation of South America during the Early Cretaceous create both the early South Atlantic rift/salt basin and the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province? Peter Szatmari1 and Edison J. Milani1 1Petrobras Research Center (CENPES) Geological Research & Development (PDGEO), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmari, P.; Milani, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large igneous provinces with continental flood basalts, some related to rifting, have been traditionally attributed to mantle plume heads rising from the lower mantle. The early Cretaceous South Atlantic rift, an archetype of plate tectonics, and the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts on land outside the rift, formed as South America rotated clockwise about a pole in its northeastern tip (Rabinowitz & LaBrecque, 1979), away from Africa and toward the subduction zone on its Pacific margin. This rotation opened the early South Atlantic southward while it kept the Equatorial Atlantic gateway to the Central Atlantic and the Tethys closed by compression. Rifting started in the late Jurassic in the extreme south, near the subduction zone at the continent's southern tip. It rapidly propagated NNE, mainly along inherited late Proterozoic (mostly Ediacaran) fold belts, and reached what has later become the eastern end of the Equatorial margin still in latest Jurassic time. Massive mostly basaltic volcanism peaked about 20 Ma later in Hauterivian time (136 to 130 Ma), forming dike swarms which, in the south, are accompanied by flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. The massive rise of mostly tholeiitic magma resulted from hotspot-like high temperatures prevailing beneath the cold and thick Gondwana lithosphere that had remained unbroken since Proterozoic times for about 400 Ma. Early basalt dike swarms trending E-W and SE-NW were transversal to the rift. They are two-three hundred kilometers long and 1000-2000 km apart, penetrating far into the continent's unrifted lithosphere and cutting through all inherited Proterozoic structures that controlled rifting. The successive basalt dike swarms (and their individual dikes) increase in thickness to the southwest, away from the continent's pole of rotation, as does the width of the rift. The E-W-trending Ceará-Mirim dike swarm occurs in the extreme northeast of the continent. Further southwest the

  3. Preliminary source rock evaluation and hydrocarbon generation potential of the early Cretaceous subsurface shales from Shabwah sub-basin in the Sabatayn Basin, Western Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Matary, Adel M.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Al Sofi, Sadam; Al-Nehmi, Yousif A.; Al-haj, Mohammed Ail; Al-Hmdani, Yousif A.; Al-Sarhi, Ahmed A.

    2018-06-01

    A conventional organic geochemical study has been performed on the shale samples collected from the early Cretaceous Saar Formation from the Shabwah oilfields in the Sabatayn Basin, Western Yemen. The results of this study were used to preliminary evaluate the potential source-rock of the shales in the Saar Formation. Organic matter richness, type, and petroleum generation potential of the analysed shales were assessed. Total organic carbon content and Rock- Eval pyrolysis results indicate that the shale intervals within the early Cretaceous Saar Formation have a wide variation in source rock generative potential and quality. The analysed shale samples have TOC content in the range of 0.50 and 5.12 wt% and generally can be considered as fair to good source rocks. The geochemical results of this study also indicate that the analysed shales in the Saar Formation are both oil- and gas-prone source rocks, containing Type II kerogen and mixed Types II-III gradient to Type III kerogen. This is consistent with Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 66 and 552 mg HC/g TOC. The temperature-sensitive parameters such as vitrinite reflectance (%VRo), Rock-Eval pyrolysis Tmax and PI reveal that the analysed shale samples are generally immature to early-mature for oil-window. Therefore, the organic matter has not been altered by thermal maturity thus petroleum has not yet generated. Therefore, exploration strategies should focus on the known deeper location of the Saar Formation in the Shabwah-sub-basin for predicting the kitchen area.

  4. Early dolomitization in the Lower Cretaceous shallow-water carbonates of Southern Apennines (Italy): Clues about palaeoclimatic fluctuations in western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Francesco; Iannace, Alessandro; Parente, Mariano; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the dolomitized bodies present in the Lower Cretaceous platform carbonates of Mt. Faito (Southern Apennines - Italy) was carried out in order to explore the connection between early dolomite formation and fluctuating climate conditions. The Berriasian-Aptian investigated succession is 466 m thick and mainly consists of shallow-water lagoonal limestones with frequent dolomite caps. The dolomitization intensity varies along the succession and reaches its peak in the upper Hauterivian-lower Barremian interval, where it is present a completely dolomitized interval about 100-m-thick. Field relations, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the analyzed dolomite bodies allowed identifying two populations of early dolomites, a fine-medium crystalline (FMdol) and a coarse crystalline dolomite (Cdol), both interpreted as the product of mesohaline water reflux. According to our interpretation, FMdol precipitated from concentrated brines in the very early stage of the reflux process, producing typical sedimentary features as dolomite caps. In the successive step of the process, the basin-ward 'latent' reflux precipitated Cdol from less concentrated brines. A peculiar feature of the studied succession is the great consistency between stratigraphic distribution of dolomite bodies and their geochemical signature. The completely dolomitized Hauterivian-Barremian interval, in fact, is characterized by geochemical values suggesting an origin from distinctly saltier brines. Considering that the observed near-surface dolomitization process is controlled by physical and chemical parameters reflecting the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during dolomite formation, we propose that the stratigraphically controlled dolomitization intensity reflects periodic fluctuations in the salinity of dolomitizing fluid, in turn controlled by long-term climate oscillations. The present work highlights that the stratigraphic distribution of early

  5. Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-early Tertiary ore-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana

    Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.

    2017-05-01

    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  7. A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and the early radiation of duck-billed dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Sues, Hans-Dieter; Averianov, Alexander

    2009-07-22

    Levnesovia transoxiana gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous (Middle-Late Turonian) of Uzbekistan, is the oldest well-documented taxon referable to Hadrosauroidea sensu Godefroit et al. It differs from a somewhat younger and closely related Bactrosaurus from Inner Mongolia (China) by a tall sagittal crest on the parietals and the absence of club-shaped dorsal neural spines in adult specimens. Levnesovia, Bactrosaurus and possibly Gilmoreosaurus represent the earliest radiation of Hadrosauroidea, which took place during the Cenomanian-Turonian and possibly in North America. The second, Santonian-age radiation of Hadrosauroidea included Aralosaurus, Hadrosauridae and lineages leading to Tanius (Campanian) and Telmatosaurus (Maastrichtian). Hadrosauridae appears to be monophyletic, but Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae originated in North America and Asia, respectively.

  8. Paleoenvironments of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Oceans: Selected Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogg, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    There are many themes contributing to the sedimentation history of the Mesozoic oceans. This overview briefly examines the roles of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and the associated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, of the evolution of marine calcareous microplankton, of major transgressive and regressive trends, and of super-plume eruptions. Initiation of Atlantic seafloor spreading in the Middle Jurassic coincided with an elevated carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific-Tethys mega-ocean. Organic-rich sediments that would become the oil wealth of regions from Saudi Arabia to the North Sea were deposited during a continued rise in CCD during the Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian, which suggests a possible increase in carbon dioxide release by oceanic volcanic activity. Deep-sea deposits in near-equatorial settings are dominated by siliceous shales or cherts, which reflect the productivity of siliceous microfossils in the tropical surface waters. The end-Jurassic explosion in productivity by calcareous microplankton contributed to the lowering of the CCD and onset of the chalk ("creta") deposits that characterize the Tithonian and lower Cretaceous in all ocean basins. During the mid-Cretaceous, the eruption of enormous Pacific igneous provinces (Ontong Java Plateau and coeval edifices) increased carbon dioxide levels. The resulting rise in CCD terminated chalk deposition in the deep sea. The excess carbon was progressively removed in widespread black-shale deposits in the Atlantic basins and other regions - another major episode of oil source rock. A major long-term transgression during middle and late Cretaceous was accompanied by extensive chalk deposition on continental shelves and seaways while the oceanic CCD remained elevated. Pacific guyots document major oscillations (sequences) of global sea level superimposed on this broad highstand. The Cretaceous closed with a progressive sea-level regression and lowering of the CCD that again enabled

  9. Potomacapnos apeleutheron gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm from the Potomac Group and its implications for the evolution of eudicot leaf architecture.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A; Hickey, Leo J

    2013-12-01

    Eudicots diverged early in the evolution of flowering plants and now comprise more than 70% of angiosperm species. In spite of the importance of eudicots, our understanding of the early evolution of this clade is limited by a poor fossil record and uncertainty about the order of early phylogenetic branching. The study of Lower Cretaceous fossils can reveal much about the evolution, morphology, and ecology of the eudicots. Fossils described here were collected from Aptian sediments of the Potomac Group exposed at the Dutch Gap locality in Virginia, USA. Specimens were prepared by degaging, then described and compared with leaves of relevant extant and fossil plants. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters using parsimony while constraining the tree search with the topology found through molecular phylogenetic analyses. The new species is closely related to ranunculalean eudicots and has leaf architecture remarkably similar to some living Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae). These are the oldest eudicot megafossils from North America, and they show complex leaf architecture reflecting developmental pathways unique to extant eudicots. The morphology and small size of the fossils suggest that they were herbaceous plants, as is seen in other putative early eudicots. The absence of co-occurring tricolpate pollen at Dutch Gap either (1) reflects low preservation probability for pollen of entomophilous herbs or (2) indicates that some leaf features of extant eudicots appeared before the origin of tricolpate pollen.

  10. Significance of the giant Lower Cretaceous paleoweathering event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Médard; Ricordel-Prognon, Caroline; Schmitt, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    . Increased pCO2 has no direct effect on the appearance of gibbsite and hence on bauxite formation. Simulation of granite weathering at higher temperature (35 instead of 25°C) shows that gibbsite appears earlier, with about 20% less rainwater flushed through the profile, as a result of the increase in silica solubility between 25 and 35°C. The modelling also shows that elevated atmospheric CO2 values strongly accelerate the formation of deep kaolinitic profiles. This explains why deep kaolinized profiles, and kaolinite deposits have been widespread during the Cretaceous, even at extratropical latitudes, and under cool, moderately humide climate conditions. There is no direct effect of the simulated increased CO2 atmosphere on the rapidity of bauxitisation, but we know that the induced greenhouse effect and the particular Cretaceous paleogeography have both resulted in an increase in rainfall and in an important warming at intermediate latitudes. The simulation shows that the conjunction of these two factors is likely responsible for the expansion of the bauxites during the Cretaceous. Imprint in the sedimentary record The massive kaolinite formation during the Lower Cretaceous had a major impact on the clay mineral series of the sedimentary basins. The Upper Cretaceous sea level rise lead to the reworking of the kaolinitic weathering cover. Nevertheless the kaolinitic weathering paleoprofiles remained in place on wide continental areas until the Tertiary. A major reworking of these paleoprofiles occurred in Europe during the early Tertiary, when the climate became seasonally drier and vegetation cover more sparse, combined with the first Alpine tectonic movements. The kaolinite deposits of the Lower Eocene are mostly inherited from the Lower Cretaceous giant paleoweathering event. Berner R.A., Kothavala Z., 2001, GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science, 3001, p. 182-204. Bornemann, R.D. Norris, O. Friedrich, B

  11. A paleolatitude reconstruction of the South Armenian Block (Lesser Caucasus) for the Late Cretaceous: Constraints on the Tethyan realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Smith, Brigitte; Kirscher, Uwe; Mensink, Marily; Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Grigoryan, Araik; Sahakyan, Lilit; Avagyan, Ara; Langereis, Cor; Müller, Carla

    2015-03-01

    The continental South Armenian Block - part of the Anatolide-Tauride South Armenian microplate - of Gondwana origin rifted from the African margin after the Triassic and collided with the Eurasian margin after the Late Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, two northward dipping subduction zones were simultaneously active in the northern Neo-Tethys between the South Armenian Block in the south and the Eurasian margin in the north: oceanic subduction took place below the continental Eurasian margin and intra-oceanic subduction resulted in ophiolite obduction onto the South Armenian Block in the Late Cretaceous. The paleolatitude position of the South Armenian Block before its collision with Eurasia within paleogeographic reconstructions is poorly determined and limited to one study. This earlier study places the South Armenian Block at the African margin in the Early Jurassic. To reconstruct the paleolatitude history of the South Armenian Block, we sampled Upper Devonian-Permian and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Armenia. The sampled Paleozoic rocks have likely been remagnetized. Results from two out of three sites sampled in Upper Cretaceous strata pass fold tests and probably all three carry a primary paleomagnetic signal. The sampled sedimentary rocks were potentially affected by inclination shallowing. Therefore, two sites that consist of a large number of samples (> 100) were corrected for inclination shallowing using the elongation/inclination method. These are the first paleomagnetic data that quantify the South Armenian Block's position in the Tethys ocean between post-Triassic rifting from the African margin and post-Cretaceous collision with Eurasia. A locality sampled in Lower Campanian Eurasian margin sedimentary rocks and corrected for inclination shallowing, confirms that the corresponding paleolatitude falls on the Eurasian paleolatitude curve. The north-south distance between the South Armenian Block and the Eurasian margin just after Coniacian

  12. Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and stratigraphic development of the Early Cretaceous sediments (Lower Bima Member) in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abubakar, M. B.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Amir Hassan, M. H.; Adamu, Bappah U.; Jitong, John S.; Aliyu, Abdulkarim H.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2014-08-01

    The Benue Trough of Nigeria is a major rift basin formed from the tension generated by the separation of African and South American plates in the Early Cretaceous. It is geographically sub-divided into Southern, Central and Northern Benue portions. The Northern Benue Trough comprises two sub-basins; the N-S trending Gongola Sub-basin and the E-W trending Yola Sub-basin. The Bima Formation is the oldest lithogenetic unit occupying the base of the Cretaceous successions in the Northern Benue Trough. It is differentiated into three members; the Lower Bima (B1), the Middle Bima (B2) and the Upper Bima (B3). Facies and their stratigraphical distribution analyses were conducted on the Lower Bima Member exposed mainly at the core of the NE-SW axially trending Lamurde Anticline in the Yola Sub-basin, with an objective to interpret the paleodepositional environments, and to reconstruct the depositional model and the stratigraphical architecture. Ten (10) lithofacies were identified on the basis of lithology, grain size, sedimentary structures and paleocurrent analysis. The facies constitute three (3) major facies associations; the gravelly dominated, the sandy dominated and the fine grain dominated. These facies and facies associations were interpreted and three facies successions were recognized; the alluvial-proximal braided river, the braided river and the lacustrine-marginal lacustrine. The stratigraphic architecture indicates a rifted (?pull-apart) origin as the facies distribution shows a progradational succession from a shallow lacustrine/marginal lacustrine (at the axial part of the basin) to alluvial fan (sediment gravity flow)-proximal braided river (gravel bed braided river) and braided river (channel and overbank) depositional systems. The facies stacking patterns depict sedimentation mainly controlled by allogenic factors of climate and tectonism.

  13. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameil, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  14. Deciphering the preservation of fossil insects: a case study from the Crato Member, Early Cretaceous of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Setembrino; Becker-Kerber, Bruno; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Rizzutto, Marcia de Almeida; Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; da Silva, Tiago Fiorini; Curado, Jessica F.; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Ribeiro, Rafael Parra; Pacheco, Mírian Liza Alves Forancelli

    2016-01-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved three-dimensional insects with fine details and even labile tissues are ubiquitous in the Crato Member Konservat Lagerstätte (northeastern Brazil). Here we investigate the preservational pathways which yielded such specimens. We employed high resolution techniques (EDXRF, SR-SXS, SEM, EDS, micro Raman, and PIXE) to understand their fossilisation on mineralogical and geochemical grounds. Pseudomorphs of framboidal pyrite, the dominant fossil microfabric, display size variation when comparing cuticle with inner areas or soft tissues, which we interpret as the result of the balance between ion diffusion rates and nucleation rates of pyrite through the originally decaying carcasses. Furthermore, the mineral fabrics are associated with structures that can be the remains of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Geochemical data also point to a concentration of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the fossils in comparison to the embedding rock. Therefore, we consider that biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) had a central role in insect decay and mineralisation. Therefore, we shed light on exceptional preservation of fossils by pyritisation in a Cretaceous limestone lacustrine palaeoenvironment. PMID:28028459

  15. Multiple nuclear genes and retroposons support vicariance and dispersal of the palaeognaths, and an Early Cretaceous origin of modern birds.

    PubMed

    Haddrath, Oliver; Baker, Allan J

    2012-11-22

    The origin and timing of the diversification of modern birds remains controversial, primarily because phylogenetic relationships are incompletely resolved and uncertainty persists in molecular estimates of lineage ages. Here, we present a species tree for the major palaeognath lineages using 27 nuclear genes and 27 archaic retroposon insertions. We show that rheas are sister to the kiwis, emu and cassowaries, and confirm ratite paraphyly because tinamous are sister to moas. Divergence dating using 10 genes with broader taxon sampling, including emu, cassowary, ostrich, five kiwis, two rheas, three tinamous, three extinct moas and 15 neognath lineages, suggests that three vicariant events and possibly two dispersals are required to explain their historical biogeography. The age of crown group birds was estimated at 131 Ma (95% highest posterior density 122-138 Ma), similar to previous molecular estimates. Problems associated with gene tree discordance and incomplete lineage sorting in birds will require much larger gene sets to increase species tree accuracy and improve error in divergence times. The relatively rapid branching within neoaves pre-dates the extinction of dinosaurs, suggesting that the genesis of the radiation within this diverse clade of birds was not in response to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.

  16. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  17. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within

  18. Mesozoic units in SE Rhodope (Bulgaria): new structural and petrologic data and geodynamic implications for the Early Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, N.; Stampfli, G.

    2003-04-01

    . Immobile trace element discrimination of both rock types constrains the volcanic (oceanic)-arc origin. They generally show low total REE concentrations (LREE>HREE) with enrichment of LIL elements relative to the HFS elements, and also very low Nb and relatively high Ce content consistent with an island-arc tectonic setting. We consider that the Meliata-Maliac ocean northern passive margin could be the source provenance for the Upper Permian clastics and Middle-Upper Triassic limestone blocks within the olistostromic melange-like unit, whereas turbidites and magmatic blocks may originate in an island arc-accretionary complex that relates to the southward subduction of the Maliac ocean under the supra-subduction back-arc Vardar ocean/island arc system. These new structural and petrologic data allow to precise the tectonic setting of the Mesozoic units and their geodynamic context in the frame of the Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean.

  19. Mid-Cretaceous aeolian desert systems in the Yunlong area of the Lanping Basin, China: Implications for palaeoatmosphere dynamics and paleoclimatic change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojie; Wu, Chihua; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Yi, Haisheng; Xia, Guoqing; Wagreich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The mid-Cretaceous constitutes a period of worldwide atmospheric and oceanic change associated with slower thermohaline circulation and ocean anoxic events, possible polar glaciations and by a changing climate pattern becoming controlled by a zonal planetary wind system and an equatorial humid belt. During the mid-Cretaceous, the subtropical high-pressure arid climate belt of the planetary wind system controlled the palaeolatitude distribution of humid belts in Asia as well as the spatial distribution of rain belts over the massive continental blocks at mid-low latitudes in the southern and northern hemispheres. Additionally, the orographic effect of the Andean-type active continental margin in East Asia hindered the transportation of ocean moisture to inland regions. With rising temperatures and palaeoatmospheric conditions dominated by high pressure systems, desert climate environments expanded at the inland areas of East Asia including those accumulated in the mid-Cretaceous of the Simao Basin, the Sichuan Basin, and the Thailand's Khorat Basin, and leading the Late Cretaceous erg systems in the Xinjiang Basin and Jianghan Basin. This manuscript presents evidences that allow to reinterpret previously considered water-laid sediments to be accumulated as windblown deposits forming part of extensive erg (sandy desert) systems. Using a multidisciplinary approach including petrological, sedimentological and architectural observations, the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Turonian) Nanxin Formation from the Yunlong region of Lanping Basin, formerly considered to aqueous deposits is here interpreted as representing aeolian deposits, showing local aeolian-fluvial interaction deposits. The palaeowind directions obtained from the analysis of aeolian dune cross-beddings indicates that inland deserts were compatible with a high-pressure cell (HPC) existing in the mid-low latitudes of East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous. Compared with the Early Cretaceous, the mid-Cretaceous had

  20. Europatitan eastwoodi, a new sauropod from the lower Cretaceous of Iberia in the initial radiation of somphospondylans in Laurasia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The sauropod of El Oterillo II is a specimen that was excavated from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation (Burgos, Spain), late Barremian–early Aptian, in the 2000s but initially remained undescribed. A tooth and elements of the axial skeleton, and the scapular and pelvic girdle, represent it. It is one of the most complete titanosauriform sauropods from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and presents an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the radiation of this clade in the Early Cretaceous and study the paleobiogeographical relationships of Iberia with Gondwana and with other parts of Laurasia. The late Barremian–early Aptian is the time interval in the Cretaceous with the greatest diversity of sauropod taxa described in Iberia: two titanosauriforms, Tastavinsaurus and Europatitan; and a rebbachisaurid, Demandasaurus. The new sauropod Europatitan eastwoodi n. gen. n. sp. presents a series of autapomorphic characters in the presacral vertebrae and scapula that distinguish it from the other sauropods of the Early Cretaceous of Iberia. Our phylogenetic study locates Europatitan as the basalmost member of the Somphospondyli, clearly differentiated from other clades such as Brachiosauridae and Titanosauria, and distantly related to the contemporaneous Tastavinsaurus. Europatitan could be a representative of a Eurogondwanan fauna like Demandasaurus, the other sauropod described from the Castrillo de la Reina Formation. The presence of a sauropod fauna with marked Gondwananan affinities in the Aptian of Iberia reinforces the idea of faunal exchanges between this continental masses during the Early Cretaceous. Further specimens and more detailed analysis are needed to elucidate if this Aptian fauna is caused by the presence of previously unnoticed Aptian land bridges, or it represents a relict fauna from an earlier dispersal event. PMID:28674644

  1. Grimmiaceae in the Early Cretaceous: Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. and the value of anatomically preserved bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Savoretti, Adolfina; Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2018-06-08

    Widespread and diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are rare in the fossil record, especially in pre-Cenozoic rocks. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known from compression fossils, which lack detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy significantly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) deposits on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora including numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is the grimmiaceous moss described here. One fossil moss gametophyte preserved in a carbonate concretion was studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. is a moss with tristichous phyllotaxis and strongly keeled leaves. The combination of an acrocarpous condition (inferred based on a series of morphological features), a central conducting strand, a homogeneous leaf costa and a lamina with bistratose portions and sinuous cells, and multicellular gemmae, supports placement of Tricarinella in family Grimmiaceae. Tricarinella is similar to Grimmia, a genus that exhibits broad morphological variability. However, tristichous phyllotaxis and especially the lamina, bistratose at the base but not in distal portions of the leaf, set Tricarinella apart as a distinct genus. Tricarinella crassiphylla marks the oldest record for both family Grimmiaceae and sub-class Dicranidae, providing a hard minimum age (136 million years) for these groups. The fact that this fossil could be placed in an extant family, despite a diminutive size, emphasizes the considerable resolving power of anatomically preserved bryophyte fossils, even when recovered from allochthonous assemblages of marine sediments, such as the Apple Bay flora. Discovery of Tricarinella re-emphasizes the importance of paleobotanical studies as the only approach allowing access to a significant segment

  2. Continental Arcs as Both Carbon Source and Sink in Regulating Long Term Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term variability of atmospheric pCO2 is determined by the balance between the rate of geologic inputs of CO­­2 (e.g., magmatic/metamorphic degassing, carbonate weathering) and the rate of carbonate precipitation driven by silicate weathering. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic was characterized by elevated atmospheric pCO2 and greenhouse climate, likely due to increased magmatic flux from mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, continental arcs. However, it has been suggested that continental arc magmatism is accompanied by rapid uplift and erosion due to magmatic/tectonic thickening of the crust, thus continental arcs likely enhance the chemical weathering flux, in turn increasing the carbon sink. To assess the contribution of continental arcs to global carbon inputs and sinks, we conducted a case study in the Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) and associated forearc basin in southern California, USA, representing one segment of the Cretaceous Cordillera arc-forearc system. Arc magmatism occurred between 170-85 Ma, peaking at 100 Ma, but erosion of the arc continues into the early Eocene, with forearc sediments representing this protracted arc unroofing. During magmatism, we estimate the CO2 degassing flux from the PRB was at least 5-25*105 mol·km-2·yr-1. By calculating the depletion of Ca and Mg in the forearc sediments relative to their arc protoliths, we estimate the silicate weathering/carbonate precipitation flux to be 106 mol·km-2·yr-1 during Late Cretaceous magmatism, decreasing to 105 mol·km-2·yr-1 by the Early Eocene. We show that during active continental arc magmatism, the CO2 degassing flux is comparable to CO2 consumption driven by silicate weathering in the arc. However, after magmatism ends, a regional imbalance arises in which the arc no longer contributes to CO2 inputs but continued silicate weathering of the arc drives carbonate precipitation such that the arc indirectly becomes CO2 sink. We propose that the development of

  3. Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada Basin

    Grantz, Arthur; Eittreim, Stephen L.; Whitney, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska is of Atlantic type. It began to form probably in Early Jurassic time but possibly in middle Early Cretaceous time, when the oceanic Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is thought to have opened by rifting about a pole of rotation near the Mackenzie Delta. Offsets of the rift along two fracture zones are thought to have divided the Alaskan margin into three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. In the Barter Island sector on the east and the Chukchi sector on the west the rift was closer to the present northern Alaska mainland than in the Barrow sector, which lies between them. In the Barter Island and Chukchi sectors the continental shelf is underlain by prisms of clastic sedimentary rocks that are inferred to include thick sections of Jurassic and Neocomian (lower Lower Cretaceous) strata of southern provenance. In the intervening Barrow sector the shelf is underlain by relatively thin sections of Jurassic and Neocomian strata derived from northern sources that now lie beneath the outer continental shelf. The rifted continental margin is overlain by a prograded prism of Albian (upper Lower Cretaceous) to Tertiary clastic sedimentary rocks that comprises the continental terrace of the western Beaufort and northern Chukchi Seas. On the south the prism is bounded by Barrow arch, which is a hingeline between the northward-tilted basement surface beneath the continental shelf of the western Beaufort Sea and the southward-tilted Arctic Platform of northern Alaska. The Arctic platform is overlain by shelf clastic and carbonate strata of Mississippian to Cretaceous age, and by Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata of the Colville foredeep. Both the Arctic platform and Colville foredeep sequences extend from northern Alaska beneath the northern Chukchi Sea. At Herald fault zone in the central Chukchi Sea they are overthrust by more strongly deformed Cretaceous to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Herald arch, which trends

  4. Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Deposits, Upper Abu Gabra Formation, Sufyan Sub-basin, Muglad Rift Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassin, Mohamed; Abdullatif, Osman; Hariri, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Sufyan Sub-basin is an East-West trending Sub-basin located in the northwestern part of the Muglad Basin (Sudan), in the eastern extension of the West and Central Africa Rift System (WCARS). The Early Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation considered as the main source rock in the Muglad Basin. In Sufyan Sub-basin the Early Cretaceous Upper Abu Gabra Formation is the main oil-producing reservoir. It is dominated by sandstone and shales deposited in fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine environment during the first rift cycle in the basin. Depositional and post-depositional processes highly influenced the reservoir quality and architecture. This study investigates different scales of reservoir heterogeneities from macro to micro scale. Subsurface facies analysis was analyzed based on the description of six conventional cores from two wells. Approaches include well log analysis, thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations, grain-size, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the Abu Gabra sandstone. The cores and well logs analyses revealed six lithofacies representing fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine depositional environment. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted and sub-angular to subrounded, Sub-feldspathic arenite to quartz arenite. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies within Abu Gabra reservoir where it shows progressive coarsening upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The upper part of the reservoir showed well connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to lower parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenesis.The XRD and SEM analyses show that kaolinite and chlorite clay are the common clay minerals in the studied samples. Clay matrix and quartz overgrowth have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability, while the dissolution of feldspars

  5. Reconstruction of an early Paleozoic continental margin based on the nature of protoliths in the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Slack, John F.; Shanks, W.C. Pat

    2014-01-01

    The Nome Complex is a large metamorphic unit that sits along the southern boundary of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane, the largest of several micro continental fragments of uncertain origin located between the Siberian and Laurentian cratons. The Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane moved into its present position during the Mesozoic; its Mesozoic and older movements are central to reconstruction of Arctic tectonic history. Accurate representation of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane in reconstructions of Late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic paleogeography is hampered by the paucity of information available. Most of the Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks in the Alaska–Chukotka terrane were penetratively deformed and recrystallized during the Mesozoic deformational events; primary features and relationships have been obliterated, and age control is sparse. We use a variety of geochemical, geochronologic, paleontologic, and geologic tools to read through penetrative deformation and reconstruct the protolith sequence of part of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka terrane, the Nome Complex. We confirm that the protoliths of the Nome Complex were part of the same Late Proterozoic to Devonian continental margin as weakly deformed rocks in the southern and central part of the terrane, the Brooks Range. We show that the protoliths of the Nome Complex represent a carbonate platform (and related rocks) that underwent incipient rifting, probably during the Ordovician, and that the carbonate platform was overrun by an influx of siliciclastic detritus during the Devonian. During early phases of the transition to siliciclastic deposition, restricted basins formed that were the site of sedimentary exhalative base-metal sulfide deposition. Finally, we propose that most of the basement on which the largely Paleozoic sedimentary protolith was deposited was subducted during the Mesozoic.

  6. Absurdaster, a new genus of basal atelostomate from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and its phylogenetic position☆

    PubMed Central

    Kroh, Andreas; Lukeneder, Alexander; Gallemí, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Field work in the Lower Cretaceous of the Dolomites (Italy) has resulted in the recovery of a new genus of ‘disasteroid’ echinoid, which successively was also discovered in slightly older strata in Northern Hungary. This new genus, Absurdaster, is characterized by its highly modified, disjunct apical disc in which all genital plate except genital plate 2 are reduced or fused. The gonopores (which may be multiple) have shifted and pierce interambulacral plates. Anteriorly ambulacrum III is distinctly sunken and forms a distinct frontal notch, while the posterior end is pointed and features a small sharply defined posterior face bearing the periproct. Two new species are established: Absurdaster puezensis sp. nov. from the Upper Hauterivian to Lower Barremian Puez Formation of Northern Italy is characterized by its rudimentary ambulacral pores in the paired ambulacra, high hexagonal ambulacral plates aborally and multiple gonopores in the most adapical plates of interambulacral columns 1b and 4a. Absurdaster hungaricus sp. nov. from the Lower Hauterivian Bersek Marl Formation of Northern Hungary, in contrast, shows circumflexed ambulacral pores, low ambulacral plates, a single gonopore each in the most adapical plates of interambulacral columns 1b and 4a and a flaring posterior end, with sharp margin and invaginated periproct. In addition to those two species Collyrites meriani Ooster, 1865 from the uppermost Berriasian to basal Barremian of Switzerland is attributed to the new genus. Despite the poor knowledge on this form it seems to be distinguished from the new species by its smaller ambulacral plates and higher interambulacral/ambulacral plate ratio. Phylogenetic analyses based on previous work by Barras (2007) and Saucède et al. (2007) indicate that the new genus is a highly derived stem-group member of the Atelostomata close to the split of holasteroids and spatangoids. A combined analysis based on a subset of the characters employed in these two studies

  7. Tectonostratigraphic reconstruction Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary in the northwestern Andes: from extensional tectonics to arc accretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, S.; Patino, A. M.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Leon, S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Valencia, V.; Parra, M.; Hincapie, S.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margins characterized by continuous convergence experienced overimposed tectonic configurations that allowed the formation of volcanic arcs, back arc basins, transtensional divergent tectonics or the accretion of exotic volcanic terranes. Such record, particularly the extensional phases, can be partially destroyed and obscure by multiple deformational events, the accretion of exotic terranes and strike slip fragmentation along the margin. The tectonic evolution of the northern Andes during the Mesozoic is the result of post Pangea extension followed by the installation of a long-lived Jurassic volcanic arc (209 - 136 ma) that apparently stops between 136 Ma and 110 Ma. The Quebradagrande Complex has been define as a single Lower Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary unit exposed in the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes that growth after the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic hiatus. The origin of this unit have been related either to an oceanic volcanic arc or a marginal basin environment. The existence of such contrasting models reflect the regional perspective followed in published studies and the paucity of detail analysis of the volcano-sedimentary sequences.We integrate multiple approaches including structural mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry, U-Pb provenance and geochronology to improve the understanding of this unit and track the earlier phases of accumulation that are mask on the overimposed tectonic history. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of different volcano-sedimentary units that accumulated between 100 Ma and 82 Ma.The older Lower Cretaceous sequences was deposited over Triassic metamorphic continental crust and include a upward basin deepening record characterized by thick fan delta conglomerates, followed by distal turbidites and a syn-sedimentary volcanic record at 100 ma. The other sequence include a 85 - 82 Ma fringing arc that was also formed close to the continental margin or

  8. Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation

    PubMed

    Sereno; Dutheil; Iarochene; Larsson; Lyon; Magwene; Sidor; Varricchio; Wilson

    1996-05-17

    Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) fossils discovered in the Kem Kem region of Morocco include large predatory dinosaurs that inhabited Africa as it drifted into geographic isolation. One, represented by a skull approximately 1.6 meters in length, is an advanced allosauroid referable to the African genus Carcharodontosaurus. Another, represented by a partial skeleton with slender proportions, is a new basal coelurosaur closely resembling the Egyptian genus Bahariasaurus. Comparisons with Cretaceous theropods from other continents reveal a previously unrecognized global radiation of carcharodontosaurid predators. Substantial geographic differentiation of dinosaurian faunas in response to continental drift appears to have arisen abruptly at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.

  9. A large, short-armed, winged dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China and its implications for feather evolution.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2015-07-16

    The famous 'feathered dinosaurs' from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, northeastern China, include several dromaeosaurids, which are among the closest relatives of birds. Most of these are small-bodied taxa with long arms and broad wings comprised of vaned feathers, but a single specimen (the holotype of Tianyuraptor) belongs to a much larger individual with reduced forelimbs, which unfortunately lacks any preserved integument. We describe a new specimen of large-bodied, short-armed Liaoning dromaeosaurid, which we designate as a new genus and species, Zhenyuanlong suni. The integument is well preserved and provides the first evidence of feather morphologies and distribution in a short-armed (and probably non-volant) dromaeosaurid, indicating that these rare and aberrant taxa had large wings consisting of pennaceous feathers on the arms and long pennaceous feathers on the tail very similar to their smaller and longer-armed relatives, but potentially lacked vaned feathers on the legs. Zhenyuanlong adds yet more diversity to the Liaoning dromaeosaurid fauna, helps further reveal a distinct short-armed bauplan among dromaeosaurids, and illuminates previously-unrecognized homoplasy that complicates dromaeosaurid phylogeny and suggests that the Liaoning taxa may not have formed their own clade.

  10. Genesis of late Early Cretaceous high-silica rhyolites in eastern Zhejiang Province, southeast China: A crystal mush origin with mantle input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Heng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Wilde, Simon A.

    2018-01-01

    Voluminous Mesozoic felsic volcanic rocks and granites in southeastern China provide a unique opportunity for studying the role of crustal magmatism in the evolution and modification of the crust in the eastern Cathaysia Block. The high-silica rhyolites of the upper volcanic sequence in eastern Zhejiang Province were investigated, focusing on their genesis and their relationship with contemporaneous granites. Rhyolites in the Tiantai, Yongkang and Liucheng basins were dated as late Early Cretaceous (from 111 Ma to 106 Ma in age). These rocks contain a large proportion of inherited zircons of ca. 130 Ma, corresponding to the age of the lower volcanic sequence in the area. However, the zircons of different ages have similar ranges of oxygen and Hf isotopes, implying similarities in the magmas from which they were generated. The rhyolites of the upper sequence also resemble those of the lower sequence in terms of their geochemistry. It is concluded that the former were derived by reworking of magma mush formed during the earlier magmatic episode via fractionation of feldspars and accessory minerals, e.g., zircon. Fractionation took place within the magma crystal mush by extraction of interstitial melts and accumulation of residual mineral phases, aided by the emplacement of contemporaneous basaltic magmas at the base of the crust. Overall, the geochemical features of the volcanic rocks in southeastern China indicate that episodic magmatism and reworking of crystal mush were essential mechanisms that drove the evolution of the igneous rocks and the hence crustal architecture in this area.

  11. The Changing Nature of the Hawaiian Hotspot in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary: Evidence From Helium Isotopes and Melt Inclusion Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.; Graham, D.; Duncan, R.; Regelous, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 recovered basaltic basement from three of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Emperor seamounts: Detroit (Sites 1203 and 1204), Nintoku (Site 1205), and Koko (Site 1206) seamounts. The depths of penetration into basement achieved by this drilling (140-450 m), the range of rock types recovered (hawaiites, alkalic basalts, and tholeiitic basalts), and the age range (48-76 Ma) makes this one of the most comprehensive collections of the volcanic products of the Hawaiian hotspot available, and opens up new opportunities to study the temporal evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Previous studies of the chemical evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot (Lanphere et al., 1980; Keller et al., 2000) found significant temporal variations. For example, Sr isotopic ratios of the tholeiitic basalts remain fairly constant along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge between Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, but then decrease steadily northward along the Emperor seamounts. Trace element compositions (especially the rare earth element patterns) also show limited variations along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge, but change toward more depleted values northward along the Emperor seamounts. The trend to more MORB-like compositions back in time was attributed to a decrease in distance between the hotspot and the nearest spreading center, although a more comprehensive study suggests that variations in lithospheric thickness also caused changes in the composition of the plume melts (Regelous et al., 2002). We will complement these previous studies and the ongoing work of the other Leg 197 scientists by studying two aspects of the Emperor seamount basalts: helium isotopes and melt inclusion compositions. We will measure the helium isotopic ratios of selected olivine separates from three of the Leg 197 drill sites and from DSDP Site 433 on Suiko seamount (65 Ma) to determine if the composition of the Hawaiian "plume signal

  12. Evidence of a Cooler Continental Climate in East China during the Warm Early Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Smith, Thierry; Yang, Jian; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The early Cenozoic was characterized by a very warm climate especially during the Early Eocene. To understand climatic changes in eastern Asia, we reconstructed the Early Eocene vegetation and climate based on palynological data of a borehole from Wutu coal mine, East China and evaluated the climatic differences between eastern Asia and Central Europe. The Wutu palynological assemblages indicated a warm temperate vegetation succession comprising mixed needle- and broad-leaved forests. Three periods of vegetation succession over time were recognized. The changes of palynomorph relative abundance indicated that period 1 was warm and humid, period 2 was relatively warmer and wetter, and period 3 was cooler and drier again. The climatic parameters estimated by the coexistence approach (CA) suggested that the Early Eocene climate in Wutu was warmer and wetter. Mean annual temperature (MAT) was approximately 16°C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was 800-1400 mm. Comparison of the Early Eocene climatic parameters of Wutu with those of 39 other fossil floras of different age in East China, reveals that 1) the climate became gradually cooler during the last 65 million years, with MAT dropping by 9.3°C. This cooling trend coincided with the ocean temperature changes but with weaker amplitude; 2) the Early Eocene climate was cooler in East China than in Central Europe; 3) the cooling trend in East China (MAT dropped by 6.9°C) was gentler than in Central Europe (MAT dropped by 13°C) during the last 45 million years.

  13. Evidence of a Cooler Continental Climate in East China during the Warm Early Cenozoic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Smith, Thierry; Yang, Jian; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The early Cenozoic was characterized by a very warm climate especially during the Early Eocene. To understand climatic changes in eastern Asia, we reconstructed the Early Eocene vegetation and climate based on palynological data of a borehole from Wutu coal mine, East China and evaluated the climatic differences between eastern Asia and Central Europe. The Wutu palynological assemblages indicated a warm temperate vegetation succession comprising mixed needle- and broad-leaved forests. Three periods of vegetation succession over time were recognized. The changes of palynomorph relative abundance indicated that period 1 was warm and humid, period 2 was relatively warmer and wetter, and period 3 was cooler and drier again. The climatic parameters estimated by the coexistence approach (CA) suggested that the Early Eocene climate in Wutu was warmer and wetter. Mean annual temperature (MAT) was approximately 16°C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was 800–1400 mm. Comparison of the Early Eocene climatic parameters of Wutu with those of 39 other fossil floras of different age in East China, reveals that 1) the climate became gradually cooler during the last 65 million years, with MAT dropping by 9.3°C. This cooling trend coincided with the ocean temperature changes but with weaker amplitude; 2) the Early Eocene climate was cooler in East China than in Central Europe; 3) the cooling trend in East China (MAT dropped by 6.9°C) was gentler than in Central Europe (MAT dropped by 13°C) during the last 45 million years. PMID:27196048

  14. Paleoclimate in continental northwestern Europe during the Eemian and early Weichselian (125-97 ka): insights from a Belgian speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Keppens, Eddy; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The last interglacial serves as an excellent time interval for studying climate dynamics during past warm periods. Speleothems have been successfully used for reconstructing the paleoclimate of last interglacial continental Europe. However, all previously investigated speleothems are restricted to southern Europe or the Alps, leaving large parts of northwestern Europe undocumented. To better understand regional climate changes over the past, a larger spatial coverage of European last interglacial continental records is essential, and speleothems, because of their ability to obtain excellent chronologies, can provide a major contribution. Here, we present new, high-resolution data from a stalagmite (Han-9) obtained from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in Belgium. Han-9 formed between 125.3 and ˜ 97 ka, with interruptions of growth occurring at 117.3-112.9 and 106.6-103.6 ka. The speleothem was investigated for its growth, morphology and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) composition. The speleothem started growing relatively late within the last interglacial, at 125.3 ka, as other European continental archives suggest that Eemian optimum conditions were already present during that time. It appears that the initiation of Han-9 growth is caused by an increase in moisture availability, linked to wetter conditions around 125.3 ka. The δ13C and δ18O proxies indicate a period of relatively stable conditions after 125.3 ka; however, at 120 ka the speleothem δ18O registered the first signs of regionally changing climate conditions, being a modification of ocean source δ18O linked to an increase in ice volume towards the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d transition. At 117.5 ka, drastic vegetation changes are recorded by Han-9 δ13C immediately followed by a cessation of speleothem growth at 117.3 ka, suggesting a transition to significantly dryer conditions. The Han-9 record covering the early Weichselian displays larger amplitudes in both isotope proxies and changes in stalagmite

  15. The development of the continental margin of eastern North America-conjugate continental margin to West Africa

    Dillon, William P.; Schlee, J.S.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1988-01-01

    The continental margin of eastern North America was initiated when West Africa and North America were rifted apart in Triassic-Early Jurassic time. Cooling of the crust and its thinning by rifting and extension caused subsidence. Variation in amounts of subsidence led to formation of five basins. These are listed from south to north. (1) The Blake Plateau Basin, the southernmost, is the widest basin and the one in which the rift-stage basement took longest to form. Carbonate platform deposition was active and persisted until the end of Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous, deposition slowed while subsidence persisted, so a deep water platform was formed. Since the Paleocene the region has undergone erosion. (2) The Carolina Trough is narrow and has relatively thin basement, on the basis of gravity modeling. The two basins with thin basement, the Carolina Trough and Scotian Basin, also show many salt diapirs indicating considerable deposition of salt during their early evolution. In the Carolina Trough, subsidence of a large block of strata above the flowing salt has resulted in a major, active normal fault on the landward side of the basin. (3) The Baltimore Canyon Trough has an extremely thick sedimentary section; synrift and postrift sediments exceed 18 km in thickness. A Jurassic reef is well developed on the basin's seaward side, but post-Jurassic deposition was mainly non-carbonate. In general the conversion from carbonate to terrigenous deposition, characteristics of North American Basins, occurred progressively earlier toward the north. (4) The Georges Bank Basin has a complicated deep structure of sub-basins filled with thick synrift deposits. This may have resulted from some shearing that occurred at this offset of the continental margin. Postrift sediments apparently are thin compared to other basins-only about 8 km. (5) The Scotian Basin, off Canada, contains Jurassic carbonate rocks, sandstone, shale and coal covered by deltaic deposits and Upper

  16. Synchronizing early Eocene deep-sea and continental records - cyclostratigraphic age models for the Bighorn Basin Coring Project drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Wilkens, Roy H.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Clyde, William C.; Wing, Scott L.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Kraus, Mary J.

    2018-03-01

    A consistent chronostratigraphic framework is required to understand the effect of major paleoclimate perturbations on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Transient global warming events in the early Eocene, at 56-54 Ma, show the impact of large-scale carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we provide the first timescale synchronization of continental and marine deposits spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the interval just prior to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2). Cyclic variations in geochemical data come from continental drill cores of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP, Wyoming, USA) and from marine deep-sea drilling deposits retrieved by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Both are dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession cycles used to construct a common cyclostratigraphic framework. Integration of age models results in a revised astrochronology for the PETM in deep-sea records that is now generally consistent with independent 3He age models. The duration of the PETM is estimated at ˜ 200 kyr for the carbon isotope excursion and ˜ 120 kyr for the associated pelagic clay layer. A common terrestrial and marine age model shows a concurrent major change in marine and terrestrial biota ˜ 200 kyr before ETM-2. In the Bighorn Basin, the change is referred to as Biohorizon B and represents a period of significant mammalian turnover and immigration, separating the upper Haplomylus-Ectocion Range Zone from the Bunophorus Interval Zone and approximating the Wa-4-Wa-5 land mammal zone boundary. In sediments from ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge), major changes in the biota at this time are documented by the radiation of a second generation of apical spine-bearing sphenolith species (e.g., S. radians and S. editus), the emergence of T. orthostylus, and the marked decline of D. multiradiatus.

  17. Rifting and reactivation of a Cretaceous structural belt at the northern margin of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Ugo; Pubellier, Manuel; Chan, Lung Sang; Sewell, Roderick J.

    2017-04-01

    The Tiu Tang Lung Fault, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region - China, is located on the northern stretched continental margin of the South China Sea. Along this fault, Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Tai Mo Shan Formation are tectonically juxtaposed on Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Pat Sin Leng Formation. Both extensional detachments and compressional features are observed and various genetic strain configurations are proposed for the Tiu Tang Lung Fault with implications for understanding the dynamics of the pre-South China Sea rifting during the Cretaceous. We have identified tilted bedding planes in the continental deposits of the Pat Sin Leng Formation which can be related to Early Cretaceous syn-extensional deposition. A mid-Cretaceous penetrative top-to-the-south to top-to-the-west shear fabric is also observed and serves as an indicator of the strain pattern. This deformation is expressed by cleavages, schistosity, S/C fabrics, kink-folds, phacoids and stretched pebbles at both a macroscopic and microscopic scale. Cleavages and bedding are generally sub-parallel to the local shear orientation. The whole sedimentary pile is crosscut by Cenozoic N70 and N150 normal faults. These constraints, together with previous fission track, seismic and structural data, allow us to reinterpret the kinematics of this domain during syn-orogenic to syn-extensional periods. The observed top-to-the-south thrusting event is coeval with NE-SW strike-slip sinistral fault movement. Subsequent N-S extension can be correlated with South China Sea rifting from Eocene to Oligocene. These observations reveal a polyphase history associated with continental margin inversion which witnessed localized extension on previous compressional structures.

  18. The Early to Middle Triassic continental-marine transition of NW Bulgaria: sedimentology, palynology and sequence stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdanlijsky, George; Götz, Annette E.; Strasser, André

    2018-04-01

    Sedimentary facies and cycles of the Triassic continental-marine transition of NW Bulgaria are documented in detail from reference sections along the Iskar river gorge between the villages of Tserovo and Opletnya. The depositional environments evolved from anastomosing and meandering river systems in the Petrohan Terrigenous Group to mixed fluvial and tidal settings in the Svidol Formation, and to peritidal and shallow-marine conditions in the Opletnya Member of the Mogila Formation. For the first time, the palynostratigraphic data presented here allow for dating the transitional interval and for the precise identification of a major sequence boundary between the Petrohan Terrigenous Group and the Svidol Formation (Iskar Carbonate Group). This boundary most probably corresponds to the major sequence boundary Ol4 occurring in the upper Olenekian of the Tethyan realm and thus enables interregional correlation. The identification of regionally traceable sequence boundaries based on biostratigraphic age control is a first step towards a more accurate stratigraphic correlation and palaeogeographic interpretation of the Early to early Middle Triassic in NW Bulgaria.

  19. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    PubMed

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  20. Cretaceous plate interaction during the formation of the Colombian plateau, Northandean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Andreas; Piraquive, Alejandro; Díaz, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    The Cretaceous subduction cycle at the Northandean margin ends with an accretionary event that welds the plateau rocks of the present Western Cordillera to the continental margin. A suture between plateau and rock associations of the continental margin is well exposed at the western border of the Central Cordillera, but overprinted by intense block tectonics. Analyzed in detail, its evolution tracks an increased coupling between lower and upper plate, as may be accounted for by the following stages: 1) The Cretaceous plateau suite records at its onset passive margin conditions, as it encroaches on the continental margin and accounts for an extensional event that triggered the emplacement of ultramafic and mafic igneous rock suites along major faults. 2) An early subduction stage of a still moderate plate coupling is documented by the formation of a magmatic arc in an extensional setting that may have been prompted by slab retreat. Convergence direction was oblique, as attested the transfer of strike-slip displacements to the forearc region. 3) A phase of strong plate interaction entailed the delamination of narrow crustal flakes and their entrainment to depths below the petrologic Moho, as evidenced by their present association to serpentinites in a setting that bears characteristics of a subduction channel. 4) During the final collisional stage deformation is transferred to the lower plate, where the stacking of imbricate sheets, combined with their erosional unloading, led to the formation of an antiformal bulge that fed a foreland basin. - The life time of this Cretaceous subduction cycle was strictly synchronous to the construction of the Colombian plateau. With the final collisional stage magmatic activity vanished. This coincidence incites to explore a relationship between plume activity and subduction.

  1. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds. PMID:24482756

  2. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph.

    PubMed

    Chiappe, Luis M; Zhao, Bo; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds.

  3. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous (133-84 Ma) intermediate dykes and host granites in southeastern China: Implications for lithospheric extension, continental crustal growth, and geodynamics of Palaeo-Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinbao; Zhao, Zhidan; Hou, Qingye; Niu, Yaoling; Mo, Xuanxue; Sheng, Dan; Wang, Lili

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents U-Pb zircon geochronology, petrology, and major and trace element, Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous granites and intermediate dykes in the Quanzhou and Xiamen regions of southeastern China. These data are used to investigate igneous petrogenesis and Cretaceous tectonic evolution, and interpret the geodynamics of Palaeo-Pacific slab subduction. Granites in Quanzhou and Xiamen range in age from 133 Ma to 87 Ma, have high SiO2 and K2O contents, low abundances in P2O5, and an A/CNK index that ranges from 0.97 to 1.09, indicating that they are high-K calc-alkaline metaluminous I-type rocks. Slightly negative ɛ Nd (t) values (- 1.2 to - 4.4), young Nd model ages (0.87 Ga to 1.20 Ga) and positive ɛ Hf (t) values (- 0.5 to + 9.9) of zircon grains indicate that the granites were derived from magmas that melted amphibolite in the middle-lower crust, and which may have assimilated country rocks during emplacement in shallow chambers. The intermediate dykes have no genetic link to the granites and magma mixing was negligible. Eight dyke samples have low SiO2 and high MgO, Ni and Cr contents. Negative ε Nd (t) values (- 1.5 to - 2.7) and positive ε Hf (t) values (2.7 to 7.6) suggest that the dykes were derived from residual basic lower crust after mafic-crystal accumulation. Two samples of adakite-like dykes are characterised by high Sr/Y ratios (89 to 100) and high SiO2, low K2O, Ni, Cr contents. In combination with slightly negative ε Nd (t) values (- 1.7 to - 1.8) and positive ε Hf (t) values (2.9 to 4.3), the adakite-like dykes were derived from cumulate basic lower crust which had a mixed source between depleted mantle- and crust-derived melts. Based on our data, combined with previously published work, we suggest that extension-induced middle-lower crustal melting and underplating of mantle-derived basaltic melts were the principal driving mechanisms for Cretaceous granitic magmatism in coastal Fujian Province. Extension

  4. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.

    2007-12-01

    Metre to decameter-size clasts of amphibolite are found embedded in ophiolitic melanges underlying the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone Ophiolites, South Tibet, China. These ophiolites and melanges occur at the limit between Indian and Tibetan-derived rocks and represent remnants of an Early Cretaceous intraoceanic supra-subduction zone domain, the Neo-Tethys. In the Saga-Dazuka segment (500 km along-strike), we discovered new occurrences of strongly foliated amphibolites found as clasts in the ophiolitic melange. In garnet-free samples, hornblende is green-blue magnesio-hornblende and cpx is low-Al diopside. In garnet- bearing samples, garnet is almandine with a strong pyrope component (up to 30 mol%) whereas coexisting hornblende is brown Ti-rich tschermakite and clinopyroxene is Al-diopside. Plagioclase composition was ubiquitously shifted to albite during a late metasomatic event. Geochemistry of these rocks indicates that their igneous protoliths crystallized from a slightly differentiated tholeiitic basaltic liquid that did not undergo major fractionation. Trace element patterns reveal geochemical characteristics identical to those of the overlying ophiolitic crust. These are 1) trace element abundances similar to that of N-MORBs or BABBs, 2) a slight depletion of LREE and 3) a moderate to strong Ta-Nb negative anomaly and a slight Ti anomaly. Such characteristics suggest genesis over a spreading center close to a subduction zone, possibly a back-arc basin. Step-heating Ar/Ar plateau ages were obtained from hornblende separates. All ages fall in the range of 123-128 Ma, overlapping the crystallization ages from the overlying ophiolite (126-131 Ma). Pseudosections were built with the THERMOCALC software in the system NCFMASH. Results indicate that the observed assemblage Hb+Pl+Gt+Cpx is stable over a wide range of P-T conditions, between 10-18 kbars and at more than 800°C. Measured mineral modes and solid solution compositions were successfully modeled, indicating

  5. Atolchelys lepida, a new side-necked turtle from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and the age of crown Pleurodira

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Pedro S. R.; Gallo, Valéria; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Antonioli, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    We report a new pleurodiran turtle from the Barremian Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil. We tested the phylogenetic position of Atolchelys lepida gen. et sp. nov. by including it in a comprehensive cladistic analysis of pleurodires. The new species is a basal member of Bothremydidae and simultaneously the oldest unambiguous crown Pleurodira. The biogeographic and chronostratigraphic significance of the finding has implications for the calibration of molecular clocks studies by pushing back the minimum age of crown Pleurodira by more than 12 Ma (ca 125 Ma). The reanalysis of Pelomedusoides relationships provides evidence that the early evolution and relationships among the main lineages of side-necked turtles can be explained, at least partially, by a sequence of vicariance events. PMID:25079494

  6. The Aucellina biostratigraphy of the Upper Albian (Early Cretaceous) of the Kirchrode I cored borehole, Hannover-Kirchrode, northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.

    2016-12-01

    The Aucellina biostratigraphy of the Upper Albian Kirchrode Marls Member succession in the Kirchrode I (1/91) cored borehole is described and the fauna illustrated. The borehole commenced at an unknown depth below the Early Cenomanian marls of the Bemerode Member, but higher beds of the Kirchrode Marls and the basal beds of the Bemerode Member were exposed in the Mittellandkanal and its Stichkanal extension at Misburg. The borehole and surface exposures permit a virtually complete Late Albian succession of Aucellina species to be observed. Published Aucellina range data from the borehole are reassessed and it is suggested that the lower part of the recorded range is based partly on misidentifications of fragments of thin-shelled bivalves such as Syncyclonema and Amussium. Aucellina appears in the borehole succession within the upper part of the Callihoplites auritus ammonite Subzone (Mortoniceras inflatum Zone) and continues to the top of the borehole succession within the Preaeschloenbachia briacensis ammonite Subzone (Stoliczkaia spp. Zone). Aucellina from higher in the briacensis Subzone collected from the Misburg Mittellandkanal section are also discussed and illustrated. There is some evidence that Aucellina occurs typically at levels in the borehole containing predominantly Boreal European Province ammonites, supporting the general inference that Aucellina lived in cooler northern waters. In contrast, Aucellina is poorly represented in intervals with Tethyan ammonites and thin-shelled inoceramids (e.g. the Mortoniceras (Durnovarites) perinflatum Subzone, Stoliczkaia spp. Zone). The briacensis Subzone, with an admixture of Tethyan (Stoliczkaia) and Boreal ammonites contains a distinctive, taxonomically highly diverse Aucellina assemblage. Relevant taxonomic research on European Late Albian and Early Cenomanian Aucellina faunas is reviewed. The Late Albian Aucellina succession in the borehole differs from that established from partially correlative successions

  7. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  8. Range of movement in ray I of manus and pes and the prehensility of the autopodia in the Early Permian to Late Cretaceous non-anomodont Synapsida.

    PubMed

    Kümmell, Susanna B; Frey, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of ray I was analysed in seventy-eight Early Permian to Late Cretaceous specimens of non-mammalian Synapsida and one extant mammal. In all non-mammaliamorph Synapsida investigated, ray I formed a digital arcade. The first phalanx was maximally extendable to the zero position in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Metapodiale I was the functional equivalent to a basal phalanx of digits II-V. In contrast, there was no digital arcade in ray I in Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha. Phalanx 1 I was dorsally extendable and metapodiale I was functionally part of the metapodium. During the propulsion phase, autopodial rotation occurred in the majority of Synapsida with abducted limb posture. Regarding ray I, the reduction of autopodial rotation can be estimated, e.g., from the decrease of lateral rotation and medial abduction of the first phalanx in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Autopodial rotation was high in Titanophoneus and reduced in derived Cynodontia. In Mammaliamorpha the mobility of the first ray suggests autopodial rolling in an approximately anterior direction. Most non-mammaliamorph Therapsida and probably some Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha had prehensile autopodia with an opposable ray I. In forms with a pronounced relief of the respective joints, ray I could be opposed to 90° against ray III. A strong transverse arch in the row of distalia supported the opposition movement of ray I and resulted in a convergence of the claws of digits II-V just by flexing those digits. A tight articular coherence in the digital joints of digits II-V during strong flexion supported a firm grip capacity. Usually the grip capacity was more pronounced in the manus than in the pes. Prehensile autopodia of carnivorous Therapsida may have been utilized to hold prey while biting, thus helping to avoid fractures of the laterally compressed fangs.

  9. Geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault region, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Ge, Mao-Hui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present new geochemical and geochronological data for volcanic and related rocks in the regions of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults, in order to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that rhyolite and intermediate-mafic rocks along the southern part of the Jia-Yi Fault formed at 124 and 113 Ma, respectively, whereas the volcanic rocks along the northern parts of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults formed at 100 Ma. The rhyolite has an A-type granitoid affinity, with high alkalis, low MgO, Ti, and P contents, high rare earth element (REE) contents and Ga/Al ratios, enrichments in large-ion lithophile (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Y), and marked negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the rhyolites were derived from partial melting of crustal material in an extensional environment. The basaltic rocks are enriched in light REEs and LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, and U), and depleted in heavy REEs, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and Sr. These geochemical characteristics indicate that these rocks are calc-alkaline basalts that formed in an intraplate extensional tectonic setting. The dacite is a medium- to high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite that was derived from a mixed source involving both crustal and mantle components in a magmatic arc. Therefore, the volcanic rocks along the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults were formed in an extensional regime at 124-100 Ma (Early Cretaceous), and these faults were extensional strike-slip faults at this time.

  10. Range of Movement in Ray I of Manus and Pes and the Prehensility of the Autopodia in the Early Permian to Late Cretaceous Non-Anomodont Synapsida

    PubMed Central

    Kümmell, Susanna B.; Frey, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of ray I was analysed in seventy-eight Early Permian to Late Cretaceous specimens of non-mammalian Synapsida and one extant mammal. In all non-mammaliamorph Synapsida investigated, ray I formed a digital arcade. The first phalanx was maximally extendable to the zero position in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Metapodiale I was the functional equivalent to a basal phalanx of digits II–V. In contrast, there was no digital arcade in ray I in Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha. Phalanx 1 I was dorsally extendable and metapodiale I was functionally part of the metapodium. During the propulsion phase, autopodial rotation occurred in the majority of Synapsida with abducted limb posture. Regarding ray I, the reduction of autopodial rotation can be estimated, e.g., from the decrease of lateral rotation and medial abduction of the first phalanx in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Autopodial rotation was high in Titanophoneus and reduced in derived Cynodontia. In Mammaliamorpha the mobility of the first ray suggests autopodial rolling in an approximately anterior direction. Most non-mammaliamorph Therapsida and probably some Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha had prehensile autopodia with an opposable ray I. In forms with a pronounced relief of the respective joints, ray I could be opposed to 90° against ray III. A strong transverse arch in the row of distalia supported the opposition movement of ray I and resulted in a convergence of the claws of digits II–V just by flexing those digits. A tight articular coherence in the digital joints of digits II–V during strong flexion supported a firm grip capacity. Usually the grip capacity was more pronounced in the manus than in the pes. Prehensile autopodia of carnivorous Therapsida may have been utilized to hold prey while biting, thus helping to avoid fractures of the laterally compressed fangs. PMID:25517726

  11. Early cretaceous lower crustal reworking in NE China: insights from geochronology and geochemistry of felsic igneous rocks from the Great Xing'an range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinglei; Liu, Huichuan; Huangfu, Pengpeng; He, Hongyun; Liu, Yongzheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for two granitic plutons and rhyolites of the Baiyingaolao Formation in the western Xing'an range (NE China). The two syenogranite granitic plutons yield identical zircon U-Pb age of 142 ± 1 Ma, and the Baiyingaolao rhyolites yield zircon U-Pb age of 138 ± 2 Ma. The granites contain some hornblendes, and show low Zr and Zr + Nb + Ce + Y contents, and low A/CNK (0.98-1.11), Mg# (6-55), and FeOT/MgO values. Rhyolite samples show similar geochemical characteristics with A/CNK of 0.99-1.10 and Mg# of 14-21. In combination with the high K2O contents (4.43-5.61 wt%) and negative correlations between P2O5 and SiO2, both the granites and rhyolites were classified as high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids. All samples give high zirconium saturation temperature of 794-964 °C with few initially inherited zircons, and belong to high-temperature I-type granitoids. They were generated by dehydration melting of biotite/muscovite from sub-alkaline meta-basalts in lower crust depth, leaving garnet, amphibole, and plagioclase as the major residual minerals. The syenogranites and rhyolites are likely formed in Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic subduction setting. Incorporating other lower crust-originated felsic rocks in Erguna and Xing'an massifs and Songliao basin, it is argued that lower crustal reworking is pronounced in NE China during Early Cretaceous.

  12. Early and late lithification of aragonitic bivalve beds in the Purbeck Formation (upper jurassic-lower cretaceous) of Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shahat, Adam; West, Ian

    1983-05-01

    Beds of euryhaline bivalves alternating with shales constitute much of the middle Purbeck Formation. They originated on "tidal" flats at the western margin of an extensive brackish lagoon. When these shell beds are thin and enclosed in shale they are often still preserved as aragonite and are associated with "beef", fibrous calcite formed during compaction. In most cases, however, the shell debris has been converted by diagenesis into calcitic biosparrudite limestones. A compacted type has been lithified at a late stage, after deep burial. In this, pyrite is abundant and most of the shell aragonite has been replaced neomorphically by ferroan pseudopleochroic calcite. A contrasting uncompacted type of biosparrudite is characterised by bivalve fragments with micrite envelopes. Shells and former pores are occupied by non-ferroan sparry calcite cement, and there is little pyrite. These limestones frequently contain dinosaur footprints and originated in "supratidal" environments where they were cemented early, mainly in meteoric water. Once lithified they were unaffected by compaction. This uncompacted type indicates phases of mild uplift or halts in subsidence. These shell-bed lithologies, and also intermediate types described here, will probably be recognised in other lagoonal formations.

  13. Dynamic depositional and early diagenetic processes in a deep-water shelf setting, upper cretaceous Austin Chalk, North Texas

    SciT

    Hovorka, S.D.; Nance, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk of north Texas was deposited on a deep-water shelf north of the Sea Marcos Platform during a worldwide Coniacian and Santonian sea-level highstand. Transgressive (lowermost lower Austin Chalk), highstand (uppermost lower Austin Chalk), and regressive (middle and upper Austin Chalk) phases of cyclic chalk and marl sedimentation are recognized in excavations and tunnels created in Ellis County for the Superconducting Super Collider provide new evidence of sediment transport during Austin Chalk deposition. During transgression, bottom currents syndepositionally reworked nannoplankton oozes, incising channels as much as 120 ft across and 8 ft deep. Weakly burrowed channel fills havingmore » preservation of fine lamination document rapid infilling. Channel fills are composed of pyritized and carbonized wood and Inoceramus lag deposits, pellets, echinoderm fragments, and globigerinid grainstones, and coccolith ooze. During maximum highstand, bottom reworking was suppressed. Detrital content of highstand marls is low (>20 percent); organic content is high (1.4 to 3.5 percent). Coccolith preservation is excellent because of minimal diagenetic alteration. Regression is marked by resumed channel cutting and storm-bed winnowing in the middle and upper Austin Chalk. Suppressed resistivity log response and recessive weathering characteristics of the middle Austin Chalk are not primarily related to depositional environment but rather to increased input of volcanic ash during the accumulation of this interval. Early stabilization of ash produced clay-coated microfabrics in sediments that are otherwise similar to the transgressive deposits.« less

  14. Cretaceous shelf-sea chalk deposits

    SciT

    Hattin, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The word ''chalk'' is linked etymologically to the Cretaceous, but chalky facies neither dominate that system nor are confined to it. As used commonly, the term ''chalk'' refers to a variety of marine limestone that is white to light gray very fine grained, soft and friable, porous, and composed predominantly of calcitic skeletal remains, especially those derived from coccolithophores. No simple definition suffices to embrace all Cretaceous chalks, which include sandy, marly, shelly, phospatic, glauconitic, dolomitic, pyritic and organic-rich lithotypes. Most of the world's exposed Cretaceous chalk deposits were formed at shelf depths rather than in the deep sea. Cretaceousmore » shelf-sea chalks are developed most extensively in northern Europe, the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain and Western Interior, and the Middle East, with lesser occurrences alo in Australia. Most Cretaceous shelf-sea chalks formed in the temperature zones, and in relatively deep water. Cretaceous chalks deposited on well-oxygenated sea floors are bioturbated and massive where deficient in terrigenous detritus, or bioturbated and rhythmically interbedded with argillaceous units where influx of terrigenous detritus varied systematically with climate changes. Accumulation of sufficient pelagic mud to form vast deposits of Cretaceous shelf-sea chalk required (1) sustained high productivity of calareous plankton, (2) extensive development of stable shelf and continental platform environments, (3) highstands of seal level, (4) deficiency of aragonitic skeletal material in chalk-forming sediments, and (5) low rates of terrigenous detrital influx. These conditions were met at different times in different places, even within the same general region.« less

  15. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  16. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (Morchella) reveals an early Cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the Holarctic

    Morel mushrooms (Morchella, phylum Ascomycota) are arguably the most widely recognized and highly prized of the estimated 1.5 million fungi that inhabit our planet. Although field guides treat these epicurean macrofungi as though the species have cosmopolitan distributions, this assumption has not b...

  17. Interaction Between Magmatism and Continental Extension, Insight From an Extensional Terrain in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour Alamdari, A.; Axen, G. J.; Hassanzadeh, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge about the spatial and temporal relationship between continental extension and its related magmatism is mainly from the western US where removal of a flat subducting slab from under the continent controlled thermal weakening and some extensional collapse. The Iranian plateau, where flat-slab subduction and its subsequent rollback is suggested for the Tertiary magmatic evolution, is an ideal place to see if a similar interaction exists. Between the Late Cretaceous and, at least, the Early Eocene, large-scale continental extension affected the NE Iranian plateau. An ~100 km-long, SE tilted upper to mid-crustal section was exhumed by slip along a low-angle, NW-dipping detachment fault. From SE to NW (young to old) this section includes late Cretaceous pelagic limestones of the Kashmar ophiolites, Late and Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, and the Late Triassic and older crystalline rocks of the Biarjmand-Shotor Kuh metamorphic core complex. Little pre-extensional magmatic activity exists in the tilted sequence and in surrounding regions, as Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous dikes. Similarly, syn-extensional magmatism is absent. In contrast, the tilted sequence is unconformably overlain by >4000 m of volcanic rocks with age ranging from the Middle Eocene (explosive, calc-alkaline?) to the Late Eocene (effusive, alkaline). The absence of considerable pre-extensional magmatism in the NE Iranian plateau does not support magma underplating, subsequent thermal weakening and collapse as a mechanism for the extension in this region. It also indicates that the models that consider waning of volcanism as a controlling mechanism for triggering of extensional faulting (Sonder & Jones, 1999) is not applicable for this region. The amagmatic extension may reflect magma crystallization at depth due to reduced confining pressure resulted from active normal faulting and fracturing (Gans & Bohrson, 1998). The extension and related asthenospheric rise may be developed in

  18. On the formation of continental silicic melts in thermochemical mantle convection models: implications for early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Thienen, P.; van den Berg, A. P.; Vlaar, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    Important constituents of Archean cratons, formed in the early and hot history of the Earth, are Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) plutons and greenstone belts. The formation of these granite-greenstone terrains is often ascribed to plate-tectonic processes. Buoyancy considerations, however, do not allow plate tectonics to take place in a significantly hotter Earth. We therefore propose an alternative mechanism for the coeval and proximate production of TTG plutons and greenstone-like crustal successions. That is, when a locally anomalously thick basaltic crust has been produced by continued addition of extrusive or intrusive basalts due to partial melting of the underlying convecting mantle, the transition of a sufficient amount of basalt in the lower crust to eclogite may trigger a resurfacing event, in which a complete crustal section of over 1000 km long sinks into the mantle in less than 2 million years. Pressure release partial melting in the complementary upwelling mantle produces large volumes of basaltic material replacing the original crust. Partial melting at the base of this newly produced crust may generate felsic melts which are added as intrusives and/or extrusives to the generally mafic crustal succession, adding to what resembles a greenstone belt. Partial melting of metabasalt in the sinking crustal section produces a significant volume of TTG melt which is added to the crust directly above the location of 'subduction', presumably in the form of a pluton. This scenario is self-consistently produced by numerical thermochemical mantle convection models, presented in this paper, including partial melting of mantle peridotite and crustal (meta)basalt. The metamorphic p, T conditions under which partial melting of metabasalt takes place in this scenario are consistent with geochemical trace element data for TTGs, which indicate melting under amphibolite rather than eclogite facies. Other geodynamical settings which we have also investigated

  19. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  20. Fault-Magma Interactions during Early Continental Rifting: Seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, A.; Oliva, S. J.; Ebinger, C.; Aman, M.; Lambert, C.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.; Muirhead, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although magmatism may occur during the earliest stages of continental rifting, its role in strain accommodation remains weakly constrained by largely 2D studies. We analyze seismicity data from a 13-month, 39-station broadband seismic array to determine the role of magma intrusion on state-of-stress and strain localization, and their along-strike variations. Precise earthquake locations using cluster analyses and a new 3D velocity model reveal lower crustal earthquakes along projections of steep border faults that degas CO2. Seismicity forms several disks interpreted as sills at 6-10 km below a monogenetic cone field. The sills overlie a lower crustal magma chamber that may feed eruptions at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. After determining a new ML scaling relation, we determine a b-value of 0.87 ± 0.03. Focal mechanisms for 66 earthquakes, and a longer time period of relocated earthquakes from global arrays reveal an along-axis stress rotation of 50 o ( N150 oE) in the magmatically active zone. Using Kostrov summation of local and teleseismic mechanisms, we find opening directions of N122ºE and N92ºE north and south of the magmatically active zone. The stress rotation facilitates strain transfer from border fault systems, the locus of early stage deformation, to the zone of magma intrusion in the central rift. Our seismic, structural, and geochemistry results indicate that frequent lower crustal earthquakes are promoted by elevated pore pressures from volatile degassing along border faults, and hydraulic fracture around the margins of magma bodies. Earthquakes are largely driven by stress state around inflating magma bodies, and more dike intrusions with surface faulting, eruptions, and earthquakes are expected.

  1. Tracing climatic conditions during the deposition of late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate beds in Morocco by geochemical compositions of biogenic apatite fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Yans, J.; Ulianov, A.; Amaghzaz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Morocco's Western Atlantic coast was covered by shallow seas during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene when large amount of phosphate rich sediments were deposited. This time interval envelops a major part of the last greenhouse period and gives the opportunity to study the event's characteristics in shallow water settings. These phosphate deposits are extremely rich in vertebrate fossils, while other types of fossils are rare or often poorly preserved. Hence the local stratigraphy is based on the most abundant marine vertebrate fossils, on the selachian fauna (sharks and rays). Our geochemical investigations were also carried out on these remains, though in some cases frequently found coprolites were involved as well. The main goal of our study was to test whether stable isotope compositions (δ18OPO4, δ13C) of these fossils reflect any of the hyperthermal events and/or the related perturbations in the carbon cycle during the early Paleogene (Lourens et al. 2005) and whether these geochemical signals can be used to refine the local stratigraphy. Additionally, the samples were analyzed for trace element composition in order to better assess local taphonomy and burial conditions. The samples came from two major phosphate regions, the Ouled Abdoun and the Ganntour Basins and they were collected either directly on the field during excavations (Sidi Chennane) or were obtained from museum collections with known stratigraphical position (Sidi Daoui, Ben Guerrir). The phosphate oxygen isotopic compositions of shark teeth display large range across the entire series (18.5-22.4 ) which can partly be related to the habitat of sharks. For instance the genus Striatolamnia often yielded the highest δ18O values indicating possible deep water habitat. Despite the large variation in δ18O values, a general isotope trend is apparent. In the Maastrichtian after a small negative shift, the δ18O values increase till the Danian from where the trend decrease till the Ypresian. The

  2. Late Early-Cretaceous quartz diorite-granodiorite-monzogranite association from the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau: Chemical variations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical variations in granitic rocks may be controlled by their source rocks, melting reactions and subsequent magmatic processes, which resulted from various geodynamic processes related to subduction, collision, or slab break-off. Here we report new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes for the late Early Cretaceous quartz diorite, granodiorite and monzogranite in the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau. The zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 113.9 ± 1.6, 111.7 ± 0.8, and 112.8 ± 1.7 Ma for the quartz diorite, granodiorite, and monzogranite, respectively, which are coeval with bimodal magmatism in the central and northern Lhasa sub-terrane. There are the distinct sources regions for the quartz diorite and granodiorite-monzogranite association. The quartz diorites are sodic, calc-alkaline and have high Mg# (52-54) values. They also have elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.707019 to 0.709176) and low εNd(t) (- 5.16 to - 7.63), with variable zircon εHf(t) values (+ 5.65 to - 9.02). Zircon chemical data indicate a typical crustal-derived character with high Th (142-1260 ppm) and U (106-1082 ppm) and moderate U/Yb ratios (0.30 to 2.32) and Y content (705-1888 ppm). Those data suggest that the quartz diorites were derived from partial melting of ancient basaltic lower crust by a mantle-derived magma in source region. The granodiorite-monzogranite association has high-K calc-alkaline, weakly peraluminous characters. They show lower Nb/Ta (5.57 to 13.8), CaO/Na2O (0.62 to 1.21), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (24.4 to 44.4) ratios, more evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures, all of which suggest derivation from mixed basaltic and metasedimentary source rocks in a deep crustal zone. We propose that the granitic magmatisms at ca. 113-110 Ma in the Gaologong belt was triggered by the slab break-off of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Supplementary Dataset Table 2. Single-grain zircon Hf isotopic data

  3. Evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture as constrained by new Early Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data from the North China and southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, H.; Ding, J.; Turbold, S.; Gao, Y.; Xu, B.; Wu, Y.; Fu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The closure time of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean and subsequent collision between the Siberia and Amuria-North China block (AMU-NCB) during the final episode of the amalgamation of Northeast Asia have been hotly debating for decades. In order to better puzzle out the controversy, we carried out new paleomagnetic investigations from the Early Cretaceous geological units on the northern margin of the NCB and southern AMU. These geological units have been well-dated. Within the Yanshan Belt of the northern margin of the NCB, we collected the 209 paleomagnetic samples from the sandstone of the middle-upper member of the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) and the volcanic rocks of the bottom of the Yixian Formation ( 130 Ma). We drilled 225 samples from the lava flows of two sections of the Tsagantsav Formation ( 130 Ma) in the southern Mongolia of the AMU. All samples were subjected to stepwise thermal demagnetization. After removal of a recent geomagnetic field viscous component, the stable high temperature component can pass a reversal test and a fold test at 95% and 99% confidence level. They are thus interpreted as primary. The virtual geomagnetic poles observed from the 130 Ma volcanic rocks of the Yixian Formation and the Tsagantsav Formation respectively averaged out the paleosecular variation and they overlapped each other, indicating that NCB and AMU was a single unit (NCB-AMU) at that time. The paleopole from the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) of the NCB is different from the coeval pole of the Siberia, indicating that there was a significant latitudinal convergence between the Siberia and the NCB. Compared the 130 Ma paleopoles of the NCB-AMU and Siberia, there was no significant latitudinal difference, but the relative tectonic rotation was existing. It has been suggested that the plate convergence or Mongol-Okhotsk collisional orogeny was stopped between Siberia and NCB-AMU during the 140-130 Ma. After Mongol-Okhotsk orogeny, the widely extensional rift basins were

  4. Lacustrine fan delta deposition alongside intrabasinal structural highs in rift basins: an example from the Early Cretaceous Jiuquan Basin, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Muirhead, James D.; Wang, Hua; Chen, Si; Liao, Yuantao; Lu, Zongsheng; Wei, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Development of fan deltas alongside intrabasinal structural highs has been overlooked compared to those forming on basin margins. However, these fan deltas may provide important clues regarding the tectonic and climatic controls on deposition during rift development. This paper documents fan delta deposition alongside an intrabasinal structural high within the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of the Jiuquan Basin, China, using subsurface geological and geophysical data. Deposits observed in drill core support fan delta deposition occurring almost exclusively through subaerial and subaqueous gravity flows. Subsurface mapping reveals a consistent decrease in the areal extent of fan deltas from lowstand to highstand system tracts, suggesting that deposition alongside the structural high is sensitive to lake-level changes. The temporal and spatial distribution of the fan deltas display retrogradational stacking patterns, where fan deltas exhibit a decreasing lateral extent up-sequence until fan delta deposition terminated and was replaced by deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits. The retrogradational stacking patterns observed alongside the intrabasinal structural high are not observed in fan deltas along the basin margin in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation. Subsidence profiles also show differential subsidence across the basin during the earliest stages of this formation, likely resulting from border fault movements. These data suggest that non-uniform stacking patterns in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation reflect basin-scale tectonic movements as the dominant control on synrift deposition patterns. However, later stages of Xiagou Formation deposition were characterized by uniform subsidence across the basin, and uniform retrogradational stacking patterns for fan deltas alongside the intrabasinal structural high and border fault. These observations suggest that basin-scale tectonic movements played a relatively limited role in controlling

  5. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  6. Carbonate sedimentation in an extensional active margin: Cretaceous history of the Haymana region, Pontides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Aral I.; Altiner, Demir

    2016-10-01

    The Haymana region in Central Anatolia is located in the southern part of the Pontides close to the İzmir-Ankara suture. During the Cretaceous, the region formed part of the south-facing active margin of the Eurasia. The area preserves a nearly complete record of the Cretaceous system. Shallow marine carbonates of earliest Cretaceous age are overlain by a 700-m-thick Cretaceous sequence, dominated by deep marine limestones. Three unconformity-bounded pelagic carbonate sequences of Berriasian, Albian-Cenomanian and Turonian-Santonian ages are recognized: Each depositional sequence is preceded by a period of tilting and submarine erosion during the Berriasian, early Albian and late Cenomanian, which corresponds to phases of local extension in the active continental margin. Carbonate breccias mark the base of the sequences and each carbonate sequence steps down on older units. The deep marine carbonate deposition ended in the late Santonian followed by tilting, erosion and folding during the Campanian. Deposition of thick siliciclastic turbidites started in the late Campanian and continued into the Tertiary. Unlike most forearc basins, the Haymana region was a site of deep marine carbonate deposition until the Campanian. This was because the Pontide arc was extensional and the volcanic detritus was trapped in the intra-arc basins and did not reach the forearc or the trench. The extensional nature of the arc is also shown by the opening of the Black Sea as a backarc basin in the Turonian-Santonian. The carbonate sedimentation in an active margin is characterized by synsedimentary vertical displacements, which results in submarine erosion, carbonate breccias and in the lateral discontinuity of the sequences, and differs from blanket like carbonate deposition in the passive margins.

  7. Tectonic elements of the continental margin of East Antarctica, 38-164ºE

    O'Brien, P.E.; Stagg, H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The East Antarctic continental margin from 38–164ºE is divided into western and eastern provinces that developed during the separation of India from Australia–Antarctica (Early Cretaceous) and Australia from Antarctica (Late Cretaceous). In the overlap between these provinces the geology is complex and bears the imprint of both extension/spreading episodes, with an overprinting of volcanism. The main rift-bounding faults appear to approximately coincide with the outer edge of the continental shelf. Inboard of these faults, the sedimentary cover thins above shallowing basement towards the coast where crystalline basement generally crops out. The continental slope and the landward flanks of the ocean basins, are blanketed by up to 9–10 km of mainly post-rift sediments in margin-parallel basins, except in the Bruce Rise area. Beneath this blanket, extensive rift basins are identified off Enderby and Wilkes Land/Terre Adélie; however, their extent and detailed structures are difficult to determine.

  8. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  9. The Alleret Maar lacustrine sequence (French Massif Central): a 150 ka long early-middle Pleistocene continental paleoenvironmental record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, S.; Pastre, J.; Guillou, H.; Gauthier, A.; Scaillet, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lacustrine maar sequences of the French Massif Central are of great interest for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of mid-latitudes Quaternary continental environments. In particular, the western Velay region yields exceptional sequences spanning the last 450 ka (Reille et al., J. Quat. Sci. 2000). However, older sequences remain largely unknown despite the presence of interbedded alkaline tephras allowing precise absolute radiochronological control of many lacustrine squences. The Alleret maar is a 1500 m wide phreatomagmatic crater that provides a long lacustrine sequence (41 m). The upper part of this sequence (AL2 core, 14.6 m) was studied between 2005 and 2006 (Pastre et al., C. R. Acad Sci, 2007). A 39Ar/40Ar date (557 ± 5ka) obtained from an interbedded tephra layer located at 7m as well as the associated pollen data attribute the beginning of this sequence to the MIS 15. Thanks to the AL3 core recovered in 2005 (40.6 m, CNRS Meudon) several new tephra layers were discovered in the bottom part of this lacustrine sequence. Three new 39Ar/40Ar ages (single crystal analyses) from trachytic tephra layers were obtained at the LSCE Argon Laboratory (France). These layers are located at -30.2, -36.2 and -39.2m. Ages obtained relative to the ACR-2 flux standard (1,201Ma, Kuiper et al., Science, 2008) range from 692 ± 6 ka (MSWD: 2.3, n=18) for the youngest (-30.2m) to 726 ± 9Ka Ka (MSWD: 2.2, n=12) for the lowest tephra located at -39.2m. These new dates indicate a relatively homogeneous deposition rate of 3.5cm/ka and that the last 10 meters cover the MIS 17-MIS18 period. According to these current radiochronological data the complete lacustrine sequence last more than 150ka. Ongoing sedimentary and pollen studies will allow to extend the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records of the French Massif Central towards the beginning of the early middle Pleistocene.

  10. Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic characterization of Mesozoic rocks throughout the northern end of the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Isotopic evidence for the magmatic evolution of oceanic arc–continental margin accretion during the Late Cretaceous of southern California

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    contaminated magmatic arc. The Peninsular Ranges batholith magmatic arc was initially an oceanic arc built on Panthalassan lithosphere that eventually evolved into a continental margin magmatic arc collision zone, eventually overriding North American cratonic lithosphere. Our Pb-Sr-Nd data further suggest that the western arc rocks represent a nearshore or inboard oceanic arc, as they exhibit isotopic signatures that are more enriched than typical mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB). Isotopic signatures from the central zone are transitional and indicate that enriched crustal magma sources were becoming involved in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith magmatic plumbing. As the oceanic arc–continental margin collision progressed, a mixture of oceanic mantle and continental magmatic sources transpired. Magmatic production in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith moved eastward and continued to tap enriched crustal magmatic sources. Similar modeling has been previously proposed for two other western margin magmatic arcs, the Sierra Nevada batholith of central California and the Idaho batholith.Calculated initial Nd signatures at ca. 100 Ma for Permian–Jurassic and Proterozoic basement rocks from the nearby San Gabriel Mountains and possible source areas along the southwestern Laurentian margin of southern California, southwestern Arizona, and northern Sonora strongly suggest their involvement with deep crustal magma mixing beneath the eastern zones of the Peninsular Ranges batholith, as well as farther east in continental lithospheric zones.Last, several samples from the allochthonous, easternmost upper-plate zone, which are considerably younger (ca. 84 Ma) than any of the rocks from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith proper, have even more enriched average Sri, 206Pbi, 208Pbi, and εNdisignatures of 0.7079, 19.344, 38.881, and −6.6, respectively, indicative of the most-evolved magma sources in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith and similar to radioisotopic

  11. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  12. Quantification of a greenhouse hydrologic cycle from equatorial to polar latitudes: The mid-Cretaceous water bearer revisited

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the global hydrologic cycle during the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse by utilizing the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates (calcite and siderite) as proxies for the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation. The data set builds on the Aptian-Albian sphaerosiderite ??18O data set presented by Ufnar et al. (2002) by incorporating additional low latitude data including pedogenic and early meteoric diagenetic calcite ??18O. Ufnar et al. (2002) used the proxy data derived from the North American Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) in a mass balance model to estimate precipitation-evaporation fluxes. We have revised this mass balance model to handle sphaerosiderite and calcite proxies, and to account for longitudinal travel by tropical air masses. We use empirical and general circulation model (GCM) temperature gradients for the mid-Cretaceous, and the empirically derived ??18O composition of groundwater as constraints in our mass balance model. Precipitation flux, evaporation flux, relative humidity, seawater composition, and continental feedback are adjusted to generate model calculated groundwater ??18O compositions (proxy for precipitation ??18O) that match the empirically-derived groundwater ??18O compositions to within ??0.5???. The model is calibrated against modern precipitation data sets.Four different Cretaceous temperature estimates were used: the leaf physiognomy estimates of Wolfe and Upchurch (1987) and Spicer and Corfield (1992), the coolest and warmest Cretaceous estimates compiled by Barron (1983) and model outputs from the GENESIS-MOM GCM by Zhou et al. (2008). Precipitation and evaporation fluxes for all the Cretaceous temperature gradients utilized in the model are greater than modern precipitation and evaporation fluxes. Balancing the model also requires relative humidity in the subtropical dry belt to be significantly reduced. As expected calculated precipitation rates are all greater than modern

  13. Astronomically forced paleoclimate change from middle Eocene to early Oligocene: continental conditions in central China compared with the global marine isotope record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum ended with a long interval of global cooling that began in the early Middle Eocene and ended at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During this long-term cooling, a series of short-term warming reversals occurred in the marine realm. Here, we investigate corresponding continental climate conditions as revealed in the Qianjiang Formation of the Jianghan Basin in central China, which consists of more than 4000 m of saline lake sediments. The Qianjiang Formation includes, in its deepest sections, a halite-rich rhythmic sediment succession with dark mudstone, brownish-white siltstone and sandstone, and greyish-white halite. Alternating fresh water (humid/cool)—saline water (dry/hot) deposits reflect climate cycles driven by orbital forcing. High-resolution gamma ray (GR) logging from the basin center captures these pronounced lithological rhythms throughout the formation. Several halite-rich intervals are interpreted as short-term warming events within the middle Eocene to early Oligocene, and could be expressions of coeval warming events in the global marine oxygen isotope record, for example, the middle Eocene climate optimum (MECO) event around 41 Ma. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary is distinguished by a radical change from halite-rich to clastic sediments, indicating a dramatic climate change from warm to cool conditions. Power spectral analysis of the GR series indicates strong short (~100 kyr) eccentricity cycling during the warm/hot episodes. Amplitude modulation of the short eccentricity in the GR series occurs with a strong 405 kyr periodicity. This cycling is calibrated to the La2004 orbital eccentricity model. A climate reversal occurs at 36.5 Ma within the long-term marine cooling trend following MECO, which is reflected also in the Qianjiang GR series, with the latter indicating several brief warm/dry reversals within the trend. A ~2.6 Myr halite-rich warm interval occurs in the latest Eocene in the continental record; both

  14. Petroleum geology of the mid-Atlantic continental margin, offshore Virginia

    Bayer, K.C.; Milici, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Baltimore Canyon Trough, a major sedimentary basin on the Atlantic continental shelf, contains up to 18 km of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The basin has been studied extensively by multichannel common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles and has been tested by drilling for hydrocarbon resources in several places. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata contained in the basin were deposited in littoral to bathyal depositional settings and contain immature to marginally mature oil-prone and gas-prone kerogen. The more deeply buried strata of Early Mesozoic age are more likely to be thermally mature than are the younger strata with respect to hydrocarbon generation, but contain terrestrially derived coaly organic matter that would be prone to yield gas, rather than oil. An analysis of available CDP seismic reflection data has indicated that there are several potential hydrocarbon plays in the area offshore of Virginia. These include: (1) Lower Mesozoic synrift basins that appear similar to those exposed in the Appalachian Piedmont, (2) a stratigraphic updip pinchout of strata of Early Mesozoic age in the offshore region near the coast, (3) a deeply buried paleoshelf edge, where seismic reflectors dip sharply seaward; and (4) a Cretaceous/Jurassic shelf edge beneath the present continental rise. Of these, the synrift basins and Cretaceous/Jurassic shelf edge are considered to be the best targets for exploration. ?? 1989.

  15. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5°S [52.5°S, 58.6°S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India" during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8°S [21.8°S, 26.1°S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

  16. Transfer of Metasupracrustal Rocks to Midcrustal Depths in the North Cascades Continental Magmatic Arc, Skagit Gneiss Complex, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. B.; Gordon, S. M.; Miller, R. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fisher, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The metasupracrustal units within the north central Chelan block of the North Cascades Range, Washington, are investigated to determine mechanisms and timescales of supracrustal rock incorporation into the deep crust of continental magmatic arcs. Zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope analyses were used to characterize the protoliths of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks from the Skagit Gneiss Complex, metasupracrustal rocks from the Cascade River Schist, and metavolcanic rocks from the Napeequa Schist. Skagit Gneiss Complex metasedimentary rocks have (1) a wide range of zircon U-Pb dates from Proterozoic to latest Cretaceous and (2) a more limited range of dates, from Late Triassic to latest Cretaceous, and a lack of Proterozoic dates. Two samples from the Cascade River Schist are characterized by Late Cretaceous protoliths. Amphibolites from the Napeequa Schist have Late Triassic protoliths. Similarities between the Skagit Gneiss metasediments and accretionary wedge and forearc sediments in northwestern Washington and Southern California indicate that the protolith for these units was likely deposited in a forearc basin and/or accretionary wedge in the Early to Late Cretaceous (circa 134-79 Ma). Sediment was likely underthrust into the active arc by circa 74-65 Ma, as soon as 7 Ma after deposition, and intruded by voluminous magmas. The incorporation of metasupracrustal units aligns with the timing of major arc magmatism in the North Cascades (circa 79-60 Ma) and may indicate a link between the burial of sediments and pluton emplacement.

  17. New Australian sauropods shed light on Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Stephen F; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Hocknull, Scott A; Kear, Benjamin P; Kundrát, Martin; Tischler, Travis R; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, Judy A; Elliott, David A

    2016-10-20

    Australian dinosaurs have played a rare but controversial role in the debate surrounding the effect of Gondwanan break-up on Cretaceous dinosaur distribution. Major spatiotemporal gaps in the Gondwanan Cretaceous fossil record, coupled with taxon incompleteness, have hindered research on this effect, especially in Australia. Here we report on two new sauropod specimens from the early Late Cretaceous of Queensland, Australia, that have important implications for Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography. Savannasaurus elliottorum gen. et sp. nov. comprises one of the most complete Cretaceous sauropod skeletons ever found in Australia, whereas a new specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae includes the first ever cranial remains of an Australian sauropod. The results of a new phylogenetic analysis, in which both Savannasaurus and Diamantinasaurus are recovered within Titanosauria, were used as the basis for a quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis of macronarian sauropods. Titanosaurs achieved a worldwide distribution by at least 125 million years ago, suggesting that mid-Cretaceous Australian sauropods represent remnants of clades which were widespread during the Early Cretaceous. These lineages would have entered Australasia via dispersal from South America, presumably across Antarctica. High latitude sauropod dispersal might have been facilitated by Albian-Turonian warming that lifted a palaeoclimatic dispersal barrier between Antarctica and South America.

  18. New Australian sauropods shed light on Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Poropat, Stephen F.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Hocknull, Scott A.; Kear, Benjamin P.; Kundrát, Martin; Tischler, Travis R.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, Judy A.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Australian dinosaurs have played a rare but controversial role in the debate surrounding the effect of Gondwanan break-up on Cretaceous dinosaur distribution. Major spatiotemporal gaps in the Gondwanan Cretaceous fossil record, coupled with taxon incompleteness, have hindered research on this effect, especially in Australia. Here we report on two new sauropod specimens from the early Late Cretaceous of Queensland, Australia, that have important implications for Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography. Savannasaurus elliottorum gen. et sp. nov. comprises one of the most complete Cretaceous sauropod skeletons ever found in Australia, whereas a new specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae includes the first ever cranial remains of an Australian sauropod. The results of a new phylogenetic analysis, in which both Savannasaurus and Diamantinasaurus are recovered within Titanosauria, were used as the basis for a quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis of macronarian sauropods. Titanosaurs achieved a worldwide distribution by at least 125 million years ago, suggesting that mid-Cretaceous Australian sauropods represent remnants of clades which were widespread during the Early Cretaceous. These lineages would have entered Australasia via dispersal from South America, presumably across Antarctica. High latitude sauropod dispersal might have been facilitated by Albian–Turonian warming that lifted a palaeoclimatic dispersal barrier between Antarctica and South America. PMID:27763598

  19. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-05-17

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

  20. Miocene tectono-stratigraphic history of La Mision basin, northwestern Baja California: implications for early tectonic development of southern California continental borderland

    SciT

    Ashby, J.R.; Minch, J.

    1988-03-01

    The middle Miocene La Mision basin in northwestern Baja California, Mexico, provides a rare opportunity to study an onshore portion of the southern California continental borderland. Stratigraphy, geometry of dispersal, and a variety of lithotypes within the volcanic and volcaniclastic sediments of the Rosarito Beach Formation provide clues to the nature of early tectonic evolution of this area during the Miocene. The elongated, trough-shaped La Mision basin formed in response to peninsular basement uplifts and the formation of volcanic highlands west of the present coastline. Lithologies and depositional environments represented within the basin sediments include: subaerial basalt flows and airfallmore » tuffs, submarine muddy- and sandy-matrix mudflow breccias, lapilli tuffs, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones,d diatomites, and conglomerates. The environments of deposition range from fluvatile to intertidal to shallow marine. Early basin infilling is characterized by sediments and basalts, with a western source terrane, that were deposited against the faulted seacliffs. progressive infilling against the seacliff resulted in the formation of an extensive eastward-sloping basaltic platform extending eastward to the foothill coastal belt of the Peninsular Ranges. Marine transgression and subsequent regression are recorded by diverse marine volcaniclastic lithologies. Abundant fossils, K-Ar dates, and paleomagnetic data obtained from the La Mision basin allow precise correlation with other areas in the continental borderland and provide conclusive evidence that this block of the borderland was formed and in its present position by 16-14 Ma.« less

  1. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  2. Structure and development of the southern Moroccan continental shelf

    Dillon, William P.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of the continental shelf off southern Morocco was studied by means of 2,100 km of seismic reflection profiles, magnetic and bathymetric surveys, and dredge samples. The research area lies off four geologic divisions adjacent to the coast: the Atlas Mountains; the Souss Trough; the Anti-Atlas Mountains; and the Aaiun Basin. The continental shelf, along with the western Atlas Mountains, the western Souss Trough, and the entire Aaiun Basin, has subsided along a normal fault-flexure system. This system runs along the shore at the Anti-Atlas Mountains, and cuts off this cratonic block from the shelf subsidence. The shelf is narrow and characterized by out-building off the Anti-Atlas range, whereas it is broader and characterized by upbuilding to the north and south. Deposition was essentially continuous at least from Early Cretaceous through Eocene time. Published work suggests that the last cycle of sedimentation began during Permian rifting. After Eocene time, most sediments carried to the shelf must have bypassed it and gone to construct the slope and rise or to the deep sea. Tertiary orogenies caused extensive folding of Mesozoic and early Tertiary deposits off the Atlas Mountains. ?? 1974.

  3. U-Pb Dating and Lu-Hf Isotopes of Detrital Zircons From the Southern Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt, Russian Far East: Tectonic Implications for the Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Northwest Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jinjiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Shiran; Guo, Feng; Kasatkin, Sergey A.; Golozoubov, Vladimir V.; Ge, Maohui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jiamin

    2017-11-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt in Russian Far East is comprised of several N-S trending belts, including the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms and turbidite basin which are now separated by thrusts and strike-slip faults. The origin and collage of the belts have been studied for decades. However, the provenance of the belts remains unclear. Six sandstone samples were collected along a 200 km long east-west traverse across the major belts in the southern Sikhote-Alin for U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis to constrain the provenance and evaluate the evolution of the northwest Pacific margin at this time. The result reveals that the sediments from the main Samarka belt was mainly from the adjacent Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block (BJKB); the eastern Samarka belt and the Zhuravlevka turbidite basin were supplied by detritus from both the North China Craton (NCC) and the BJKB; the Taukha belt was mainly fed by sediments from the NCC; whereas the data from the Sergeevka nappes are insufficient to resolve their provenance. In the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, collision and subduction was important in the initial collage of most belts in Sikhote-Alin. However, merely E-W trending collage cannot explain the increasing importance of the NCC provenance from west to east. It is proposed that the main Samarka belt was located adjacent to the BJKB when deposited, whereas the other belts were farther south to accept the materials from the NCC. Sinistral strike-slip faulting transported the eastern belts northward after their initial collage by thrusting.

  4. Raising the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2017-02-01

    The changes that occur at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons are arguably the most fundamental to affect the evolution of Earth's continental crust. The principal component of Archean continental crust is Granite-Greenstone Terranes (GGTs), with granites always dominant. The greenstones consist of a lower sequence of submarine komatiites and basalts, which erupted onto a pre-existing Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) crust. These basaltic rocks pass upwards initially into evolved volcanic rocks, such as andesites and dacites and, subsequently, into reworked felsic pyroclastic material and immature sediments. This transition coincides with widespread emplacement of granitoids, which stabilised (cratonised) the continental crust. Proterozoic supra-crustal rocks, on the other hand, are dominated by extensive flat-lying platform sequences of mature sediments, which were deposited on stable cratonic basements, with basaltic rocks appreciably less abundant. The siliceous TTGs cannot be produced by direct melting of the mantle, with most hypotheses for their origin requiring them to be underlain by a complimentary dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root, which we suggest acted as ballast to the early continents. Ubiquitous continental pillow basalts in Archean lower greenstone sequences require the early continental crust to have been sub-marine, whereas the appearance of abundant clastic sediments, at higher stratigraphic levels, shows that it had emerged above sea level by the time of sedimentation. We hypothesise that the production of komatiites and associated basalts, the rise of the continental crust, widespread melting of the continental crust, the onset of sedimentation and subsequent cratonisation form a continuum that is the direct result of removal of the continent's dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite roots, triggered at a regional scale by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere. Our idealised calculations suggest

  5. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  6. Gateways and Water Mass Mixing in the Late Cretaceous North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharian Rostami, M.; Martin, E. E.; MacLeod, K. G.; Poulsen, C. J.; Vande Guchte, A.; Haynes, S.

    2017-12-01

    Regions of intermediate/deep water formation and water-mass mixing in the North Atlantic are poorly defined for the Late Cretaceous, a time of gateway evolution and cooler conditions following the Mid Cretaceous greenhouse. Improved proxy data combined with modeling efforts are required to effectively evaluate the relationship between CO2, paleogeography, and circulation during this cooler interval. We analyzed and compiled latest Cretaceous (79 - 66 Ma) ɛNd and δ13C records from seven bathyal (paleodepths 0.2 - 2 km) and eight abyssal (paleodepths > 2 km) sites in the North Atlantic. Data suggest local downwelling of Northern Component Water (NCW; ɛNd -9.5 and δ13C 1.7 ‰) is the primary source of intermediate/deep water masses in the basin. As this water flows southward and ages, δ13C values decrease and ɛNd values increase; however, additional chemical changes at several sites require mixing with contributions from several additional water masses. Lower ɛNd ( -10) and higher δ13C ( 1.9 ‰) values in the deep NW part of the basin indicate proximal contributions from a region draining old continental crust, potentially representing deep convection following opening of the Labrador Sea. In the deep NE Iberian Basin, higher ɛNd ( -7) and lower δ13C ( 0.8 ‰) during the Campanian suggest mixing with a Tethyan source (ɛNd -7 and δ13C 0.1 ‰) whose importance decreased with restriction of that gateway in the Maastrichtian. Data from bathyal sites suggest additional mixing. In the SE Cape Verde region, observed ɛNd variations from -10 in the Campanian to -13 and -12 in the early and late Maastrichtian, respectively, may record variations in output rates of Tethyan and/or NCW sources and Demerara Bottom Water (ɛNd -16), a proposed warm saline intermediate water mass formed in shallow, equatorial seas. Pacific inflow through the Caribbean gateway impacts intermediate sites at Blake Nose (ɛNd values -8), particularly the shallowest site during the late

  7. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.

    2012-12-01

    Metamorphic basement rocks from SW Borneo are undated but have been suggested to be Palaeozoic. This study shows they record low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism and U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates a mid-Cretaceous (volcaniclastic) protolith. SW Borneo is the southeast promontory of Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. It has no sedimentary cover and the exposed basement has been widely assumed to be a crustal fragment from the Indochina-China margin. Metamorphic rocks of the Pinoh Group in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are intruded by granitoid rocks of Jurassic-Cretaceous age, based on K-Ar dating, suggesting emplacement mainly between 130 and 80 Ma. The Pinoh metamorphic rocks have been described as a suite of pelitic schists, slates, phyllites, and hornfelses, and have not been dated, although they have been correlated with rocks elsewhere in Borneo of supposed Palaeozoic age. Pelitic schists contain biotite, chlorite, cordierite, andalusite, quartz, plagioclase and in some cases high-Mn almandine-rich garnet. Many have a shear fabric associated with biotite and fibrolite intergrowth. Contact metamorphism due to intrusion of the granitoid rocks produced hornfelses with abundant andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts. Granitoids range from alkali-granite to tonalite and contain abundant hornblende and biotite, with rare white mica. Zircons from granitoid rocks exhibit sector- and concentric- zoning; some have xenocrystic cores mantled by magmatic zircon. There are four important age populations at c. 112, 98, 84 and 84 Ma broadly confirming earlier dating studies. There is a single granite body with a Jurassic age (186 ± 2.3 Ma). Zircons from pelitic metamorphic rocks are typically euhedral, with no evidence of rounding or resorbing of grains; a few preserve volcanic textures. They record older ages than those from igneous rocks; U-Pb ages are Cretaceous with a major population between 134 and 110 Ma. A single sample contains Proterozoic

  8. Geology and tectonic development of the continental margin north of Alaska

    Grantz, A.; Eittreim, S.; Dinter, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska, as interpreted from seismic reflection profiles, is of the Atlantic type and consists of three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. The Chukchi sector, on the west, is characterized by the deep late Mesozoic and Tertiary North Chukchi basin and the Chukchi Continental Borderland. The Barrow sector of central northern Alaska is characterized by the Barrow arch and a moderately thick continental terrace build of Albian to Tertiary clastic sediment. The terrace sedimentary prism is underlain by lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Barter Island sector of northeastern Alaska and Yukon Territory is inferred to contain a very thick prism of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary marine and nonmarine clastic sediment. Its structure is dominated by a local deep Tertiary depocenter and two regional structural arches. We postulate that the distinguishing characteristics of the three sectors are inherited from the configuration of the rift that separated arctic Alaska from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago relative to old pre-rift highlands, which were clastic sediment sources. Where the rift lay relatively close to northern Alaska, in the Chukchi and Barter Island sectors, and locally separated Alaska from the old source terranes, thick late Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary prisms extend farther south beneath the continental shelf than in the intervening Barrow sector. The boundary between the Chukchi and Barrow sectors is relatively well defined by geophysical data, but the boundary between the Barrow and Barter Island sectors can only be inferred from the distribution and thickness of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. These boundaries may be extensions of oceanic fracture zones related to the rifting that is postulated to have opened the Canada Basin, probably beginning during the Early Jurassic. ?? 1979.

  9. Mass Wasting during the Cretaceous/Tertiary Transition in the North Atlantic: Relationship to the Chicxulub Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Paula; Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Deep-sea sections in the North Atlantic are claimed to contain the most complete sedimentary records and ultimate proof that the Chicxulub impact is Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) in age and caused the mass extinction. A multi-disciplinary study of North Atlantic DSDP Sites 384, 386 and 398, based on high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, clay and whole-rock mineralogy and granulometry, reveals the age, stratigraphic completeness and nature of sedimentary disturbances. Results show a major KTB hiatus at Site 384 with zones CF1, P0 and P1a missing, spanning at least ~540 ky, similar to other North Atlantic and Caribbean localities associated with tectonic activity and Gulf Stream erosion. At Sites 386 and 398, discrete intervals of disturbed sediments with mm-to-cm-thick spherule layers have previously been interpreted as KTB age impact-generated earthquakes destabilizing continental margins prior to settling of impact spherules. However, improved age control based on planktonic foraminifera indicates deposition in the early Danian zone P1a(2) (upper Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone) more than 100 ky after the KTB. At Site 386, two intervals of white chalk contain very small (<63 μm) early Danian zone P1a(2) (65%) and common reworked Cretaceous (35%) species, in contrast to the in situ red-brown and green abyssal clays that are devoid of carbonate. In addition, high calcite, mica and kaolinite and upward-fining are observed in the chalks, indicating downslope transport from shallow waters and sediment winnowing via distal turbidites. At Site 398, convoluted red to tan sediments with early Danian and reworked Cretaceous species represent slumping of shallow water sediments as suggested by dominance of mica and low smectite compared to in situ deposition. We conclude that mass wasting was likely the result of earthquakes associated with increased tectonic activity in the Caribbean and the Iberian Peninsula

  10. Cretaceous polar climates

    SciT

    Ziegler, A.M.; Horrell, M.A.; Lottes, A.L.

    1988-02-01

    The Cretaceous, like most Phanerozoic periods, was characterized by ice-free poles. Some still argue that the glaciers and sea ice were there, and that the tillites, etc, have been eroded or remain undiscovered. However, diverse floras, dense forests, and coal-forming cypress swamps, and dinosaurs, crocodilians, and lungfish are known from areas that were certainly at 75/degree/-80/degree/ north and south paleolatitude in the Cretaceous, implying that the coastal basins did not experience hard freezes. No deep marine connections to the North Pole existed in the Cretaceous, so oceanic polar heat transport can be discounted. However, the five north-south trending epeiric ormore » rift-related seaways that connected or nearly connected the Tethys to the Arctic would have dampened the seasonal temperature cycle, bring maritime climates deep into the North American and Eurasian continents and, more importantly, would have served as an energy source and channel for winter storms, much as the Gulf Stream does today. Cyclones have a natural tendency to move poleward, because of the increase in the Coriolis Parameter, and they transport both sensible and latent heat. The coastal regions of the relatively warm polar ocean in the Cretaceous would have received continuous precipitation during the winter because cyclones would be entering from as many as five directions. Coastal rainfall would also have been abundant in the summer but for a different reason; the land-sea temperature profile would reverse, with the warm land surface drawing in moisture, while clear ice-free conditions over the ocean would allow for solar warming.« less

  11. Cretaceous polar climates

    SciT

    Ziegler, A.M.; Horrell, M.A.; Lottes, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous, like most Phanerozooic periods, was characterized by ice-free poles. Some still argue that the glacier and sea ice were there, and that the tillites, etc, have been eroded or remain undiscovered. However, diverse floras, dense forests, coal-forming cypress swamps, and dinosaurs, crocodilians, and lungfish are known from areas that were certainly at 75/sup 0/-80/sup 0/ north and south paleolatitude in the Cretaceous, implying that the coastal basins did not experience hard freezes. No deep marine connections to the North Pole existed in the Cretaceous, so oceanic polar heat transport can be discounted. However, the five north-south trending epeiricmore » or rift-related seaways that connected or nearly connected the Tethys to the Arctic would have dampened the seasonal temperature cycle, bringing maritime climates deep into the North American and Eurasian continents and, more importantly, would have served as an energy source and channel for winter storms, much as the Gulf Stream does today. Cyclones have a natural tendency to move poleward, because of the increase in the Coriolis Paramteter, and they transport both sensible and latent heat. The coastal regions of the relatively warm polar ocean in the Cretaceous would have received continuous precipitation during the winter because cyclones would be entering from as many as five directions. Coastal rainfall would also have been abundant in the summer but for a different reason; the land-sea temperature profile would reverse, with the warm land surface drawing in moisture, while clear ice-free conditions over the ocean would allow for solar warming.« less

  12. First complete sauropod dinosaur skull from the Cretaceous of the Americas and the evolution of sauropod dentition.

    PubMed

    Chure, Daniel; Britt, Brooks B; Whitlock, John A; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2010-04-01

    Sauropod dinosaur bones are common in Mesozoic terrestrial sediments, but sauropod skulls are exceedingly rare--cranial materials are known for less than one third of sauropod genera and even fewer are known from complete skulls. Here we describe the first complete sauropod skull from the Cretaceous of the Americas, Abydosaurus mcintoshi, n. gen., n. sp., known from 104.46 +/- 0.95 Ma (megannum) sediments from Dinosaur National Monument, USA. Abydosaurus shares close ancestry with Brachiosaurus, which appeared in the fossil record ca. 45 million years earlier and had substantially broader teeth. A survey of tooth shape in sauropodomorphs demonstrates that sauropods evolved broad crowns during the Early Jurassic but did not evolve narrow crowns until the Late Jurassic, when they occupied their greatest range of crown breadths. During the Cretaceous, brachiosaurids and other lineages independently underwent a marked diminution in tooth breadth, and before the latest Cretaceous broad-crowned sauropods were extinct on all continental landmasses. Differential survival and diversification of narrow-crowned sauropods in the Late Cretaceous appears to be a directed trend that was not correlated with changes in plant diversity or abundance, but may signal a shift towards elevated tooth replacement rates and high-wear dentition. Sauropods lacked many of the complex herbivorous adaptations present within contemporaneous ornithischian herbivores, such as beaks, cheeks, kinesis, and heterodonty. The spartan design of sauropod skulls may be related to their remarkably small size--sauropod skulls account for only 1/200th of total body volume compared to 1/30th body volume in ornithopod dinosaurs.

  13. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled

  14. A Triassic to Cretaceous Sundaland-Pacific subduction margin in West Sarawak, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Hall, Robert; Galin, Thomson; Forster, Margaret A.; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in West Sarawak are poorly exposed and studied. They were previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement but had never been dated. New 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica in quartz-mica schists reveal metamorphism between c. 216 to 220 Ma. The metamorphic rocks are associated with Triassic acid and basic igneous rocks, which indicate widespread magmatism. New U-Pb dating of zircons from the Jagoi Granodiorite indicates Triassic magmatism at c. 208 Ma and c. 240 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from volcaniclastic sediments of the Sadong and Kuching Formations confirms contemporaneous volcanism. The magmatic activity is interpreted to represent a Triassic subduction margin in westernmost West Sarawak with sediments deposited in a forearc basin derived from the magmatic arc at the Sundaland-Pacific margin. West Sarawak and NW Kalimantan are underlain by continental crust that was already part of Sundaland or accreted to Sundaland in the Triassic. One metabasite sample, also previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement, yielded Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages. They are interpreted to indicate resumption of subduction which led to deposition of volcaniclastic sediments and widespread magmatism. U-Pb ages from detrital zircons in the Cretaceous Pedawan Formation are similar to those from the Schwaner granites of NW Kalimantan, and the Pedawan Formation is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous forearc basin containing material eroded from a magmatic arc that extended from Vietnam to west Borneo. The youngest U-Pb ages from zircons in a tuff layer from the uppermost part of the Pedawan Formation indicate that volcanic activity continued until c. 86 to 88 Ma when subduction terminated.

  15. Climate change and carbon-cycling during the latest Cretaceous-Early Paleogene; a new 13.5 million year-long, orbital-resolution, stable isotope record from the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, J.; Littler, K.; Kroon, D.; Leng, M. J.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The "greenhouse" world of the latest Cretaceous-Early Paleogene ( 70-34 Ma) was characterised by multi-million year variability in climate and the carbon-cycle. Throughout this interval the pervasive imprint of orbital-cyclicity, particularly eccentricity and precession, is visible in elemental and stable isotope data obtained from multiple deep-sea sites. Periodic "hyperthermal" events, occurring largely in-step with these orbital cycles, have proved particularly enigmatic, and may be the closest, albeit imperfect, analogues for anthropogenic climate change. This project utilises CaCO3-rich marine sediments recovered from ODP Site 1262 at a paleo-depth of 3600 m on the Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic, of late Maastrichtian-mid Paleocene age ( 67-60 Ma). We have derived high-resolution (2.5-4 kyr) carbon and oxygen isotope data from the epifaunal benthic foraminifera species Nuttallides truempyi. Combining the new record with the existing Late Paleocene-Early Eocene record generated from the same site by Littler et al. (2014), yields a single-site reference curve detailing 13.5 million years of orbital cyclicity in paleoclimate and carbon cycle from the latest Cretaceous to near the peak warmth of the Early Paleogene greenhouse. Spectral analysis of this new combined dataset allows us to identify long (405-kyr) eccentricity, short (100-kyr) eccentricity, and precession (19-23-kyr) as the principle forcing mechanisms governing pacing of the background climate and carbon-cycle during this time period, with a comparatively weak obliquity (41-kyr) signal. Cross-spectral analysis suggests that changes in climate lead the carbon cycle throughout most of the record, emphasising the role of the release of temperature-sensitive carbon stores as a positive feedback to an initial warming induced by changes in orbital configuration. The expression of comparatively understudied Early Paleocene events, including the Dan-C2 Event, Latest Danian Event, and Danian/Selandian Transition

  16. Hints of the Early Jehol Biota: Important Dinosaur Footprint Assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G.; Burns, Michael E.; Kümmell, Susanna B.; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks. PMID:25901363

  17. New Insights into Early Cenozoic Carbon Cycling: Continental Ecosystem Response to Orbital Forcing in the Lacustrine Green River Formation (Western US) at the Conclusion of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musher, D.; Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of extreme warming events, known as hyperthermals, interrupted the equable climate conditions predominant during the early Cenozoic hothouse. In marine sediments, these hyperthermals are marked by prominent negative carbon isotope excursions, indicative of dramatic and abrupt changes in the global exogenic carbon pool, as well as carbonate dissolution horizons and benthic foraminiferal extinctions. Hyperthermals are well documented in the marine record, but it is less clear how patterns of global carbon cycling manifested in early Cenozoic terrestrial environments, although some studies have documented amplified excursions relative to that of the marine record. The lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation of Utah is an excellent system for studying the continental environmental context of global carbon cycle dynamics during this time. These sediments span a ~15 Myr time interval, including the entire Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and the transition to the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend. To investigate the relationship between the continental carbon record and global carbon cycling, climate, and orbital forcing, we studied a detailed section from the P-4 core drilled in the Uinta Basin bracketing the famous “Mahogany Bed”, a petroliferous layer of oil shale recording a period of enhanced productivity and carbon burial near the end of the EECO. Our carbon isotope measurements of high molecular weight n-alkanes across this boundary suggest a stable global carbon cycle and climate regime persisting ~400 kyr at the terminal EECO. Frequency spectra of published oil yield and gamma ray data from this section reveal concentrated power at Milankovitch frequencies, permitting the assembly of a robust age model. In concert with radioisotopic age control, our orbital chronology allows for comparison of our carbon cycle record to early Eocene astronomical solutions. We show that the Mahogany Bed corresponds to strong minima in short and long eccentricity

  18. Early Cretaceous ( 140 Ma) aluminous A-type granites in the Tethyan Himalaya, Tibet: Products of crust-mantle interaction during lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Kerr, Andrew C.; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Hu, Wan-Long

    2018-02-01

    A-type granites have been the focus of considerable research due to their distinctive major- and trace-element signatures and tectonic significance. However, their petrogenesis, magmatic source and tectonic setting remain controversial, particularly for aluminous A-type granites. The earliest Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) Comei granite in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya is associated with coeval oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type mafic lava, and has A-type granite geochemical characteristics including high 10,000 × Ga/Al (up to 6), FeOtotal/MgO (4.6-6.1) and (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 (0.50-0.61) ratios but low CaO (0.6-1.6 wt%) and Na2O (1.8-2.6 wt%) contents. The Comei granite also has variable peraluminous compositions (A/CNK = 1.00-1.36) along with zircon δ18O, εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 8.2‰ to 9.3‰, - 13.0 to - 12.4 and 0.7238 to 0.7295, respectively. This range of compositions can be interpreted as the interaction between high-temperature upwelling OIB type basaltic magmas and a shallow crustal (< 5 kbar) metapelitic source. The Comei granite and coeval OIB type basaltic rock could represent the earliest stage (145-140 Ma) of a large igneous event in eastern Tethyan Himalaya, which may well have been triggered by pre-breakup lithospheric extension prior to the arrival of the Kerguelen plume head.

  19. Two-types of Early Cretaceous adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane, eastern North China Block: Melting of subducted Paleo-Pacific slab and delaminated newly underplated lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Xiancai; Fu, Bin; Lu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Zengxia

    2016-01-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks from the Luxi terrane in the eastern North China Block (NCB) remain debated. To resolve this issue, we determined whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Hf-O isotopes of the Mengyin and Liujing adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that both the Mengyin and Liujing plutons were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous, with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 130 ± 1 Ma (2σ) and 131 ± 2 Ma (2σ), respectively. In addition, abundant Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon cores are identified in the Mengyin adakitic porphyry with 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 2.53 to 2.42 Ga. Rocks of both plutons are silicic (SiO2 = 65.4-70.2 wt.%), metaluminous, and alkaline in composition, comprising mainly quartz syenite porphyries. Samples from both plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Ba), and light rare earth elements (LREEs), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and have either positive or no Eu anomalies. In addition, both adakitic porphyries have high Mg# values (51-64), high Sr and La contents, low Y and Yb contents, and high Sr/Y (Mengyin = 149-264; Liujing = 58-110) and (La/Yb)N (Mengyin = 32.4-45.3; Liujing = 43.8-53.1) ratios, similar to adakitic rocks worldwide. The Mengyin adakitic porphyry has higher whole-rock εNd(t) values (-5.8 to - 4.1), more radiogenic Pb [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.35-18.39, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.55-15.56, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.23], higher zircon rim εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.8) and δ18O values (+ 6.5‰ to + 7.9‰), and lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7049-0.7050) than the Liujing adakitic porphyry [εNd(t) = - 12.4 to - 12.2, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.63-17.72, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.56-15.58, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.76-37.94, εHf(t) = - 14.8 to - 11.2, δ18O = + 5.9‰ to + 7.1‰, (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7090-0.7091]. The

  20. Global research on the Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Robert N.

    Cretaceous Resources, Events and Rhythms, a new international research effort on the global aspects of Cretaceous sedimentary geology, is underway. This Global Sedimentary Geology Project (GSGP) is organized by the Commission on Global Sedimentary Geology of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The GSGP secretariat is at the University of Miami, Florida (Fisher Island, Miami Beach, FL 33139, tel. 305-672-1840, RNGINSBURG/KOSMOS).Cretaceous time was selected for this pilot research project because Cretaceous sea levels and climates can provide a vision of Earth in its “greenhouse state,” because there is an established geochronology for the era's wide-spread deposits, and because there are extensive resources of hydrocarbons, coal, bauxite and other minerals in Cretaceous rocks.

  1. Initiation of continental accretion in the Betic-Rif domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxime, Daudet; Frederic, Mouthereau; Stéphanie, Brichau; Ana, Crespo-Blanc; Arnaud, Vacherat

    2017-04-01

    The Betic - Rif cordillera in southern Spain and northern Morocco, respectively, form one of the tightest orogenic arc on Earth. The formation of this arcuate orogenic belt resulted from the westward migration of the Alboran crustal domain, constituted by the internal zone of the orogeny and the basement of the Alboran back-arc basin, that collided with the rifted margins of Iberia and Africa at least since the early Miocene. This collision is intimately linked to the post-35-30Ma regional slab roll-back and back-arc extension in the western Mediterranean region. The geodynamics of the Betic-Rif domain, which is of great importance for the paleogeographic reconstructions of the Tethys-Altantic and the Mediterranean sea, is still largely debated. Answers will come from a more detailed structural analyses, including refinement of the time-temperature paths and kinematics of the main structural units, which is one of the main objectives of the OROGEN research project, co-financed by BRGM, TOTAL & CNRS. In this study, we focus on the well-developed flysch-type sediments now accreted in the Betics-Rif but initially deposited in a basin, north of the african margin and on the iberian margin from the Early Cretaceous to the Early Miocene. Using low-temperature thermochronology (fission-track and (U-Th)/He analyses) combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology on the flyschs deposited on the most distal part of the margin, we aim to constrain the thermal history of both the source rocks and accreted thrust sheets at the earliest stages of continental accretion. Sample have been collected in flyschs series ranging from Mesozoic, Paleogene to Neogene ages. Additional samples have been collected in the Rif where Cretaceous series are more developed. Combined with a detailed structural analysis, LT thermochronological constraints will refine the kinematics of thrust units when continental accretion started before the final thrust emplacement occurred in the Early Miocene

  2. Petrology and age of volcanic-arc rocks from the continental margin of the Bering Sea: implications for Early Eocene relocation of plate boundaries

    Davis, A.S.; Pickthorn, L.-B.G.; Vallier, T.L.; Marlow, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Eocene volcanic flow and dike rocks from the Beringian margin have arc characteristics, implying a convergent history for this region during the early Tertiary. Chemical and mineralogical compositions are similar to those of modern Aleutian-arc lavas. They also resemble volcanic-arc compositions from western mainland Alaska, although greater chemical diversity and a stronger continental influence are observed in the Alaskan mainland rocks. Early Eocene ages of 54.4-50.2 Ma for the Beringian samples are well constrained by conventional K-Ar ages of nine plagioclase separates and by concordant 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and total-fusion experiments. A concordant U-Pb zircon age of 53 Ma for the quartz-diorite dike is in good agreement with the K-Ar data. Plate motion studies of the North Pacific Ocean indicate more northerly directed subduction prior to the Tertiary and a continuous belt of arc-type volcanism extending from Siberia, along the Beringian margin, into mainland Alaska. Around 56 Ma (chron 25-24), subduction changed to a more westerly direction and subduction-related volcanism ceased for most of mainland Alaska. The increasingly oblique angle of convergence should have ended subduction along the Beringian margin as well. However, consistent ages of 54-50 Ma indicate a final pulse in arc-type magmatism during this period of plate adjustment. -from Authors

  3. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments are well known to form a major element of the northernmost tectonic units of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Lower Austria). The Penninic Ocean was a side tract of the Central Atlantic Oceanic System intercalated between the European and the Austroalpine plates. Its opening started during the Mid Jurrasic, as rifting of the of the oceanic crust between the European and the Austroalpine plates. The turnover of the deposition on the European shelf (Helvetic Zone) from deep-water siliciclastics into pelagic carbonates is correlated with the deepening of this newly arising ocean. Within the Gresten Klippenbelt Unit, this transition is reflected by the lithostratigraphic boundary between the Tithonian marl-limestone succession and the Berriasian limestones of the Blassenstein Formation. This boundary is well exposed in a newly discovered site at Nutzhof, in the heart of Lower Austria (Kroh and Lukeneder 2009, Lukeneder 2009, Pruner, Schnabl, and Lukeneder 2009, Reháková, Halásová and Lukeneder 2009). Biostratigraphy. According to microfossil (calcareous dinoflagellates, calpionellids) and palaeomagnetic data, the association indicates that the cephalopod-bearing beds of the Nutzhof section belong to the Carpistomiosphaera tithonica-Zone of the Early Tithonian up to the Calpionella Zone of the Middle Berriasian. This interval corresponds to the ammonoid zones from the Early Tithonian Hybonoticeras hybonotum-Zone up to the Middle Berriasian Subthurmannia occitanica-Zone. Ammonoids. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ammonoids were collected at the Nutzhof locality in the eastern part of the Gresten Klippenbelt in Lower Austria. The cephalopod fauna from the Blassenstein Formation, correlated with micro- and nannofossil data from the marly unit and the limestone unit, indicates Early Tithonian to Middle Berriasian age (Hybonoticeras hybonotum Zone up to the Subthurmannia occitanica Zone). According to the correlation of the fossil

  4. One hundred million year old ergot: psychotropic compounds in the Cretaceous?

    A fungal sclerotium similar to sclerotia of the genus Claviceps, commonly known as ergot, was found infecting a grass kernel in Early Cretaceous Myanmar amber. This represents the first fossil record of ergot dating as far back as the Cretaceous period. The fungus, described as Palaeoclaviceps para...

  5. Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites of the Argo Abyssal Plain, Indian Ocean

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Stewart, Sondra K.; Kennett, Diana; Mazzullo, Elsa K.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 123 from the Argo Abyssal Plain (AAP) consist largely of turbidites derived from the adjacent Australian continental margin. The oldest abundant turbidites are Valanginian-Aptian in age and have a mixed (smarl) composition; they contain subequal amounts of calcareous and siliceous biogenic components, as well as clay and lesser quartz. Most are thin-bedded, fine sand to mud-sized, and best described by Stow and Piper's model (1984) for fine-grained biogenic turbidites. Thicker (to 3 m), coarser-grained (medium-to-coarse sand-sized) turbidites fit Bouma's model (1962) for sandy turbidites; these generally are base-cut-out (BCDE, BDE) sequences, with B-division parallel lamination as the dominant structure. Parallel laminae most commonly concentrate quartz and/or calcispheres vs. lithic clasts or clay, but distinctive millimeter to centimeter-thick, radiolarian-rich laminae occur in both fine and coarse-grained Valanginian-Hauterivian turbidites.AAP turbidites were derived from relatively deep parts of the continental margin (outer shelf, slope, or rise) that lay below the photic zone, but above the calcite compensation depth (CCD). Biogenic components are largely pelagic (calcispheres, foraminifers, radiolarians, nannofossils); lesser benthic foraminifers are characteristic of deep-water (abyssal to bathyal) environments. Abundant nonbiogenic components are mostly clay and clay clasts; smectite is the dominant clay species, and indicates a volcanogenic provenance, most likely the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic suite exposed along the northern Exmouth Plateau.Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites were generated during eustatic lowstands and may have reached the abyssal plain via Swan Canyon, a submarine canyon thought to have formed during the Late Jurassic. In contrast to younger AAP turbidites, however, Lower Cretaceous turbidites are relatively fine-grained and do not contain notably older reworked fossils. Early

  6. The age and diversification of terrestrial New World ecosystems through Cretaceous and Cenozoic time.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Eight ecosystems that were present in the Cretaceous about 100 Ma (million years ago) in the New World eventually developed into the 12 recognized for the modern Earth. Among the forcing mechanisms that drove biotic change during this interval was a decline in global temperatures toward the end of the Cretaceous, augmented by the asteroid impact at 65 Ma and drainage of seas from continental margins and interiors; separation of South America from Africa beginning in the south at ca. 120 Ma and progressing northward until completed 90-100 Ma; the possible emission of 1500 gigatons of methane and CO(2) attributed to explosive vents in the Norwegian Sea at ca. 55 Ma, resulting in a temperature rise of 5°-6°C in an already warm world; disruption of the North Atlantic land bridge at ca. 45 Ma at a time when temperatures were falling; rise of the Andes Mountains beginning at ca. 40 Ma; opening of the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica at ca. 32 Ma with formation of the cold Humboldt at ca. 30 Ma; union of North and South America at ca. 3.5 Ma; and all within the overlay of evolutionary processes. These processes generated a sequence of elements (e.g., species growing in moist habitats within an overall dry environment; gallery forests), early versions (e.g., mangrove communities without Rhizophora until the middle Eocene), and essentially modern versions of present-day New World ecosystems. As a first approximation, the fossil record suggests that early versions of aquatic communities (in the sense of including a prominent angiosperm component) appeared early in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, the lowland neotropical rainforest at 64 Ma (well developed by 58-55 Ma), shrubland/chaparral-woodland-savanna and grasslands around the middle Miocene climatic optimum at ca. 15-13 Ma, deserts in the middle Miocene/early Pliocene at ca. 10 Ma, significant tundra at ca. 7-5 Ma, and alpine tundra (páramo) shortly thereafter when cooling temperatures were augmented

  7. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarian age constraints from the sedimentary cover of the Amasia ophiolite (NW Armenia), at the junction between the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan and Sevan-Hakari suture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, T.; Asatryan, G.; Galoyan, Gh.; Sahakyan, L.; Stepanyan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Amasia ophiolite, situated at the northernmost corner of Armenia, is part of the Sevan-Hakari suture zone which links with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan suture zone in northern Turkey. Three new radiolarian assemblages have been extracted from siliceous sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the Amasia ophiolite in an oceanic setting. Two of these assemblages were extracted from red-brownish bedded cherts overlying basaltic lavas; one of these is likely to be middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian in age, while the second correlates with the Berriasian. Similar time-equivalent lava-chert sequences have been dated recently using radiolarians from the Stepanavan, Vedi and Sevan ophiolite units, where they are considered to relate to submarine volcanic activity in the back-arc marginal basin in which the Armenian ophiolites were formed. The third radiolarian assemblage, of late Barremian age, was extracted from a more than 15-m-thick volcaniclastic-chert sequence. The related volcanic activity is likely to have been subaerial and probably relates to the formation of an oceanic volcanic plateau; no Cretaceous subaerial volcanism has been previously recorded in the Lesser Caucasus area.

  8. Selectivity of end-Cretaceous marine bivalve extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablonski, D.; Raup, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyses of the end-Cretaceous or Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction show no selectivity of marine bivalve genera by life position (burrowing versus exposed), body size, bathymetric position on the continental shelf, or relative breadth of bathymetric range. Deposit-feeders as a group have significantly lower extinction intensities than suspension-feeders, but this pattern is due entirely to low extinction in two groups (Nuculoida and Lucinoidea), which suggests that survivorship was not simply linked to feeding mode. Geographically widespread genera have significantly lower extinction intensities than narrowly distributed genera. These results corroborate earlier work suggesting that some biotic factors that enhance survivorship during times of lesser extinction intensities are ineffectual during mass extinctions.

  9. Continental Rifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  10. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America.

    PubMed

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2012-08-09

    Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms. Several major issues remain outstanding, such as whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment and how their unique feeding mechanism evolved. The Cretaceous Coniophis precedens was among the first Mesozoic snakes discovered, but until now only an isolated vertebra has been described and it has therefore been overlooked in discussions of snake evolution. Here we report on previously undescribed material from this ancient snake, including the maxilla, dentary and additional vertebrae. Coniophis is not an anilioid as previously thought a revised phylogenetic analysis of Ophidia shows that it instead represents the most primitive known snake. Accordingly, its morphology and ecology are critical to understanding snake evolution. Coniophis occurs in a continental floodplain environment, consistent with a terrestrial rather than a marine origin; furthermore, its small size and reduced neural spines indicate fossorial habits, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skull is intermediate between that of lizards and snakes. Hooked teeth and an intramandibular joint indicate that Coniophis fed on relatively large, soft-bodied prey. However, the maxilla is firmly united with the skull, indicating an akinetic rostrum. Coniophis therefore represents a transitional snake, combining a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Subsequent to the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull, which was followed by a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous period. This pattern suggests that the kinetic skull was a key innovation that permitted the diversification of snakes.

  11. Evidence for a Battle Mountain-Eureka crustal fault zone, north-central Nevada, and its relation to Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic continental breakup

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Rodriguez, B.D.; Bankey, V.; Wooden, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Combined evidence from gravity, radiogenic isotope, and magnetotelluric (MT) data indicates a crustal fault zone that coincides with the northwest-trending Battle Mountain-Eureka (BME) mineral trend in north-central Nevada, USA. The BME crustal fault zone likely originated during Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic rifting of the continent and had a large influence on subsequent tectonic events, such as emplacement of allochthons and episodic deformation, magmatism, and mineralization throughout the Phanerozoic. MT models show the fault zone is about 10 km wide, 130-km long, and extends from 1 to 5 km below the surface to deep crustal levels. Isotope data and gravity models imply the fault zone separates crust of fundamentally different character. Geophysical evidence for such a long-lived structure, likely inherited from continental breakup, defies conventional wisdom that structures this old have been destroyed by Cenozoic extensional processes. Moreover, the coincidence with the alignment of mineral deposits supports the assertion by many economic geologists that these alignments are indicators of buried regional structures.

  12. Preliminary report on geology along Atlantic Continental Margin of northeastern United States

    Minard, J.P.; Perry, W.J.; Weed, E.G.A.; Rhodehamel, E.C.; Robbins, E.I.; Mixon, R.B.

    1974-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a geologic and geophysical study of the northeastern United States outer continental shelf and the adjacent slope from Georges Bank to Cape Hatteras. The study also includes the adjacent coastal plain because it is a more accessible extension of the shelf. The total study area is about 324,000 sq km, of which the shelf and slope constitute about 181,000 sq km and the coastal plain constitutes 143,000 sq km. The shelf width ranges from about 30 km at Cape Hatteras to about 195 km off Raritan Bay and on Georges Bank. Analyses of bottom samples make it possible to construct a preliminary geologic map of the shelf and slope to a water depth of 2,000 m. The oldest beds cropping out in the submarine canyons and on the slope are of early ate Cretaceous age. Beds of Early Cretaceous and Jurassic age are present in deep wells onshore and probably are present beneath the shelf in the area of this study. Such beds are reported beneath the Scotian shelf on the northeast where they include limestone, salt, and anhydrite. Preliminary conclusions suggest a considerably thicker Mesozoic sedimentary sequence than has been described previously. The region is large; the sedimentary wedge is thick; structures seem favorable; and the hydrocarbon potential may be considerable.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous carbonatites from Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Castorina, F.; Censi, P.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Gomes, C. B.

    1999-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous (138-130 Ma) carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks of Angola belong to the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province and occur as ring complexes and other central-type intrusions along northeast trending tectonic lineaments, parallel to the trend of coeval Namibian alkaline complexes. Most of the Angolan carbonatite-alkaline bodies are located along the apical part of the Moçamedes Arch, a structure representing the African counterpart of the Ponta Grossa Arch in southern Brazil, where several alkaline-carbonatite complexes were also emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. Geochemical and isotopic (C, 0, Sr and Nd) characteristics determined for five carbonatitic occurrences indicate that: (1) the overall geochemical composition, including the OC isotopes, is within the range of the Early and Late Cretaceous Brazilian occurrences from the Paraná Basin; (2) the La versus {La}/{Yb} relationships are consistent with the exsolution of CO i2-rich melts from trachyphonolitic magmas; and (3) the {143Nd}/{144Nd} and {87Sr}/{86Sr} initial ratios are similar to the initial isotopic ratios (129 Ma) of alkaline complexes in northwest Namibia. In contrast, the Lupongola carbonatites have a distinctly different {143Nd}/{144Nd} initial ratio, suggesting a different source. The Angolan carbonatites have SrNd isotopic compositions ranging from bulk earth to time-integrated depleted sources. Since those from eastern Paraguay (at the western fringe of the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province) and Brazil appear to be related to mantle-derived melts with time-integrated enriched or B.E. isotopic characteristics, it is concluded that the carbonatites of the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province have compositionally distinct mantle sources. Such mantle heterogeneity is attributed to 'metasomatic processes', which would have occurred at ca 0.6-0.7 Ga (Angola, northwest Namibia and Brazil) and ca 1.8 Ga (eastern Paraguay), as suggested by Nd-model ages.

  14. Seawater Chemistry Across Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Continental weathering is recognized as one of the primary mechanisms moderating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Past carbon cycle perturbations, often associated with mass extinction events, recovered on a timescale of hundreds of thousands of years, broadly consistent with enhanced chemical weathering being the key moderating process. Since chemical weathering of continental rocks controls the delivery of cations to the oceans, records of seawater cation chemistry provide a powerful archive of this interplay and feedback between climate and weathering.The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary at 65.6 Ma is the last major mass extinction event. The two accepted drivers of K-Pg events were the geologically coeval eruption of Deccan Trap continental flood basalts and the meteorite impact at Chicxulub. The Chicxulub impact happened during a second pulse of Deccan traps volcanism. Thus, teasing apart the timing and dominant driver of the mass extinction and the recovery remains enigmatic. A key feature of the K-Pg event is the transient acidification of the global surface ocean that drove the collapse of the oceanic ecosystem. This surface ocean acidification was caused by `geologically instantaneous' influx of large quantities of acidic gases (viz. CO2, SO2) to the ocean-atmosphere system. We will present high-resolution records of Li, B, Mg, and Ca isotope (δ7Li, δ11B, δ26Mg, and δ44Ca, respectively) measured in single species foraminifera across the K-Pg boundary to assess the perturbation and the subsequent continental weathering feedback. The unique aspect of the proposed research is in the first direct reconstruction of seawater isotopic composition of elements intimately linked to the continental weathering cycle (Li, Mg, and Ca), and the carbon budget of the ocean-atmosphere system (Boron) across an event of rapid climate transition and recovery. Moreover, this will allow to fingerprint the timing of the acidic gas input to the atmosphere and to

  15. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  16. Transition from continental to oceanic crust on the Wilkes-Adelie margin of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eittreim, Stephen L.

    1994-12-01

    The Wilkes-Adelie margin of East Antarctica, a passive margin rifted in the Early Cretaceous, has an unusually reflective Moho which can be traced seismically across the continent-ocean transition. Velocity models and depth sections were constructed from a combined set of U.S. and French multichannel seismic reflection lines to investigate the transition from continental to oceanic crust. These data show that the boundary between oldest oceanic crust and transitional continental crust is marked by a minimum in subsediment crustal thickness and, in places, by a shoaling of Moho. The Moho reflection is continuous across the edge of oceanic crust, and gradually deepens landward under the continental edge. A marginal rift basin, some tens of kilometers in width, lies in the transition between continental and oceanic crust, contains an average of about 4 km of synrift sediment that is prograded in places, and has characteristics of a former rift valley, now subsided to about 10 km. Three types of reflections in the seismic data are interpreted as volcanic deposits: (1) high-amplitude reflections that floor the marginal rift basin, (2) irregularly seaward dipping sequences that comprise an anomalously thick edge of oceanic crust, and (3) highly irregular and diffractive reflections from oceanic crustal basins that cap a normal-thickness ocean crust. The present depth to the prefit surface of continental crust is compatible with passive margin subsidence since 95 Ma, corrected for its load of synrift and postrift sediment and mechanically stretched by factors of beta = 1.8 or higher. Comparison of seismic crustal thickness measurements with inferred crustal thinning from subsidence analysis shows agreement for areas where beta less than 4. In areas where beta greater than 4, measured thickness is greater than that inferred from subsidence analysis, a result that could be explained by underplating the crust beneath the marginal rift basin.

  17. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle–late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old) of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids) suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous. PMID:25494182

  18. Relation between Ocean SST Dipoles and Downwind Continental Croplands Assessed for Early Management Using Satellite-based Photosynthesis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Daijiro

    2015-04-01

    Crop-monitoring systems with the unit of carbon-dioxide sequestration for environmental issues related to climate adaptation to global warming have been improved using satellite-based photosynthesis and meteorological conditions. Early management of crop status is desirable for grain production, stockbreeding, and bio-energy providing that the seasonal climate forecasting is sufficiently accurate. Incorrect seasonal forecasting of crop production can damage global social activities if the recognized conditions are unsatisfied. One cause of poor forecasting related to the atmospheric dynamics at the Earth surface, which reflect the energy budget through land surface, especially the oceans and atmosphere. Recognition of the relation between SST anomalies (e.g. ENSO, Atlantic Niño, Indian dipoles, and Ningaloo Niño) and crop production, as expressed precisely by photosynthesis or the sequestrated-carbon rate, is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms related to poor production. Solar radiation, surface air temperature, and water stress all directly affect grain vegetation photosynthesis. All affect stomata opening, which is related to the water balance or definition by the ratio of the Penman potential evaporation and actual transpiration. Regarding stomata, present data and reanalysis data give overestimated values of stomata opening because they are extended from wet models in forests rather than semi-arid regions commonly associated with wheat, maize, and soybean. This study applies a complementary model based on energy conservation for semi-arid zones instead of the conventional Penman-Monteith method. Partitioning of the integrated Net PSN enables precise estimation of crop yields by modifying the semi-closed stomata opening. Partitioning predicts production more accurately using the cropland distribution already classified using satellite data. Seasonal crop forecasting should include near-real-time monitoring using satellite-based process crop models to avoid

  19. Cenozoic crustal shortening between the Pamir and Tien Shan and a reconstruction of the Pamir Tien Shan transition zone for the Cretaceous and Palaeogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtman, V. S.

    2000-03-01

    The magnitude of the Late Cenozoic crustal shortening during convergence of the Pamir and Tien Shan was determined using a contemporary pattern consisting of facies zones, palaeomagnetic data (regarding the rotation of tectonic units) and data on the structure of the Tadjik Depression. By Late Cenozoic, Cretaceous and Palaeogene facies zones were cut by the Vakhsh-Trans-Alay overthrust and Darvaz strike-slip faults and a significant part of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene Tadjik Basin was overthrust by the Pamir massif. The sediments of easternmost part of the basin are preserved in the Tarim Depression. The facies zones of the southern slope of the Afghan-Tadjik Basin were deformed and moved northward. A pattern of facies zones indicates a convergence between the Pamir and Tien Shan over a distance of 300-400 km. A number of cross-sections through the Tadjik Depression were used to establish the structure before folding. A rotation of tectonic units, indicated by structural data, conforms to the angles of rotation as determined in palaeomagnetic studies. The data suggest 300 km of convergence between the Pamir and Tien Shan. Stratigraphic, lithological, structural and palaeomagnetic data formed the basis for the construction of the palinspastically-restored palaeogeographic and sedimentologic environments for the Tadjik shallow sea basin which was situated between the Pamir and Tien Shan before their convergence in the Late Cenozoic. The maps were constructed for the eight stratigraphic levels of the Cretaceous and Palaeogene. The Tadjik Sea was a bay in the enormous Turan Sea. In the Early Aptian this bay was located in what is now the Afghan-Tadjik Basin. In Late Cretaceous, the eastern shore of the bay lay 600-700 km further eastward and in the Eocene, marine environments extended even further eastward but after the Rupelian continental environments occupied all of this region.

  20. Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

    PubMed Central

    Arkhangelsky, Maxim S.; Stenshin, Ilya M.; Uspensky, Gleb N.; Zverkov, Nikolay G.

    2015-01-01

    During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid from the Late Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous) of Russia. Phylogenetic analyses using reduced consensus methods recover it as the basalmost brachauchenine. This pliosaurid is smaller than other derived pliosaurids, has tooth alveoli clustered in pairs and possesses trihedral teeth with complex serrated carinae. Maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstruction suggests early brachauchenines retained trihedral teeth from their ancestors, but modified this feature in a unique way, convergent with macrophagous archosaurs or sphenacodontoids. Our findings indicate that Early Cretaceous marine reptile teeth with serrated carinae cannot be unequivocally assigned to metriorhynchoid crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, they extend the known diversity of dental adaptations seen in Sauropterygia, the longest lived clade of marine tetrapods. PMID:27019740

  1. Cosmic Genes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, M. K.

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that genes coding for Aib-polypeptides arose early on in the K/T transition, presumed from the Earth's accretion of interplanetary (comet) dust. Aib-fungi flourished because of the evolutionary advantage of novel antibiotics. The stress on Cretaceous biology led directly and indirectly to mass species extinctions, including many dinosaur species, in the epoch preceding the Chicxulub impact.

  2. Proximal Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact deposits in the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Alan R.; Boynton, Willam V.

    1990-01-01

    Trace element, isotopic, and mineralogic studies indicate that the proposed impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary occurred in an ocean basin, although a minor component of continental material is required. The size and abundance of shocked minerals and the restricted geographic occurrence of the ejecta layer and impact-wave deposits suggest an impact between the Americas. Coarse boundary sediments at sites 151 and 153 in the Colombian Basin and 5- to 450-meter-thick boundary sediments in Cuba may be deposits of a giant wave produced by a nearby oceanic impact.

  3. Finding of two new radiolarian associations calibrated with ammonoids in the Vaca Muerta Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Verónica V.; Pujana, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    An association of ammonoids and radiolarians retrieved from a sedimentary section of the Vaca Muerta Formation at Vega de Escalone, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, was analized under a strict stratigraphic control. Nine ammonoid assemblage biozones were identified, indicating an age span from Early Tithonian to Late Berriasian/earlymost Valanginian for the Vaca Muerta Formation at the studied section. In connection to the ammonoid record, two radiolarian faunas were identified and named J3A1 and J3B1. Fauna J3A1, corresponding to the Virgatosphinctes andesensis Biozone, is dominated by nasellarian genera and represents the first Lower Tithonian radiolarian fauna described from the Neuquén Basin. Fauna J3B1, linked to the interval assigned to the Substeueroceras koeneni Biozone (Late Tithonian-Early Berriasian), yields abundant representatives of the Pantanellid Family. The presence of Complexapora kozuri (Kiessling and Zeiss) and Loopus primitivus (Matsuoka and Yao), two important radiolarian primary markers of the Late Jurassic in North America, supports a Late Tithonian age for at least part of the S. koeneni Biozone in the studied area. Nor certain Berriasian radiolarian faunas nor elements of the Vallupinae Family were identified so far at the Vega de Escalone section.

  4. Volcanic ash as a driver of enhanced organic carbon burial in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cin-Ty A; Jiang, Hehe; Ronay, Elli; Minisini, Daniel; Stiles, Jackson; Neal, Matthew

    2018-03-08

    On greater than million year timescales, carbon in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system is controlled by geologic inputs of CO 2 through volcanic and metamorphic degassing. High atmospheric CO 2 and warm climates in the Cretaceous have been attributed to enhanced volcanic emissions of CO 2 through more rapid spreading at mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, to a global flare-up in continental arc volcanism. Here, we show that global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism also enhance the global flux of nutrients into the ocean through production of windblown ash. We show that up to 75% of Si, Fe and P is leached from windblown ash during and shortly after deposition, with soluble Si, Fe and P inputs from ash alone in the Cretaceous being higher than the combined input of dust and rivers today. Ash-derived nutrient inputs may have increased the efficiency of biological productivity and organic carbon preservation in the Cretaceous, possibly explaining why the carbon isotopic signature of Cretaceous seawater was high. Variations in volcanic activity, particularly continental arcs, have the potential of profoundly altering carbon cycling at the Earth's surface by increasing inputs of CO 2 and ash-borne nutrients, which together enhance biological productivity and burial of organic carbon, generating an abundance of hydrocarbon source rocks.

  5. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  6. Early Pleistocene climate cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Fornari, Michel; Krijgsman, Wout; Nahapetyan, Samuel; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Ollivier, Vincent; Roiron, Paul; Chataignier, Christine

    2010-05-01

    obliquity orbital parameter. The influence of precession could not be established from the Shamb data. Pollen and macroflora both indicate that glacial periods were cold and dry and that interglacials were warm with local humidity. The early Pleistocene climatic model for Western Asia is thus similar to the climatic model for the Mediterranean area. Bruch, A., Gabrielyan, I.G., 2002. Quantitative data of the Neogene climatic development in Armenia and Nakhichevan. Acta Universitatis Carolinae - Geologica 46, 41-48. Joannin, S., Cornée, J.J., Münch, P., Fornari, M., Vasiliev, J., Krijgsman, W., Nahapetyan, S., Gabrielyan, Y., Ollivier, V., Roiron, P., Chataignier, C. In press. Early Pleistocene climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Lesser Caucasus of Armenia inferred from palynology, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Mitchell, J., Westaway, R., 1999. Chronology of Neogene and Quaternary uplift and magmatism in the Caucasus: constraints from K-Ar dating of volcanism in Armenia. Tectonophysics 304, 157-186.

  7. Origin of limestone-marlstone cycles: Astronomic forcing of organic-rich sedimentary rocks from the Cenomanian to early Coniacian of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldrett, James S.; Ma, Chao; Bergman, Steven C.; Ozkan, Aysen; Minisini, Daniel; Lutz, Brendan; Jackett, Sarah-Jane; Macaulay, Calum; Kelly, Amy E.

    2015-08-01

    We present an integrated multidisciplinary study of limestone-marlstone couplets from a continuously cored section including parts of the upper Buda Limestone, the entire Eagle Ford Group (Boquillas Formation) and lower Austin Chalk from the Shell Iona-1 research borehole (Texas, USA), which provides a >8 million year (myr) distal, clastic sediment-starved, intrashelf basin record of the early Cenomanian to the earliest Coniacian Stages. Results show that despite variable yet minimal diagenetic overprints, several unambiguous primary environmental signals are preserved and support greater water-mass ventilation and current activity promoting increased silica/carbonate productivity during the deposition of limestone beds compared to deposition of marlstone beds which reflect greater organic matter productivity and preservation. Furthermore, our astronomical analyses demonstrate that the limestone-marlstone couplets in the Iona-1 core reflect climatic forcing driven by solar insolation resulting from integrated Milankovitch periodicities. In particular, we propose that obliquity and precession forcing on the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation may have been responsible for the observed lithological and environmental variations through the Cenomanian, Turonian and Coniacian in this mid-latitude epicontinental sea setting. Our data also suggests that rhythmic lithological alternations deposited in Greenhouse periods, in general, may simply reflect climate-driven cycles related to Earth-Sun dynamics without the need to invoke significant sea-level variations.

  8. Relative sea level changes during the Cretaceous in Israel

    SciT

    Flexer, A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lipson-Benitah, S.

    1986-11-01

    Detailed lithologic, microfaunal, and biometric investigations, using relative abundances, diversity indexes, and duration charts of ostracods and foraminifera, allowed the recognition of sea level changes during the Cretaceous of Israel. Three major transgressive-regressive sedimentation cycles occur on the northwest margins of the Arabian craton. These cycles are the Neocomian-Aptian, which is mostly terrigenous sediments; the Albian-Turonian, which is basin marls and platform carbonates; and the Senonian, which is uniform marly chalks. The cycles are separated by two major regional unconformities, the Aptian-Albian and Turonian-Coniacian boundaries. The sedimentary cycles are related to regional tectonic and volcanic events and eustatic changes. Themore » paleodepth curve illustrates the gradual sea level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous, with conspicuous advances during the late Aptian, late Albian-Cenomanian, early Turonian, early Santonian, and early Campanian. Major lowstands occur at the Aptian-Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian, Turonian-Coniacian, and Campanian-Maastrichtian boundaries. This model for Israel agrees well with other regional and global sea level fluctuations. Four anoxic events (black shales) accompanying transgressions correspond to the Cretaceous oceanic record. They hypothesize the presence of mature oil shales in the present-day eastern Mediterranean basin close to allochthonous reef blocks detached from the Cretaceous platform. 11 figures.« less

  9. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, S.; Heimhofer, U.; Immenhauser, A.; Weissert, H.

    2013-05-01

    Carbonate platforms are highly sensitive ecological systems that typically show rapid and characteristic response modes to environmental and climatic changes acting both on a regional scale and global scale. A widely accepted hypothesis proposes that the Late Barremian stepwise establishment of the Urgonian carbonate platform on the Northern Tethyan shelf was related to a gradual change from predominantly humid towards more arid greenhouse conditions. This climate change resulted in the reorganisation of the carbonate platform ecosystem from heterozoan towards photozoan-dominated assemblages and a decrease of organic-matter burial in Tethyan and Boreal basins. In order to decipher the palaeoenvironmental and climatic boundary conditions of these major changes in neritic and pelagic settings, a precise chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution is needed. Here, we provide an integrated stratigraphic framework of Lower Barremian to Lower Aptian Urgonian carbonate platform sections (Cluses, Forclaz) located at the northern rim of the Tethys (Subalpine Chains, ESE France), with special focus on sedimentological analyses and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy. A characteristic Barremian-Aptian carbon-isotope pattern permits precise platform-to-basin correlation with cyclostratigraphic and ammonite-dated pelagic and hemipelagic Tethyan sections in the Vocontian Trough (Angles/Combe-Lambert/Glaise) and Umbria Marche Basin (Gorgo a Cerbara). Similar to Helvetic shoal-water settings, the carbonate platform in the Subalpine Chains experienced a gradual transition from heterozoan- to photozoan-dominated ecosystems. This biogenic pattern points to a gradual change of the carbonate platform after the so-called "Early Barremian crisis" towards an oligotrophic rimmed platform system (Urgonian Limestone Formation). According to the chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution in the Subalpine Chains established here, the installation of a

  10. Benthic foraminifera at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary around the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegret, Laia; Molina, Eustoquio; Thomas, Ellen

    2001-10-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections in northeastern Mexico contain marly formations separated by a controversial clastic unit. Benthic foraminifera in seven sections indicate middle and lower bathyal depths of deposition for the marls, with the exception of the upper bathyal northernmost section. Mixed neritic-bathyal faunas were present in the clastic unit, indicating redeposition in the deep basin by mass-wasting processes resulting from the K-T bolide impact in the Gulf of Mexico. Benthic foraminifera in the Mexican sections, and at other deep-sea locations, were not subject to major extinction at the time of impact, but there were temporary changes in assemblage composition. Benthic faunas indicate well- oxygenated bottom waters and mesotrophic conditions during the late Maastrichtian and increased food supply during the latest Maastrichtian. The food supply decreased drastically just after the K-T boundary, possibly because of the collapse of surface productivity. Cretaceous and early Paleogene benthic foraminifera, however, did not exhibit the benthic-pelagic coupling of present-day faunas, as documented by the lack of significant extinction at the K-T collapse of surface productivity. Much of the food supplied to the benthic faunas along this continental margin might have been refractory material transported from land or shallow coastal regions. The decrease in food supply at the K-T boundary might be associated with the processes of mass wasting, which removed surface, food-rich sediment. Benthic faunas show a staggered pattern of faunal recovery in the lowermost Paleogene, consistent with a staged recovery of the vertical organic flux but also with a gradual buildup of organic matter in the sediment.

  11. Petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: Implications for the generation of high-Nb basalt magmas in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mariko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Kamei, Atsushi; Yagi, Koshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    We studied a 107 Ma vogesite (a kind of lamprophyre with alkali-feldspar > plagioclase, and hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± biotite) dike in the Kinki district of the Tamba Belt, Kyoto Prefecture, SW Japan, using petrography, mineralogy, K-Ar ages, and geochemistry to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The dike has the very specific geochemical characteristics of a primitive high-Mg basalt, with 48-50 wt.% SiO2 (anhydrous basis), high values of Mg# (67.3-72.4), and high Cr ( 431 ppm), Ni ( 371 ppm), and Co ( 52 ppm) contents. The vogesite is alkaline and ne-normative with high concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Sr = 1270-2200 ppm, Ba = 3910-26,900 ppm), light rare earth elements (LREEs) [(La/Yb)n = 58-62), and high field strength elements (HFSEs: TiO2 = 1.5-1.8 wt.%, Nb = 24-33 ppm, Zr = 171-251 ppm), and the vogesite can be classified as a high-Nb basalt (HNB). The vogesite was formed by the lowest degree of melting of metasomatized mantle in the garnet stability field, and it may also have been formed at higher melting pressures than other Kyoto lamprophyres. The low degree of melting is the primary reason for the high-Nb content of the vogesite, not mantle metasomatism, and a higher degree of melting would have changed the primary magma composition from a HNB to a Nb-enriched basalt (NEB). The vogesite magma was contaminated at an early stage of its development by melts derived from sediments drawn down a subduction zone, as indicated by some geochemical indices and the initial Nd isotope ratios. The vogesite exhibits positive correlations between εSr(107 Ma) values (5.4-50.9) and its high Ba and Sr concentrations, and it has a limited range of εNd(107 Ma) values (+ 0.97 to + 2.4). The fact that the vogesite contains centimeter-sized xenoliths of chert, which are composed of polycrystalline quartz, calcite, barite, pyrite, and magnetite, indicates that the barium contamination took place during the ascent of the

  12. Cretaceous and Paleogene granitoid suites of the Sikhote-Alin area (Far East Russia): Geochemistry and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebennikov, Andrei V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Gonevchuk, Valeriy G.; Kovalenko, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    The Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological history of NE Asia comprises alternating episodes of subduction or transform strike-slip movement of the oceanic plate along the continental margin of Eurasia. This sequence resulted in the regular generation of granitoid suites that are characterized by different ages, compositions, and tectonic settings. The Hauterivian-Aptian orogenic stage of the Sikhote-Alin, associated with the strike-slip displacement of the early Paleozoic continental blocks, the successive deformation of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous terranes, and the injection of the earliest S-type granitoids. During late Albian, the area underwent syn-strike-slip compression caused by collision with the Aptian island arc and resulted in the injection of voluminous magmas of calc-alkaline magnesian (S- and I-type) and alkali-calcic ferroan (A-type) granitoids into syn-faulting compressional and extensional basins, respectively. Northwestward to westward movement of the Izanagi Plate resulted in the initiation of frontal subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate during the Cenomanian-Maastrichtian. In turn, this resulted in the generation of plateau-forming ignimbrites and their intrusive analogs formed from metaluminous I-type felsic magmas. Paleocene-Eocene magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area commenced after the termination of subduction in a rifting regime related to strike-slip movement of the oceanic plate relative to the continent. The break-off of the subducted plate and the injection of oceanic asthenospheric material into the subcontinental lithosphere resulted in the eruption of lamproites and fayalite rhyolites, and coeval intrusions of gabbro and alkali feldspar granites (A-type). The A-type granitic-rocks and coeval gabbro-monzonites are considered to be reliable indicators of the transform continental margin geodynamic settings.

  13. Rainfall seasonality on the Indian subcontinent during the Cretaceous greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prosenjit; Prasanna, K; Banerjee, Yogaraj; Williams, Ian S; Gagan, Michael K; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Suwas, Satyam

    2018-05-31

    The Cretaceous greenhouse climate was accompanied by major changes in Earth's hydrological cycle, but seasonally resolved hydroclimatic reconstructions for this anomalously warm period are rare. We measured the δ 18 O and CO 2 clumped isotope Δ 47 of the seasonal growth bands in carbonate shells of the mollusc Villorita cyprinoides (Black Clam) growing in the Cochin estuary, in southern India. These tandem records accurately reconstruct seasonal changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater δ 18 O, allowing us to document freshwater discharge into the estuary, and make inferences about rainfall amount. The same analytical approach was applied to well-preserved fossil remains of the Cretaceous (Early Maastrichtian) mollusc Phygraea (Phygraea) vesicularis from the nearby Kallankuruchchi Formation in the Cauvery Basin of southern India. The palaeoenvironmental record shows that, unlike present-day India, where summer rainfall predominates, most rainfall in Cretaceous India occurred in winter. During the Early Maastrichtian, the Indian plate was positioned at ~30°S latitude, where present-day rainfall and storm activity is also concentrated in winter. The good match of the Cretaceous climate and present-day climate at ~30°S suggests that the large-scale atmospheric circulation and seasonal hydroclimate patterns were similar to, although probably more intense than, those at present.

  14. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  15. Shyok Suture Zone, N Pakistan: late Mesozoic Tertiary evolution of a critical suture separating the oceanic Ladakh Arc from the Asian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Collins, Alan S.

    2002-02-01

    The Shyok Suture Zone (Northern Suture) of North Pakistan is an important Cretaceous-Tertiary suture separating the Asian continent (Karakoram) from the Cretaceous Kohistan-Ladakh oceanic arc to the south. In previously published interpretations, the Shyok Suture Zone marks either the site of subduction of a wide Tethyan ocean, or represents an Early Cretaceous intra-continental marginal basin along the southern margin of Asia. To shed light on alternative hypotheses, a sedimentological, structural and igneous geochemical study was made of a well-exposed traverse in North Pakistan, in the Skardu area (Baltistan). To the south of the Shyok Suture Zone in this area is the Ladakh Arc and its Late Cretaceous, mainly volcanogenic, sedimentary cover (Burje-La Formation). The Shyok Suture Zone extends northwards (ca. 30 km) to the late Tertiary Main Karakoram Thrust that transported Asian, mainly high-grade metamorphic rocks southwards over the suture zone. The Shyok Suture Zone is dominated by four contrasting units separated by thrusts, as follows: (1). The lowermost, Askore amphibolite, is mainly amphibolite facies meta-basites and turbiditic meta-sediments interpreted as early marginal basin rift products, or trapped Tethyan oceanic crust, metamorphosed during later arc rifting. (2). The overlying Pakora Formation is a very thick (ca. 7 km in outcrop) succession of greenschist facies volcaniclastic sandstones, redeposited limestones and subordinate basaltic-andesitic extrusives and flow breccias of at least partly Early Cretaceous age. The Pakora Formation lacks terrigenous continental detritus and is interpreted as a proximal base-of-slope apron related to rifting of the oceanic Ladakh Arc; (3). The Tectonic Melange (<300 m thick) includes serpentinised ultramafic rocks, near mid-ocean ridge-type volcanics and recrystallised radiolarian cherts, interpreted as accreted oceanic crust. (4). The Bauma-Harel Group (structurally highest) is a thick succession (several km

  16. CRETACEOUS CLIMATE SENSITIVITY STUDY USING DINOSAUR & PLANT PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Main, D. J.; Noto, C. R.; Moore, T. L.; Scotese, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous was characterized by cool poles and moderate global temperatures (~16° C). During the mid and late Cretaceous, long-term global warming (~20° - 22° C) was driven by increasing levels of CO2, rising sea level (lowering albedo) and the continuing breakup of Pangea. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for four time intervals during the Cretaceous: Middle Campanian (80 Ma), Cenomanian/Turonian (90 Ma), Early Albian (110 Ma) and Barremian-Hauterivian (130Ma) are presented here. These paleoclimate simulations were prepared using the Fast Ocean and Atmosphere Model (FOAM). The simulated results show the pattern of the pole-to-Equator temperature gradients, rainfall, surface run-off, the location of major rivers and deltas. In order to investigate the effect of potential dispersal routes on paleobiogeographic patterns, a time-slice series of maps from Early - Late Cretaceous were produced showing plots of dinosaur and plant fossil distributions. These Maps were created utilizing: 1) plant fossil localities from the GEON and Paleobiology (PBDB) databases; and 2) dinosaur fossil localities from an updated version of the Dinosauria (Weishampel, 2004) database. These results are compared to two different types of datasets, 1) Paleotemperature database for the Cretaceous and 2) locality data obtained from GEON, PBDB and Dinosauria database. Global latitudinal mean temperatures from both the model and the paelotemperature database were plotted on a series of latitudinal graphs along with the distributions of fossil plants and dinosaurs. It was found that most dinosaur localities through the Cretaceous tend to cluster within specific climate belts, or envelopes. Also, these Cretaceous maps show variance in biogeographic zonation of both plants and dinosaurs that is commensurate with reconstructed climate patterns and geography. These data are particularly useful for understanding the response of late Mesozoic ecosystems to geographic and climatic conditions that

  17. Balancing shortening and extension around the Adriatic Plate to constrain its independent motion and driving forces since Late Cretaceous time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, E.; Handy, M.; Ustaszewski, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Adriatic microplate (Adria) is a key player in the geodynamics of the Western Mediterranean area because it separates two major plates, Africa and Europe, that have been converging since Late Cretaceous time. Today, Adria comprises only continental lithosphere and is surrounded by zones of distributed deformation along convergent boundaries (Alps, Apennines, Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides,) and back-arc basins (Liguro-Provencal, Tyrrhenian). For a long time, Adria was thought to be a promontory of Africa and thus to have moved coherently with Africa. However, recent re-evaluation of geological and geophysical data from the Alps yields an independent motion path for Adria that features a significant change in the direction and rate of its motion relative to both Africa and Europe since late Cretaceous time. To evaluate this, we first compare existing plate reconstructions of the Western Mediterranean to develop a best-fit model for the motion of Africa, Iberia and the Corsica-Sardinia block relative to Europe. We then use two motion models for Adria in which Adria moved either coherently or independently of Africa since late Cretaceous time. The model for independent Adria motion is further constrained by new estimates of extension and shortening in the Western Mediterranean and Northern Apennines based on field observations and recently published Moho depth maps, seismic profiles along the Gulf of Lion - Sardinian passive margins and the Northern Apennines. Initial results suggest that Miocene extension and opening of the Liguro-Provencal basin exceeds Miocene-to-Recent shortening related to roll-back subduction in the Northern Apennines; we attribute this to counter-clockwise rotation of the Adriatic plate with respect to Europe. Combined with the previously published estimates of shortening in the Alps, this counter-clockwise motion is predicted to have produced significantly less post-Paleogene, orogen-normal shortening in the Dinarides than previously

  18. Paleobotany of Livingston Island: The first report of a Cretaceous fossil flora from Hannah Point

    Leppe, M.; Michea, W.; Muñoz, C.; Palma-Heldt, S.; Fernandoy, F.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report of a fossil flora from Hannah Point, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The fossiliferous content of an outcrop, located between two igneous rock units of Cretaceous age are mainly composed of leaf imprints and some fossil trunks. The leaf assemblage consists of 18 taxa of Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and one angiosperm. The plant assemblage can be compared to other Early Cretaceous floras from the South Shetland Islands, but several taxa have an evidently Late Cretaceous affinity. A Coniacian-Santonian age is the most probable age for the outcrops, supported by previous K/Ar isotopic studies of the basalts over and underlying the fossiliferous sequence

  19. Continental crustal history in SE Asia: Insights from zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastjanova, I.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.; Ferdian, F.; Decker, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that SE Asia is underlain mostly by continental crust derived from Gondwana. However, there are still many uncertainties about the ages of protoliths, origin, arrival ages and history of different blocks, because much of the basement is unexposed. We have compiled previously published and new zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope data from SE Asia. Our data set currently contains over 8400 U-Pb ages and over 600 Hf isotope analyses from sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks and work is continuing to increase its size and the area covered. Zircons range in age from 3.4 Ga to near-zero. Archean zircons (>2.5 Ga) are rare in SE Asia and significant Archean populations (particularly zircons >2.8 Ga) are found only in East Java and the Sibumasu block of the Malay Peninsula. The presence of Archean zircons strongly suggests that the East Java and Sibumasu blocks were once situated near present-day Western Australia. Detrital Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.9-1.8 Ga) zircons are abundant in many parts of SE Asia. In Sundaland (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, West Java, Borneo) the most likely source for these zircons is the tin belt basement, but a north Australian source is more likely for eastern Indonesian samples. An early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.6-1.5 Ga) zircon population, particularly common in eastern Indonesia, is interpreted to be derived from central or northern Australia. Mesoproterozoic zircons, ca. 1.4 Ga, are common only on fragments that are now attached to or were previously part of the north Australian margin, such as the Bird's Head of New Guinea, Timor, Seram, Sulawesi and SW Borneo. Hf isotope characteristics of zircons from Seram are similar to those of zircons from eastern Australia. This supports the suggestion that Seram was part of the Australian margin. Late Meso- and early Neoproterozoic zircons (ca. 1.2-1.1 Ga, 900 Ma, and 600 Ma) are present, but not abundant, in SE Asia. Dominant Phanerozoic populations are Permian-Triassic, Cretaceous, and

  20. On the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Luis; Ramos, Victor; Pimentel, Marcio; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Calibrating the geologic time is of utmost importance to understanding geological and biological processes throughout Earth history. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary has proven to be one of the most problematic boundaries to calibrate in the geologic time. The present definition of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary still remains contentious mainly because of the dominant endemic nature of the flora and fauna in stratigraphic sections, which hinders an agreement on a GSSP. Consequently, an absolute and precise age for the boundary is yet to meet an agreement among the community. Additionally, integrating chemical, paleomagnetic or astronomical proxies to aid the definition of the boundary has also proven to be difficult because the boundary lacks any abrupt geochemical changes or recognizable geological events. However, the traditional Berriasella jacobi Subzone is disregarded as a primary marker and the use of calpionellids has been gaining momentum for defining the boundary. The Jurassic Cretaceous boundary in the Vaca Muerta Fm. in the Nuequen Basin of the Andes is a potential candidate for the boundary stratotype because of its high density of ammonites, nannofossils and interbedded datable horizons. Consequently, the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary is very well defined in the Vaca Muerta Fm. On the basis of both ammonites and nannofossils. Here we present new high-precision U-Pb age determinations from two volcanic ash beds that bracket the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary: 1) ash bed LLT_14_9, with a 206Pb/238U age of 139.7 Ma, which is 2 meters above Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary based on the Argetiniceras noduliferum (Early Berriasian ) and Substeueroceras Koeneni (Late Tithonian) ammonites zone; and 2) bed LLT_14_10, with an age of 140.1 Ma, located 3m below the J-K boundary based on last occurrence of the nannofossils N. kamptneri minor and N. steinmanni minor. Therefore, we propose that the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary should be close to 140

  1. Controls on Albian-Cenomanian carbonate platform sedimentation in middle eastern region: Kesalon event, a middle Cretaceous sea level change in Israel and its correlation with global sea level changes

    SciT

    Braun, M.; Hirsch, F.

    1987-05-01

    After Neocomian regional denudation, Aptian Telemim (= Blanche) carbonates onlapped the Arabian subplate, followed by Yavne-Tammun regression and Albian transgression. Near the Levant coast, the Albian-early Coniacian Judea carbonate platform interfingers with the Talme Yaffe basin to the west. To the south and east, Judea-type carbonates gradually onlap the mainly continental Kurnub (Nubia type) clastics of the peri-Arabian belt. Detailed analysis of the cyclic sedimentation within the 700-m thick Judea Limestone reveals a regressive trend near the top of the Albian Yagur Formation in Galilee, the Hevyon Formation in the Negev, and the ledge of the Kesalon formation in centralmore » Israel Judean Hills, which represents the end of the Early Cretaceous sedimentary cycle. The early Cenomanian marly chalk of the En Yorqeam Formation starts the Cenomanian cycle, followed by bedded and massive dolomite and ammonoid-bearing limestone. Platform sedimentation before this Kesalon event is dominated by bank facies with some rudistid bioherms of presumable Albian age. After the Kesalon event, Cenomanian and Turonian platforms have fast-changing paleogeography on basinal chalks, shales, bioherms and backreef lagoons. Facies boundaries, running mainly east-west to southwest-northeast up to the Early Cretaceous, became close to north-south in the Late Cretaceous. Albian-Cenomanian regressive-transgressive cycles in Israel match fairly well with global sea level changes, in particular the Kesalon event, which corresponds to the Ka-Kb sea level change of Vail et al. Late Turonian-early Senonian thrusting of the peri-Arabian alpine belt and folding in the Syrian arc heavily affect the unraveling of global sea level changes on the Arabian subplate.« less

  2. Chapter D: With or Without Salt-a Comparison of Marine and Continental-Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Dolley, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Diatoms in sedimentary deposits of marine and continental, especially lacustrine, origin have similar nutrient (for example, phosphate, nitrate, and silica) and light requirements; however, their geologic ranges and physiographic environments vary. Marine diatoms range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene, and continental diatoms range in age from Eocene to Holocene; however, most commercial diatomites, both marine and lacustrine, were deposited during the Miocene. Marine deposits of commercial value generally accumulated along continental margins with submerged coastal basins and shelves where wind-driven boundary currents provided the nutrient-rich upwelling conditions capable of supporting a productive diatom habitat. Commercial freshwater diatomite deposits occur in volcanic terrains associated with events that formed sediment-starved drainage basins, such as the Basin and Range Province, particularly in Nevada. Marine habitats generally are characterized by stable conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, nutrients, and water currents, in contrast to lacustrine habitats, which are characterized by wide variations in these conditions. Marine deposits generally are of higher quality and contain larger resources, owing to their greater areal extent and thickness, whereas most of the world's known diatomites are of lacustrine origin. Both types of deposit are commonly mined by open-pit methods and subjected to processing designed to remove organic matter, CO2, pore water, and inorganic contaminants in order to produce purified products. The highest quality diatomites, predominantly from marine sources, are used in filtration, although both types of deposit produce filter grades, and additional end uses include fillers, additives, absorbents, and abrasives.

  3. Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

  4. Geology, age, and tectonic setting of the Cretaceous Sliderock Mountain Volcano, Montana

    Du Bray, E.A.; Harlan, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    The Sliderock Mountain stratovolcano, part of the Upper Cretaceous continental magmatic arc in southwestern Montana, consists of volcaniclastic strata and basaltic andesite lava flows. An intrusive complex represents the volcano's solidified magma chamber. Compositional diversity within components of the volcano appears to reflect evolution via about 50 percent fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and plagioclase. 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the volcano was active about 78?1 Ma.

  5. An unrecognized major collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia during the Late Cretaceous, constraints on the plate reorganization of the Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-Tai

    2013-11-01

    Interactions at plate boundaries induce stresses that constitute critical controls on the structural evolution of intraplate regions. However, the traditional tectonic model for the East Asian margin during the Mesozoic, invoking successive episodes of paleo-Pacific oceanic subduction, does not provide an adequate context for important Late Cretaceous dynamics across East Asia, including: continental-scale orogenic processes, significant sinistral strike-slip faulting, and several others. The integration of numerous documented field relations requires a new tectonic model, as proposed here. The Okhotomorsk continental block, currently residing below the Okhotsk Sea in Northeast Asia, was located in the interior of the Izanagi Plate before the Late Cretaceous. It moved northwestward with the Izanagi Plate and collided with the South China Block at about 100 Ma. The indentation of the Okhotomorsk Block within East Asia resulted in the formation of a sinistral strike-slip fault system in South China, formation of a dextral strike-slip fault system in North China, and regional northwest-southeast shortening and orogenic uplift in East Asia. Northeast-striking mountain belts over 500 km wide extended from Southeast China to Southwest Japan and South Korea. The peak metamorphism at about 89 Ma of the Sanbagawa high-pressure metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan was probably related to the continental subduction of the Okhotomorsk Block beneath the East Asian margin. Subsequently, the north-northwestward change of motion direction of the Izanagi Plate led to the northward movement of the Okhotomorsk Block along the East Asian margin, forming a significant sinistral continental transform boundary similar to the San Andreas fault system in California. Sanbagawa metamorphic rocks in Southwest Japan were rapidly exhumed through the several-kilometer wide ductile shear zone at the lower crust and upper mantle level. Accretionary complexes successively accumulated along the East

  6. Driving mechanisms for >40 km of exhumation during contraction and extension in a continental arc, Cascades core, Washington

    Paterson, Scott R.; Miller, R.B.; Alsleben, H.; Whitney, D.L.; Valley, P.M.; Hurlow, H.

    2004-01-01

    In the NW North American Cordillera, the Cascades core region of the Coast Plutonic Complex underwent Late Cretaceous (>96 Ma to locally 73 Ma) SW-NE contraction and crustal thickening followed by dextral transpression (???73 to 55 Ma), then transtension (3 mm /yr) by local thrusting in regions undergoing crustal thickening. In the central part of the core (Chelan block), >40 km of exhumation occurred between 91 and 45 Ma, about half of which occurred during early contraction (driven by thrusting) and half during top-to-north, arc-oblique shear during reactivation of a midcrustal Cretaceous thrust, the Dinkelman decollement. The footwall of this thrust consists of the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, a Cretaceous, metaclastic assemblage with recorded pressures of 10-12 kbar, no arc-related magmatism, and structures dominated by pervasive top-to-north shearing. The hanging wall consists of the Napeequa Complex, an oceanic assemblage with recorded pressures of 6-12 kbar, voluminous arc-related magmatism, and complex structures indicating early top-to-WSW shearing, younger top-to-north shearing, and widespread folding. In the Napeequa, top-to-north shearing started by 73 Ma during melt-present conditions at pressures ???6 kbar. Top-to-north shearing in both hanging wall and footwall continued during exhumation (???1.6 mm/yr) and cooling to greenschist facies conditions during which slip became increasingly localized, eventually resulting in formation of pseudotachylite on discrete slip surfaces. We suggest that arc-oblique extension was driven by along-arc heterogeneity in displacements/ erosion, initially during transpression and underplating of continental sediments, and later during transtension. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. A new lineage of Cretaceous jewel wasps (Chalcidoidea: Diversinitidae).

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael; Burks, Roger A; Krogmann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Jewel wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are extremely species-rich today, but have a sparse fossil record from the Cretaceous, the period of their early diversification. Three genera and three species, Diversinitus attenboroughi gen. & sp. n. , Burminata caputaeria gen. & sp. n. and Glabiala barbata gen. & sp. n. are described in the family Diversinitidae fam. n., from Lower Cretaceous Burmese amber. Placement in Chalcidoidea is supported by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the antennal flagellum and a laterally exposed prepectus. The new taxa can be excluded from all extant family level chalcidoid lineages by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the first flagellomere in both sexes and lack of any synapomorphies. Accordingly, a new family is proposed for the fossils and its probable phylogenetic position within Chalcidoidea is discussed. Morphological cladistic analyses of the new fossils within the Heraty et al. (2013) dataset did not resolve the phylogenetic placement of Diversinitidae, but indicated its monophyly. Phylogenetically relevant morphological characters of the new fossils are discussed with reference to Cretaceous and extant chalcidoid taxa. Along with mymarid fossils and a few species of uncertain phylogenetic placement, the newly described members of Diversinitidae are among the earliest known chalcidoids and advance our knowledge of their Cretaceous diversity.

  8. A small azhdarchoid pterosaur from the latest Cretaceous, the age of flying giants.

    PubMed

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Witton, Mark P; Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    Pterosaur fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian of North America have been reported from the continental interior, but few have been described from the west coast. The first pterosaur from the Campanian Northumberland Formation (Nanaimo Group) of Hornby Island, British Columbia, is represented here by a humerus, dorsal vertebrae (including three fused notarial vertebrae), and other fragments. The elements have features typical of Azhdarchoidea, an identification consistent with dominance of this group in the latest Cretaceous. The new material is significant for its size and ontogenetic stage: the humerus and vertebrae indicate a wingspan of ca 1.5 m, but histological sections and bone fusions indicate the individual was approaching maturity at time of death. Pterosaurs of this size are exceedingly rare in Upper Cretaceous strata, a phenomenon commonly attributed to smaller pterosaurs becoming extinct in the Late Cretaceous as part of a reduction in pterosaur diversity and disparity. The absence of small juveniles of large species-which must have existed-in the fossil record is evidence of a preservational bias against small pterosaurs in the Late Cretaceous, and caution should be applied to any interpretation of latest Cretaceous pterosaur diversity and success.

  9. The mid-Cretaceous super plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. A carbonate-silicate cycle model is developed to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO2 releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weathering as a function of atmospheric CO2. CO2 emissions resulting from super-plume tectonics could have produced atmospheric CO2 levels from 3.7 to 14.7 times the modern preindustrial value of 285 ppm. Based on the temperature sensitivity to CO2 increases used in the weathering-rate formulations, this would cause a global warming of from 2.8 to 7.7 C over today's glogal mean temperature. Altered continental positions and higher sea level may have been contributed about 4.8 C to mid-Cretaceous warming. Thus, the combined effects of paleogeographic changes and super-plume related CO2 emissions could be in the range of 7.6 to 12.5 C, within the 6 to 14 C range previously estimated for mid-Cretaceous warming. CO2 releases from oceanic plateaus alone are unlikely to have been directly responsible for more than 20 percent of the mid-Cretaceous increase in atmospheric CO2.

  10. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic pulses in the Uliastai continental margin linked to slab rollback: Implications for evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Hui; Wang, Qingfei; Tao, Jixiong; Santosh, M.; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The Paleo Asian Ocean underwent a protracted closure history during Late Paleozoic. Here we investigate the magmatic evolution during this process based on a detailed study in the Baiyinwula region along the Uliastai continental margin. The major rock types in this area are Late Carboniferous-Early Permian volcanic sequences and coeval intrusions. We identified four stages of magmatic evolution based on the diverse assemblages and their precise isotopic ages. The first stage is represented by andesites with a zircon 206Pb/238U age of ca. 326 ± 12 Ma. These rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, and possess high Na2O/K2O ratios in the range of 1.23 to 2.45. They also display enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), with markedly positive zircon εHf (t) varying from 8.1 to 15.6.The geochemical features of these andesites are similar to those of typical arc volcanic rocks. The second stage includes granodiorites emplaced at 318.6 + 1.8 Ma. The rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with A/CNK values ranging from 0.95 to 1.06, and show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. They show geochemical affinities to adakites, with high Sr and low Y and Yb contents, indicating magma derivation from thickened lower crust. Zircon grains from these rocks display positive initial εHf (t) values ranging from 11.1 to 14.6 with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 394-622 Ma. The third stage consists of syenogranite together with a volcanic suite ranging in composition from rhyolite todacite, which formed during 303.4 ± 1.2 to 285.1 ± 2.2 Ma. They possess elevated silica and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, low Al2O3, MgO and CaO contents, and high Rb, Y, Nb, Ce, Zr, Y, and Ga contents, strong negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies, showing I- to A-type granitic affinities. Zircons in these rocks show elevated Hf isotopic compositions (εHf (t) = 9.9 to 14.6) with TDM2

  11. Shallow magnetic inclinations in the Cretaceous Valle Group, Baja California: remagnetization, compaction, or terrane translation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    1993-10-01

    Paleomagnetic data from Albian to Turonian sedimentary rocks on Cedros Island, Mexico (28.2° N, 115.2° W) support the interpretation that Cretaceous rocks of western Baja California have moved farther northward than the 3° of latitude assignable to Neogene oblique rifting in the Gulf of California. Averaged Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Cedros Island support 20 ± 10° of northward displacement and 14 ± 7° of clockwise rotation with respect to cratonic North America. Positive field stability tests from the Vizcaino terrane substantiate a mid-Cretaceous age for the high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization in mid-Cretaceous strata. Therefore coincidence of characteristic magnetization directions and the expected Quaternary axial dipole direction is not due to post mid-Cretaceous remagnetization. A slump test performed on internally coherent, intrabasinal slump blocks within a paleontologically dated olistostrome demonstrates a mid-Cretaceous age of magnetization in the Valle Group. The in situ high-temperature natural remanent magnetization directions markedly diverge from the expected Quaternary axial dipole, indicating that the characteristic, high-temperature magnetization was acquired prior to intrabasinal slumping. Early acquisition of the characteristic magnetization is also supported by a regional attitude test involving three localities in coherent mid-Cretaceous Valle Group strata. Paleomagnetic inclinations in mudstone are not different from those in sandstone, indicating that burial compaction did not bias the results toward shallow inclinations in the Vizcaino terrane.

  12. Early Carboniferous magmatism in Lhasa generated in passive continental margin: constrained by new SIMS dating from Carboniferous arc in Qiantang terrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Dan, W.; Wang, Q.; Hao, L. L.; Qi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In today's oceans, they are rarely undergone subduction on one side and extension on the opposite side. In contrast, there are a few magmatisms in the passive continental margins in the Tethys Ocean. However, because of their long and complex evolution of the northern continental margin of the Gondwana, the geodynamics of the magmatism occurred in this area is speculative or highly depute. One of these examples is the geodynamics of the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa, Tibet. Many authors speculated that it was generated in back-arc setting. Our recent new high-resolution SIMS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that there is a subduction arc with ages of 370-350 Ma in the Qiangtang terrane. The arc rocks compose of andesites, plagiogranites, A-type granites and cumulated gabbros, indicating an initial subduction. This initial subduction arc is located on the north margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and it was formed slightly earlier than the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa, located on the south margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Combined with similar aged magmatism generating the back-arc basin in the Sanjiang area, the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa was proposed to be generated in a passive continental margin, and induced by the regional extensional setting related to the subduction in the north margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  13. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    PubMed

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  14. Thermochronology of mid-Cretaceous dioritic granulites adjacent "Big Bend" in Australia-Pacific plate boundary, northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, M.; Seward, D.; Heizler, M. T.; Palin, J. M.; Toy, V. G.; Tulloch, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO), situated south-east of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary (Alpine Fault), southern South Island, New Zealand is the largest suite of plutonic rocks intruded into the Pacific margin of Gondwana during the final stages of arc plutonism preceding break-up of the supercontinent in the Late Cretaceous. Dextral motion of c. 480 km along the Alpine Fault during the Cenozoic has offset originally contiguous Pacific Gondwana margin rocks in northern and southern South Island. The Glenroy Complex in northern South Island, west of the Alpine Fault is dominated by two-pyroxene+hornblende granulite facies monzodioritic gneisses. U-Pb zircon geochronological and geochemical data indicate the Glenroy Complex was emplaced between 128-122 Ma and is a correlative of the WFO. The Glenroy Complex forms the lower-most block bounded by an east-dipping set of imbricate thrusts that developed during the late Cenozoic to the west of the largest S-shaped restraining bend ("Big Bend") in the Alpine Fault. New 40Ar/39Ar and fission-track thermochronological data, combined with previous geological field-mapping, demonstrate that the Glenroy Complex cooled rapidly (c. 30° C/Ma) after emplacement and granulite facies metamorphism (c. 850°C) at c. 120 Ma, through c. 550 °C by c. 110-100 Ma. The average cooling rate during the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic was relatively slow, and initial exposure in the late Early Miocene (c. 16 Ma) was followed by reburial to c. 3-4 km (c. 80-100 °C) before final exhumation post-Pliocene. This thermal history is similar to the WFO, which cooled rapidly through c. 350 °C during mid-Cretaceous continental extension, followed by slow cooling during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic until development of the Australian-Pacific boundary through New Zealand facilitated rapid, exhumation-related cooling from c. 240 °C at c. 20 Ma and final exhumation post-10 Ma (Davids, 1999). However, the Glenroy Complex cooled at a faster

  15. Lower Cretaceous Puez key-section in the Dolomites - towards the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Rehákova, D.; Józsa, Š.; Soták, J.; Kroh, A.; Jovane, L.; Florindo, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Giorgioni, M.; Lukeneder, S.

    2012-04-01

    Investigations on different fossil groups in addition to isotopic, paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis are combined to extract the Early Cretaceous history of environmental changes, as displayed by the sea level and climate changes. Results on biostratigraphy are integrated with other dating methods as magnetostraigraphy, correlation and cyclostratigraphy. The main investigation topics of the submitted project within the above-described framework are the biostratigraphic (Lukeneder and Aspmair, 2006, 2012), palaeoecological (Lukeneder, 2008, 2012), palaeobiogeographic, lithostratigraphic (Lukeneder, 2010, 2011), cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic development of the Early Cretaceous in the Puez area. The main sections occur in expanded outcrops located on the southern margin of the Puez Plateau, within the area of the Puez-Geisler Natural Park, in the northern part of the Dolomites (South Tyrol, North Italy). The cephalopod, microfossil and nannofossil faunas and floras from the marly limestones to marls here indicates Hauterivian to Albian/Cenomanian age. Oxygen isotope values from the Lower Cretaceous Puez Formation show a decreasing trend throughout the log, from -1.5‰ in the Hauterivian to -4.5‰ in the Albian/Cenomanian. The decreasing values mirror an increasing trend in palaeotemperatures from ~ 15-18°C in the Hauterivian up to ~25-30 °C in the Albian/Cenomanian. The trend probably indicates the positive shift in temperature induced by the well known Mid Cretaceous Ocean warming (e.g., Super-Greenhouse). The cooperative project (FWF project P20018-N10; 22 international scientists): An integrative high resolution project. Macro- and microfossils, isotopes, litho-, cyclo-, magneto-and biostratigraphy as tools for investigating the Lower Cretaceous within the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) -The Puez area as a new key region of the Tethyan Realm), is on the way since 2008 by the Natural History Museum in Vienna and the 'Naturmuseum S

  16. Palaeoredox conditions and sequence stratigraphy of the Cretaceous storm-dominated, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate ramp in the Eastern Cordillera Basin (Colombia): Evidence from sedimentary geochemical proxies and facies analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Huber A.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Sánchez, L. Katherine; Mariño-Martínez, Jorge E.; Salazar, Christian; Barragán, J. Carolina

    2018-10-01

    The Cretaceous black shales of Colombia are among the most important successions in the north of South America and have attracted the attention of many geoscientists and exploration companies over the last few decades, because of their high hydrocarbon potential and the presence of emerald deposits. However, many uncertainties still remain with regard to their tectonic setting, sequence stratigraphy, depositional environments, palaeoxygenation conditions, and organic matter preservation. In order to develop a more integrated picture of these different processes and conditions, we conducted a detailed sedimentological, inorganic geochemical (U, V, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ti, Mo, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ba) and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Cretaceous black shales in the Magdalena-Tablazo Sub-Basin (Eastern Cordillera Basin) of Colombia. Eleven lithofacies and five lithofacies associations of a storm-dominated, siliciclastic-carbonate ramp were identified, which range from basin to shallow inner ramp environments. These facies were grouped into six third-order stratigraphic sequences showing high-order cycles of marine transgression with constrained regressive pulses during the late Valanginian to early Coniacian. The black shales succession represents deposition under anoxic bottom water with some intervals representing dysoxic-suboxic conditions. The evolution of the sedimentary environments and their palaeoxygenation history reflect tectonic and eustatic sea-level controls that 1) produced a variable orientation and position of the coastline throughout the Cretaceous; 2) conditioned the low-gradient ramp geometry (<0.3°) and 3) modified the oxygenation conditions in the Magdalena-Tablazo Sub-Basin. An improved understanding of the sedimentary setting during deposition of the Cretaceous black shales in the Magdalena-Tablazo Sub-Basin assists in highlighting the interplay between the mechanism of sedimentation and continuum anoxic conditions prevailing in a basin, as well the

  17. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  18. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic subduction-collision history of the Southern Neotethys: new evidence from the Çağlayancerit area, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akıncı, Ahmet Can; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the subduction-collision history of the S Neotethys is well exposed in the frontal part of the SE Anatolian thrust belt and the adjacent Arabian continental margin. The foreland succession in the study area begins with Eocene shelf carbonates, ranging from shallow marine to deeper marine, without sedimentary input from the Tauride continent to the north. After a regional hiatus (Oligocene), sedimentation resumed during the Early Miocene with terrigenous gravity-flow deposition in the north (Lice Formation) and shallow-marine carbonates further south. Clastic detritus was derived from the Tauride continent and oceanic accretionary material. The base of the overriding Tauride allochthon comprises ophiolite-derived debris flows, ophiolite-related mélange and dismembered ophiolitic rocks. Above this, the regional-scale Bulgurkaya sedimentary mélange (an olistostrome) includes blocks and dismembered thrust sheets of metamorphic rocks, limestone and sandstone, which include Late Cretaceous and Eocene foraminifera. The matrix is mainly strongly deformed Eocene-Oligocene mudrocks, hemipelagic marl and sandstone turbidites. The thrust stack is topped by a regionally extensive thrust sheet (Malatya metamorphic unit), which includes greenschist facies marble, calcschist, schist and phyllite, representing Tauride continental crust. Beginning during the Late Mesozoic, the S Neotethys subducted northwards beneath a backstop represented by the Tauride microcontinent (Malatya metamorphic unit). Ophiolites formed within the S Neotethys and accreted to the Tauride active margin. Large-scale sedimentary mélange developed along the Tauride active margin during Eocene-Oligocene. On the Arabian margin, a sedimentary hiatus and tilting (Oligocene) is interpreted to record initial continental collision. The Early Miocene terrigenous gravity flows represent a collision-related flexural foreland basin. Southward overthrusting of the Tauride allochthon took place during Early

  19. Retrodeforming the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone : Age of collision and magnitude of continental subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2012-04-01

    When did continents collide, and how is convergence partitioned after collision are first order questions that seem to defy consensus along the Alpine-Himalyan orogen. Estimates on the age of collision for Arabia and Eurasia range from late Cretaceous to Pliocene, based on a wide variety of presumed geologic responses. Both lower Miocene synorgenic strata with growth structures adjacent to the main Zagros fault and upper Oligocene to lower Miocene overlap strata over post-collisional thrusts are derived from Eurasia and require that collision was underway at least by ~25-24 Ma. However, upper plate deformation, exhumation and sedimentation are used to argue for an older, 35 Ma collision age. Africa-North America-Eurasia plate circuit rotations, combined with Red Sea rotations provides precise estimates of the relative positions between the northern Arabian margin and the southern Eurasia margin. Plate circuits indicate, from NW to SE along the collision zone 490-650 km of post-25 Ma Arabia-Eurasia convergence and 810-1070 km since 35 Ma. To assess the consequences of these collision ages for the amount of Arabian continental subduction, we compile all documented shortening within the orogen. The Zagros fold-thrust belt consists of thrusted upper crust that was offscraped from subducted Arabian continental lithosphere. Balanced cross-sections give 105-180 km of Zagros shortening (including estimates from the Zagros proper, 45-90 km, and the Zagros "crush" zone, 60-90 km). Shortening within Eurasia is estimated to be 53-75 km through the Kopet Dagh and Alborz Mountains, plus 38 km across Central Iran. These estimates suggest that the orogen has shortened 200 to 300 km since the early Miocene. Both a 25 and a 35 Ma collision estimate thus requires that a considerable portion of the Arabian plate subducted without recognized accretion of its upper crust. To balance plate circuits and documented shortening requires whole-sale subduction of ~500-800 km of continental

  20. Zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd isotope ratios for the Sirstan granitoid body, NE Iraq: Evidence of magmatic activity in the Middle Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulzahra, Imad Kadhim; Hadi, Ayten; Azizi, Hossein; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2017-03-01

    The Sirstan granitoid (SG), comprising diorite and granodiorite, is located in the Shalair Valley area, in the northeastern part of Iraq within the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) of the Zagros Orogenic Belt. The U-Pb zircon dating of the SG rocks has revealed a concordia age of 110 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of crystallization of this granitoid body during the Middle Cretaceous. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron data shows an age of 52.4 ± 9.4 Ma (MSWD = 1.7), which implies the reactivation of the granitoid body in the Early Eocene due to the collision between the Arabian and Iranian plates. These rocks show metaluminous affinity with low values of Nb, Ta and Ti compared to chondrite, suggesting the generation of these rocks over the subduction zone in an active continental margin regime. The SG rocks are hornblende-bearing I-type granitoids with microgranular mafic enclaves. The positive values of ɛNd (t = 110 Ma) (+0.1 to +2.7) and the low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7044 to 0.7057) indicate that the magma source of the SG granitoids is a depleted subcontinental mantle. The chemical and isotope compositions show that the SG body originated from the metasomatic mantle without a major role for continental contamination. Our findings show that the granitoid bodies distributed in the SSZ were derived from the continuous Neo-Tethys subduction beneath the SSZ in Mesozoic times and that the SSZ was an active margin in the Middle Cretaceous.

  1. Late Cretaceous tectonothermal evolution of the southern Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Consequence of a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane

  2. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Guillermo W; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Gaetano, Leandro C

    2011-11-02

    Dryolestoids are an extinct mammalian group belonging to the lineage leading to modern marsupials and placentals. Dryolestoids are known by teeth and jaws from the Jurassic period of North America and Europe, but they thrived in South America up to the end of the Mesozoic era and survived to the beginnings of the Cenozoic. Isolated teeth and jaws from the latest Cretaceous of South America provide mounting evidence that, at least in western Gondwana, dryolestoids developed into strongly endemic groups by the Late Cretaceous. However, the lack of pre-Late Cretaceous dryolestoid remains made study of their origin and early diversification intractable. Here we describe the first mammalian remains from the early Late Cretaceous of South America, including two partial skulls and jaws of a derived dryolestoid showing dental and cranial features unknown among any other group of Mesozoic mammals, such as single-rooted molars preceded by double-rooted premolars, combined with a very long muzzle, exceedingly long canines and evidence of highly specialized masticatory musculature. On one hand, the new mammal shares derived features of dryolestoids with forms from the Jurassic of Laurasia, whereas on the other hand, it is very specialized and highlights the endemic, diverse dryolestoid fauna from the Cretaceous of South America. Our specimens include only the second mammalian skull known for the Cretaceous of Gondwana, bridging a previous 60-million-year gap in the fossil record, and document the whole cranial morphology of a dryolestoid, revealing an unsuspected morphological and ecological diversity for non-tribosphenic mammals.

  3. Mid-Cretaceous transtension in the Canadian Cordillera: Evidence from the Rocky Ridge volcanics of the Skeena Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Kari N.; Kleinspehn, Karen L.

    1996-08-01

    The age relations, geochemistry, and sedimentology of the Rocky Ridge Formation of the Skeena Group are used to test competing tectonic reconstructions for the mid-Cretaceous Canadian Cordillera as well as the timing and location of the accretion of the Insular Superterrane. Pollen and macrofossil assemblages indicate that these intrabasinal basalts were erupted along the southern margin of the Bowser basin in the Early Albian to Early Cenomanian. Single-crystal fusion and step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dating of hornblendes in one basalt flow from the uppermost part of the formation yielded Middle Cenomanian ages of 94.3 ± 0.4, 95.6 ± 1.6, and 95.0 ± 1.6 Ma. Vesicular basalt flows interbedded with crystal-rich tuff breccias contain evidence for hot emplacement as pyroclastic flows. Individual eruptive centers are identified by their proximal facies, paleoflow indicators within the lava flows, paleoflow indicators within interbedded volcaniclastic fluvial deposits, geochemical differences, and geographic isolation of volcanic deposits. Major and trace-element geochemistry from 20 sampled lava flows indicates an alkali basalt composition for the volcanics. The basalts of the northern Rocky Ridge volcanic center show enrichment of light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements with strong negative Nb-Ta anomalies whereas the basalts of the southern Tahtsa Lake volcanic center show depletion to slight enrichment of light rare earth elements, slight enrichment of large ion lithophile elements with minimal negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The geochemistry combined with paleogeographic and regional tectonic reconstruction suggests a continental arc setting with intraarc extension. The presence of deeper marine facies to the west and the lack of a western sediment source in the Skeena Group indicate that the technically active Insular Superterrane was not west of the study area during mid-Cretaceous time. Thus we reconsider the Omineca Belt as the main axis of a mid-Cretaceous

  4. Initiation of extension in South China continental margin during the active-passive margin transition: kinematic and thermochronological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZUO, Xuran; CHAN, Lung

    2015-04-01

    The southern South China Block is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking fault zones and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from an active to a passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. In this study, we used zircon fission-track dating (ZFT) and numerical modeling to examine the timing and kinematics of the active-passive margin transition. Our ZFT results on granitic plutons in the SW Cathaysia Block show two episodes of exhumation of the granitic plutons. The first episode, occurring during 170 Ma - 120 Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115 Ma - 70 Ma. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the observation based on ZFT data that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred at an earlier time than the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in geology between Yunkai and Nanling, the heating from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Nanling Range may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high slab dip angle, high geothermal gradient of lithosphere and low convergence velocity favor the subduction process and the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper plate; (2) the late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension has shed light on the geological condition producing the red bed basins during Late Cretaceous-early

  5. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  6. Characterizing Cretaceous Glaciation Events: K-Ar Ages of Southern Ocean Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. A.; Hemming, S. R.; Barbeau, D. L.; Torfstein, A.; Pierce, E. L.; Williams, T.; McManus, J. F.; Gombiner, J.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence from paleosols and carbonate weathering models suggest that the Late Cretaceous had a supergreenhouse climate due to atmospheric CO2 concentrations two to four times greater than modern levels, tropical sea surface temperatures exceeding 35°C, and high-latitude temperatures exceeding 20°C. Despite this warmth, the Late Cretaceous was apparently punctuated by large (>25 m) and rapid (<<1 million year) sea-level changes, as recorded by marginal marine stratigraphic architectures and pelagic stable isotope compositions. The magnitude and tempo of these changes suggest a glacio-eustatic control, presumably from the growth and decay of continental ice sheets on Antarctica. Because continental glaciation tends to increase the weathering of bedrock and production of sediment delivered to the oceans, circum-Antarctic marine sediment flux would be expected to increase during periods of glaciation. In order to identify a Late Cretaceous glaciation signal from such marine records, we must first constrain the compositional signal of continental detritus in marine sediments. Here we report the results of downcore K-Ar analysis of the terrigenous sediments of Quaternary Weddell Sea cores PS1170-1 and PS1388-3 in order to identify the compositional signature of continent-derived detritus deposited in the Weddell Sea during a known glacial period. Further, we use our K-Ar analyses of circum-Antarctic Quaternary sediment cores to pinpoint potential sediment source areas. Having constrained this glaciation signal, we also present preliminary K-Ar and Sm-Nd analysis of the Campanian-Maastrictian boundary event (69 Ma) at Ocean Drilling Project site 690C to assess the controversial hypothesis of Late Cretaceous glaciation of Antarctica.

  7. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  8. Diatom life cycles and ecology in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Jewson, David H; Harwood, David M

    2017-06-01

    The earliest known diatom fossils with well-preserved siliceous frustules are from Lower Cretaceous neritic marine deposits in Antarctica. In this study, we analyzed the cell wall structure to establish whether their cell and life cycles were similar to modern forms. At least two filamentous species (Basilicostephanus ornatus and Archepyrgus melosiroides) had girdle band structures that functioned during cell division in a similar way to present day Aulacoseira species. Also, size analyses of cell diameter indicated that the cyclic process of size decline and size restoration used to time modern diatom life cycles was present in five species from the Lower Cretaceous (B. ornatus, A. melosiroides, Gladius antiquus, Ancylopyrgus reticulatus, Kreagra forfex) as well as two species from Upper Cretaceous deposits (Trinacria anissimowii and Eunotogramma fueloepi) from the Southwest Pacific. The results indicate that the "Diatom Sex Clock" was present from an early evolutionary stage. Other ecological adaptations included changes in mantle height and coiling. Overall, the results suggest that at least some of the species in these early assemblages are on a direct ancestral line to modern forms. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  9. A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Valentin; Appleby, Robert M.; Naish, Darren; Liston, Jeff; Riding, James B.; Brindley, Stephen; Godefroit, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Cretaceous ichthyosaurs have typically been considered a small, homogeneous assemblage sharing a common Late Jurassic ancestor. Their low diversity and disparity have been interpreted as indicative of a decline leading to their Cenomanian extinction. We describe the first post-Triassic ichthyosaur from the Middle East, Malawania anachronus gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of Iraq, and re-evaluate the evolutionary history of parvipelvian ichthyosaurs via phylogenetic and cladogenesis rate analyses. Malawania represents a basal grade in thunnosaurian evolution that arose during a major Late Triassic radiation event and was previously thought to have gone extinct during the Early Jurassic. Its pectoral morphology appears surprisingly archaic, retaining a forefin architecture similar to that of its Early Jurassic relatives. After the initial latest Triassic radiation of early thunnosaurians, two subsequent large radiations produced lineages with Cretaceous representatives, but the radiation events themselves are pre-Cretaceous. Cretaceous ichthyosaurs therefore include distantly related lineages, with contrasting evolutionary histories, and appear more diverse and disparate than previously supposed. PMID:23676653

  10. Evidence for global cooling in the Late Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Linnert, Christian; Robinson, Stuart A.; Lees, Jackie A.; Bown, Paul R.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Irene; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Falzoni, Francesca; Littler, Kate; Arz, José Antonio; Russell, Ernest E.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous ‘greenhouse’ world witnessed a transition from one of the warmest climates of the past 140 million years to cooler conditions, yet still without significant continental ice. Low-latitude sea surface temperature (SST) records are a vital piece of evidence required to unravel the cause of Late Cretaceous cooling, but high-quality data remain illusive. Here, using an organic geochemical palaeothermometer (TEX86), we present a record of SSTs for the Campanian–Maastrichtian interval (~83–66 Ma) from hemipelagic sediments deposited on the western North Atlantic shelf. Our record reveals that the North Atlantic at 35 °N was relatively warm in the earliest Campanian, with maximum SSTs of ~35 °C, but experienced significant cooling (~7 °C) after this to <~28 °C during the Maastrichtian. The overall stratigraphic trend is remarkably similar to records of high-latitude SSTs and bottom-water temperatures, suggesting that the cooling pattern was global rather than regional and, therefore, driven predominantly by declining atmospheric pCO2 levels. PMID:24937202

  11. Recent advances in the cretaceous stratigraphy of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ki-Hong; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Park, Sun-Ok; Ishida, Keisuke; Uno, Koji

    2003-06-01

    A subrounded, accidental, zircon grain from a rhyolite sample of the Oknyobong Formation has shown an U-Pb CHIME isochron age, 187 Ma, implying its derivation from a Jurassic felsic igneous rock. Such a lower limit of the geologic age of the Oknyobong Formation, combined with its pre-Kyongsang upper limit, constrains that the Oknyobong Formation belongs to the Jasong Synthem (Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous) typified in North Korea. The Jaeryonggang Movement terminated the deposition of the Jasong Synthem and caused a shift of the depocenter from North Korea to the Kyongsang Basin, Southeast Korea. The Cretaceous-Paleocene Kyongsang Supergroup of the Kyongsang Basin is the stratotype of the Kyongsang Synthem, an unconformity-bounded unit in the Korean Peninsula. The unconformity at the base of the Yuchon Volcanic Group is a local expression of the interregionally recognizable mid-Albian tectonism; it subdivides the Kyongsang Synthem into the Lower Kyongsang Subsynthem (Barremian-Early Albian) and the Upper Kyongsang Subsynthem (Late Albian-Paleocene). The latter is unconformably overlain by Eocene and younger strata. The Late Permian to Early Jurassic radiolarian fossils from the chert pebbles of the Kumidong and the Kisadong conglomerates of the Aptian-Early Albian Hayang Group of the Kyongsang Basin are equivalent with those of the cherts that constitute the Jurassic accretionary prisms in Japan, the provenance of the chert pebbles in the Kyongsang Basin. Bimodal volcanisms throughout the history of the Kyongsang Basin is exemplified by the felsic Kusandong Tuff erupted abruptly and briefly in the Late Aptian when semi-coeval volcanisms were of intermediate and mafic compositions. The mean paleomagnetic direction shown by the Kusandong Tuff is in good agreement with the Early Cretaceous directions known from North China, South China and Siberia Blocks.

  12. A primitive protostegid from Australia and early sea turtle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P; Lee, Michael S.Y

    2005-01-01

    Sea turtles (Chelonioidea) are a prominent group of modern marine reptiles whose early history is poorly understood. Analysis of exceptionally well preserved fossils of Bouliachelys suteri gen. et sp. nov., a large-bodied basal protostegid (primitive chelonioid) from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of Australia, indicates that early sea turtles were both larger and more diverse than previously thought. The analysis implies at least five distinct sea turtle lineages existed around 100 million years ago. Currently, the postcranially primitive Ctenochelys and Toxochelys are interpreted as crown-group sea turtles closely related to living cheloniids (e.g. Chelonia); in contrast, the new phylogeny suggests that they are transitional (intermediate stem-taxa) between continental testudines and derived, pelagic chelonioids. PMID:17148342

  13. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  14. An Assessment of Ozone Photochemistry in the Extratropical Western North Pacific: Impact of Continental Outflow During the Late Winter/Early Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, J.; Davis, D.; Chen, G.; Bradshaw, J.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Liu, S.; Browell, E.; Gregory, G.; Anderson, B.; hide

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the influence of photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone distributions over the extratropical western North Pacific. The analysis presented here is based on data collected during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West Phase B (PEM-West B) field study conducted in February-March 1994. Sampling in the study region involved altitudes of 0-12 km and latitudes of 10deg S to 50deg N. The extratropical component of the data set (i.e., 20-50deg N) was defined by markedly different photochemical environments north and south of 30deg N. This separation was clearly defined by an abrupt decrease in the tropopause height near 30deg N and a concomitant increase in total O3 column density. This shift in overhead O3 led to highly reduced rates of O3 formation and destruction for the 30-50deg N latitude regime. Both latitude ranges, however, still exhibited net O3 production at all altitudes. Of special significance was the finding that net O3 production prevailed even at boundary layer and lower free tropospheric altitudes (e.g., less than 4 km), a condition uncommon to Pacific marine environments. These results reflect the strong impact of continental Outflow of O3 precursors (e.g., NO and NMHCS) into the northwestern Pacific Basin. Comparisons with PEM-West A, which sampled the same region in a different season (September-October), revealed major differences at altitudes below 4 km, the altitude range most influenced by continental outflow. The resulting net rate of increase in the tropospheric O3 column for PEM-West B was 1-3 % per day, while for PEM-West A it was approximately zero. Unique to the PEM-West B study is the finding that even under wintertime conditions substantial column production of tropospheric O3 can occur at subtropical and mid-latitudes. While such impacts may not be totally unexpected at near coast locations, the present study suggests that the impact from continental outflow on the marine BL could extend out to distances of more

  15. Integrated geophysical and geological study and petroleum appraisal of Cretaceous plays in the Western Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dkhaili, Noomen; Bey, Saloua; El Abed, Mahmoud; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi

    2015-09-01

    An integrated study of available seismic and calibrated wells has been conducted in order to ascertain the structural development and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous Formations of the Western Gulf of Gabes. This study has resulted in an understanding of the controls of deep seated Tethyan tectonic lineaments by analysis of the Cretaceous deposits distribution. Three main unconformities have been identified in this area, unconformity U1 between the Jurassic and Cretaceous series, unconformity U2 separating Early from Late Cretaceous and known as the Austrian unconformity and the major unconformity U3 separating Cretaceous from Tertiary series. The seismic analysis and interpretation have confirmed the existence of several features dominated by an NE-SW extensive tectonic regime evidenced by deep listric faults, asymmetric horst and graben and tilted blocks structures. Indeed, the structural mapping of these unconformities, displays the presence of dominant NW-SE fault system (N140 to N160) bounding a large number of moderate sized basins. A strong inversion event related to the unconformity U3 can be demonstrated by the mapping of the unconformities consequence of the succession of several tectonic manifestations during the Cretaceous and post-Cretaceous periods. These tectonic events have resulted in the development of structural and stratigraphic traps further to the porosity and permeability enhancement of Cretaceous reservoirs.

  16. A global census of continental rift activity since 250 Ma reveals a missing element of the deep carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    The deep carbon cycle connects CO2 concentrations within the atmosphere to the vast carbon reservoir in Earth's mantle: subducted lithosphere carries carbon into the mantle, while extensional plate boundaries and arc volcanoes release it back to Earth's surface. The length of plate boundaries thereby exerts first-order control on global CO2 fluxes on geological time scales. Here we provide a global census of rift length from the Triassic to present day, combining a new plate reconstruction analysis technique with data from the geological rift record. We find that the most extensive rift phase during the fragmentation of Pangea occurred in the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous with extension along the South Atlantic (9700 km) and North Atlantic rifts (9100 km), within East Gondwana (8500 km), the failed African rift systems (4900 km), and between Australia and Antarctica (3700 km). The combined extent of these and other rift systems amounts to more than 50.000 km of simultaneously active continental rifts. During the Late Cretaceous, in the aftermath of this massive rift episode, the global rift length dropped by 60% to 20.000 km. We further show that a second pronounced rift episode starts in the Eocene with global rift lengths of up to 30.000 km. It is well-accepted that volcanoes at plate boundaries release large amounts of CO2 from the Earth's interior. Recent work, however, highlights the importance of deep-cutting faults and diffuse degassing on CO2 emissions in the East African Rift, which appear to be comparable to CO2 release rates at mid-ocean ridges worldwide. Upscaling measured CO2 fluxes from East Africa to all concurrently active global rift zones with due caution, we compute the first-order history of cumulative rift-related CO2 degassing rates for the last 250 Myr. We demonstrate that rift-related CO2 release in the Early Cretaceous may have reached 400% of present-day rates. In first-order agreement with paleo-atmospheric CO2 concentrations from proxy

  17. The Paleoecology, Habitats, and Stratigraphic Range of the Enigmatic Cretaceous Brachiopod Peregrinella

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Steffen; Glodny, Johannes; Birgel, Daniel; Bulot, Luc G.; Campbell, Kathleen A.; Gaillard, Christian; Graziano, Roberto; Kaim, Andrzej; Lazăr, Iuliana; Sandy, Michael R.; Peckmann, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/–0.85) million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1) Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2) it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3) despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4) neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite) and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since Devonian time

  18. Predation upon Hatchling Dinosaurs by a New Snake from the Late Cretaceous of India

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Mohabey, Dhananjay M.; Peters, Shanan E.; Head, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    Derived large-mouthed snakes (macrostomatans) possess numerous specializations in their skull and lower jaws that allow them to consume large vertebrate prey. In contrast, basal snakes lack these adaptations and feed primarily on small prey items. The sequence of osteological and behavioral modifications involved in the evolution of the macrostomatan condition has remained an open question because of disagreement about the origin and interrelationships of snakes, the paucity of well-preserved early snake fossils on many continental landmasses, and the lack of information about the feeding ecology of early snakes. We report on a partial skeleton of a new 3.5-m-long snake, Sanajeh indicus gen. et sp. nov., recovered from Upper Cretaceous rocks of western India. S. indicus was fossilized in association with a sauropod dinosaur egg clutch, coiled around an egg and adjacent to the remains of a ca. 0.5-m-long hatchling. Multiple snake-egg associations at the site strongly suggest that S. indicus frequented nesting grounds and preyed on hatchling sauropods. We interpret this pattern as “ethofossil” preservation of feeding behavior. S. indicus lacks specializations of modern egg-eaters and of macrostomatans, and skull and vertebral synapomorphies place it in an intermediate position in snake phylogeny. Sanajeh and its large-bodied madtsoiid sister taxa Yurlunggur camfieldensis and Wonambi naracoortensis from the Neogene of Australia show specializations for intraoral prey transport but lack the adaptations for wide gape that characterize living macrostomatan snakes. The Dholi Dungri fossils are the second definitive association between sauropod eggs and embryonic or hatchling remains. New fossils from western India provide direct evidence of feeding ecology in a Mesozoic snake and demonstrate predation risks for hatchling sauropod dinosaurs. Our results suggest that large body size and jaw mobility afforded some non-macrostomatan snakes a greater diversity of prey

  19. Deep continental margin reflectors

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  20. NRC Continental Margins Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsouros, Mary Hope

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council is organizing a workshop, “Continental Margins: Evolution of Passive Continental Margins and Active Marginal Processes,” to stimulate discussion and longterm planning in the scientific community about the evolution of all types of continental margins. We want to coordinate academic, industry, and government agency efforts in this field, and to enhance communication between sea-based and land-based research programs.The continental margins constitute the only available record of the long-term dynamic interaction of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Of great interest are the unique structures and thick sedimentary sequences associated with this interaction. A major focus of the workshop will be to define strategies for exploring and understanding the continental margins in three dimensions and through geologic time. The workshop will be divided into 7 working groups, each concentrating on a major issue in continental margins research. A background document is being prepared summarizing recent research in specific continental margin fields and identifying key scientific and technical issues.

  1. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

  2. Remarkable isotopic and trace element trends in potassic through sodic Cretaceous plutons of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, Alaska, and the nature of the lithosphere beneath the Koyukuk terrane

    Arth, Joseph G.; Criss, Robert E.; Zmuda, Clara C.; Foley, Nora K.; Patton, W.W.; Miller, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the period from 110 to 80 m.y. ago, a 450-km-long magmatic belt was active along the northern margin of Yukon-Koyukuk basin and on eastern Seward Peninsula. The plutons intruded Upper Jurassic(?) and Lower Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Yukon-Koyukuk basin and Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic continental rocks in Seward Peninsula. Within Yukon-Koyukuk basin, the plutons vary in composition from calc-alkalic plutons on the east to potassic and ultrapotassic alkalic plutons on the west. Plutons within Yukon-Koyukuk basin were analyzed for trace element and isotopic compositions in order to discern their origin and the nature of the underling lithosphere. Farthest to the east, the calc-alkalic rocks of Indian Mountain pluton are largely tonalite and sodic granodiorite, and have low Rb (average 82 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high chondrite-normalized (cn) Ce/Yb (16–37), low δ18O (+6.5 to +7.1), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (SIR) (0.704), and high initial 143Nd/144Nd (NIR) (0.5126). These rocks resemble those modelled elsewhere as partial melts and subsequent fractionates of basaltic or gabbroic metaigneous rocks, and may be products of melting in the deeper parts of the Late Jurassic(?) and Early Cretaceous volcanic arc. Farthest to the west, the two ultrapotassic bodies of Selawik and Inland Lake are high in Cs (up to 93 ppm), Rb (up to 997 ppm), Sr, Ba, Th, and light rare earth elements, have high (Ce/Yb)cn (30, 27), moderate to low δ18O (+8.4, +6.9), high SIR (0.712, 0.710), and moderate NIR (0.5121–0.5122). These rocks resemble rocks of Australia and elsewhere that were modelled as melts of continental mantle that had been previously enriched in large cations. This mantle may be Paleozoic or older. The farthest west alkalic pluton of Selawik Hills is largely monzonite, quartz monzonite, and granite; has moderate Rb (average 284 ppm), high Sr (>600 ppm), high (Ce/Yb)cn (15–25), moderate δ18O (+8.3 to +8.6), high SIR (0.708

  3. Was Late Cretaceous Magmatism in the Northern Rocky Mountains Really Arc-Related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G.

    2011-12-01

    Calc-alkaline, Cretaceous magmatism affected much of the northern Rocky Mountain region in the western U.S. and is generally interpreted as continental arc magmatism despite the fact that it occurred as far east into the continental interior as the Late Cretaceous (75 Ma to 78 Ma) Sliderock Mountain volcanoplutonic complex in south-central Montana. Magmatism may have migrated so far inboard as a response to shallowing of the dip angle of underthrust oceanic lithosphere, but the exact sources, tectonic setting and trigger mechanisms for the Late Cretaceous igneous activity remain unclear. In this study, new trace element and Nd and Sr isotopic data, combined with existing age and major element data (duBray et al., 1998, USGS Prof. Paper 1602), from the most mafic lavas present at the Sliderock Mountain Volcano were used to further define the source regions of the Late Cretaceous magmatism. The most mafic lava flows are high K (~2-3 wt. % K2O), low Ti (< 1 wt. % TiO2), low Ni (< 20 ppm) basaltic andesites. Major element oxide contents for these rocks are only weakly correlated with increasing wt. % SiO2 on conventional Harker diagrams. All of the rocks are characterized by high LILE/HFSE ratios and high Pb contents (17-20 ppm), as expected for arc-related magmatism. The rocks also have high (La/Yb)N (7-20) but show decreasing (Dy/Yb)N with increasing wt.% SiO2, suggesting a cryptic role for amphibole fractionation during evolution of their parental magmas. Initial ɛNd values range from -19 to -29 but do not covary with rock bulk composition and as a result are unlikely to represent the result of interaction with local Archean continental crust. Initial 87Sr/86Sr, in contrast, vary over a restricted range from 0.7045 to 0.7065. The lowest 87Sr/86Sr correspond to samples with the highest Sr/Y (120-190). The low ɛNd values for the basaltic andesites suggest that if these volcanic rocks were ultimately derived from ultramafic mantle sources, melting must have occurred

  4. Petroleum geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciT

    Genik, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    This overview of the petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR) is based on exploration work by Exxon and partners in the years 1969-1991. The work included 50,000 km of modern reflection seismic, 53 exploration wells, 1,000,000 km[sup 2] of aeromagnetic coverage, and about 10,500 km of gravity profiles. The results outline ten Cretaceous and Tertiary rift basins, which constitute a major part of the West and Central African rift system (WCARS). The rift basins derive from a multiphased geologic history dating from the Pan-African (approximately 750-550 Ma) to the Holocene. WCARS in themore » study area is divided into the West African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (CAS). WAS basins in Niger and Chad are chiefly extensional, and are filled by up to 13,000 m of Lower Cretaceous to Holocene continental and marine clastics. The basins contain five oil (19-43[degrees]API) and two oil and gas accumulations in Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced and sealed by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene marine and lacustrine shales. The most common structural styles and hydrocarbon traps usually are associated with normal fault blocks. CAS rift basins in Chad and CAR are extensional and transtensional, and are filled by up to 7500 m of chiefly Lower Cretaceous continental clastics. The basins contain eight oil (15-39[degrees]API) and one oil and gas discovery in Lower and Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced by Lower Cretaceous shales and sealed by interbedded lacustrine and flood-plain shales. Structural styles range from simple fault blocks through complex flower structures. The main hydrocarbon traps are in contractional anticlines. Geological conditions favor the discovery of potentially commercial volumes of oil in WCARS basins, of Niger, Chad and CAR. 108 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  5. The Sredne-Amursky basin: A migrating cretaceous depocenter for the Amur river, eastern Siberia

    SciT

    Light, M.; Maslanyj, M.; Davidson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Recently acquired seismic, well, and regional geological data imply favorable conditions for the accumulation of oil and gas in the 20,000 km[sup 2] Sredne-Amursky basin. Major graben and northeast-trending sinistral wrench-fault systems are recognized in the basin. Lower and Upper Cretaceous sediments are up to 9000 and 3000 m thick, respectively. Paleogeographic reconstructions imply that during the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous the Sredne-Amursky basin was part of a narrow marine embayment (back-arc basin), which was open to the north. During the Cretaceous, the region was part of a foreland basin complicated by strike-slip, which produced subsidence related to transtension during obliquemore » collision of the Sikhote-Alin arc with Eurasian margin. Contemporaneous uplift also related to this collision migrated from south to north and may have sourced northward-directed deltas and alluvial fans, which fed northward into the closing back-arc basin between 130 and 85 Ma. The progradational clastic succession of the Berriasian-Albian and the Late Cretaceous fluvial, brackish water and paralic sediments within the basin may be analogous to the highly productive late Tertiary clastics of the Amur River delta in the northeast Sakhalin basin. Cretaceous-Tertiary lacustrine-deltaic sapropelic shales provide significant source and seal potential and potential reservoirs occur in the Cretaceous and Tertiary. Structural plays were developed during Cretaceous rifting and subsequent strike-slip deformation. If the full hydrocarbon potential of the Sredne-Amursky basin is to be realized, the regional appraisal suggests that exploration should be focused toward the identification of plays related to prograding Cretaceous deltaic depositional systems.« less

  6. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic contact separating continental and oceanic units is preserved at outcrop in many locations within the Western Alps. The contact has experienced prolonged and progressive deformation during Oligocene collision and subsequent 'extrusive' contraction which is approximately westerly-directed (Dumont et al., 2012). Despite variable metamorphic grade, this tectonic contact displays a relative consistency of tectonostratigraphic and structural characteristics. Removal of the Oligocene and younger deformation is a critical requirement to allow assessment of the kinematic evolution during the Eocene continental subduction phase. The best preserved relationships are observed near the base of the Helminthoid Flysch nappes, in the footwall of the Penninic thrust, or in the external part of the Briançonnais zone. Here, the oceanic units are composed of detached Cretaceous sediments, but they are underlain locally by an olistostrome containing basaltic clasts. Further to the east, the internal boundary of the Briançonnais zone s.l. (including the 'Prepiedmont units'), is frequently marked by breccia or megabreccia, but is strongly affected by blueschist-facies metamorphism and by approximately easterly directed backfolding and backthrusting. At one locality, there is compelling evidence that the oceanic and continental units were already tectonically stacked and metamorphosed (together) 32Ma ago. Some megabreccias of mixed continental/oceanic provenance can be interpreted as a metamorphic equivalent of the external olistostrome, products of the initial pulses of tectonic stacking. The overlying units are composed dominantly of metasediments, containing distributed ophiolitic megaboudins (Tricart & Schwartz, 2006). Further east again, the tectonic contact separates the Dora-Maira continental basement from the Mt. Viso units which are predominantly composed of oceanic lithosphere. Both the Dora-Maira and Mt. Viso units are eclogitic, but the HP peak is apparently

  7. Leaf Assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Jack A.; Upchurch, Garland R., Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Analyses of leaf megafossil and dispersed leaf cuticle assemblages indicate that major ecologic disruption and high rates of extinction occurred in plant communities at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin. In diversity increase, the early Paleocene vegetational sequence mimics normal short-term ecologic succession, but on a far longer time scale. No difference can be detected between latest Cretaceous and early Paleocene temperatures, but precipitation markedly increased at the boundary. Higher survival rate of deciduous versus evergreen taxa supports occurrence of a brief cold interval (<1 year), as predicted in models of an “impact winter.”

  8. Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: From island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Baird, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic continental arcs in the North American Cordillera were examined here to establish a baseline model for Phanerozoic continent formation. We combine new trace-element data on lower crustal xenoliths from the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada Batholith with an extensive grid-based geochemical map of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, the southern equivalent of the Sierras. Collectively, these observations give a three-dimensional view of the crust, which permits the petrogenesis and tectonics of Phanerozoic crust formation to be linked in space and time. Subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America during the Triassic to early Cretaceous was characterized by trench retreat and slab rollback because old and cold oceanic lithosphere was being subducted. This generated an extensional subduction zone, which created fringing island arcs just off the Paleozoic continental margin. However, as the age of the Farallon plate at the time of subduction decreased, the extensional environment waned, allowing the fringing island arc to accrete onto the continental