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Sample records for early cretaceous magmatic

  1. Early Cretaceous adakitic magmatism in central eastern China controlled by ridge subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, M.; Luo, Z.; Sun, W.

    2017-12-01

    Early Cretaceous adakites are widely distributed in central eastern China, e.g., Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), Dabie orogen and south Tan-Lu Fault (STLF) area. Adakite from the LYRB is closely associated with mineralization, while adakites from Dabie orogen and STLF are ore barren. Their origins, however, remain controversial. Detailed geochemical comparison between these adakites indicates that the LYRB adakite are formed by partial melting of oceanic crust, i.e., slab melting, whereas those from Dabie orogen and STLF (e.g., Guandian pluton) have origin of lower continental crust (LCC) 1,2. Base on the distribution of igneous rocks, e.g., adakite, A-type granite and Nb-enriched basalts, as well as other lines of evidence, ridge subduction of the Pacific and Izanagi plates was proposed to explain the genesis of Cretaceous magmatism and associated mineralization in the LYRB 1. Ridge subduction is a special plate tectonic process that can provide both physical erosion and thermal erosion 3. Flat subduction of a spreading ridge will result in strong physical subduction-related erosion, and trigger destruction (e.g., in the Dabie orogen) or delamination (e.g., in the STLF) of the thickened LCC. Subsequently, ridge subduction, accompanied by opening of a slab window, will facilitate partial melting of the LCC by thermal erosion. References: 1. Ling, M. X. et al. Cretaceous ridge subduction along the Lower Yangtze river belt, eastern China. Econ. Geol. 104, 303-321, doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.104.2.303 (2009). 2. Ling, M. X., Wang, F. Y., Ding, X., Zhou, J. B. & Sun, W. D. Different origins of adakites from the Dabie Mountains and the Lower Yangtze River Belt, eastern China: Geochemical constraints. International Geology Review 53, 727-740 (2011). 3. Ling, M. X. et al. Destruction of the North China Craton Induced by Ridge Subductions. Journal of Geology 121, 197-213 (2013).

  2. Similarity and Differences of Cretaceous Magmatism in the Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyve, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers Cretaceous magmatism at the continental margin of the Arctic Region. It is shown that Cretaceous igneous rocks of this region are rather heterogeneous in age, composition, and geodynamic formation setting. This differentiates them from rocks of typical large igneous provinces (LIPs). Local areas of magmatic activity, their substantial remoteness them from one another, and significant distinctions in age, composition of rocks, and formation conditions prevent us from unreservedly combining all occurrences of Cretaceous magmatism at the continental margin of the Arctic Region into a common igneous province. The stage of tholeiitic magmatism in the Svalbard Archipelago, Franz Josef Land, Arctic Canada, and the Alpha-Mendeleev Rise, which can be considered an LIP, began in the Early Cretaceous and continued for a long time, at least until the Campanian. The magmatism apparently had a plume source and was caused by extension during opening of the Canada Basin. Tholeiitic magmatism gave way to the alkaline magmatism stage from the Campanian to the onset of the Paleocene, related to continental rifting at the initial stage of formation of Eurasian Basin in the Arctic Region. No convincing evidence for a genetic link between Early Cretaceous tholeiitic and Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatism is known at present, nor for the alkaline magmatism belonging to a plume source.

  3. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  4. Petrogenesis of the late Early Cretaceous granodiorite - Quartz diorite from eastern Guangdong, SE China: Implications for tectono-magmatic evolution and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lihui; Mao, Jingwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Comprehensive petrological, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopes, whole rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes data are presented for the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province, Southeast (SE) China, with an aim to constrain the petrogenesis, tectono-magmatic evolution and evaluate the implication for porphyry Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. The Xinwei intrusion is composed of granodiorite and quartz diorite, whilst the Sanrao intrusion consists of granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages show that both intrusions were emplaced at ca. 106-102 Ma. All rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and they are characterized by LREEs enrichment, depletion in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and strongly fractionated LREEs to HREEs. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7055 to 0.7059, and εNd(t) values range from -3.9 to -3.0. Together with the relatively high εHf(t) values (-3.2 to 3.3) and low δ18O values (4.9‰ to 6.6‰), these data suggest that the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions were derived from a mixed source: including the mantle-derived mafic magmas and lower continental crustal magmas. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the magmatic evolution of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions. The elemental and isotopic compositions of the Xinwei and Sanrao intrusions, as well as the high water content and oxidation state of their parental magmas, are similar to those of the ore-bearing granodiorites of the Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in the Fujian Province, neighbouring east to the Guangdong Province, indicating that the late Early Cretaceous granodioritic intrusions in the eastern Guangdong Province may also have Cu-Au-Mo mineralization potential. The late Early Cretaceous magmatic event is firstly reported in eastern Guangdong, and represents a positive response of large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, triggered by the changing subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific plate from oblique subduction to

  5. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  6. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  7. Exhumation History Of Brasilian Highlands After Late Cretaceous Alcaline Magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doranti Tiritan, Carolina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Carina Siqueira Ribeiro, Marli; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Françoso de Godoy, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The southeast Brazilian margin recorded a long history of tectonic and magmatic events after the Gondwana continent break up. The drifting of the South American Platform over a thermal anomaly generated a series of alkaline intrusions that are distributed from the interior to the coast from west to east. Several exhumation events are recorded on the region and we are providing insights on the landscape evolution of the region since Late Cretaceous, comparing low temperature thermochronology results from two alkaline intrusions regions. Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif (PCAM), is lied in the interior, 300km from the coastline, covering over 800km2 intruding the Precambrian basement around 83Ma, nepheline syenites, phonolites and tinguaites intruded in a continuous and rapid sequence lasting between 1 to 2 Ma. São Sebastião Island (SSI) on the other hand is located at the coast, 200 km southeast of São Paulo. It is characterized by an intrusion in Precambrian/Brazilian orogen and intruded by Early Cretaceous sub-alkaline basic and acid dykes, as well as by Late Cretaceous alkaline stocks (syenites) and dykes (basanite to phonolite). Will be presenting the apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He results that shows the main difference between the areas is that PCAM region register older history then the coastal area of SSI, where thermal history starts register cooling event after the South Atlantic rifting process, while in the PCAM area register a previous history, since Carboniferous. The results are giving support to studies that indicate the development of the relief in Brazil being strongly influenced by the local and regional tectonic movements and the lithological and structural settings. The landscape at the Late Cretaceous was witness of heating process between 90 and 60Ma due the intense uplift of South American Platform. The elevation of the isotherms is associated with the mantellic plumes and the crustal thickness that caused thermal anomalies due

  8. Recurrent Early Cretaceous, Indo-Madagascar (89-86 Ma) and Deccan (66 Ma) alkaline magmatism in the Sarnu-Dandali complex, Rajasthan: 40Ar/39Ar age evidence and geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Pande, Kanchan; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Cucciniello, Ciro

    2017-07-01

    The Sarnu-Dandali alkaline complex in Rajasthan, northwestern India, is considered to represent early, pre-flood basalt magmatism in the Deccan Traps province, based on a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 68.57 Ma. Rhyolites found in the complex are considered to be 750 Ma Malani basement. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 88.9-86.8 Ma (for syenites, nephelinite, phonolite and rhyolite) and 66.3 ± 0.4 Ma (2σ, melanephelinite) provide clear evidence that whereas the complex has Deccan-age (66 Ma) components, it is dominantly an older (by 20 million years) alkaline complex, with rhyolites included. Basalt is also known to underlie the Early Cretaceous Sarnu Sandstone. Sarnu-Dandali is thus a periodically rejuvenated alkaline igneous centre, active twice in the Late Cretaceous and also earlier. Many such centres with recurrent continental alkaline magmatism (sometimes over hundreds of millions of years) are known worldwide. The 88.9-86.8 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages for Sarnu-Dandali rocks fully overlap with those for the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt province formed during continental breakup between India (plus Seychelles) and Madagascar. Recent 40Ar/39Ar work on the Mundwara alkaline complex in Rajasthan, 120 km southeast of Sarnu-Dandali, has also shown polychronous emplacement (over ≥ 45 million years), and 84-80 Ma ages obtained from Mundwara also arguably represent post-breakup stages of the Indo-Madagascar flood basalt volcanism. Remnants of the Indo-Madagascar province are known from several localities in southern India but hitherto unknown from northwestern India 2000 km away. Additional equivalents buried under the vast Deccan Traps are highly likely.

  9. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanism in the Duolong Cu mining district, western Tibet: Record of slab breakoff that triggered ca. 108-113 Ma magmatism in the western Qiangtang terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-gang; Tang, Ju-xing; Song, Yang; Liu, Zhi-bo; Feng, Jun; Li, Yan-bo

    2017-05-01

    We report new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions, and whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data for the Meiriqiecuo Formation (MF) bimodal volcanic rocks collected from the Duolong Cu mining district (DCMD) in the western Qiangtang terrane (QT), western Tibet. These data provide important constraints on the petrogenetic evolution and geodynamic setting of Early Cretaceous magmatism in the DCMD. The MF bimodal volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and andesite, with subordinate rhyolite. Four mafic samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 108.2-113.0 Ma, and one silicic sample has an age of 109.3 ± 2.2 Ma, indicating that the mafic and silicic eruptions were contemporaneous. The MF bimodal volcanic rocks belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline to shoshonite series. The rocks show arc-type affinities characterized by significant enrichment in light rare earth (LaN/YbN = 7.74-12.60) and large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Cs, K, and Pb), but depletions in the high-field-strength elements (Nb, Ta, and Ti), which geochemically resemble Andean arc basalts. Therefore, the MF bimodal volcanic rocks were likely emplaced at an Andean-type active continental margin and represent an Early Cretaceous magmatic arc that was located at the western QT margin. Moreover, the mafic volcanic rocks have high initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.705269-0.705413) and negative εNd(t) values of -1.5 to -0.6 compared with the silicic volcanic rocks ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.704770-0.704903; εNd(t) = +1.2 to +1.3). Zircons from silicic samples have significantly higher εHf(t) values (+11.6 to +15.5) and predominantly lower Paleoproterozoic Hf crustal model ages (TDMC = 180-428 Ma) than the mafic samples, which have variable εHf(t) values of +3.4 to +13.0 and TDMC ages of 346-952 Ma. These results indicate that the mafic and silicic end-members of the MF bimodal suite were generated from mantle and crustal sources, respectively. The basaltic andesite and andesite may have been

  10. Variable sources for Cretaceous to recent HIMU and HIMU-like intraplate magmatism in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Q. H. A.; Waight, T. E.; Scott, J. M.; Münker, C.

    2017-07-01

    Continental intraplate magmas with isotopic affinities similar to HIMU are identified worldwide. Involvement of an asthenospheric HIMU or HIMU-like source is contested because the characteristic radiogenic Pb compositions coupled with unradiogenic Sr and intermediate Nd and Hf compositions can also result from in-situ ingrowth in metasomatised lithospheric mantle. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of late Cretaceous lamprophyre dikes from Westland, New Zealand, provide new insights into the formation of a HIMU-like alkaline intraplate magmatic province under the Zealandia continent. The oldest (102-100 Ma) calc-alkaline lamprophyres are compositionally similar to the preceding arc-magmatism (206Pb/204Pb(i) = 18.6, 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.62, 208Pb/204Pb(i) = 38.6, 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7063-0.7074, εNd(i) = -2.1 - +0.1 and εHf(i) = -0.2 - +2.3) and are interpreted as melts originating from subduction-modified lithosphere. Alkaline dikes erupted on the inboard Gondwana margin shortly after cessation of subduction (92-84 Ma) have heterogeneous isotopic properties: 206Pb/204Pb(i) = 18.7 to 19.4, 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.60 to 15.65, 208Pb/204Pb(i) = 38.6 to 39.4, 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7031 to 0.7068, εNd(i) = +4.5 to +8.0 and εHf(i) = +5.1 to +8.0. Melt compositions point to an amphibole-bearing spinel facies lithospheric mantle source enriched by metasomatism that introduced, amongst many elements, U + Th which lead to rapid ingrowth to HIMU-like compositions. Importantly, this HIMU-like source enrichment appears to have completely originated from the complex local subduction history. A coeval episode of alkaline magmatism (mainly 98-82 Ma) occurred outboard of Gondwana's former active margin and on the Hikurangi oceanic plateau (accreted to Zealandia in the Early Cretaceous) with compositions closer to true HIMU (206Pb/204Pb(i) ≈ 20.5, 207Pb/204Pb(i) ≈ 15.7, 208Pb/204Pb(i) ≈ 40.0, εNd(i) ≈ 4.5 and εHf(i) ≈ 4.0). In contrast to the inboard HIMU-like magmas, the

  11. Evolution of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Cordilleran arc magmatism in NW Mexico: a review from updated geochronological studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia-Moreno, M.; Iriondo, A.; Perez-Segura, E.; Noguez-Alcantara, B.

    2007-05-01

    During most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, the locus of subduction related arc magmatism in northwestern Mexico was relatively mobile, probably due to changes in the mechanical conditions of the Farallon-North America plate convergence. The older Mesozoic events recognized in this region occurred in the Late Triassic and Jurassic, but the associated rocks are poorly preserved. However, a belt of Late Cretaceous through Paleogene magmatic rocks is well exposed along Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa. Since the late 70's, it was noted that during the Early Cretaceous the igneous activity along this belt remained relatively static in the westernmost part, but migrated eastward in the Late Cretaceous, penetrating more than 1000 km into the continent. The arc magmatism reached western Sonora at about 90 Ma, and then it started to move faster inland, presumably due to flattening of the subducted oceanic slab. Recent U-Pb zircon data revealed unexpected old ages (89-95 Ma) near the eastern edge of Sonora, which are difficult to explain on the basis of the classic tectonic interpretations. A model based on two synchronic sites for magma emplacement may explain the age overlapping observed along the belt; however, a profound re-evaluation a proper geodynamic scenario to support this model is required. Even if restoration of the large Neogene crustal extension is made, particularly for central and northern Sonora, the relatively flat-subduction regime commonly accepted for the Laramide event appears unable to explain the anomalously broad expression of the magmatic belt in northwestern Mexico. An alternative model based on two synchronic sites of magma emplacement, as suggested by the new age data, may better explain the large volume of igneous rocks produced during this time in Sonora and most of Chihuahua. This mechanism may differ southwards in Sinaloa, where the magmatic belt becomes considerably narrower. Moreover, the possible existence of two spatially distinct sites

  12. Was Late Cretaceous Magmatism in the Northern Rocky Mountains Really Arc-Related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G.

    2011-12-01

    Calc-alkaline, Cretaceous magmatism affected much of the northern Rocky Mountain region in the western U.S. and is generally interpreted as continental arc magmatism despite the fact that it occurred as far east into the continental interior as the Late Cretaceous (75 Ma to 78 Ma) Sliderock Mountain volcanoplutonic complex in south-central Montana. Magmatism may have migrated so far inboard as a response to shallowing of the dip angle of underthrust oceanic lithosphere, but the exact sources, tectonic setting and trigger mechanisms for the Late Cretaceous igneous activity remain unclear. In this study, new trace element and Nd and Sr isotopic data, combined with existing age and major element data (duBray et al., 1998, USGS Prof. Paper 1602), from the most mafic lavas present at the Sliderock Mountain Volcano were used to further define the source regions of the Late Cretaceous magmatism. The most mafic lava flows are high K (~2-3 wt. % K2O), low Ti (< 1 wt. % TiO2), low Ni (< 20 ppm) basaltic andesites. Major element oxide contents for these rocks are only weakly correlated with increasing wt. % SiO2 on conventional Harker diagrams. All of the rocks are characterized by high LILE/HFSE ratios and high Pb contents (17-20 ppm), as expected for arc-related magmatism. The rocks also have high (La/Yb)N (7-20) but show decreasing (Dy/Yb)N with increasing wt.% SiO2, suggesting a cryptic role for amphibole fractionation during evolution of their parental magmas. Initial ɛNd values range from -19 to -29 but do not covary with rock bulk composition and as a result are unlikely to represent the result of interaction with local Archean continental crust. Initial 87Sr/86Sr, in contrast, vary over a restricted range from 0.7045 to 0.7065. The lowest 87Sr/86Sr correspond to samples with the highest Sr/Y (120-190). The low ɛNd values for the basaltic andesites suggest that if these volcanic rocks were ultimately derived from ultramafic mantle sources, melting must have occurred

  13. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  14. Constraining lithospheric removal and asthenospheric input to melts in Central Asia: A geochemical study of Triassic to Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Gobi Altai (Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrick, Thomas C.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kempton, Pamela D.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout northeast China, eastern and southern Mongolia, and eastern Russia there is widespread Mesozoic intracontinental magmatism. Extensive studies on the Chinese magmatic rocks have suggested lithospheric mantle removal was a driver of the magmatism. The timing, distribution and potential diachroneity of such lithospheric mantle removal remains poorly constrained. Here, we examine successions of Mesozoic lavas and shallow intrusive volcanic plugs from the Gobi Altai in southern Mongolia that appear to be unrelated to regional, relatively small-scale deformation; at the time of magmatism, the area was 200 km from any active margin, or, after its Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous closure, from the suture of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age data place magmatic events in the Gobi Altai between 220 to 99.2 Ma. This succession overlaps Chinese successions and therefore provides an opportunity to constrain whether Mesozoic lithosphere removal may provide an explanation for the magmatism here too, and if so, when. We show that Triassic to Lower Cretaceous lavas in the Gobi Altai (from Dulaan Bogd, Noyon Uul, Bulgantiin Uul, Jaran Bogd and Tsagaan Tsav) are all light rare-earth element (LREE) and large-ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Nb/La and Ta/La ≤ 1). Geochemical data suggest that these lavas formed by low degrees of partial melting of a metasomatised lithospheric mantle that may have been modified by melts derived from recycled rutile-bearing eclogite. A gradual reduction in the involvement of garnet in the source of these lavas points towards a shallowing of the depth of melting after 125 Ma. By contrast, geochemical and isotope data from the youngest magmatic rocks in the area - 107-99 Ma old volcanic plugs from Tsost Magmatic Field - have OIB-like trace element patterns and are interpreted to have formed by low degrees of partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. These rocks did

  15. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  16. Geochemical evolution of Cenozoic-Cretaceous magmatism and its relation to tectonic setting, southwestern Idaho, U.S.A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Leeman, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The relationships between Cretaceous to Neogene magmatism and the tectonic setting of southwestern and central Idaho are evaluated. An overview of the tectonics and geology of the northwestern U.S. is presented. Major element, trace element, and Sr, Pb, and Nd isotopic data for the region are used to place constraints on magma source characteristics, the manner in which the magmatic sources evolved through time, and the nature of interactions among mantle and crustal domains in response to changing tectonic environment.

  17. Composition, Age, and Origin of Cretaceous Granitic Magmatism on the Eastern Chukchi Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Pease, V.; Miller, E.; Belyatsky, B. V.

    2018-05-01

    New geochronological and isotopic geochemical data are given, which make it possible to recognize two types of granitic rocks on the eastern Chukchi Peninsula. Early Cretaceous Tkachen and Dolina granitic plutons with zircon ages (U-Pb SIMS) of 119-122 and 131-136 Ma are related to the first type. They cut through Devonian-Lower Carboniferous basement rocks and are overlain by the Aptian-Albian Etelkuyum Formation. Basal units of the latter contain fragments of granitic rocks. Late Cretaceous Provideniya and Rumilet granitic plutons, which contain zircons with ages of 94 and 85 Ma (U-Pb SIMS), respectively, belong to the second type. They cut through volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Etelkuyum and Leurvaam formations pertaining to the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt. In petrographic and geochemical features, the Early Cretaceous granitic rocks of the Tkachen Pluton are commensurable with I-type granites, while Late Cretaceous granite of the Rumilet Pluton is comparable to A2-type granite. The Sr-Nd isotopic data provide evidence that from the Early Cretaceous Tkachen and Dolina plutons to the Late Cretaceous Provideniya and Rumilet plutons, the degree of crustal assimilation of suprasubduction mantle-derived melts increases up to partial melting of heterogeneous continental crust enriched in rubidium. An unconformity and various degrees of secondary alteration of volcanic-sedimentary rocks have been established in the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt, and this was apparently caused by transition of the tectonic setting from suprasubduction to a transform margin with local extension.

  18. Seismic imaging of Late Cretaceous magmatic system in the northern margin of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, S.; Xu, H.; Sun, J.; Zhao, F.; Fan, C.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and evolution of magmatism in the rifting margins are the fundamentally geological subjects, and remain the focus of intense study. Different from the classical volcanic or nonvolcanic rifting margins, the northern margin of South China Sea (SCS) experienced uniquely regional tectonic processes, and formed plentiful intraplate seamounts mainly at the postrift period. There is considerable controversy over what caused the intensively postrift intraplate volcanism. Here we combine a new crustal structure with previously systematic petrologic and seismic tomographic results to first provide importantly new insights into a mantle plume origin and complex multilevel plumbing system of intraplate seamounts in the northern margin of SCS. Large amounts of active melts from the lower mantle migrated upward and reached the base of the lithosphere. The volatile-rich and overheated magmas continued ascending along the weak zone through the lithosphere and intruded into the lower crust. The intrusion magmas then ascended forward along the faults formed during the rifting, and supplied the magma source for the formation of intraplate seamounts in the northern margin of SCS. It supplies an important implication for the volume and range of late Cenozoic basaltic magmatism deriving from the Hainan mantle plume. Keywords: South China Sea; Late Cretaceous; Magmatic System; Hainan Plume AcknowledgementsThe field work of this study was assisted by the captain and crew of the R/V Shiyan 2. Prof. Xuelin Qiu supplied great helps for the successful implementation of the cruise. This work was partially supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91328206 and 41576041).

  19. Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological divergence is thought to be coupled with evolutionary radiations, yet the strength of this coupling is unclear. When birds diversified ecologically has received much less attention than their hotly debated crown divergence time. Here, we quantify how accurately skeletal morphology can predict ecology in living and extinct birds, and show that the earliest known assemblage of birds (= pygostylians) from the Jehol Biota (≈ 125 Ma) was substantially impoverished ecologically. The Jehol avifauna has few representatives of highly preservable ecomorphs (e.g. aquatic forms) and a notable lack of ecomorphological overlap with the pterosaur assemblage (e.g. no large or aerially foraging pygostylians). Comparisons of the Jehol functional diversity with modern and subfossil avian assemblages show that taphonomic bias alone cannot explain the ecomorphological impoverishment. However, evolutionary simulations suggest that the constrained ecological diversity of the Early Cretaceous pygostylians is consistent with what is expected from a relatively young radiation. Regardless of the proximate biological explanation, the anomalously low functional diversity of the Jehol birds is evidence both for ecological vacancies in Cretaceous ecosystems, which were subsequently filled by the radiation of crown Aves, and for discordance between taxonomic richness and ecological diversity in the best-known Mesozoic ecosystem. PMID:24870044

  20. Lu-Hf systematics of magmatic zircons reveal a Proterozoic crustal boundary under the Cretaceous Pioneer batholith, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David A.; Mueller, Paul A.; Heatherington, Ann; Gifford, Jennifer N.; Kalakay, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Lu-Hf systematics of magmatic zircons from quartz diorite and granodiorite plutons of the Late Cretaceous Pioneer batholith, Montana, indicate involvement of distinctly different crustal sources in the petrogensis of individual components of the batholith. Plutons of the eastern Pioneer batholith contain magmatic zircons with initial ɛHf values of - 28 to - 34 that crystallized in magmas likely derived from dominantly Archean and earliest Paleoproterozoic crust. Contemporaneous granodiorite in the western Pioneer batholith contains magmatic zircons with initial ɛHf values ranging from - 9 to - 33, but dominated by values between - 18 and - 22, which suggest a mixture of Paleoproterozoic and possible Mesoproterozoic sources. These data suggest that distinct segments of crust juxtaposed and produced during formation of the Great Falls tectonic zone (1.78-1.86 Ga) and the Belt basin (~ 1.43-1.47 Ga) contributed to magmatic compositions in the batholith and that these contributions are recorded in the magmatic zircons. The contrasting ɛHf distributions between eastern and western components of the Pioneer batholith suggest that an important crustal and/or lithospheric boundary underlies the Pioneer batholith. The Hf-isotopic results also suggest that the high P-wave velocity lower crust of the northern Rocky Mountains did not form in a single event.

  1. Parallel Extension Tectonics (PET): Early Cretaceous tectonic extension of the Eastern Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junlai; Ji, Mo; Ni, Jinlong; Guan, Huimei; Shen, Liang

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports progress of our recent studies on the extensional structures in eastern North China craton and contiguous areas. We focus on characterizing and timing the formation/exhumation of the extensional structures, the Liaonan metamorphic core complex (mcc) and the Dayingzi basin from the Liaodong peninsula, the Queshan mcc, the Wulian mcc and the Zhucheng basin from the Jiaodong peninsula, and the Dashan magmatic dome within the Sulu orogenic belt. Magmatic rocks (either volcanic or plutonic) are ubiquitous in association with the tectonic extension (both syn- and post-kinematic). Evidence for crustal-mantle magma mixing are popular in many syn-kinematic intrusions. Geochemical analysis reveals that basaltic, andesitic to rhyolitic magmas were generated during the tectonic extension. Sr-Nd isotopes of the syn-kinematic magmatic rocks suggest that they were dominantly originated from ancient or juvenile crust partly with mantle signatures. Post-kinematic mafic intrusions with ages from ca. 121 Ma to Cenozoic, however, are of characteristic oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions. Integrated studies on the extensional structures, geochemical signatures of syn-kinematic magmatic rocks (mostly of granitic) and the tectono-magmatic relationships suggest that extension of the crust and the mantle lithosphere triggered the magmatisms from both the crust and the mantle. The Early Cretaceous tectono-magmatic evolution of the eastern Eurasian continent is governed by the PET in which the tectonic processes is subdivided into two stages, i.e. an early stage of tectonic extension, and a late stage of collapse of the extended lithosphere and transformation of lithospheric mantle. During the early stage, tectonic extension of the lithosphere led to detachment faulting in both the crust and mantle, resulted in the loss of some of the subcontinental roots, gave rise to

  2. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  3. Underthrusting of passive margin strata into deep crustal hot zones associated with Cretaceous arc magmatism in North America: links and timescales of magmatic vs. tectonic thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E. J.; Lee, C.; Tollstrup, D. L.; Xie, L.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The North American Cordillera experienced lithospheric thickening during the Cretaceous as a result of subduction-induced magmatism and tectonic shortening. Several studies suggest correlations between increased plate convergence rates and crustal underthrusting with apparent magmatic flux and evolved isotopic excursions, yet questions still remain regarding causality between tectonic and magmatic thickening. Here, we use lower crustal garnet-bearing metaquartzite (80% SiO2) xenoliths hosted in late Miocene basalts in the central Sierra Nevada Batholith, California to constrain the P-T-t (pressure-temperature-time) history of crustal thickening. The xenoliths are equigranular in texture and are comprised of >50% quartz, ~10% metamorphic garnet, <40% plagioclase, and trace rutile, kyanite, and biotite. High quartz mode, abundant well-rounded detrital zircons, and oriented graphite laths demonstrating sedimentary or metamorphic layering point to a supracrustal sedimentary protolith. However, final equilibration temperatures using titanium-in-quartz thermometry are 700 - 800 °C, and final equilibration pressures using the GASP barometer yield 0.9 - 1.3 GPa, indicating the metaquartzites equilibrated within a hot lower crust (18 - 45 km). Low whole-rock REE totals, lack of whole-rock HREE enrichment relative to LREE and MREE, and absence of positive Eu anomalies suggest that significant melting in the garnet or plagioclase fields did not occur. The whole-rock trace element geochemistry is also consistent with an initially garnet-free protolith. Simultaneous LA-ICP-MS measurements of U-Pb and Hf isotopes in detrital zircons show that all zircons have discordant U-Pb with variable upper intercept ages (1.7, 2.7, 3.3 Ga; consistent with Hf model ages), but common lower intercept ages (100 Ma). The above indicate that protoliths of the metaquartzites were North American Proterozoic to Paleozoic passive margin sediments which were simultaneously emplaced into the lower

  4. Early cretaceous dinosaurs from the sahara.

    PubMed

    Sereno, P C; Wilson, J A; Larsson, H C; Dutheil, D B; Sues, H D

    1994-10-14

    A major question in Mesozoic biogeography is how the land-based dinosaurian radiation responded to fragmentation of Pangaea. A rich fossil record has been uncovered on northern continents that spans the Cretaceous, when continental isolation reached its peak. In contrast, dinosaur remains on southern continents are scarce. The discovery of dinosaurian skeletons from Lower Cretaceous beds in the southern Sahara shows that several lineages of tetanuran theropods and broad-toothed sauropods had a cosmopolitan distribution across Pangaea before the onset of continental fragmentation. The distinct dinosaurian faunas of Africa, South America, and Asiamerica arose during the Cretaceous by differential survival of once widespread lineages on land masses that were becoming increasingly isolated from one another.

  5. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    Cretaceous Andean margin above a NE dipping subduction zone. We sampled limestones of the Woyla Group, and sediments of the West Sumatra margin for paleomagnetic analyses. Here we present new paleomagnetic data from Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones of the Woyla Arc. Preliminary results suggest that the Woyla Arc was formed near equatorial latitudes. This precludes interpretations that the Woyla arc was derived from Gondwana, near the northern Indian margin. To account for (1) synchronous magmatism at the Woyla Arc and the West Sumatra continental margin, and (2) the juxtaposition of unmetamorphosed units of the Woyla Arc to highly metamorphosed units of the West Sumatra margin, we interpret the Woyla Group to be intra-oceanic arc formed above a SW dipping subduction zone in the Early Cretaceous, which was subsequently thrusted over the West Sumatra margin during the mid-Cretaceous.

  6. Tribosphenic mammal from the North American Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, R L

    1999-09-23

    The main groups of living mammals, marsupials and eutherians, are presumed to have diverged in the Early Cretaceous, but their early history and biogeography are poorly understood. Dental remains have suggested that the eutherians may have originated in Asia, spreading to North America in the Late Cretaceous, where an endemic radiation of marsupials was already well underway. Here I describe a new tribosphenic mammal (a mammal with lower molar heels that are three-cusped and basined) from the Early Cretaceous of North America, based on an unusually complete specimen. The new taxon bears characteristics (molarized last premolar, reduction to three molars) otherwise known only for Eutheria among the tribosphenic mammals. Morphometric analysis and character comparisons show, however, that its molar structure is primitive (and thus phylogenetically uninformative), emphasizing the need for caution in interpretation of isolated teeth. The new mammal is approximately contemporaneous with the oldest known Eutheria from Asia. If it is a eutherian, as is indicated by the available evidence, then this group was far more widely distributed in the Early Cretaceous than previously appreciated. An early presence of Eutheria in North America offers a potential source for the continent's Late Cretaceous radiations, which have, in part, proven difficult to relate to contemporary taxa in Asia.

  7. Isotopic evidence for continental ice sheet in mid-latitude region in the supergreenhouse Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu-Bin; Niu, He-Cai; Sun, Wei-Dong; Shan, Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Li, Ning-Bo; Li, Cong-Ying; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Xu, Xing; Jiang, Yu-Hang; Yu, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cretaceous represents one of the hottest greenhouse periods in the Earth's history, but some recent studies suggest that small ice caps might be present in non-polar regions during certain periods in the Early Cretaceous. Here we report extremely negative δ18O values of −18.12‰ to −13.19‰ for early Aptian hydrothermal zircon from an A-type granite at Baerzhe in northeastern China. Given that A-type granite is anhydrous and that magmatic zircon of the Baerzhe granite has δ18O value close to mantle values, the extremely negative δ18O values for hydrothermal zircon are attributed to addition of meteoric water with extremely low δ18O, mostly likely transported by glaciers. Considering the paleoaltitude of the region, continental glaciation is suggested to occur in the early Aptian, indicating much larger temperature fluctuations than previously thought during the supergreenhouse Cretaceous. This may have impact on the evolution of major organism in the Jehol Group during this period. PMID:24061068

  8. Extent and impact of Cretaceous magmatism on the formation and evolution of Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Hart, L.; Tivey, M.; Swift, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) images and wide-angle sonobuoy data acquired during a 2011 cruise on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272) show widespread emplacement of igneous sills and broadly thickened oceanic Layer 2 through hundreds of kilometers of oceanic crust in one of the oldest ocean basins in the western Pacific, a region known as the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Oceanic crust from the JQZ has grown through at least two main magmatic phases: It was formed by mid-ocean ridge processes in the Jurassic (at ~170 Ma), and then it was added to by a substantial Cretaceous magmatic event (at ~75-125 Ma). The scale of Cretaceous magmatism is exemplified by massive seafloor features such as the Ontong Java Plateau, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Marshall-Gilbert Islands, Marcus-Wake Seamount Chain, and numerous guyots, seamounts, and volcaniclastic flows observed throughout the region. We use seismic data to image heavily intruded and modified oceanic crust along an 800-km-long transect through the JQZ in order to examine how processes of secondary crustal growth - including magmatic emplacement, transport, and distribution - are expressed in the structure of modified oceanic crust. We also model gravity anomalies to constrain crustal thickness and depth to the Moho. Our observations suggest that western Pacific crust was modified via the following modes of emplacement: (a) extrusive seafloor flows that may or may not have grown into seamounts, (b) seamounts formed through intrusive diking that pushed older sediments aside during their formation, and (c) igneous sills that intruded sediments at varying depths. Emplacement modes (a) and (b) tend to imply a focused, pipe-like mechanism for melt transport through the lithosphere. Such a mechanism does not explain the observed broadly distributed intrusive emplacement of mode (c) however, which may entail successive sill emplacement between igneous basement and sediments thickening oceanic Layer 2 along ~400 km of our seismic line

  9. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  10. The contribution of the young Cretaceous Caribbean Oceanic Plateau to the genesis of late Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allibon, J.; Monjoie, P.; Lapierre, H.; Jaillard, E.; Bussy, F.; Bosch, D.; Senebier, F.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern part of the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador comprises thick buoyant oceanic plateaus associated with island-arc tholeiites and subduction-related calc-alkaline series, accreted to the Ecuadorian Continental Margin from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. One of these plateau sequences, the Guaranda Oceanic Plateau is considered as remnant of the Caribbean-Colombian Oceanic Province (CCOP) accreted to the Ecuadorian Margin in the Maastrichtien. Samples studied in this paper were taken from four cross-sections through two arc-sequences in the northern part of the Cordillera Occidental of Ecuador, dated as (Río Cala) or ascribed to (Macuchi) the Late Cretaceous and one arc-like sequence in the Chogòn-Colonche Cordillera (Las Orquídeas). These three island-arcs can clearly be identified and rest conformably on the CCOP. In all four localities, basalts with abundant large clinopyroxene phenocrysts can be found, mimicking a picritic or ankaramitic facies. This mineralogical particularity, although not uncommon in island arc lavas, hints at a contribution of the CCOP in the genesis of these island arc rocks. The complete petrological and geochemical study of these rocks reveals that some have a primitive island-arc nature (MgO values range from 6 to 11 wt.%). Studied samples display marked Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies relative to the adjacent elements in the spidergrams characteristic of subduction-related magmatism. These rocks are LREE-enriched and their clinopyroxenes show a tholeiitic affinity (FeO T-TiO 2 enrichment and CaO depletion from core to rim within a single crystal). The four sampled cross-sections through the island-arc sequences display homogeneous initial Nd, and Pb isotope ratios that suggest a unique mantellic source for these rocks resulting from the mixing of three components: an East-Pacific MORB end-member, an enriched pelagic sediment component, and a HIMU component carried by the CCOP. Indeed, the ankaramite and Mg

  11. Petrogenesis and origin of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous magmatism in Central High Atlas (Morocco): Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd) constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Zayane, Rachid

    2018-01-01

    During an uplift phase, which lasted ca. 40 Ma, from the Late Jurassic (165 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma), transitional to moderately alkaline magmatic series were emplaced in the Central High Atlas. The corresponding magmatic products include basaltic lava flows erupted within wide synclines and intrusive complexes composed of layered mafic intrusions and monzonitic to syenitic dykes emplaced along narrow anticlinal ridges. The igneous rock sequence within the intrusive complexes is composed of troctolites, olivine-gabbros, oxide-gabbros, monzonites and syenites. The chemical compositions of the various intrusive rocks can be accounted for by crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and post-magmatic remobilization. The evolution from the troctolites to the syenites was mainly controlled by a fractional crystallization process marked by early fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene, followed by separation of biotite, amphibole, apatite, and Ti-magnetite. Hydrothermal activity associated with emplacement of the intrusions within the Jurassic limestones modified the elemental and the Sr isotopic composition of the hydrothermally altered rocks In particular the monzonitic to syenitic dykes underwent an alkali metasomatism marked by depletion in K and Rb and enrichment in Na and Sr. As a result, their Sr isotopic composition was shifted towards higher initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7067-0.7075) with respect to the associated gabbros (0.7036-0.7046). On the contrary, the Nd isotopic compositions were preserved from isotope exchange with the limestones and vary in a similar range to those of the gabbros (+1.6 < εNdi < +4.1). The isotopic and the trace element ratios of the uncontaminated samples were used to constrain the source characteristics of this magmatism. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and the incompatible element ratios (e.g. La/Nb, Zr/Nb, Th/U, Ce/Pb) are consistent with generation from an enriched upper mantle similar to an ocean

  12. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkland, J.I.; Zanno, L.E.; Sampson, S.D.; Clark, J.M.; DeBlieux, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Therizinosauroids are an enigmatic group of dinosaurs known mostly from the Cretaceous period of Asia, whose derived members are characterized by elongate necks, laterally expanded pelves, small, leaf-shaped teeth, edentulous rostra and mandibular symphyses that probably bore keratinized beaks. Although more than a dozen therizinosauroid taxa are known, their relationships within Dinosauria have remained controversial because of fragmentary remains and an unusual suite of characters. The recently discovered 'feathered' therizinosauroid Beipiaosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of China helped to clarify the theropod affinities of the group. However, Beipiaosaurus is also poorly represented. Here we describe a new, primitive therizinosauroid from an extensive paucispecific bonebed at the base of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous) of east-central Utah. This new taxon represents the most complete and most basal therizinosauroid yet discovered. Phylogenetic analysis of coelurosaurian theropods incorporating this taxon places it at the base of the clade Therizinosauroiden, indicating that this species documents the earliest known stage in the poorly understood transition from carnivory to herbivory within Therizinosauroidea. The taxon provides the first documentation, to our knowledge, of therizinosauroids in North America during the Early Cretaceous.

  13. Early Cretaceous greenhouse pumped higher taxa diversification in spiders.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lili; Li, Shuqiang

    2018-05-24

    The Cretaceous experienced one of the most remarkable greenhouse periods in geological history. During this time, ecosystem reorganizations significantly impacted the diversification of many groups of organisms. The rise of angiosperms marked a major biome turnover. Notwithstanding, relatively little remains known about how the Cretaceous global ecosystem impacted the evolution of spiders, which constitute one of the most abundant groups of predators. Herein, we evaluate the transcriptomes of 91 taxa representing more than half of the spider families. We add 23 newly sequenced taxa to the existing database to obtain a robust phylogenomic assessment. Phylogenetic reconstructions using different datasets and methods obtain novel placements of some groups, especially in the Synspermiata and the group having a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). Molecular analyses indicate an expansion of the RTA clade at the Early Cretaceous with a hunting predatory strategy shift. Fossil analyses show a 7-fold increase of diversification rate at the same period, but this likely owes to the first occurrences spider in amber deposits. Additional analyses of fossil abundance show an accumulation of spider lineages in the Early Cretaceous. We speculate that the establishment of a warm greenhouse climate pumped the diversification of spiders, in particular among webless forms tracking the abundance of insect prey. Our study offers a new pathway for future investigations of spider phylogeny and diversification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Dolomitization in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Platform Carbonates (Berdiga Formation), Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon), NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Merve; Ziya Kırmacı, Mehmet; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pontides constitute an E-W trending orogenic mountain belt that extends about 1100 km along the northern side of Turkey from the immediate east of Istanbul to the Georgian border at the east. Tectono-stratigraphically, the Pontides are divided into three different parts: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. The Eastern Pontides, including the studied area, comprise an area of 500 km in length and 100 km in width, extending along the southeast coast of the Black Sea from the Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak Rivers in the vicinity of Samsun to the Little Caucasus. This area is bordered by the Eastern Black Sea basin to the north and the Ankara-Erzincan Neotethyan suture zone to the south. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platform carbonates are widely exposed in E-W direction in the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey). The Platform carbonates shows varying lithofacies changing from supratidal to platform margin reef laterally and vertically, and was buried until the end of Late Cretaceous. The studied Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon, NE Turkey) area comprises one of the best typical exposures of formation in northern zone of Eastern Pontides. In this area, the lower parts of the formation are pervasively dolomitized by fabric-destructive and fabric-preserving replacement dolomite which are Ca-rich and nonstoichiometric (Ca56-66Mg34-44). Replacement dolomites (Rd) are represented by D18O values of -19.0 to -4.2 (VPDB), D13C values of 4.4 to 2.1 \\permil (VPDB) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70889 to 0.70636. Petrographic and geochemical data indicate that Rd dolomites are formed prior to compaction at shallow-moderate burial depths from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous seawater and/or partly modified seawater as a result of water/rock interaction and they were recrystallized at elevated temperatures during subsequent burial. In the subsequent diagenetic process during the Late Cretaceous when the region became a magmatic arc, as a result of interaction with Early Jurassic volcanic

  15. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-05-01

    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the “Plutonic squishy lid” tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  16. Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism.

    PubMed

    Rozel, A B; Golabek, G J; Jain, C; Tackley, P J; Gerya, T

    2017-05-18

    The global geodynamic regime of early Earth, which operated before the onset of plate tectonics, remains contentious. As geological and geochemical data suggest hotter Archean mantle temperature and more intense juvenile magmatism than in the present-day Earth, two crust-mantle interaction modes differing in melt eruption efficiency have been proposed: the Io-like heat-pipe tectonics regime dominated by volcanism and the "Plutonic squishy lid" tectonics regime governed by intrusive magmatism, which is thought to apply to the dynamics of Venus. Both tectonics regimes are capable of producing primordial tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) continental crust but lithospheric geotherms and crust production rates as well as proportions of various TTG compositions differ greatly, which implies that the heat-pipe and Plutonic squishy lid hypotheses can be tested using natural data. Here we investigate the creation of primordial TTG-like continental crust using self-consistent numerical models of global thermochemical convection associated with magmatic processes. We show that the volcanism-dominated heat-pipe tectonics model results in cold crustal geotherms and is not able to produce Earth-like primordial continental crust. In contrast, the Plutonic squishy lid tectonics regime dominated by intrusive magmatism results in hotter crustal geotherms and is capable of reproducing the observed proportions of various TTG rocks. Using a systematic parameter study, we show that the typical modern eruption efficiency of less than 40 per cent leads to the production of the expected amounts of the three main primordial crustal compositions previously reported from field data (low-, medium- and high-pressure TTG). Our study thus suggests that the pre-plate-tectonics Archean Earth operated globally in the Plutonic squishy lid regime rather than in an Io-like heat-pipe regime.

  17. Upper Cretaceous to Holocene magmatism and evidence for transient Miocene shallowing of the Andean subduction zone under the northern Neuquén Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Suzanne M.; Burns, W. Matthew; Copeland, Peter; Mancilla, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for a Miocene period of transient shallow subduction under the Neuquén Basin in the Andean backarc, and an intermittent Upper Cretaceous to Holocene frontal arc with a relatively stable magma source and arc-to-trench geometry comes from new 40Ar/39Ar, major- and trace-element, and Sr, Pb, and Nd isotopic data on magmatic rocks from a transect at ∼36°–38°S. Older frontal arc magmas include early Paleogene volcanic rocks erupted after a strong Upper Cretaceous contractional deformation and mid-Eocene lavas erupted from arc centers displaced slightly to the east. Following a gap of some 15 m.y., ca. 26–20 Ma mafic to acidic arc-like magmas erupted in the extensional Cura Mallín intra-arc basin, and alkali olivine basalts with intraplate signatures erupted across the backarc. A major change followed as ca. 20–15 Ma basaltic andesite–dacitic magmas with weak arc signatures and 11.7 Ma Cerro Negro andesites with stronger arc signatures erupted in the near to middle backarc. They were followed by ca. 7.2–4.8 Ma high-K basaltic to dacitic hornblende-bearing magmas with arc-like high field strength element depletion that erupted in the Sierra de Chachahuén, some 500 km east of the trench. The chemistry of these Miocene rocks along with the regional deformational pattern support a transient period of shallow subduction that began at ca. 20 Ma and climaxed near 5 Ma. The subsequent widespread eruption of Pliocene to Pleistocene alkaline magmas with an intraplate chemistry in the Payenia large igneous province signaled a thickening mantle wedge above a steepening subduction zone. A pattern of decreasingly arc-like Pliocene to Holocene backarc lavas in the Tromen region culminated with the eruption of a 0.175 ± 0.025 Ma mafic andesite. The northwest-trending Cortaderas lineament, which generally marks the southern limit of Neogene backarc magmatism, is considered to mark the southern boundary of the transient shallow subduction zone.

  18. Evidence for subduction-related magmatism during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastjanova, Inga; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Davies, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Myanmar's complex geological history, numerous controversies around its tectonic evolution and the presence of prospective hydrocarbon basins make it a key area of interest for geologists. Understanding whether a passive or an active margin existed in the region during the Cenozoic is particularly important for the production of accurate basin models; active Cenozoic subduction would imply that hydrocarbon basins in the forearc experienced extension due to slab rollback. The geology of Myanmar was influenced by the regional tectonics associated with the Cretaceous and Cenozoic closure of the Neotethys Ocean. During this time, India travelled rapidly from Gondwana to Asia at speeds up to 20 cm/yr. To accommodate the north-eastward motion of India, the Neotethys Ocean was consumed at the subduction zone along the southern margin of Eurasia. Based on our Global Plate Model, this subduction zone can reasonably be expected to extend for the entire width of the Neotethys Ocean as far as Myanmar and Southeast Asia at their eastern extent. Moreover, a) Cretaceous volcanism onshore Myanmar, b) the middle Cenozoic arc-related extension in the Present Day eastern Andaman Sea and c) the late Cenozoic uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges are all contemporaneous with the subduction ages predicted by the global plate motions. However, because of the geological complexity of the area, additional evidence would augment interpretations that are based on structural data. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the existing interpretations, we have compiled published zircon geochronological data from detrital and igneous rocks in the region. We have used published zircon U-Pb ages and, where available, published Hf isotope data and CL images (core/rim) in order to distinguish 'juvenile' mantle-derived zircons from those of reworked crustal origin. The compilation shows that Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic zircons, which are interpreted to have a volcanic provenance, are common across the

  19. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutonism and deformation in the Skagit Gneiss Complex, north Cascade Range, Washington and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, R.A.; Van Der Heyden, P.; Tabor, R.W.; Stacey, J.S.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Skagit Gneiss Complex forms a more-or-less continuous terrane within the North Cascade Range. The complex comprises abundant plutons intruded at mid-crustal depths into a variety of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks of both oceanic and volcanic-arc origin. U-Pb zircon ages from gneissis plutons within and near the Skagit Gneiss Complex indicate magmatic crystallziations between 75 and 60 Ma. Deformation, recrystallization, and migmatization in part postdate intrusion of the 75-60 Ma plutons. This latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary plutonism and migmatization may reflect thermal relaxation following early Late Cretaceous orogeny. The complex was ductilely extended northwest-southeast shortly after intrusion of granite dikes at ~45 Ma, but before emplacement of the earliest (~34 Ma) plutons of the Cascade arc. -from Authors

  20. A new hadrosauroid dinosaur from the early late cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae.

  1. The Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo batholith of southern coastal Peru: geology, geochronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely

  2. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation. PMID:25999978

  3. Bimodal tholeiitic-dacitic magmatism and the Early Precambrian crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1974-01-01

    Interlayered plagioclase-quartz gneisses and amphibolites from 2.7 to more than 3.6 b.y. old form much of the basement underlying Precambrian greenstone belts of the world; they are especially well-developed and preserved in the Transvaal and Rhodesian cratons. We postulate that these basement rocks are largely a metamorphosed, volcanic, bimodal suite of tholeiite and high-silica low-potash dacite-compositionally similar to the 1.8-b.y.-old Twilight Gneiss - and partly intrusive equivalents injected into the lower parts of such volcanic piles. We speculate that magmatism in the Early Precambrian involved higher heat flow and more hydrous conditions than in the Phanerozoic. Specifically, we suggest that the early degassing of the Earth produced a basaltic crust and pyrolitic upper mantle that contained much amphibole, serpentine, and other hydrous minerals. Dehydration of the lower parts of a downgoing slab of such hydrous crust and upper mantle would release sufficient water to prohibit formation of andesitic liquid in the upper part of the slab. Instead, a dacitic liquid and a residuum of amphibole and other silica-poor phases would form, according to Green and Ringwood's experimental results. Higher temperatures farther down the slab would cause total melting of basalt and generation of the tholeiitic member of the suite. This type of magma generation and volcanism persisted until the early hydrous lithosphere was consumed. An implication of this hypothesis is that about half the present volume of the oceans formed before about 2.6 b.y. ago. ?? 1974.

  4. A hidden Late Cretaceous arc and subsequent magmatic events in the Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia (CIA) orogenic belt: Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, C. Y.; Lin, Y. C.; Chu, M. F.; Chung, S. L.; Bi˙ngöl, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia (CIA) orogenic belt formed by "Turkic-type orogeny" consists mainly of subduction-accretion complexes following the collision between Eurasia and Arabia and the closure of Neotethy. This study reports U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of detrital zircon separates from five Eocene to mid-Miocene sandstone samples from Divrigi and Duranlar in the west to the Mus basin in the east, all locating in the northern part of the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. The U-Pb age data suggest four main magmatic episodes: (1) 100-70 Ma, (2) 60-40 Ma, (3) 30 Ma, and (4) 15 Ma. The Late Cretaceous zircons recovered mainly from the Mus basin are marked by a significant Hf isotopic variation over time, with ɛHf(T) values dropping from +15 to -10. Zircons from the second and third episodes show spatial variations in isotopic compositions, with positive ɛHf(T) values (+10 to +5) in the Mus basin and heterogeneous ɛHf(T) values (+10 to -10) in the west. The fourth and youngest episode of zircons, mainly from Duranlar area, shows uniform ɛHf(T) values around +5. We attribute the Late Cretaceous episode of zircons to the broadly coeval Elazig arc magmatism that, according to our counterpart study, occurred as a short-lived, intra-oceanic arc system by subduction initiation after the formation of Neotethyan ophiolites in the region. Moreover, we argue that this Late Cretaceous arc system may have existed more widely within the southern branch of Neothethys than that suggested by present-day outcrops. The dramatic change in Hf isotopic composition from 100 to 70 Ma, also observed in the rock record by our counterpart study, may be interpreted as a result of subduction to accretion processes. The remaining three episodes of zircons are related to younger stages of magmatism within or around the suture zone that remains poorly studied. Our results indicate that detrital zircon is a useful tool to uncover "hidden" magmatic records in the CIA and other "Turkic-type" orogenic

  5. Early Cretaceous ice rafting and climate zonation in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Frakes, L.A.; Alley, N.F.; Deynoux, M.

    1995-07-01

    Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian) strata of the southwestern Eromanga and Carpentaria basins of central and northern Australia, respectively, provide evidence of strongly seasonal climates at high paleolatitudes. These include dispersed clasts (lonestones) in fine sediments and pseudomorphs of calcite after ikaite (glendonites), the latter being known to form only at temperatures below about 7{degrees}C. Rafting is regarded as the transport mechanism for clasts up to boulder size (lonestones) enclosed within dark mudrocks; this interpretation rests on rare occurrences of penetration by clasts into substrate layers. Driftwood and large floating algae are eliminated as possible rafts because fossil wood ismore » found mainly concentrated in nearshore areas of the basins and large algal masses have not been observed. Rafting by icebergs is considered unlikely in view of the global lack of tillites and related glacial deposits of this age. Our interpretation is that seasonal ice, formed in winter along stream courses and strandlines, incorporated clasts which, during the melt season, were dropped into muddy sediments in both basins. Eromanga fine-sediment and concentrations of large clasts and associated sand lenses, both lying above local erosion surfaces. In the Carpentaria Basin, local dumping of sediment from raft surfaces resulted in accumulation of pods of small clasts. Three zones can be identified for the Early Cretaceous climate of eastern Australia: (1) a very cold southern region, at latitudes above about 72{degrees} S, characterized by meteoric waters possibly originating as Antarctic glacial meltwaters; (2) a zone of strongly seasonal climates, with freezing winters and warm summers, between about 72{degrees} and 53{degrees} S.Lat.; and (3) a mid-latitude zone (below about 50{degrees} S. Lat.), where freezing temperatures were not common. 60 refs., 7 figs.« less

  6. Magmatismes tholéiitique et alcalin des demi-grabens crétacés de Mayo Oulo Léré et de Babouri Figuil (Nord du Cameroun Sud du Tchad) en domaine d'extension continentaleTholeiitic and alkaline magmatisms of the Early-Cretaceous half-grabens of Mayo Oulo Léré and Babouri Figuil (Northern Cameroon Southern Chad) in extensional structural settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngounouno, Ismaı̈la; Déruelle, Bernard; Guiraud, René; Vicat, Jean-Paul

    2001-08-01

    Two major dykes of basalts, microgabbros, olivine dolerites (continental tholeiites), and of camptonites and benmoreites (alkaline rocks) are respectively exposed in the Mayo Oulo-Léré and Babouri-Figuil Early Cretaceous half-grabens (Northern Cameroon-Southern Chad). The tholeiites were probably derived from an asthenospheric source in connection with a lithospheric thinning occurring between Santonian and Eocene times. In contrast, the alkaline rocks may be derived from a deeper metasomatized mantle source.

  7. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyry copper deposits in Arizona are genetically associated with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that consist of older intermediate volcanic rocks and younger intermediate to felsic intrusions. The igneous complexes and their associated porphyry copper deposits were emplaced into an Early Proterozoic basement characterized by different rocks, geologic histories, and isotopic compositions. Lead isotope compositions of the Proterozoic basement rocks define, from northwest to southeast, the Mojave, central Arizona, and southeastern Arizona provinces. Porphyry copper deposits are present in each Pb isotope province. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons, together with those of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits and of Proterozoic country rocks, place important constraints on genesis of the magmatic suites and the porphyry copper deposits themselves. The range of age-corrected Pb isotope compositions of plutons in 12 Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes is 206Pb/204Pb = 17.34 to 22.66, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.43 to 15.96, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.19 to 40.33. These Pb isotope compositions and calculated model Th/U are similar to those of the Proterozoic rocks in which the plutons were emplaced, thereby indicating that Pb in the younger rocks and ore deposits was inherited from the basement rocks and their sources. No Pb isotope differences distinguish Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that contain large economic porphyry copper deposits from less rich or smaller deposits that have not been considered economic for mining. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and sulfide minerals from 30 metallic mineral districts, furthermore, require that the southeastern Arizona Pb province be divided into two subprovinces. The northern subprovince has generally lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher model Th/U, and the southern subprovince has higher 206Pb/204Pb and

  8. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Thomas E.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Wilson, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary. PMID:25589872

  9. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Thomas E; Brusatte, Stephen L; Wilson, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary.

  10. New 40Ar-39Ar dating of Lower Cretaceous basalts at the southern front of the Central High Atlas, Morocco: insights on late Mesozoic tectonics, sedimentation and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratti, G.; Benvenuti, M.; Santo, A. P.; Laurenzi, M. A.; Braschi, E.; Tommasini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is based upon a stratigraphic and structural revision of a Middle Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous mostly continental succession exposed between Boumalne Dades and Tinghir (Southern Morocco), and aims at reconstructing the relation among sedimentary, tectonic and magmatic processes that affected a portion of the Central High Atlas domains. Basalts interbedded in the continental deposits have been sampled in the two studied sites for petrographic, geochemical and radiogenic isotope analyses. The results of this study provide: (1) a robust support to the local stratigraphic revision and to a regional lithostratigraphic correlation based on new 40Ar-39Ar ages (ca. 120 Ma) of the intervening basalts; (2) clues for reconstructing the relation between magma emplacement in a structural setting characterized by syn-depositional crustal shortening pre-dating the convergent tectonic inversion of the Atlasic rifted basins; (3) a new and intriguing scenario indicating that the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Central High Atlas could represent the first signal of the present-day Canary Islands mantle plume impinging, flattening, and delaminating the base of the Moroccan continental lithosphere since the Jurassic, and successively dragged passively by the Africa plate motion to NE. The tectono-sedimentary and magmatic events discussed in this paper are preliminarily extended from their local scale into a peculiar geodynamic setting of a continental plate margin flanked by the opening and spreading Central Atlantic and NW Tethys oceans. It is suggested that during the late Mesozoic this setting created an unprecedented condition of intraplate stress for concurrent crustal shortening, related mountain uplift, and thinning of continental lithosphere.

  11. Assessing the duration of drowning episodes during the Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, A.; Föllmi, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Drowning unconformities are stratigraphic key surfaces in the history of carbonate platforms. They mostly consist in the deposition of deep marine facies on top of shallow marine limestones. Although large-scale depositional geometries mimic lowstand systems track architecture, these sedimentary turnovers are developed in relation with major sea level rise, inducing an increase in the rate of creation of accommodation space that outpaces the capacity of carbonate to keep up. This so-called paradox of carbonate platform drowning implies that other parameters than purely eustatic fluctuations are involved in the demise of shallow marine ecosystems. Worldwide and at different time during Earth history, in-depth studies of drowning unconformities revealed that changes in nutrient input, clastic delivery, temperature, or a combination of them may be responsible for a decrease in light penetration in the water column and the progressive suffocation and poisoning of photosynthetic carbonate producers. The examination of such case examples from various stratigraphic intervals and palaeogeographical settings thus helps in identifying and hierarchizing potential triggering mechanisms for drowning unconformities. This is complemented by new data from Early Cretaceous successions from the Helvetic Alps. During this time period, the Helvetic carbonate platform developed along the northern Tethyan margin using both photozoan and heterozoan communities. Phases of healthy production were interrupted by several drowning episodes. The latter are marked in the sedimentary record by condensation and associated phosphogenesis and glauconitisation. From the earliest Valanginian to the early to late Barremian, three drowning unconformities reflect the intermittent installation of a more humid climate and subsequent enhanced trophic conditions, which first induced a switch from photozoan to heterozoan communities and then to long-lasting drowning phases. The latter encompass several sea

  12. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  13. Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the southern Lhasa terrane, south Tibet: Age, petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Lin; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhang, Li-Yun; Yue, Ya-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Limited geochronological and geochemical data from Early Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Gangdese Belt have resulted in a dispute regarding the subduction history of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. To approach this issue, we performed detailed in-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks exposed in the Liqiongda area, southern Lhasa terrane. These volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline series, dominated by basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate rhyolites, with a bimodal suite. The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating results of the basaltic andesites and rhyolites indicate that these volcanic rocks erupted during the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma). The basaltic rocks are high-alumina (average > 17 wt.%), enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), showing subduction-related characteristics. They display highly positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.0 to + 16.3) and whole-rock εNd(t) values (+ 5.38 to + 7.47). The silicic suite is characterized by low Al2O3 (< 15.4 wt.%), Mg# (< 40), and TiO2 (< 0.3 wt.%) abundances; enriched and variable concentrations of LILEs and REEs; and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.08-0.19), as well as depleted Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = + 4.9 to + 16.4) and Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t) = + 5.26 to + 6.71). Consequently, we envision a process of basaltic magmas similar to that of MORB extracted from a source metasomatized by slab-derived components for the petrogenesis of mafic rocks, whereas the subsequent mafic magma underplating triggered partial melting of the juvenile crust to generate acidic magma. Our results confirm the presence of Early Cretaceous volcanism in the southern Lhasa terrane. Combined with the distribution of the contemporary magmatism, deformation style, and sedimentary characteristics in the Lhasa terrane, we favor the suggestion that the Neo

  14. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. PMID:26336172

  15. Fossil evidence for a herbaceous diversification of early eudicot angiosperms during the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A

    2015-09-07

    Eudicot flowering plants comprise roughly 70% of land plant species diversity today, but their early evolution is not well understood. Fossil evidence has been largely restricted to their distinctive tricolpate pollen grains and this has limited our understanding of the ecological strategies that characterized their primary radiation. I describe megafossils of an Early Cretaceous eudicot from the Potomac Group in Maryland and Virginia, USA that are complete enough to allow reconstruction of important life-history traits. I draw on quantitative and qualitative analysis of functional traits, phylogenetic analysis and sedimentological evidence to reconstruct the biology of this extinct species. These plants were small and locally rare but widespread, fast-growing herbs. They had complex leaves and they were colonizers of bright, wet, disturbance-prone habitats. Other early eudicot megafossils appear to be herbaceous rather than woody, suggesting that this habit was characteristic of their primary radiation. A mostly herbaceous initial diversification of eudicots could simultaneously explain the heretofore sparse megafossil record as well as their rapid diversification during the Early Cretaceous because the angiosperm capacity for fast reproduction and fast evolution is best expressed in herbs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the ‘Lower Formation’ of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3–4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian. PMID:23536594

  17. A new Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal from the Sasayama Group, Hyogo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusuhashi, Nao; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Saegusa, Haruo; Horie, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadahiro; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Shiraishi, Kazuyuki

    2013-05-22

    We here describe a new Early Cretaceous (early Albian) eutherian mammal, Sasayamamylos kawaii gen. et sp. nov., from the 'Lower Formation' of the Sasayama Group, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Sasayamamylos kawaii is characterized by a robust dentary, a distinct angle on the ventral margin of the dentary at the posterior end of the mandibular symphysis, a lower dental formula of 3-4 : 1 : 4 : 3, a robust lower canine, a non-molariform lower ultimate premolar, and a secondarily reduced entoconid on the molars. To date, S. kawaii is the earliest known eutherian mammal possessing only four premolars, which demonstrates that the reduction in the premolar count in eutherians started in the late Early Cretaceous. The occurrence of S. kawaii implies that the relatively rapid diversification of eutherians in the mid-Cretaceous had already started by the early Albian.

  18. A complete skull of an early cretaceous sauropod and the evolution of advanced titanosaurians.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Hussam; Pol, Diego; Carvalho, Alberto B; Nascimento, Paulo M; Riccomini, Claudio; Larson, Peter; Juarez-Valieri, Rubén; Pires-Domingues, Ricardo; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; Campos, Diógenes de Almeida

    2011-02-07

    Advanced titanosaurian sauropods, such as nemegtosaurids and saltasaurids, were diverse and one of the most important groups of herbivores in the terrestrial biotas of the Late Cretaceous. However, little is known about their rise and diversification prior to the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been largely hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved cranial remains. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil represents the earliest advanced titanosaurian known to date, demonstrating that the initial diversification of advanced titanosaurians was well under way at least 30 million years before their known radiation in the latest Cretaceous. The new taxon also preserves the most complete skull among titanosaurians, further revealing that their low and elongated diplodocid-like skull morphology appeared much earlier than previously thought.

  19. Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene Climate Change Linked to Tectonic Eevolution of Neo-Tethyan Subduction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, O. E.; Royden, L.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we demonstrate that the two tectonic events in the late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary triggered the two distinct cooling events that followed the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum (CTM). During much of the Cretaceous time, the northern Neo Tethyan ocean was dominated by two east-west striking subduction system. Subduction underneath Eurasia formed a continental arc on the southern margin of Eurasia and intra oceanic subduction in the equatorial region of the Neo Tethys formed and intra oceanic arc. Beginning at ~85-90 Ma the western part of the TTSS collided southward with the Afro-Arabian continental margin, terminating subduction. This resulted in southward obduction of the peri-Arabian ophiolite belt, which extends for ~4000 km along strike and includes the Cypus, Semail and Zagros ophiolites. At the same time also the eastern part of the TTS collided northwards wit Eurasia. After this collisional event, only the central part of the subduction system remained active until it collided with the northern margin of the Indian continent at ~50-55 Ma. The collision of the arc with the Indian margin, over a length of ~3000 km, also resulted in the obduction of arc material and ophiolitic rocks. Remnants of these rocks are preserved today as the Kohistan-Ladakh arc and ophiolites of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone of the Himalayas. Both of these collision events occurred in the equatorial region, near or within the ITCZ, where chemical weathering rates are high and are contemporaneous with the onset of the global cooling events that mark the end of the CTM and the EECO. The tectonic collision events resulted in a shut down of subduction zone magmatism, a major CO2 source and emplacement of highly weatherable basaltic rocks within the ITCZ (CO2 sink). In order to explore the effect of the events in the TTSS on atmospheric CO2, we model the potential contribution of subduction zone volcanism (source) and ophiolite obduction (sink) to the global atmospheric CO2

  20. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  1. Early environmental effects of the terminal Cretaceous impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, Iain; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Anders, Edward

    1988-01-01

    The environmental aftereffects of the terminal Cretaceous impact are examined on the basis of the carbon and nitrogen geochemistry in the basal layer of the K-T boundary clay at Woodside Creek, New Zealand. It is shown that organic carbon and nitrogen at this level are enriched by 15 and 20 times Cretaceous values, respectively. Also, it is found that the N abundances and, to a lesser extent, the organic C abundances are closely correlated with the Ir abundances. The changes in carbon and nitrogen content through the basal layer are outlined, focusing on the possible environmental conditions which could have caused enrichment. In addition, consideration is given to the soot and pyrotoxin content. Possible scenarios for the K-T event and the importance of selective extinction are discussed.

  2. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  3. Volcanic glass in Cretaceous dacites and rhyolites of the Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil: Characterization and quantification by XRD-Rietveld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Fábio Ramos Dias de; Polo, Liza Angélica; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Carvalho, Flávio Machado de Souza

    2018-04-01

    Acidic rocks are a significant component of the Cretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province, occurring in different stratigraphic positions, and often forming deposits of complex and as yet poorly defined architecture. Vitrophyric varieties are surprisingly abundant for a volcanic sequence of this age, and are composed of predominant glass plus plagioclase (labradorite-andesine), pyroxenes (augite ± pigeonite and orthopyroxene), Ti-rich magnetite, and traces of apatite. Hypocrystalline rocks, largely derived from devitrification, additionally contain sanidine, cristobalite, and quartz. The negative correlation between the abundance of these minerals and the amount of glass suggests that these latter phases formed by devitrification. Modal analysis using a combined XRD Rietveld-RIR method detected glass contents between 0 and 85 wt% % in a set of representative samples of Palmas-type acidic rocks from southern Brazil with dacite to rhyolite composition. Modal compositions determined by XRD and by scanning electron microscope are in good agreement with each other, and were checked against whole-rock XRF chemical data. Water contents up to 4 wt% show a positive linear correlation with the amount of glass, and are inferred to be mostly secondary, as original (pre-eruptive) H2O dissolved in melts is inferred to have been < 1.5 wt% in all rocks. Glass is the only water bearing phase in the studied samples, which lack low temperature hydrated phases. Water loss during devitrification appears to have occurred along fractures, and was accompanied by Na loss and, in some samples, also Ca, Rb and Sr loss. The rapid and inexpensive method of modal analyses of glassy rocks developed here may be a useful tool for mapping acidic volcanic rocks in southern Paraná Magmatic Province, and also to identify the architecture of these deposits.

  4. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  5. The Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Record: New Data, Revised Ages, and Updated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristall, B.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a time of significant transformation with the continued break-up of Pangea, the emplacement of several LIPs, and a climatic shift from a cool greenhouse to a warm greenhouse. The timing of these major events and their relationship to seawater geochemistry (as recorded in isotope records) is critical for understanding changes in global biogeochemical cycles during this time. Within this context, recent revisions to the Cretaceous portion of the geologic timescale necessitate a reevaluation of the Cretaceous S isotope record as recorded in marine barite (Paytan et al., 2004). We present a revised Early Cretaceous S isotope record and present new δ34Sbarite data that extend the record further back in time and provide more detail during two major S isotope shifts of the Early Cretaceous. The new data maintain the major ~5‰ negative shift but raise questions on the timing and structure of this perturbation. Furthermore, recently updated estimates for global rates of marine microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) (Bowles et al., 2014) and sulfate burial during the Phanerozoic (Halevy et al., 2012) require notable revisions in the fluxes and isotopic values used to model the global S cycle. We present a revised global S cycle box model and reconstruct the evolution of the Early Cretaceous S isotope record primarily through perturbations in volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes (e.g., submarine LIPs). Changes to the weathering and pyrite burial fluxes and the global integrated fractionation factor for MSR are also used to modulate, balance, and smooth the LIP-driven perturbation. The massive evaporite burial during the Late Aptian post dates the major -5‰ shift and has little affect on the modeled S isotope composition of seawater sulfate, despite causing a major drop in sulfate concentration. The S cycle box model is coupled to a Sr cycle box model to provide additional constraints on the magnitude and timing of perturbations within the S isotope record.

  6. Fossil evidence of avian crops from the Early Cretaceous of China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Martin, Larry D.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Burnham, David A.; Zhang, Fucheng; Miao, Desui

    2011-01-01

    The crop is characteristic of seed-eating birds today, yet little is known about its early history despite remarkable discoveries of many Mesozoic seed-eating birds in the past decade. Here we report the discovery of some early fossil evidence for the presence of a crop in birds. Two Early Cretaceous birds, the basal ornithurine Hongshanornis and a basal avian Sapeornis, demonstrate that an essentially modern avian digestive system formed early in avian evolution. The discovery of a crop in two phylogenetically remote lineages of Early Cretaceous birds and its absence in most intervening forms indicates that it was independently acquired as a specialized seed-eating adaptation. Finally, the reduction or loss of teeth in the forms showing seed-filled crops suggests that granivory was possibly one of the factors that resulted in the reduction of teeth in early birds. PMID:21896733

  7. Snakefly diversity in Early Cretaceous amber from Spain (Neuropterida, Raphidioptera)

    PubMed Central

    la Fuente, Ricardo Pérez-de; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Albian amber from Spain presently harbors the greatest number and diversity of amber adult fossil snakeflies (Raphidioptera). Within Baissopteridae, Baissoptera? cretaceoelectra sp. n., from the Peñacerrada I outcrop (Moraza, Burgos), is the first amber inclusion belonging to the family and described from western Eurasia, thus substantially expanding the paleogeographical range of the family formerly known from the Cretaceous of Brazil and eastern Asia. Within the family Mesoraphidiidae, Necroraphidia arcuata gen. et sp. n. and Amarantoraphidia ventolina gen. et sp. n. are described from the El Soplao outcrop (Rábago, Cantabria), whereas Styporaphidia? hispanica sp. n. and Alavaraphidia imperterrita gen. et sp. n. are describedfrom Peñacerrada I. In addition, three morphospecies are recognized from fragmentary remains. The following combinations are restored: Yanoraphidia gaoi Ren, 1995, stat. rest., Mesoraphidia durlstonensis Jepson, Coram and Jarzembowski, 2009, stat. rest., and Mesoraphidia heteroneura Ren, 1997, stat. rest. The singularity of this rich paleodiversity could be due to the paleogeographic isolation of the Iberian territory and also the prevalence of wildfires during the Cretaceous. PMID:22787417

  8. Late Cretaceous to Paleocene metamorphism and magmatism in the Funeral Mountains metamorphic core complex, Death Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Colgan, J.P.; Metcalf, J.R.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    , leuco-some, and pegmatite ages to the period of Sevier belt thrusting and the period of most voluminous Sierran arc magmatism suggests that both burial by thrusting and regional magmatic heating contributed to metamorphism and subsequent partial melting. ??2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Brotzu, Pietro; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Melluso, Leone; Morbidelli, Lucio; Ruberti, Excelso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Brilli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    The Ipanema alkaline-carbonatitic complex is part of the Meso-Cenozoic alkaline magmatism located within the southeastern part of the Brazilian Platform. Drill-core and field sampling have indicated the occurrence of glimmerites, with subordinate shonkinites (mela-syenites), clinopyroxene-bearing glimmerites, diorites and syenites. The glimmerites are cross-cut by lamprophyric dykes and calciocarbonatites. Fenitization has deeply affected the country rocks, originating dioritic and syenitic rocks. The Ipanema rocks show a distinct potassic affinity. The initial Sr-Nd- isotopic composition of the Ipanema rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70661-0.70754 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51169-0.51181) is similar to that of tholeiitic and potassium-rich-alkaline rocks of the Eastern Paraguay. Stable isotope data for the Ipanema calciocarbonatite suggest interaction with fluids at temperatures typical of hydrothermal stages, as hypothesized for other carbonatite complexes from southeastern Brazil. The chemical differences between the lamprophyre, glimmerites, carbonatites, apatitites and magnetitites, and the absence of marked REE enrichment in the evolved lithologies, all indicate that fractional crystallization and accumulus of liquidus phases in a magma reservoir, likely coupled with liquid immiscibility processes, may have played an important role in the genesis of the Ipanema rocks.

  10. A nearly modern amphibious bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China.

    PubMed

    You, Hai-Lu; Lamanna, Matthew C; Harris, Jerald D; Chiappe, Luis M; O'connor, Jingmai; Ji, Shu-An; Lü, Jun-Chang; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Li, Da-Qing; Zhang, Xing; Lacovara, Kenneth J; Dodson, Peter; Ji, Qiang

    2006-06-16

    Three-dimensional specimens of the volant fossil bird Gansus yumenensis from the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of northwestern China demonstrate that this taxon possesses advanced anatomical features previously known only in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic ornithuran birds. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gansus within the Ornithurae, making it the oldest known member of the clade. The Xiagou Formation preserves the oldest known ornithuromorph-dominated avian assemblage. The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that modern birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches.

  11. Changes to Cretaceous surface fire behaviour influenced the spread of the early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Hudspith, Victoria A

    2017-02-01

    Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour. Variations in ignition, driven by weedy angiosperms alone, were found to have been a less important feedback to changes in Cretaceous fire activity than previously estimated. Our model estimates suggest that fires in shrub and fern understories had significantly greater fireline intensities than those fuelled by conifer litter or weedy angiosperms, and whilst fern understories supported the most rapid fire spread, angiosperm shrubs delivered the largest amount of heat per unit area. The higher fireline intensities predicted by the models led to estimates of enhanced scorch of the gymnosperm canopy and a greater chance of transitioning to crown fires. Therefore, changes in fire behaviour driven by the addition of new Cretaceous fuel groups may have assisted the angiosperm expansion. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Genesis of late Early Cretaceous high-silica rhyolites in eastern Zhejiang Province, southeast China: A crystal mush origin with mantle input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Heng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Wilde, Simon A.

    2018-01-01

    Voluminous Mesozoic felsic volcanic rocks and granites in southeastern China provide a unique opportunity for studying the role of crustal magmatism in the evolution and modification of the crust in the eastern Cathaysia Block. The high-silica rhyolites of the upper volcanic sequence in eastern Zhejiang Province were investigated, focusing on their genesis and their relationship with contemporaneous granites. Rhyolites in the Tiantai, Yongkang and Liucheng basins were dated as late Early Cretaceous (from 111 Ma to 106 Ma in age). These rocks contain a large proportion of inherited zircons of ca. 130 Ma, corresponding to the age of the lower volcanic sequence in the area. However, the zircons of different ages have similar ranges of oxygen and Hf isotopes, implying similarities in the magmas from which they were generated. The rhyolites of the upper sequence also resemble those of the lower sequence in terms of their geochemistry. It is concluded that the former were derived by reworking of magma mush formed during the earlier magmatic episode via fractionation of feldspars and accessory minerals, e.g., zircon. Fractionation took place within the magma crystal mush by extraction of interstitial melts and accumulation of residual mineral phases, aided by the emplacement of contemporaneous basaltic magmas at the base of the crust. Overall, the geochemical features of the volcanic rocks in southeastern China indicate that episodic magmatism and reworking of crystal mush were essential mechanisms that drove the evolution of the igneous rocks and the hence crustal architecture in this area.

  13. Oxidation state inherited from the magma source and implications for mineralization: Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granitoids, Central Lhasa subterrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; McInnes, Brent I. A.; Li, JinXiang; Zhao, JunXing

    2018-03-01

    Arc magmas are more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalts; however, there is continuing debate as to whether this higher oxidation state is inherited from the source magma or developed during late-stage magmatic differentiation processes. Well-constrained Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc-related intermediate to felsic rocks derived from distinct magma sources provide us with a good opportunity to resolve this enigma. A series of granitoids from the western Central Lhasa subterrane were analyzed for whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe2O3/FeO ratios, and trace elements in zircon. Compared to Late Jurassic samples (1.8 ± 2.0 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1, Fe3+/Fetotal = 0.32 ± 0.07, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* = 15.0 ± 13.4), Early Cretaceous rocks show higher whole-rock magnetic susceptibility (5.8 ± 2.5 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1), Fe3+/Fetotal ratios (0.43 ± 0.04), and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* values (23.9 ± 22.3). In addition, positive correlations among whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe3+/Fetotal ratios, and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* reveal a slight increase in oxidation state from fO2 = QFM to NNO in the Late Jurassic to fO2 = ˜NNO in the Early Cretaceous. Obvious linear correlation between oxidation indices (whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+*) and source signatures (zircon ɛHf(t), TDM C ages) indicates that the oxidation state was predominantly inherited from the source with only a minor contribution from magmatic differentiation. Thus, the sources for both the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rocks were probably influenced by mantle wedge-derived magma, contributing to the increased fO2. Compared to ore-forming rocks at giant porphyry Cu deposits, the relatively low oxidation state (QFM to NNO) and negative ɛHf(t) (-16 to 0) of the studied granitoids implies relative infertility. However, this study demonstrates two potential fast and effective indices ( fO2 and ɛHf(t)) to evaluate the fertility of granitoids for porphyry-style mineralization. In an

  14. Morphologically Specialized Termite Castes and Advanced Sociality in the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Barden, Phillip; Riccio, Mark L; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-22

    A hallmark of animals that are eusocial, or those with advanced sociality, is reproductive specialization into worker and queen castes. In the most derived societies, these divisions are essentially fixed and in some arthropods, include further specialization--a tripartite system with a soldier caste that defends the colony. Eusociality has originated numerous times among insects but is believed to have appeared first in the termites (Isoptera), in the Early Cretaceous. However, all termites known from the Cretaceous have, until now, only been winged reproductives (alates and dealates); the earliest soldiers and definitive workers were known from just the Miocene (ca. 17-20 million years ago [mya]). Here, we report six termite species preserved in Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 mya) amber from Myanmar, one described as Krishnatermes yoddha gen. et sp. nov., comprising the worker/pseudergate, winged reproductive, and soldier, and a second species, Gigantotermes rex gen. et sp. nov., based on one of the largest soldier termites yet known. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Krishnatermes are in the basal "Meiatermes-grade" of Cretaceous termites. Workers/pseudergates of another four species are briefly described, but not named. One of these workers/pseudergates reveals that ants--the most serious enemies of modern termites--lived in close proximity to termites in the Burmese paleofauna. These discoveries demonstrate the Mesozoic antiquity of specialized termite caste systems and corroborate that among all social species, termites probably had the original societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cretaceous potassic intrusives with affinities to aillikites from Jharia area: Magmatic expression of metasomatically veined and thinned lithospheric mantle beneath Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh K.; Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Sinha, Anup K.

    2009-11-01

    Cretaceous potassic dykes and sills at the Jharia area intrude the Permo-carboniferous coal-bearing Gondwana sediments of the Eastern Damodar Valley, Singhbhum craton. These intrusives are widely regarded as a part of the Mesozoic alkaline and Rajmahal flood basalt magmatism in the Eastern Indian shield. Jharia intrusives display a wide petrographic diversity; olivine, phlogopite and carbonate are the predominant phases whereas apatite and rutile constitute important accessories. Impoverishment in sodium, silica and alumina and enrichment in potassium, titanium and phosphorous are the hallmark of these rocks and in this aspect they are strikingly similar to the rift-related aillikites (ultramafic lamprophyres) of Aillik Bay, Labrador. Crustal contamination of the Jharia magmas is minimal and the incompatible trace element ratios demonstrate (i) their generation by greater degrees of partial melting of a sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source similar to that of the kimberlites of Dharwar craton, southern India, and (ii) retention of long-term memories of ancient (Archaean) subduction experienced by their source regions. We infer that a metasomatically veined and thinned lithosphere located at the margin of the Singhbhum craton and the inheritance of an ancient (Archaean) subducted component has played a significant role in deciding the diverging petrological and geochemical characters displayed by the Jharia potassic intrusives: those of kimberlites (orangeites) and lamproites (cratonic signature) and those of aillikites (rift-related signature). A substantial melt component of Jharia potassic intrusives was derived from the SCLM and the melt contribution of the Kerguelen plume is inferred to be minimal.

  16. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of an Early Jurassic magmatic arc from South to East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Granite and diorite samples by drilling in northeastern South China Sea (SCS) and southwestern East China Sea (ECS) contribute key information to understanding tectonic regime of South China Block in Jurassic time. SIMS and LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses yield ages ranging from 195±2 Ma to 198±1 Ma for samples from well LF3511 in SCS, and an age of 187±1 Ma for the sample from well ESC635 in ECS. They are low temperature I-type granitoids with strongly enriched fluid-mobile elements and depleted Nb-Ta features, indicating subduction arc-related magmatism in their origin. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for samples from SCS ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705494-0.706623, ɛNdt=-0.9 to +2.2) and sample from ECS ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705200, ɛNdt=1.1) suggest an affinity with evolved mantle-derived melts. The granitoids found from NE SCS, SE Taiwan to the SW ECS could spatially define an Early Jurassic NE-SW-trending Dongsha-Talun-Yandang low-temperature magmatic arc zone along the East Asian continental margin, paired with Jurassic accretionary complexes exposed in SW Japan, E Taiwan to the W Philippines. Its geodynamic context is associated with oblique subduction of the paleo-Pacific slab beneath Eurasia, as a mechanism responsible for early Jurassic lithospheric extension with magmatism in the South China Block.

  17. New Crocodyliform specimens from Recôncavo-Tucano Basin (Early Cretaceous) of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael G DE; Campos, Diogenes A

    2018-04-16

    In 1940, L.I. Price and A. Oliveira recovered four crocodyliform specimens from the Early Cretaceous Bahia Supergroup (Recôncavo-Tucano Basin). In the present work, we describe four different fossil specimens: an osteoderm, a fibula, a tibia, and some autopodial bones. No further identification besides Mesoeucrocodylia was made due to their fragmentary nature and the reduced number of recognized synapomorphies for more inclusive clades. With exception of the fibula, all other specimens have at least one particular feature, which with new specimens could represent new species. The new specimens described here increase the known diversity of Early Cretaceous crocodyliforms from Brazil. This work highlights the great fossiliferous potential of Recôncavo-Tucano Basin with regard to crocodyliform remains.

  18. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M L G; Ravizza, G; Suzuki, K; Paquay, F S

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with (187)Os/(188)Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism.

  19. An extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism? Evidence from the paleo-Tethys Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tejada, M. L. G.; Ravizza, G.; Suzuki, K.; Paquay, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous Greater Ontong Java Event in the Pacific Ocean may have covered ca. 1% of the Earth's surface with volcanism. It has puzzled scientists trying to explain its origin by several mechanisms possible on Earth, leading others to propose an extraterrestrial trigger to explain this event. A large oceanic extraterrestrial impact causing such voluminous volcanism may have traces of its distal ejecta in sedimentary rocks around the basin, including the paleo-Tethys Ocean which was then contiguous with the Pacific Ocean. The contemporaneous marine sequence at central Italy, containing the sedimentary expression of a global oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a), may have recorded such ocurrence as indicated by two stratigraphic intervals with 187Os/188Os indicative of meteoritic influence. Here we show, for the first time, that platinum group element abundances and inter-element ratios in this paleo-Tethyan marine sequence provide no evidence for an extraterrestrial trigger for the Early Cretaceous massive volcanism. PMID:22355780

  20. The early cretaceous evolution of carbonate platforms from northern Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, J.P.; Borgomano, J.; Maskiry, S.Al.

    1993-09-01

    In northern Oman (Jebel Akhdar and foothills) Hauterivian to early Aptian shallow carbonate platforms are widely extending and pass laterally to slope and basin environments in the Nakhl zone. Progradational geometries are identified in that zone where significant correlation between thickness and sediment types supports a prominent tectonic control. The platform records four main sedimentary breaks (drowning events). Early Barremian (lower Lekhwair Formation), Late Barremian (basal Kharaib Formation), lowermost early Aptian (upper Kharaib Formation) and middle Aptian (Shuaiba-Al Hassanat formations boundary). The late Aptian-early Albian hiatus (pre-Nahr Umr unconformity) is regarded as an early Albian tectonically driven erosion. In themore » Nakhl zone, coral-rudist limestones of late Aptian-early Albian (lower Al Hassanat Formation) document an east-west ribbon platform, the southward extension of which was obscured by the middle Albian erosions and rudist limestones of middle to late Albian (upper Al Hassanat Formation), a lateral equivalent of the Nahr Umr circa littoral shaly sediments, document an east-west-trending linear platform. The foregoing points out a northward progradation coeval with a southward transgressive major trend for the Hauterivian-early Aptian interval, a faulted margin corresponding with the Nakhl zone active during the Aptian-Albian, a late Aptian ribbon platform coeval with the Bab basin initiation southward, a regional uplifting and truncation during the early-Albian (Austrian phase), whereas shallow-water carbonates are still forming at the edge of the former platform, and an active linear platform at the northern edge of the Nahr Umr basin, the corresponding drowning contemporaneous with the onset of the Cenomanian platform eastward.« less

  1. Large-scale removal of lithosphere underneath the North China Craton in the Early Cretaceous: Geochemical constraints from volcanic lavas in the Bohai Bay Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xiaoguang; Qi, Jiafu

    2017-11-01

    Cratons are generally considered as the most stable tectonic units on the Earth. Rare magmatism, seismic activity, and intracrustal ductile deformation occur in them. However, several cratons experienced entirely different fates, including the North China Craton (NCC), and were subsequently destroyed. Geodynamic mechanisms and timing of the cratonic destruction are strongly debated. In this paper, we investigate a suite of Mesozoic intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks which are collected from boreholes in the Liaohe Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin the eastern NCC. These volcanic rocks have Precambrian basement-like Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics, consistent with derivation from the lower continental crust underneath the NCC. The Late Jurassic ( 165 Ma) intermediate volcanic rocks don't exhibit markedly negative Eu anomalies, which require a source beyond the plagioclase stability field. And the low heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) contents of these samples indicate that their source has garnet as residue. The Early Cretaceous ( 122 Ma) felsic volcanic rocks are depleted in HREEs but with remarkable Eu anomalies, suggesting that their source have both garnet and plagioclase. The crust thicknesses, estimated from the geochemistry of the intermediate and felsic rocks, are ≥ 50 km at 165 Ma and 30-50 km at 122 Ma, respectively. The crustal thinning is attributed to lithospheric delamination beneath the NCC. Our results combined with previous studies imply that the large-scale lithospheric removal occurred in the Early Cretaceous, between 140 and 120 Ma.

  2. A New Sail-Backed Styracosternan (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Morella, Spain.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, José Miguel; Escaso, Fernando; Narváez, Iván; Ortega, Francisco; Sanz, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    A new styracosternan ornithopod genus and species is here described based on a partial postcranial skeleton and an associated dentary tooth of a single specimen from the Arcillas de Morella Formation (Early Cretaceous, late Barremian) at the Morella locality, (Castellón, Spain). Morelladon beltrani gen. et sp. nov. is diagnosed by eight autapomorphic features. The set of autapomorphies includes: very elongated and vertical neural spines of the dorsal vertebrae, midline keel on ventral surface of the second to fourth sacral vertebrae restricted to the anterior half of the centrum, a posterodorsally inclined medial ridge on the postacetabular process of the ilium that meets its dorsal margin and distal end of the straight ischial shaft laterally expanded, among others. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the new Iberian form is more closely related to its synchronic and sympatric contemporary European taxa Iguanodon bernissartensis and Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis, known from Western Europe, than to other Early Cretaceous Iberian styracosternans (Delapparentia turolensis and Proa valdearinnoensis). The recognition of Morelladon beltrani gen. et sp. nov. indicates that the Iberian Peninsula was home to a highly diverse medium to large bodied styracosternan assemblage during the Early Cretaceous.

  3. Early Tertiary transtension-related deformation and magmatism along the Tintina fault system, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, A.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Bradley, D.C.; Friedman, R.; Layer, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Transtensional deformation was concentrated in a zone adjacent to the Tintina strike-slip fault system in Alaska during the early Tertiary. The deformation occurred along the Victoria Creek fault, the trace of the Tintina system that connects it with the Kaltag fault; together the Tintina and Kaltag fault systems girdle Alaska from east to west. Over an area of ???25 by 70 km between the Victoria Creek and Tozitna faults, bimodal volcanics erupted; lacustrine and fluvial rocks were deposited; plutons were emplaced and deformed; and metamorphic rocks cooled, all at about the same time. Plutonic and volcanic rocks in this zone yield U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 60 Ma; 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages from those plutons and adjacent metamorphic rocks are also ca. 60 Ma. Although early Tertiary magmatism occurred over a broad area in central Alaska, meta- morphism and ductile deformation accompanied that magmatism in this one zone only. Within the zone of deformation, pluton aureoles and metamorphic rocks display consistent NE-SW-stretching lineations parallel to the Victoria Creek fault, suggesting that deformation processes involved subhorizontal elongation of the package. The most deeply buried metamorphic rocks, kyanite-bearing metapelites, occur as lenses adjacent to the fault, which cuts the crust to the Moho (Beaudoin et al., 1997). Geochronologic data and field relationships suggest that the amount of early Tertiary exhumation was greatest adjacent to the Victoria Creek fault. The early Tertiary crustal-scale events that may have operated to produce transtension in this area are (1) increased heat flux and related bimodal within-plate magmatism, (2) movement on a releasing stepover within the Tintina fault system or on a regional scale involving both the Tintina and the Kobuk fault systems, and (3) oroclinal bending of the Tintina-Kaltag fault system with counterclockwise rotation of western Alaska. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd isotope ratios for the Sirstan granitoid body, NE Iraq: Evidence of magmatic activity in the Middle Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulzahra, Imad Kadhim; Hadi, Ayten; Azizi, Hossein; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2017-03-01

    The Sirstan granitoid (SG), comprising diorite and granodiorite, is located in the Shalair Valley area, in the northeastern part of Iraq within the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) of the Zagros Orogenic Belt. The U-Pb zircon dating of the SG rocks has revealed a concordia age of 110 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of crystallization of this granitoid body during the Middle Cretaceous. The whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron data shows an age of 52.4 ± 9.4 Ma (MSWD = 1.7), which implies the reactivation of the granitoid body in the Early Eocene due to the collision between the Arabian and Iranian plates. These rocks show metaluminous affinity with low values of Nb, Ta and Ti compared to chondrite, suggesting the generation of these rocks over the subduction zone in an active continental margin regime. The SG rocks are hornblende-bearing I-type granitoids with microgranular mafic enclaves. The positive values of ɛNd (t = 110 Ma) (+0.1 to +2.7) and the low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7044 to 0.7057) indicate that the magma source of the SG granitoids is a depleted subcontinental mantle. The chemical and isotope compositions show that the SG body originated from the metasomatic mantle without a major role for continental contamination. Our findings show that the granitoid bodies distributed in the SSZ were derived from the continuous Neo-Tethys subduction beneath the SSZ in Mesozoic times and that the SSZ was an active margin in the Middle Cretaceous.

  5. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly < 0). Thus, the elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that the felsic magmas were generated by partial melting of source rocks comprising mantle-derived juvenile component and recycled crustal component. In addition to the occurrence in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Cretaceous to Early Paleogene magmatic rocks are also widespread in NE China, southern Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The

  6. A total petroleum system of the Browse Basin, Australia; Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Browse Basin Province 3913, offshore northern Australia, contains one important petroleum system, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic. It is comprised of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous source rocks deposited in restricted marine environments and various Mesozoic reservoir rocks deposited in deep-water fan to fluvial settings. Jurassic age intraformational shales and claystones and Cretaceous regional claystones seal the reservoirs. Since 1967, when exploration began in this 105,000 km2 area, fewer than 40 wells have been drilled and only one recent oil discovery is considered potentially commercial. Prior to the most recent oil discovery, on the eastern side of the basin, a giant gas field was discovered in 1971, under a modern reef on the west side of the basin. Several additional oil and gas discoveries and shows were made elsewhere. A portion of the Vulcan sub-basin lies within Province 3913 where a small field, confirmed in 1987, produced 18.8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) up to 1995 and has since been shut in.

  7. A Cretaceous eutriconodont and integument evolution in early mammals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Vullo, Romain; Martín-Abad, Hugo; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Buscalioni, Angela D

    2015-10-15

    The Mesozoic era (252-66 million years ago), known as the domain of dinosaurs, witnessed a remarkable ecomorphological diversity of early mammals. The key mammalian characteristics originated during this period and were prerequisite for their evolutionary success after extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Many ecomorphotypes familiar to modern mammal fauna evolved independently early in mammalian evolutionary history. Here we report a 125-million-year-old eutriconodontan mammal from Spain with extraordinary preservation of skin and pelage that extends the record of key mammalian integumentary features into the Mesozoic era. The new mammalian specimen exhibits such typical mammalian features as pelage, mane, pinna, and a variety of skin structures: keratinous dermal scutes, protospines composed of hair-like tubules, and compound follicles with primary and secondary hairs. The skin structures of this new Mesozoic mammal encompass the same combination of integumentary features as those evolved independently in other crown Mammalia, with similarly broad structural variations as in extant mammals. Soft tissues in the thorax and abdomen (alveolar lungs and liver) suggest the presence of a muscular diaphragm. The eutriconodont has molariform tooth replacement, ossified Meckel's cartilage of the middle ear, and specialized xenarthrous articulations of posterior dorsal vertebrae, convergent with extant xenarthran mammals, which strengthened the vertebral column for locomotion.

  8. Polychronous (Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene) emplacement of the Mundwara alkaline complex, Rajasthan, India: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, petrochemistry and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Kanchan; Cucciniello, Ciro; Sheth, Hetu; Vijayan, Anjali; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Purohit, Ritesh; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Shinde, Sapna

    2017-07-01

    The Mundwara alkaline plutonic complex (Rajasthan, north-western India) is considered a part of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Deccan Traps flood basalt province, based on geochronological data (mainly 40Ar/39Ar, on whole rocks, biotite and hornblende). We have studied the petrology and mineral chemistry of some Mundwara mafic rocks containing mica and amphibole. Geothermobarometry indicates emplacement of the complex at middle to upper crustal levels. We have obtained new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 80-84 Ma on biotite separates from mafic rocks and 102-110 Ma on whole-rock nepheline syenites. There is no evidence for excess 40Ar. The combined results show that some of the constituent intrusions of the Mundwara complex are of Deccan age, but others are older and unrelated to the Deccan Traps. The Mundwara alkaline complex is thus polychronous and similar to many alkaline complexes around the world that show recurrent magmatism, sometimes over hundreds of millions of years. The primary biotite and amphibole in Mundwara mafic rocks indicate hydrous parental magmas, derived from hydrated mantle peridotite at relatively low temperatures, thus ruling out a mantle plume. This hydration and metasomatism of the Rajasthan lithospheric mantle may have occurred during Jurassic subduction under Gondwanaland, or Precambrian subduction events. Low-degree decompression melting of this old, enriched lithospheric mantle, due to periodic diffuse lithospheric extension, gradually built the Mundwara complex from the Early Cretaceous to Palaeogene time.

  9. Early Paleozoic magmatic events in the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, E.T.; Mattinson, J.M.; Potter, A.W.

    1988-02-01

    New U-Pb zircon ages for nine samples of tonalite and pegmatitic trondhjemite from the Trinity ophiolite and associated melange reveal a complex history of magmatic activity extending back into the earliest Cambrian, much older than previously believed. Earlier investigations, based on limited data, recognized lower Paleozoic crustal elements in the eastern Klamath terrane (EKT) ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Early to Middle Devonian. The new work in the Yreka-Callahan area of the EKT confirms the Ordovician (440-475 Ma) and younger ages, but reveals for the first time the presence of tonalitic rocks that crystallized during a narrow timemore » interval at about 565-570 Ma. The authors also recognize younger, Late Silurian magmatism at 412 Ma. In the context of available mapping, these ages indicate that the Trinity ophiolite is broadly polygenetic because parts of it yield crystallization ages that span approximately 150 m.y. Superjacent dismembered units of probable early Paleozoic age may be tectonostratigraphically equivalent to the Sierra City melange in the northern Sierra Nevada.« less

  10. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    . The spatial and temporal distribution of Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphic rocks in this region is associated with the bimodal magmatism within a short period of 120-130 Ma in the postcollisional stage. This provides a direct link in petrogenesis between the granulitic, migmatic and magmatic rocks in the collisional orogen to active continental rifting, whereby high heat flow was transferred from the asthenospheric mantle into the thinned orogenic lithosphere for partial melting.

  11. A Diplodocid Sauropod Survivor from the Early Cretaceous of South America

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, Pablo A.; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Haluza, Alejandro; Canale, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation) of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere. PMID:24828328

  12. A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Pablo A; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Haluza, Alejandro; Canale, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Diplodocids are by far the most emblematic sauropod dinosaurs. They are part of Diplodocoidea, a vast clade whose other members are well-known from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in Africa, Europe, North and South America. However, Diplodocids were never certainly recognized from the Cretaceous or in any other southern land mass besides Africa. Here we report a new sauropod, Leikupal laticauda gen. et sp. nov., from the early Lower Cretaceous (Bajada Colorada Formation) of Neuquén Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This taxon differs from any other sauropod by the presence of anterior caudal transverse process extremely developed with lateroventral expansions reinforced by robust dorsal and ventral bars, very robust centroprezygapophyseal lamina in anterior caudal vertebra and paired pneumatic fossae on the postzygapophyses in anterior-most caudal vertebra. The phylogenetic analyses support its position not only within Diplodocidae but also as a member of Diplodocinae, clustering together with the African form Tornieria, pushing the origin of Diplodocoidea to the Middle Jurassic or even earlier. The new discovery represents the first record of a diplodocid for South America and the stratigraphically youngest record of this clade anywhere.

  13. Early cretaceous topographic growth of the Lhasaplano, Tibetan plateau: Constraints from the Damxung conglomerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Xiao-Chi; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Constraining the timing of early topographic growth on the Tibetan plateau is critical for any models of India-Asia collision, Himalayan orogeny and subsequent plateau development in the Cenozoic. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Cretaceous red-beds of the Damxung Conglomerate provide new key information to reconstruct the paleogeography and the tectonic evolution of the Lhasa terrane at the time. The over 700-m-thick Damxung Conglomerate documents distal alluvial fan to braidplain sedimentation passing upward to proximal alluvial fan sedimentation. Deposition began near sea level, as documented by limestone beds occurring at the base of the unit. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded tuff layers constrain deposition age at ca. 111 Ma. Abundance of volcanic clasts, Cretaceous U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons yielding mainly negative ɛHf(t) values together with paleocurrent data indicate an active volcanic source located in the North Lhasa subterrane. Pre-Mesozoic-aged zircon, recycled quartz and (meta) sedimentary rock fragments increase up-section, indicating progressive erosional exhumation of the Paleozoic sedimentary/metasedimentary basement. The Damxung Conglomerate thus records a significant uplift and unroofing stage in the source region, implying initial topographic growth on the Lhasa terrane at early Albian time. Early Cretaceous topographic growth on the Lhasa terrane is supported by the stratigraphic record in the Linzhou basin, the Xigaze forearc basin and the southern Nima basin. In contrast, marine strata in the central-western Lhasa terrane lasted until the early Cenomanian (ca. 96 Ma), indicating diachronous marine regression on the Lhasa terrane from east to west.

  14. Early to mid Cretaceous vegetation of northern Gondwana - the onset of angiosperm radiation and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coiffard, Clément; Mohr, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Northern Gondwana seems to be the cradle of many early flowering plants, especially mesangiosperms that include magnoliids and monocots and basal eudicots. So far our knowledge was based mostly on dispersed pollen and small flowering structures. New fossil finds from Brazil include more complete plants with attached roots, leaves and flowers. Taxonomic studies show that these fossils belonged to clades which are, based on macroscopic characters and molecular data, also considered to be rather basal, such as several members of Nymphaeales, Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales, monocots (Araliaceae) and Ranunculales. Various parameters can be used in order to understand the physiology and habitat of these plants. Adaptations to climate and habitat are partly mirrored in their root anatomy (evidence of tap roots), leaf size and shape, leaf anatomy including presence of glands, and distribution of stomata. An important ecophysiolocical parameter is vein density as an indicator for the plants' cabability to pump water, and the stomatal pore index, representing the proportion of stomatal pore area on the leaf surface, which is related to the water vapor resistance of the leaf epidermis. During the mid-Cretaceous leaf vein density started to surpass that of gymnosperms, one factor that made angiosperms very successful in conquering many kinds of new environments. Using data on these parameters we deduce that during the late Early to mid Cretaceous angiosperms were already diverse, being represented as both herbs, with aquatic members, such as Nymphaeles, helophytes (e.g. some monocots) and plants that may have grown in shady locations. Other life forms included shrubs and perhaps already small trees (e.g. Magnoliales). These flowering plants occupied various habitats, ranging from xeric (e.g. some Magnoliales) to mesic and shady (e.g. Piperales) or aquatic (e.g. Araceae, Nymphaeales). Overall, it seems that several of these plants clearly exhibited some

  15. Precious metals associated with Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Miller, Marti L.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Miller, Lance D.

    1997-01-01

    Placer gold and precious metal-bearing lode deposits of southwestern Alaska lie within a region 550 by 350 km, herein referred to as the Kuskokwim mineral belt. This mineral belt has yielded 100,240 kg (3.22 Moz) of gold, 12, 813 kg (412,000 oz) of silver, 1,377,412 kg (39,960 flasks) of mercury, and modest amounts of antimony and tungsten derived primarily from the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous complexes of four major types: (1) alkali-calcic, comagmatic volcanic-plutonic complexes and isolated plutons, (2) calc-alkaline, meta-aluminous reduced plutons, (3) peraluminous alaskite or granite-porphyry sills and dike swarms, and (4) andesite-rhyolite subaerial volcanic rocks.About 80 percent of the 77 to 52 Ma intrusive and volcanic rocks intrude or overlie the middle to Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group sedimentary and volcanic rocks, as well as the Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks of the Nixon Fork, Innoko, Goodnews, and Ruby preaccretionary terranes.The major precious metal-bearing deposit types related to Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous complexes of the Kuskokwim mineral belt are subdivided as follows: (1) plutonic-hosted copper-gold polymetallic stockwork, skarn, and vein deposits, (2) peraluminous granite-porphory-hosted gold polymetallic deposits, (3) plutonic-related, boron-enriched silver-tin polymetallic breccia pipes and replacement deposits, (4) gold and silver mineralization in epithermal systems, and (5) gold polymetallic heavy mineral placer deposits. Ten deposits genetically related to Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary intrusions contain minimum, inferred reserves amounting to 162,572 kg (5.23 Moz) of gold, 201,015 kg (6.46 Moz) silver, 12,160 metric tons (t) of tin, and 28,088 t of copper.The lodes occur in veins, stockworks, breccia pipes, and replacement deposits that formed in epithermal to mesothermal temperature-pressure conditions. Fluid inclusion, isotopic age, mineral assemblage, alteration assemblage, and structural data indicate that

  16. Plant-arthropod interaction in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) of the Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Etiene Fabbrin; Sommer, Margot Guerra

    2009-02-01

    Plant-arthropod interactions provide the first relevant data for addressing evidence of phytophagy for an assemblage of coniferous silicified woods from the pre-rift phase in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. A complex system of borings, sometimes filled with small, oval to hexagonal coprolites, allow inferences to be made about the activities of termites (Isoptera). Previous dendrological data indicated that the climate during the Early Cretaceous on the landmasses of the northern Afro-Brazilian Depression was dry and savanna like, where termite borings were common. Features of wood preservation demonstrate that the damage was probably caused by herbivores, not detritivores.

  17. Crustal Strain Patterns in Magmatic and Amagmatic Early Stage Rifts: Border Faults, Magma Intrusion, and Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Tiberi, C.; Aman, M.; Weinstein, A.; Lambert, C.; Drooff, C.; Oliva, S. J. C.; Peterson, K.; Bourke, J. R.; Rodzianko, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Lavayssiere, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Khalfan, M.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Palardy, A.; Albaric, J.; Gautier, S.; Muirhead, J.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Rift initiation in thick, strong continental lithosphere challenges current models of continental lithospheric deformation, in part owing to gaps in our knowledge of strain patterns in the lower crust. New geophysical, geochemical, and structural data sets from youthful magmatic (Magadi-Natron, Kivu), weakly magmatic (Malawi, Manyara), and amagmatic (Tanganyika) sectors of the cratonic East African rift system provide new insights into the distribution of brittle strain, magma intrusion and storage, and time-averaged deformation. We compare and contrast time-space relations, seismogenic layer thickness variations, and fault kinematics using earthquakes recorded on local arrays and teleseisms in sectors of the Western and Eastern rifts, including the Natron-Manyara basins that developed in Archaean lithosphere. Lower crustal seismicity occurs in both the Western and Eastern rifts, including sectors on and off craton, and those with and without central rift volcanoes. In amagmatic sectors, lower crustal strain is accommodated by slip along relatively steep border faults, with oblique-slip faults linking opposing border faults that penetrate to different crustal levels. In magmatic sectors, seismicity spans surface to lower crust beneath both border faults and eruptive centers, with earthquake swarms around magma bodies. Our focal mechanisms and Global CMTs from a 2007 fault-dike episode show a local rotation from ~E-W extension to NE-SE extension in this linkage zone, consistent with time-averaged strain recorded in vent and eruptive chain alignments. These patterns suggest that strain localization via widespread magma intrusion can occur during the first 5 My of rifting in originally thick lithosphere. Lower crustal seismicity in magmatic sectors may be caused by high gas pressures and volatile migration from active metasomatism and magma degassing, consistent with high CO2 flux along fault zones, and widespread metasomatism of xenoliths. Volatile release and

  18. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-07-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials.

  19. Modern mammal origins: evolutionary grades in the Early Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, L L; Winkler, D A; Murry, P A

    1989-01-01

    Major groups of modern mammals have their origins in the Mesozoic Era, yet the mammalian fossil record is generally poor for that time interval. Fundamental morphological changes that led to modern mammals are often represented by small samples of isolated teeth. Fortunately, functional wear facets on teeth allow prediction of the morphology of occluding teeth that may be unrepresented by fossils. A major step in mammalian evolution occurred in the Early Cretaceous with the evolution of tribosphenic molars, which characterize marsupials and placentals, the two most abundant and diverse extant groups of mammals. A tooth from the Early Cretaceous (110 million years before present) of Texas tests previous predictions (based on lower molars) of the morphology of upper molars in early tribosphenic dentitions. The lingual cusp (protocone) is primitively without shear facets, as expected, but the cheek side of the tooth is derived (advanced) in having distinctive cusps along the margin. The tooth, although distressingly inadequate to define many features of the organism, demonstrates unexpected morphological diversity at a strategic stage of mammalian evolution and falsifies previous claims of the earliest occurrence of true marsupials. Images PMID:2740336

  20. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Wang, Min; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2016-12-06

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody-antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils.

  1. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanhong; Zheng, Wenxia; Moyer, Alison E.; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Xiaoli; Schroeter, Elena R.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2016-01-01

    Microbodies associated with feathers of both nonavian dinosaurs and early birds were first identified as bacteria but have been reinterpreted as melanosomes. Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in fossils has not been demonstrated. Here we provide multiple independent molecular analyses of both microbodies and the associated matrix recovered from feathers of a new specimen of the basal bird Eoconfuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. Our work represents the oldest ultrastructural and immunological recognition of avian beta-keratin from an Early Cretaceous (∼130-Ma) bird. We apply immunogold to identify protein epitopes at high resolution, by localizing antibody–antigen complexes to specific fossil ultrastructures. Retention of original keratinous proteins in the matrix surrounding electron-opaque microbodies supports their assignment as melanosomes and adds to the criteria employable to distinguish melanosomes from microbial bodies. Our work sheds new light on molecular preservation within normally labile tissues preserved in fossils. PMID:27872291

  2. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Early Cretaceous Umkomasia from Mongolia: implications for homology of corystosperm cupules.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gongle; Leslie, Andrew B; Herendeen, Patrick S; Herrera, Fabiany; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Takahashi, Masamichi; Knopf, Patrick; Crane, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    Corystosperms, a key extinct group of Late Permian to Early Cretaceous plants, are important for understanding seed plant phylogeny, including the evolution of the angiosperm carpel and anatropous bitegmic ovule. Here, we describe a new species of corystosperm seed-bearing organ, Umkomasia mongolica sp. nov., based on hundreds of three-dimensionally preserved mesofossils from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia. Individual seed-bearing units of U. mongolica consist of a bract subtending an axis that bifurcates, with each fork (cupule stalk) bearing a cupule near the tip. Each cupule is formed by the strongly reflexed cupule stalk and two lateral flaps that partially enclose an erect seed. The seed is borne at, or close to, the tip of the reflexed cupule stalk, with the micropyle oriented towards the stalk base. The corystosperm cupule is generally interpreted as a modified leaf that bears a seed on its abaxial surface. However, U. mongolica suggests that an earlier interpretation, in which the seed is borne directly on an axis (shoot), is equally likely. The 'axial' interpretation suggests a possible relationship of corystosperms to Ginkgo. It also suggests that the cupules of corystosperms may be less distinct from those of Caytonia than has previously been supposed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Phylogenetic diversification of Early Cretaceous seed plants: The compound seed cone of Doylea tetrahedrasperma.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2016-05-01

    Discovery of cupulate ovules of Doylea tetrahedrasperma within a compact, compound seed cone highlights the rich diversity of fructification morphologies, pollination biologies, postpollination enclosure of seeds, and systematic diversity of Early Cretaceous gymnosperms. Specimens were studied using the cellulose acetate peel technique, three-dimensional reconstructions (in AVIZO), and morphological phylogenetic analyses (in TNT). Doylea tetrahedrasperma has bract/fertile short shoot complexes helically arranged within a compact, compound seed cone. Complexes diverge from the axis as a single unit and separate distally into a free bract tip and two sporophylls. Each sporophyll bears a single, abaxial seed, recurved toward the cone axis, that is enveloped after pollinaton by sporophyll tissue, forming a closed cupule. Ovules are pollinated by bisaccate grains captured by micropylar pollination horns. The unique combination of characters shown by D. tetrahedrasperma includes the presence of cupulate seeds borne in conifer-like compound seed cones, an ovuliferous scale analogue structurally equivalent to the ovulate stalk of Ginkgo biloba, gymnospermous pollination, and nearly complete enclosure of mature seeds. These features characterize the Doyleales ord. nov., clearly distinguish it from the seed fern order Corystospermales, and allow for recognition of another recently described Early Cretaceous seed plant as a second species in genus Doylea. A morphological phylogenetic analysis highlights systematic relationships of the Doyleales ord. nov. and emphasizes the explosive phylogenetic diversification of gymnosperms that was underway at the time when flowering plants may have originated and/or first began to radiate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Evans, Susan E.

    2011-09-01

    Although viviparity is most often associated with mammals, roughly one fifth of extant squamate reptiles give birth to live young. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the trait evolved more than 100 times within Squamata, a frequency greater than that of all other vertebrate clades combined. However, there is debate as to the antiquity of the trait and, until now, the only direct fossil evidence of squamate viviparity was in Late Cretaceous mosasauroids, specialised marine lizards without modern equivalents. Here, we document viviparity in a specimen of a more generalised lizard, Yabeinosaurus, from the Early Cretaceous of China. The gravid female contains more than 15 young at a level of skeletal development corresponding to that of late embryos of living viviparous lizards. This specimen documents the first occurrence of viviparity in a fossil reptile that was largely terrestrial in life, and extends the temporal distribution of the trait in squamates by at least 30 Ma. As Yabeinosaurus occupies a relatively basal position within crown-group squamates, it suggests that the anatomical and physiological preconditions for viviparity arose early within Squamata.

  6. Geochronology and geochemistry constraints of the Early Cretaceous Taibudai porphyry Cu deposit, northeast China, and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Wu, Xin-Li; Ouyang, Hen-Gen

    2015-05-01

    , suggests that the Early Cretaceous (∼140 Ma) was the peak metallogenic epoch for the Great Xing'an Range, and the mineralization in this period generally takes the form of porphyry, skarn, or hydrothermal polymetallic ore deposits in an active extensional continental margin environment. The Taibudai porphyry and associated mineralization provides a typical example of magmatism and metallogeny associated with a Paleo-Pacific plate subduction, continental margin, back-arc extensional setting.

  7. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  8. Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Scoggin, Shane H.; Kapp, Paul; Carrapa, Barbara; Ducea, Mihai N.; Worthington, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2018-01-01

    New geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks and detrital minerals from the Pamir Mountains help to distinguish major regional magmatic episodes and constrain the tectonic evolution of the Pamir orogenic system. After final accretion of the Central and South Pamir terranes during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the Pamir was largely amagmatic until the emplacement of the intermediate (SiO2 > 60 wt.%), calc-alkaline, and isotopically evolved (-13 to -5 zircon εHf(t)) South Pamir batholith between 120-100 Ma, which is the most volumetrically significant magmatic complex in the Pamir and includes a high flux magmatic event at ∼105 Ma. The South Pamir batholith is interpreted as the northern (inboard) equivalent of the Cretaceous Karakoram batholith and the along-strike equivalent of an Early Cretaceous magmatic belt in the northern Lhasa terrane in Tibet. The northern Lhasa terrane is characterized by a similar high-flux event at ∼110 Ma. Migration of continental arc magmatism into the South Pamir terrane during the mid-Cretaceous is interpreted to reflect northward directed, low-angle to flat-slab subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Late Cretaceous magmatism (80-70 Ma) in the Pamir is scarce, but concentrated in the Central and northern South Pamir terranes where it is comparatively more mafic (SiO2 < 60 wt.%), alkaline, and isotopically juvenile (-2 to +2 zircon εHf(t)) than the South Pamir batholith. Late Cretaceous magmatism in the Pamir is interpreted here to be the result of extension associated with roll-back of the Neotethyan oceanic slab, which is consistent with similarly aged extension-related magmatism in the Karakoram terrane and Kohistan. There is an additional pulse of magmatism in the Pamir at 42-36 Ma that is geographically restricted (∼150 km diameter ellipsoidal area) and referred to as the Vanj magmatic complex. The Vanj complex comprises metaluminous, high-K calc-alkaline to

  9. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous Guojialing-type granodiorites in northwestern Jiaodong terrane carry significant records for strong mantle-crust interaction during the destruction of North China Craton (NCC); however, the definite petrogenetic mechanism and detailed magmatic process remain an enigma. Titanite in igneous rocks can serve as an effective petrogenetic indicator. Here, we present integrated geochronological and geochemical studies on titanites from Guojialing-type granodiorites and their dioritic enclaves to constrain their petrogenesis. Titanites from granodiorites (G-type) and plagioclase-rich dioritic enclaves (E-type-I) present an identical U-Pb age ( 130 Ma) and an indistinguishable wide range of Zr and total REEs contents, and Th/U ratios. However, these two types of titanites exhibit distinct micro-scale textures and geochemical compositions. G-type titanites are characterized by oscillatory zonings with two Light BSE zones (LBZ) and two or three dark BSE zones, whereas E-type-I titanites are marked by core-mantle-rim zonings. Drastic increase of LREEs, Zr, Hf, and Fe and decrease of Nb, Ta, Al, and F contents are observed in LBZ of G-type titanites, whereas remarkable reduction of LREEs, Zr, and Hf and elevation of F contents are observed from the cores to the mantles of E-type-I titanites. Based on Zr-in-titanite thermometry, G-type titanites are interpreted to have experienced twice notable temperature increase, while E-type-I titanites are inferred to have undergone a rapid cooling process. Furthermore, we suggest that the drastic chemical changes in G-type and E-type-I titanites are ascribed to early-stage magma mixing between a colder felsic magma and a Fe-, REE-rich hotter dioritic magma. Compared to G-type and E-type-I titanites, titanites from plagioclase-poor dioritic enclaves (E-type-II) are characterized by their occurrence in interstitial space and present a relatively younger U-Pb age ( 128 Ma) and much narrower and lower range of Zr, total

  10. The Wisconsin magmatic terrane: An Early Proterozoic greenstone-granite terrane formed by plate tectonic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Laberge, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Wisconsin magmatic terrane (WMT) is an east trending belt of dominantly volcanic-plutonic complexes of Early Proterozoic age (approx. 1850 m.y.) that lies to the south of the Archean rocks and Early Proterozoic epicratonic sequence (Marquette Range Supergroup) in Michigan. It is separated from the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup by the high-angle Niagara fault, is bounded on the south, in central Wisconsin, by Archean gneisses, is truncated on the west by rocks of the Midcontinent rift system, and is intruded on the east by the post-orogenic Wolf river batholith. The overall lithologic, geochemical, metallogenic, metamorphic, and deformational characteristics of the WMT are similar to those observed in recent volcanic arc terranes formed at sites of plate convergence. It is concluded that the WMT represents an evolved oceanic island-arc terrane accreated to the Superior craton in the Early Proterozoic. This conclusion is strengthened by the apparent absence of Archean basement from most of the WMT, and the recent recognition of the passive margin character of the epicratonic Marquette Range Supergroup.

  11. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences onmore » the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.« less

  12. Early-mid-Cretaceous evolution in Tethyan reef communities and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.W.

    1988-02-01

    The replacement of corals by rudists in Early Cretaceous reefal communities spanned a 30-m.y. period when sea level rose and drowned continental shelves. During this time corals formed communities in the deeper parts of reefs and rudists occupied the shallow, high-energy habitats. By Aptian time rudists dominated reefs that fringed interior shelf basins and corals formed reefs with rudists on the outer shelf margins. By late Albian coral communities had virtually disappeared, presumably because of complex environmental changes and cycles of organic productivity. Two important events of eustatic sea level rise are represented by unconformities separating carbonate depositional sequences onmore » the Arabian platform that correlate with sequence boundaries on the Gulf Coast platform. Graphic correlation techniques test the synchroneity of these events. A composite standard time scale dates these sea level rises at 115.8 Ma and 94.6 Ma; a third, intra-Albian event at 104.3 Ma is present in many places and may also be eustatic. Associated with these sea level rises were apparent changes in ocean water chemistry as evidenced by changes in isotopes and trace elements, where diagenetic effects can be discounted. During this time the climate became more humid and atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increased. The concomitant environmental changes in the oceanic conditions presumably stressed the deeper coral communities on reefs. The emergence of rudists as reef contributors had a profound effect on Late Cretaceous depositional conditions and the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs.« less

  13. Hydrocarbons related to early Cretaceous source rocks, reservoirs and seals, trapped in northeastern Neuqun basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gulisano, C.; Minniti, S.; Rossi, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Jurassic-Cretaceous backarc Neuqun Basin, located in the west central part of Argentina, is currently the most prolific oil basin of the country. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate an Early Cretaceous to Tertiary petroleum system in the northeastern portion of the basin, where oil and gas occurrences (e.g., Puesto Hernandez, Chihuido de la Sierra Negra, El Trapial and Filo Morado oil fields, among others) provide 82 MMBO/yr comprising 67% of the basin oil production and 31% of Argentina. The source rocks are represented by two thick sections of basinal kerogen type I and II organic-rich shales,more » deposited during transgressive peaks (Agrio Formation), with TOC content up to 5.1%. Lowstand sandstones bodies, 10 to 100 m thick, are composed of eolian and fluvial facies with good reservoir conditions (Avil and Troncoso Sandstones). The seals are provided by the organic-rich shales resting sharply upon the Avil Sandstone and a widespread Aptian-Albian evaporitic event (Huitrin Formation) on top of the Troncoso reservoir. Tertiary structural traps (duplex anticlines) are developed in the outer foothills, whereas structural, combined and stratigraphic traps are present in the adjacent stable structural platform. Oil-to-source rock and oil-to-oil correlation by chromatographic and biomarker fingerprints, carbon isotopic composition and the geological evidences support the proposed oil system.« less

  14. Eobowenia gen. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of Patagonia: indication for an early divergence of Bowenia?

    PubMed

    Coiro, Mario; Pott, Christian

    2017-04-07

    Even if they are considered the quintessential "living fossils", the fossil record of the extant genera of the Cycadales is quite poor, and only extends as far back as the Cenozoic. This lack of data represents a huge hindrance for the reconstruction of the recent history of this important group. Among extant genera, Bowenia (or cuticles resembling those of extant Bowenia) has been recorded in sediments from the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene of Australia, but its phylogenetic placement and the inference from molecular dating still imply a long ghost lineage for this genus. We re-examine the fossil foliage Almargemia incrassata from the Lower Cretaceous Anfiteatro de Ticó Formation in Patagonia, Argentina, in the light of a comparative cuticular analysis of extant Zamiaceae. We identify important differences with the other member of the genus, viz. A. dentata, and bring to light some interesting characters shared exclusively between A. incrassata and extant Bowenia. We interpret our results to necessitate the erection of the new genus Eobowenia to accommodate the fossil leaf earlier assigned as Almargemia incrassata. We then perfom phylogenetic analyses, including the first combined morphological and molecular analysis of the Cycadales, that indicate that the newly erected genus could be related to extant Bowenia. Eobowenia incrassata could represent an important clue for the understanding of evolution and biogeography of the extant genus Bowenia, as the presence of Eobowenia in Patagonia is yet another piece of the biogeographic puzzle that links southern South America with Australasia.

  15. Flight aerodynamics in enantiornithines: Information from a new Chinese Early Cretaceous bird

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Di; Serrano, Francisco; Habib, Michael; Zhang, Yuguang; Meng, Qinjing

    2017-01-01

    We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China’s Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines. BMNHC-PH-919 represents the first record of a Jehol enantiornithine from Inner Mongolia, thus extending the known distribution of these birds into the eastern portion of this region. Furthermore, its well-preserved skeleton and wing outline provide insight into the aerodynamic performance of enantiornithines, suggesting that these birds had evolved bounding flight—a flight mode common to passeriforms and other small living birds—as early as 125 million years ago. PMID:29020077

  16. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  17. Vertebrate assemblages from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern Morocco: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavin, L.; Tong, H.; Boudad, L.; Meister, C.; Piuz, A.; Tabouelle, J.; Aarab, M.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Dyke, G.; Hua, S.; Le Loeuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    Fossils of vertebrates have been found in great abundance in the continental and marine early Late Cretaceous sediments of Southeastern Morocco for more than 50 years. About 80 vertebrate taxa have so far been recorded from this region, many of which were recognised and diagnosed for the first time based on specimens recovered from these sediments. In this paper, we use published data together with new field data to present an updated overview of Moroccan early Late Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages. The Cretaceous series we have studied encompasses three Formations, the Ifezouane and Aoufous Formations, which are continental and deltaic in origin and are often grouped under the name "Kem Kem beds", and the Akrabou Formation which is marine in origin. New field observations allow us to place four recognised vertebrate clusters, corresponding to one compound assemblage and three assemblages, within a general temporal framework. In particular, two ammonite bioevents characterise the lower part of the Upper Cenomanian ( Calycoceras guerangeri Zone) at the base of the Akrabou Formation and the upper part of the Lower Turonian ( Mammites nodosoides Zone), that may extend into the Middle Turonian within the Akrabou Formation, and allow for more accurate dating of the marine sequence in the study area. We are not yet able to distinguish a specific assemblage that characterises the Ifezouane Formation when compared to the similar Aoufous Formation, and as a result we regard the oldest of the four vertebrate "assemblages" in this region to be the compound assemblage of the "Kem Kem beds". This well-known vertebrate assemblage comprises a mixture of terrestrial (and aerial), freshwater and brackish vertebrates. The archosaur component of this fauna appears to show an intriguingly high proportion of large-bodied carnivorous taxa, which may indicate a peculiar trophic chain, although collecting biases alter this palaeontological signal. A small and restricted assemblage, the

  18. Flight aerodynamics in enantiornithines: Information from a new Chinese Early Cretaceous bird.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Chiappe, Luis M; Serrano, Francisco; Habib, Michael; Zhang, Yuguang; Meng, Qinjing

    2017-01-01

    We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China's Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines. BMNHC-PH-919 represents the first record of a Jehol enantiornithine from Inner Mongolia, thus extending the known distribution of these birds into the eastern portion of this region. Furthermore, its well-preserved skeleton and wing outline provide insight into the aerodynamic performance of enantiornithines, suggesting that these birds had evolved bounding flight-a flight mode common to passeriforms and other small living birds-as early as 125 million years ago.

  19. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  20. Palaeomagnetic time and space constraints of the Early Cretaceous Rhenodanubian Flysch zone (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, Edoardo; Kirscher, Uwe; Hauck, Jürgen; Hesse, Reinhard; Bachtadse, Valerian; Wortmann, Ulrich Georg

    2018-06-01

    The Rhenodanubian Flysch zone (RDF) is a Lower Cretaceous-lower Palaeocene turbidite succession extending for ˜500 km from the Danube at Vienna to the Rhine Valley (Eastern Alps). It consists of calcareous and siliciclastic turbidite systems deposited in a trench abyssal plain. The age of deposition has been estimated through micropalaeontologic dating. However, palaeomagnetic studies constraining the age and the palaeolatitude of deposition of the RDF are still missing. Here, we present palaeomagnetic data from the Early Cretaceous Tristel and Rehbreingraben Formations of the RDF from two localities in the Bavarian Alps (Rehbrein Creek and Lainbach Valley, southern Germany), and from the stratigraphic equivalent of the Falknis Nappe (Liechtenstein). The quality of the palaeomagnetic signal has been assessed by either fold test (FT) or reversal test (RT). Sediments from the Falknis Nappe are characterized by a pervasive syntectonic magnetic overprint as tested by negative FT, and are thus excluded from the study. The sediments of the Rehbreingraben Formation at Rehbrein Creek, with positive RT, straddle magnetic polarity Chron M0r and the younger M΄-1r΄ reverse event, with an age of ˜127-123 Ma (late Barremian-early Aptian). At Lainbach Valley, no polarity reversals have been observed, but a positive FT gives confidence on the reliability of the data. The primary palaeomagnetic directions, after correction for inclination shallowing, allow to precisely constrain the depositional palaeolatitude of the Tristel and Rehbreingraben Formations around ˜28°N. In a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the Alpine Tethys at the Barremian/Aptian boundary, the RDF is located on the western margin of the Briançonnais terrain, which was separated from the European continent by the narrow Valais Ocean.

  1. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Raine, J. Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76–66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60–50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  2. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  3. Composition and depositional environment of concretionary strata of early Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) age, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    Unusual, concretion-bearing mudrocks of early Late Cretaceous age, which were deposited in an early Cenomanian epeiric sea, have been recognized at outcrops in eastern Wyoming and in adjoining areas of Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Colorado. In Johnson County, Wyo., on the western flank of the Powder River Basin, these strata are in the lower part of the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier Formation. At a core hole in south-central Johnson County, they are informally named Unit 2. These strata are about 34 m (110 ft) thick and consist mainly of medium- to dark-gray, noncalcareous, silty shale and clayey or sandy siltstone; and light-gray to grayish-red bentonite. The shale and siltstone are either bioturbated or interlaminated; the laminae are discontinuous, parallel, and even or wavy. Several ichnogenera of deposit feeders are common in the unit but filter feeders are sparse. The unit also contains marine and continental palynomorphs and, near the top, a few arenaceous foraminifers. No invertebrate macrofossils have been found in these rocks. Unit 2 conformably overlies lower Cenomanian shale in the lowermost Belle Fourche Member, informally named Unit 3, and is conformably overlain by lower and middle Cenomanian shale, siltstone, and sandstone within the member, which are informally named Unit 1. The mineral and chemical composition of the three Cenomanian units is comparable and similar to that of shale and siltstone in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, except that these units contain more SiO2 and less CaO, carbonate carbon, and manganese. Silica is generally more abundant and CaO is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. The composition of Unit 2 contrasts significantly with that of the underlying and overlying units. Unit 2 contains no pyrite and dolomite and much less sulfur than Units 1 and 3. Sulfate is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. Unit 2 also includes sideritic and calcitic concretions, whereas Units

  4. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  5. Reinterpreting the Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Records: Implications for the Evolution of Seawater Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, J. V.; Gomes, M. L.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.; Hurtgen, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The geologic record of the Cretaceous is punctuated by several periods of high organic carbon burial interpreted to represent global Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs). In addition to the short-term (<1-Myr) changes in carbon (C) cycling associated with OAEs, evidence from a number of geochemical proxies has been interpreted to represent large-scale changes in ocean chemistry during the period. Specifically, the sulfur (S) isotope composition of early Cretaceous seawater sulfate as recorded in marine barite exhibits an ~5 permil shift in d34Ssulfate that persists for ~15Myr before returning to pre-excursion values. Superimposed upon this long-term shift in S-isotopes is OAE1a, the second major anoxic event recognized in the Cretaceous. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this S isotope perturbation: (1) massive evaporite deposition associated with rifting during the opening of the South Atlantic and a corresponding decrease in pyrite burial rates and (2) increased inputs of volcanic-derived S due to extensive LIP-volcanism. While there is geologic evidence for both evaporite deposition and enhanced hydrothermal activity, the relative influence of these potential driving factors remains largely unconstrained. Variation in the strontium (Sr) isotope composition of marine carbonates provides a tool for distinguishing between these influences. We examine the S isotope composition of carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) spanning the Barremian through Aptian from Resolution Guyot (ODP Site 866) and compare the S isotope record to time equivalent records of carbon and strontium isotopes. Correlative changes in the C, S, and Sr cycles are observed: an ~5 permil shift in d34Ssulfate, which begins at the onset of OAE1a and continues after the positive d13Ccarb excursion, is accompanied by a contemporaneous, parallel shift in 87Sr/86Sr to unradiogenic values. The tight coupling observed between S and Sr throughout the interval is highly suggestive of a common driving mechanism

  6. Two early eudicot fossil flowers from the Kamikitaba assemblage (Coniacian, Late Cretaceous) in northeastern Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Masamichi; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Xiao, Xianghui

    Two new fossil taxa referable to the basal eudicot grade are described from the Kamikitaba locality (ca. 89 MYBP, early Coniacian: Late Cretaceous) in the Ashizawa Formation (Asamigawa Member) of Futaba Group in northeastern Japan. These charcoalified mesofossils exhibit well-preserved three-dimensional structure and were analyzed using synchrotron-radiation X-ray microtomography (SRXTM) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to document the composition and internal structure. Cathiaria japonica sp. nov. is represented by infructescence segments that consist of an axis bearing three to four fruits. The capsular fruits are sessile and dehiscent and consist of a gynoecium subtended by a bract. No perianthmore » parts are present. The gynoecium is monocarpellate containing two pendulous seeds. The carpel is ascidiate in the lower half and conduplicate in the upper part, style is deflected abaxially with a dorsiventral suture and a large, obliquely decurrent stigma. Pollen grains are tricolpate with a reticulate exine. The morphological features of Cathiaria are consistent with an assignment to the Buxaceae s. l. (including Didymelaceae). Archaeostella verticillata gen. et sp. nov. is represented by flowers that are small, actinomorphic, pedicellate, bisexual, semi-inferior, and multicarpellate. The floral receptacle is cup shaped with a perigynous perianth consisting of several tepals inserted around the rim. The androecium comprises ca. 120 stamens with clear differentiation into anther and filament. The anthers are basifixed and tetrasporangiate. The gynoecium consists of a whorl of ten conduplicate, laterally connate but distally distinct carpels with a conspicuous dorsal bulge, including a central cavity. The styles are short, becoming recurved with a ventrally decurrent stigma. The fruit type is a follicle. Seeds are ca. 10 per carpel, marginal, pendulous from the broad, oblique summit of the locule. Seeds are small, spindle-shaped, with a chalazal extension

  7. Two early eudicot fossil flowers from the Kamikitaba assemblage (Coniacian, Late Cretaceous) in northeastern Japan

    DOE PAGES

    Takahashi, Masamichi; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2017-05-11

    Two new fossil taxa referable to the basal eudicot grade are described from the Kamikitaba locality (ca. 89 MYBP, early Coniacian: Late Cretaceous) in the Ashizawa Formation (Asamigawa Member) of Futaba Group in northeastern Japan. These charcoalified mesofossils exhibit well-preserved three-dimensional structure and were analyzed using synchrotron-radiation X-ray microtomography (SRXTM) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to document the composition and internal structure. Cathiaria japonica sp. nov. is represented by infructescence segments that consist of an axis bearing three to four fruits. The capsular fruits are sessile and dehiscent and consist of a gynoecium subtended by a bract. No perianthmore » parts are present. The gynoecium is monocarpellate containing two pendulous seeds. The carpel is ascidiate in the lower half and conduplicate in the upper part, style is deflected abaxially with a dorsiventral suture and a large, obliquely decurrent stigma. Pollen grains are tricolpate with a reticulate exine. The morphological features of Cathiaria are consistent with an assignment to the Buxaceae s. l. (including Didymelaceae). Archaeostella verticillata gen. et sp. nov. is represented by flowers that are small, actinomorphic, pedicellate, bisexual, semi-inferior, and multicarpellate. The floral receptacle is cup shaped with a perigynous perianth consisting of several tepals inserted around the rim. The androecium comprises ca. 120 stamens with clear differentiation into anther and filament. The anthers are basifixed and tetrasporangiate. The gynoecium consists of a whorl of ten conduplicate, laterally connate but distally distinct carpels with a conspicuous dorsal bulge, including a central cavity. The styles are short, becoming recurved with a ventrally decurrent stigma. The fruit type is a follicle. Seeds are ca. 10 per carpel, marginal, pendulous from the broad, oblique summit of the locule. Seeds are small, spindle-shaped, with a chalazal extension

  8. Mesozoic units in SE Rhodope (Bulgaria): new structural and petrologic data and geodynamic implications for the Early Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, N.; Stampfli, G.

    2003-04-01

    . Immobile trace element discrimination of both rock types constrains the volcanic (oceanic)-arc origin. They generally show low total REE concentrations (LREE>HREE) with enrichment of LIL elements relative to the HFS elements, and also very low Nb and relatively high Ce content consistent with an island-arc tectonic setting. We consider that the Meliata-Maliac ocean northern passive margin could be the source provenance for the Upper Permian clastics and Middle-Upper Triassic limestone blocks within the olistostromic melange-like unit, whereas turbidites and magmatic blocks may originate in an island arc-accretionary complex that relates to the southward subduction of the Maliac ocean under the supra-subduction back-arc Vardar ocean/island arc system. These new structural and petrologic data allow to precise the tectonic setting of the Mesozoic units and their geodynamic context in the frame of the Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean.

  9. Warm Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, H. C.; Schouten-Huibers, L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-02-01

    Although a division of the Phanerozoic climatic modes of the Earth into "greenhouse" and "icehouse" phases is widely accepted, whether or not polar ice developed during the relatively warm Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods is still under debate. In particular, there is a range of isotopic and biotic evidence that favours the concept of discrete "cold snaps", marked particularly by migration of certain biota towards lower latitudes. Extension of the use of the palaeotemperature proxy TEX86 back to the Middle Jurassic indicates that relatively warm sea-surface conditions (26-30 °C) existed from this interval (∼160 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (∼115 Ma) in the Southern Ocean, with a general warming trend through the Late Jurassic followed by a general cooling trend through the Early Cretaceous. The lowest sea-surface temperatures are recorded from around the Callovian-Oxfordian boundary, an interval identified in Europe as relatively cool, but do not fall below 25 °C. The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event, identified on the basis of published biostratigraphy, total organic carbon and carbon-isotope stratigraphy, records an interval with the lowest, albeit fluctuating Early Cretaceous palaeotemperatures (∼26 °C), recalling similar phenomena recorded from Europe and the tropical Pacific Ocean. Extant belemnite δ18O data, assuming an isotopic composition of waters inhabited by these fossils of -1‰ SMOW, give palaeotemperatures throughout the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous interval that are consistently lower by ∼14 °C than does TEX86 and the molluscs likely record conditions below the thermocline. The long-term, warm climatic conditions indicated by the TEX86 data would only be compatible with the existence of continental ice if appreciable areas of high altitude existed on Antarctica, and/or in other polar regions, during the Mesozoic Era.

  10. The early evolution of feathers: fossil evidence from Cretaceous amber of France

    PubMed Central

    Perrichot, Vincent; Marion, Loïc; Néraudeau, Didier; Vullo, Romain; Tafforeau, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The developmental stages of feathers are of major importance in the evolution of body covering and the origin of avian flight. Until now, there were significant gaps in knowledge of early morphologies in theoretical stages of feathers as well as in palaeontological material. Here we report fossil evidence of an intermediate and critical stage in the incremental evolution of feathers which has been predicted by developmental theories but hitherto undocumented by evidence from both the recent and the fossil records. Seven feathers have been found in an Early Cretaceous (Late Albian, ca 100 Myr) amber of western France, which display a flattened shaft composed by the still distinct and incompletely fused bases of the barbs forming two irregular vanes. Considering their remarkably primitive features, and since recent discoveries have yielded feathers of modern type in some derived theropod dinosaurs, the Albian feathers from France might have been derived either from an early bird or from a non-avian dinosaur. PMID:18285280

  11. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of the Uradzhongqi magmatic complex in western Inner Mongolia, China: A record of early Permian post-collisional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xueyuan; Li, Wenbo; Zhong, Richen; Hu, Chuansheng; Zhu, Feng; Li, Zhihua

    2017-08-01

    The magmatic complex in Uradzhongqi, Inner Mongolia, is located in the western segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The dominant components in the complex include syenogranite, monzogranite, granodiorite, diorite and gabbro. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are common in syenogranite and granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the ages of these rocks range from 283 to 270 Ma, suggesting an early Permian emplacement. The syenogranite and monzogranite are peraluminous I-type granites, exhibiting conspicuous negative Eu anomaly, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The granodiorites, diorites and MMEs are metaluminous in composition, show high Al2O3, MgO and Fe2O3T contents and weak negative Eu anomaly, as well as LREE and LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion. The gabbros show weak positive Eu anomaly and slight REE differentiation. The Sr-Nd isotope compositions show that the source of mafic magma was depleted mantle (DM) with possible involvement of enriched mantle II (EM II), whereas the felsic magma was derived from the Archean lower crust. Petrographic observation and analytical results of mineralogy, geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that the main petrogenesis of these magmatic rocks is the mixing of underplating mafic magma and felsic magma. Tectonically, the complex pluton was formed within a post-collisional regime, and the underplating in this area provides another piece of evidence for the vertical growth of the western segment of the northern margin of the NCC.

  12. New type of kinematic indicator in bed-parallel veins, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina: E-W shortening during Late Cretaceous vein opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Lopez, Ramiro G.; Gale, Julia F. W.; Laubach, Stephen E.; Manceda, Rene

    2017-11-01

    In the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, previously unrecognized yet abundant structures constituting a new category of kinematic indicator occur within bed-parallel fibrous calcite veins (BPVs) in shale. Domal shapes result from localized shortening and thickening of BPVs and the intercalation of centimeter-thick, host-rock shale inclusions within fibrous calcite beef, forming thrust fault-bounded pop-up structures. Ellipsoidal and rounded structures show consistent orientations, lineaments of interlayered shale and fibrous calcite, and local centimeter-scale offset thrust faults that at least in some cases cut across the median line of the BPV and indicate E-W shortening. Continuity of crystal fibers shows the domal structures are contemporaneous with BPV formation and help establish timing of fibrous vein growth in the Late Cretaceous, when shortening directions were oriented E-W. Differences in the number of opening stages and the deformational style of the different BPVs indicate they may have opened at different times. The new domal kinematic indicators described in this study are small enough to be captured in core. When present in the subsurface, domal structures can be used to either infer paleostress orientation during the formation of BPVs or to orient core in cases where the paleostress is independently known.

  13. Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rifting on the Chortis Block in Honduras: Implications for proto-Caribbean opening (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Emmet, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Regional mapping integrated with facies analysis, age constraints and airborne geophysical data reveal WNW and NE trends of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous basins which intersect in southeast Honduras that we interpret as the result of rifting associated with the breakup of the Americas and opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway. The WNW-trending rift is 250 km long by 90 km wide and defined by a basal 200 to 800 m thick sequence of Middle to Late Jurassic fluvial channel and overbank deposits overlain by transgressive clastic shelf strata. At least three sub-basins are apparent. Flanking the WNW trending rift basins are fault bounded exposures of the pre-Jurassic continental basement of the Chortis block which is the source of the conglomeratic channel facies that delineate the axes of the rifts. Cretaceous terrigenous strata mantle the exposed basement-cored rift flanks. Lower Cretaceous clastic strata and shallow marine limestone strata are dominant along this trend indicating that post-rift related subsidence continued through the Early Cretaceous. The rifts coincide with a regional high in the total magnetic intensity data. We interpret these trends to reflect NNE-WSW extension active from the Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous. These rifts were inverted during Late Cretaceous shortening oriented normal to the rift axes. To the east and at a 120 degree angle to the WNW trending rift is the 300 km long NE trending Guayape fault system that forms the western shoulder of the Late Jurassic Agua Fria rift basin filled by > 2 km thickness of clastic marine shelf and slope strata. This NE trending basin coincides with the eastern extent of the surface exposure of continental basement rocks and a northeast-trending fabric of the Jurassic (?) metasedimentary basement rocks. We have previously interpreted the eastern basin to be the Jurassic rifted margin of the Chortis block with the Guayape originating as a normal fault system. These two rifts basin intersect

  14. An enigmatic crocodyliform tooth from the bauxites of western Hungary suggests hidden mesoeucrocodylian diversity in the Early Cretaceous European archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Márton; Makádi, László

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Cretaceous of southern Europe was characterized by an archipelago setting with faunas of mixed composition of endemic, Laurasian and Gondwanan elements. However, little is known about the relative timing of these faunal influences. The Lower Cretaceous of East-Central Europe holds a great promise for understanding the biogeographic history of Cretaceous European biotas because of the former proximity of the area to Gondwana (as part of the Apulian microcontinent). However, East-Central European vertebrates are typically poorly known from this time period. Here, we report on a ziphodont crocodyliform tooth discovered in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Alsópere Bauxite Formation of Olaszfalu, western Hungary. Methods. The morphology of the tooth is described and compared with that of other similar Cretaceous crocodyliforms. Results. Based on the triangular, slightly distally curved, constricted and labiolingually flattened crown, the small, subequal-sized true serrations on the carinae mesially and distally, the longitudinal fluting labially, and the extended shelves along the carinae lingually the tooth is most similar to some peirosaurid, non-baurusuchian sebecosuchian, and uruguaysuchid notosuchians. In addition, the paralligatorid Wannchampsus also possesses similar anterior teeth, thus the Hungarian tooth is referred here to Mesoeucrocodylia indet. Discussion. Supposing a notosuchian affinity, this tooth is the earliest occurrence of the group in Europe and one of the earliest in Laurasia. In case of a paralligatorid relationship the Hungarian tooth would represent their first European record, further expanding their cosmopolitan distribution. In any case, the ziphodont tooth from the Albian bauxite deposit of western Hungary belongs to a group still unknown from the Early Cretaceous European archipelago and therefore implies a hidden diversity of crocodyliforms in the area. PMID:26339542

  15. Facies architecture and paleohydrology of a synrift succession in the Early Cretaceous Choyr Basin, southeastern Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ito, M.; Matsukawa, M.; Saito, T.; Nichols, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Choyr Basin is one of several Early Cretaceous rift basins in southwestern Mongolia that developed in specific regions between north-south trending fold-and-thrust belts. The eastern margin of the basin is defined by high-angle normal and/or strike-slip faults that trend north-to-south and northeast-to-southwest and by the overall geometry of the basin, which is interpreted to be a half graben. The sedimentary succession of the Choyr Basin documents one of the various types of tectono-sedimentary processes that were active in the rift basins of East Asia during Early Cretaceous time. The sedimentary infill of the Choyr Basin is newly defined as the Khalzan Uul and Khuren Dukh formations based on detailed mapping of lateral and vertical variations in component lithofacies assemblages. These two formations are heterotopic deposits and constitute a third-order fluvio-lacustrine sequence that can be divided into transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lower part of the transgressive systems tract (TST) is characterized by sandy alluvial-fan and braided-river systems on the hanging wall along the western basin margin, and by a gravelly alluvial-fan system on the footwall along the eastern basin margin. The alluvial-fan and braided-river deposits along the western basin margin are fossiliferous and are interpreted to have developed in association with a perennial fluvial system. In contrast, alluvial-fan deposits along the eastern basin margin do not contain any distinct faunas or floras and are interpreted to have been influenced by a high-discharge ephemeral fluvial system associated with fluctuations in wetting and drying paleohydrologic processes. The lower part of the TST deposit fines upward to siltstone-dominated flood-plain and ephemeral-lake deposits that constitute the upper part of the TST and the lower part of the highstand systems tract (HST). These mudstone deposits eventually reduced the topographic irregularities typical of the early stage of

  16. Geochronology and Geochemistry of a Late Cretaceous Granitoid Suite, Santa Rosa Range, Nevada: Linking Arc Magmatism in Northwestern Nevada to the Sierra Nevada Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K.; Stuck, R.; Hart, W. K.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the Mesozoic, an arc-trench system dominated the western margin of North America. One of the principal records of this system’s evolution is a discontinuous alignment of deeply eroded batholiths, which represent the once-active roots of ancient volcanic systems. Although these batholiths extend from Alaska to Mexico, there is a prominent (~500 km) gap located in present-day Nevada that contains scattered plutons that are hypothesized to be similar in age and origin to the larger batholiths. The current understanding of these isolated plutons, however, remains limited to regional isotopic studies aimed at identifying major crustal boundaries and structural studies focused on emplacement mechanisms. Therefore, detailed petrogenetic studies of the plutons exposed within the Santa Rosa Range (SRR) of NW Nevada will better characterize magmatism in this region, placing them within a regional context that explores the hypothesized links between the intrusions of NW Nevada to the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB). A compilation of published geochronology from this region shows that plutons in the SRR are broadly coeval with the Cathedral Range Intrusive Epoch (~95-83 Ma) and the Shaver Sequence (~118-105 Ma) of the SNB. Preliminary Rb-Sr geochronology from the Granite Peak stock reveals a previously unrecognized period of magmatism (ca. 85.0 Ma) in this region. Therefore, ongoing work will more completely characterize the timing of magmatic pulses in this region and their relationships to the SNB. Preliminary petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic observations suggest that two distinct compositional/textural groups exist: the Santa Rosa/ Andorno group (SRA) and Granite Peak/ Sawtooth group (GPS). The chemical and isotopic variations between the two groups suggest that they were not consanguineous. Whereas the SRA group is generally more mafic (64-72 wt% SiO2) and metaluminous, the GPS group is more felsic (72- 76 wt% SiO2) and peraluminous. This observation is

  17. Late Early-Cretaceous quartz diorite-granodiorite-monzogranite association from the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau: Chemical variations and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical variations in granitic rocks may be controlled by their source rocks, melting reactions and subsequent magmatic processes, which resulted from various geodynamic processes related to subduction, collision, or slab break-off. Here we report new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes for the late Early Cretaceous quartz diorite, granodiorite and monzogranite in the Gaoligong belt, southeastern Tibet Plateau. The zircon U-Pb dating yield ages of 113.9 ± 1.6, 111.7 ± 0.8, and 112.8 ± 1.7 Ma for the quartz diorite, granodiorite, and monzogranite, respectively, which are coeval with bimodal magmatism in the central and northern Lhasa sub-terrane. There are the distinct sources regions for the quartz diorite and granodiorite-monzogranite association. The quartz diorites are sodic, calc-alkaline and have high Mg# (52-54) values. They also have elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.707019 to 0.709176) and low εNd(t) (- 5.16 to - 7.63), with variable zircon εHf(t) values (+ 5.65 to - 9.02). Zircon chemical data indicate a typical crustal-derived character with high Th (142-1260 ppm) and U (106-1082 ppm) and moderate U/Yb ratios (0.30 to 2.32) and Y content (705-1888 ppm). Those data suggest that the quartz diorites were derived from partial melting of ancient basaltic lower crust by a mantle-derived magma in source region. The granodiorite-monzogranite association has high-K calc-alkaline, weakly peraluminous characters. They show lower Nb/Ta (5.57 to 13.8), CaO/Na2O (0.62 to 1.21), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (24.4 to 44.4) ratios, more evolved whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic signatures, all of which suggest derivation from mixed basaltic and metasedimentary source rocks in a deep crustal zone. We propose that the granitic magmatisms at ca. 113-110 Ma in the Gaologong belt was triggered by the slab break-off of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Supplementary Dataset Table 2. Single-grain zircon Hf isotopic data

  18. Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, Christoph; Osleger, David A.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Sliter, William V.; Arnaud Vanneau, Annie; Banner, Jay L.

    1999-01-01

    middle Albian time. Restriction of the platform interior dissipated by middle to late Albian time with the deposition of peloidal, miliolid-rich packstones and grainstones of the Aurora Formation. The Coahuila platform was drowned during latest Albian to early Cenomanian time, and the deep-water laminites of the Cuesta del Cura Formation were deposited.This study fills in a substantial gap in the Cretaceous paleogeography of the eastern Gulf of Mexico coast, improving regional correlations with adjacent hydrocarbon-rich platforms. The enhanced temporal relations and chronology of events recorded in the Cupido and Coahuila platforms significantly improve global correlations with coeval, economically important platforms worldwide, perhaps contributing to the determination of global versus regional controls on carbonate platform evolution during middle Cretaceous time.

  19. Geomagnetic Reversals of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Captured in a North China Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, T.; Fu, R. R.; Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Tuchengzi formation in North China nominally spans nearly 20 million years of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, an interval during which age calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) based on seafloor magnetic anomalies is poorly known. The overlying Yixian formation is of special paleontological interest due to an abundance of spectacularly preserved macrofossils of feathered non-avian dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and insects. Scarce fossils in the Tuchengzi, sparse accurate radiometric dates on both the Tuchengzi and overlying Yixian formation, and scant previous paleomagnetic studies on these formations motivated our application of magnetostratigraphy as a geochronological tool. We constructed a geomagnetic reversal sequence from the upper 142m of a 200m core extracted in Liaoning Province at Huangbanjigou spanning the lower Yixian Formation and the unconformably underlying Tuchengzi Formation. Thermal demagnetization up to 680°C in steps of 25-50°C revealed predominantly normal overprints consistent with the modern day field with unblocking temperatures between 125°C and as high as 550°C, as well as normal and reverse characteristic components with unblocking temperatures between 500°C and 680°C. Going up from the base of the core, there is a reverse polarity magnetozone >6m thick, followed by a 5m normal magnetozone, a 10m reverse magnetozone, a 25m normal magnetozone, and a 6m reverse magnetozone truncated by the Yixian-Tuchengzi unconformity. Above the unconformity, all 81m of core were normal. These results indicate that a meaningful polarity stratigraphy can be recovered from the Tuchengzi and Yixian formations that will be invaluable for correlations across the Tuchengzi and potentially the Yixian formations, which span thousands of square kilometers and vary in thickness by many hundreds of meters. The results also demonstrate that, in combination with accurate and precise radiometric dates, the Tuchengzi Formation has the

  20. Post-early cretaceous landform evolution along the western margin of the banca~nnia trough, western nsw

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously undated post-Devonian sediments outcropping north of Fowlers Gap station near the western margin of the Bancannia Trough are shown by plant macro- and microfossil determinations to be of Early Cretaceous (most likely Neocomian and/or Aptian) age, and thus part of the Eromanga Basin. They are assigned to the previously defined Telephone Creek Formation. Study of the structural configuration of this unit and the unconformably underlying Devonian rocks suggests that the gross landscape architecture of the area results from post-Early Cretaceous monoclinal folding along blind faults at the western margin of the trough, combined with the effects of differential erosion. This study shows that, while landscape evolution in the area has been dynamic, the major changes that have occurred are on a geological rather than human timescale.

  1. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    the Internal Maghrebian flysch nappes as well as in the external Mesorif. This event consists of Middle-Upper Jurassic MORB tholeiites emplaced during opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. The Central High Atlas also records Early Cretaceous alpine Tethys magmatism associated with the aborted Atlas rift, or perhaps linked to plume activity on the edge of the WAC. Cenozoic magmatism is associated with Tertiary and Quaternary circum-Mediterranean alkaline provinces, and is characterized by an intermittent activity over 50 Ma from the Anti-Atlas to the Rif Mountain along a SW-NE volcanic lineament which underlines a thinned continental lithosphere.

  2. Endocranial Morphology of the Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America

    PubMed Central

    Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Jacobs, Louis L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ankylosaurs are one of the least explored clades of dinosaurs regarding endocranial anatomy, with few available descriptions of braincase anatomy and even less information on brain and inner ear morphologies. The main goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the braincase and internal structures of the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli, based on recently made CT scans. Methodology/Principal Findings The skull of Pawpawsaurus was CT scanned at University of Texas at Austin (UTCT). Three-dimensional models were constructed using Mimics 18.0 (Materialise). The digital data and further processed 3D models revealed inaccessible anatomic structures, allowing a detailed description of the lateral wall of the braincase (obscured by other bones in the articulated skull), and endocranial structures such as the cranial endocast, the most complete inner ear morphology for a nodosaurid, and the interpretation of the airflow system within the nasal cavities. Conslusions/Significance The new information on the endocranial morphology of Pawpawsaurus adds anatomical data to the poorly understand ankylosaur paleoneurology. The new set of data has potential use not only in taxonomy and phylogeny, but also in paleobiological interpretations based on the relative development of sense organs, such as olfaction, hearing and balance. PMID:27007950

  3. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Ward E; Doughten, Michael W; Coplen, Tyler B; Hunt, Andrew G; Bullen, Thomas D

    2013-11-14

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  4. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.; Doughten, Michael W.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    High salinity groundwater more than 1000 metres deep in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States has been documented in several locations1,2, most recently within the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater3,4,5. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution6, osmosis6, and evaporation from heating7 associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) seawater. We find that the seawater is likely 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern seawater and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin8. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and paleontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient seawater in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA seawater persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  5. Glendonites as a paleoenvironmental tool: Implications for early Cretaceous high latitudinal climates in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lurio, Jennifer L.; Frakes, L. A.

    1999-04-01

    Glendonites, calcite pseudomorphs after the metastable mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O), occur in the Late Aptian interval of the Bulldog Shale in the Eromanga Basin, Australia and in other Early Cretaceous basins at high paleolatitudes. Ikaite precipitation in the marine environment requires near-freezing temperatures (not higher than 4°C), high alkalinity, increased levels of orthophosphate, and high P CO2. The rapid and complete transformation of ikaite to calcite at temperatures between 5 and 8°C provides an upper limit on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pore waters: -2.6 <δ w <-3.4‰SMOW. If it is assumed that these pore waters are representative of the shallow Eromanga Basin, the calculated δ w can be used to reassess belemnite fossil oxygen isotopic paleotemperatures - temperature recorded by fauna living in the basin at the time of ikaite precipitation. Data previously reported as 11 to 16°C (assuming δ w = 0.0‰SMOW) yield paleotemperatures ranging from -1 to 5°C, squarely in the range of ikaite stability. The low δ w indicates hyposaline conditions, most likely caused by mixing high latitude meteoric waters with seawater. The 18O depleted, low temperature waters suggest that the region was at least seasonally colder than previously accepted.

  6. Interaction Between Magmatism and Continental Extension, Insight From an Extensional Terrain in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekpour Alamdari, A.; Axen, G. J.; Hassanzadeh, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge about the spatial and temporal relationship between continental extension and its related magmatism is mainly from the western US where removal of a flat subducting slab from under the continent controlled thermal weakening and some extensional collapse. The Iranian plateau, where flat-slab subduction and its subsequent rollback is suggested for the Tertiary magmatic evolution, is an ideal place to see if a similar interaction exists. Between the Late Cretaceous and, at least, the Early Eocene, large-scale continental extension affected the NE Iranian plateau. An ~100 km-long, SE tilted upper to mid-crustal section was exhumed by slip along a low-angle, NW-dipping detachment fault. From SE to NW (young to old) this section includes late Cretaceous pelagic limestones of the Kashmar ophiolites, Late and Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, and the Late Triassic and older crystalline rocks of the Biarjmand-Shotor Kuh metamorphic core complex. Little pre-extensional magmatic activity exists in the tilted sequence and in surrounding regions, as Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous dikes. Similarly, syn-extensional magmatism is absent. In contrast, the tilted sequence is unconformably overlain by >4000 m of volcanic rocks with age ranging from the Middle Eocene (explosive, calc-alkaline?) to the Late Eocene (effusive, alkaline). The absence of considerable pre-extensional magmatism in the NE Iranian plateau does not support magma underplating, subsequent thermal weakening and collapse as a mechanism for the extension in this region. It also indicates that the models that consider waning of volcanism as a controlling mechanism for triggering of extensional faulting (Sonder & Jones, 1999) is not applicable for this region. The amagmatic extension may reflect magma crystallization at depth due to reduced confining pressure resulted from active normal faulting and fracturing (Gans & Bohrson, 1998). The extension and related asthenospheric rise may be developed in

  7. Isotopic composition of low-latitude paleoprecipitation during the Early Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez, M.B.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Vega, F.J.; Alvarado-Ortega, J.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the hydrologic cycle in global greenhouse conditions is important to our understanding of future climate change and to the calibration of global climate models. Past greenhouse conditions, such as those of the Cretaceous, can be used to provide empirical data with which to evaluate climate models. Recent empirical studies have utilized pedogenic carbonates to estimate the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and calculate precipitation rates for the AptianAlbian. These studies were limited to data from mid(35??N) to high (75??N) paleolatitudes, and thus future improvements in accuracy will require more estimates of meteoric water compositions from numerous localities around the globe. This study provides data for tropical latitudes (18.5??N paleolatitude) from the Tlayua Formation, Puebla, Mexico. In addition, the study confirms a shallow nearshore depositional environment for the Tlayua Formation. Petrographic observations of fenestral fabrics, gypsum crystal molds, stromatolitic structures, and pedogenic matrix birefringence fabric support the interpretation that the strata represent deposition in a tidal flat environment. Carbonate isotopic data from limestones of the Tlayua Formation provide evidence of early meteoric diagenesis in the form of meteoric calcite lines. These trends in ??18O versus ??13C were used to calculate the mean ??18O value of meteoric water, which is estimated at -5.46 ?? 0.56??? (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water [VSMOW]). Positive linear covariant trends in oxygen and carbon isotopic values from some horizons were used to estimate evaporative losses of vadose groundwater from tropical exposure surfaces during the Albian, and the resulting values range from 8% to 12%. However, the presence of evaporative mineral molds indicates more extensive evaporation. The added tropical data improve latitudinal coverage of paleoprecipitation ??18O estimates. The data presented here imply that earlier isotope mass balance models most

  8. Pinaceae-like reproductive morphology in Schizolepidopsis canicularis sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Andrew B; Glasspool, Ian; Herendeen, Patrick S; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Knopf, Patrick; Takahashi, Masamichi; Crane, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    Seed cone scales assigned to the genus Schizolepidopsis are widespread in Late Triassic to Cretaceous Eurasian deposits. They have been linked to the conifer family Pinaceae based on associated vegetative remains, but their exact affinities are uncertain. Recently discovered material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia reveals important new information concerning Schizolepidopsis cone scales and seeds, and provides support for a relationship between the genus and extant Pinaceae. Specimens were collected from Early Cretaceous (probable Aptian-Albian) lignite deposits in central Mongolia. Lignite samples were disaggregated, cleaned in hydrofluoric acid, and washed in water. Specimens were selected for further study using light and electron microscopy. Schizolepidopsis canicularis seed cones consist of loosely arranged, bilobed ovulate scales subtended by a small bract. A single inverted seed with an elongate micropyle is borne on each lobe of the ovulate scale. Each seed has a wing formed by the separation of the adaxial surface of the ovulate scale. Schizolepidopsis canicularis produced winged seeds that formed in a manner that is unique to Pinaceae among extant conifers. We do not definitively place this species in Pinaceae pending more complete information concerning its pollen cones and vegetative remains. Nevertheless, this material suggests that Schizolepidopsis may be important for understanding the early evolution of Pinaceae, and may potentially help reconcile the appearance of the family in the fossil record with results based on phylogenetic analyses of molecular data.

  9. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  10. Early Cretaceous Ductile Deformation of Marbles from the Western Hills of Beijing, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the Early Cretaceous tectonic lithosphere extension, the pre-mesozoic rocks from the Western Hills in the central part of the North China Craton suffered from weak metamorphism but intense shear deformation. The prominent features of the deformation structures are the coexisting layer-parallel shear zones and intrafolia folds, and the along-strike thickness variations of the marble layers from the highly sheared Mesoproterozoic Jing'eryu Formation. Platy marbles are well-developed in the thinner layers, while intrafolia folds are often observed in the thicker layers. Most folds are tight recumbent folds and their axial planes are parallel to the foliations and layerings of the marbles. The folds are A-type folds with hinges being always paralleling to the stretching lineations consistently oriented at 130°-310° directions throughout the entire area. SPO and microstructural analyses of the sheared marbles suggest that the thicker layers suffered from deformations homogeneously, while strain localization can be distinguished in the thinner layers. Calcite twin morphology and CPO analysis indicate that the deformation of marbles from both thinner and thicker layers happened at temperatures of 300 to 500°C. The above analysis suggests that marbles in the thicker layers experienced a progressive sequence of thermodynamic events: 1) regional metamorphism, 2) early ductile deformation dominated by relatively higher temperature conditions, during which all the mineral particles elongated and oriented limitedly and the calcite grains are deformed mainly by mechanical twinning, and 3) late superimposition of relatively lower temperature deformation and recrystallization, which superposed the early deformation, and made the calcites finely granulated, elongated and oriented by dynamical recrystallization along with other grains. Marbles from the thinner layers, however, experienced a similar, but different sequence of thermo-dynamic events, i.e. regional

  11. Early Cretaceous high-Ti and low-Ti mafic magmatism in Southeastern Tibet: Insights into magmatic evolution of the Comei Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaying; Zeng, Lingsen; Asimow, Paul D.; Gao, Li-E.; Ma, Chi; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Guo, Chunli; Hou, Kejun; Tang, Suohan

    2018-01-01

    The Dala diabase intrusion, at the southeastern margin of the Yardoi gneiss dome, is located within the outcrop area of the 132 Ma Comei Large Igneous Province (LIP), the result of initial activity of the Kerguelen plume. We present new zircon U-Pb geochronology results to show that the Dala diabase was emplaced at 132 Ma and geochemical data (whole-rock element and Sr-Nd isotope ratios, zircon Hf isotopes and Fe-Ti oxide mineral chemistry) to confirm that the Dala diabase intrusion is part of the Comei LIP. The Dala diabase can be divided into a high-Mg/low-Ti series and a low-Mg/high-Ti series. The high-Mg/low-Ti series represents more primitive mafic magma compositions that we demonstrate are parental to the low-Mg/high-Ti series. Fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene, followed by plagioclase within the low-Mg series, lead to systematic changes in concentrations of mantle compatible elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and V), REEs, HFSEs, and major elements such as Ti and P. Some Dala samples from the low-Mg/high-Ti series contain large ilmenite clusters and show extreme enrichment of Ti with elevated Ti/Y ratios, likely due to settling and accumulation of ilmenite during the magma chamber evolution. However, most samples from throughout the Comei LIP follow the Ti-evolution trend of the typical liquid line of descent (LLD) of primary OIB compositions, showing strong evidence of control of Ti contents by differentiation processes. In many other localities, however, primitive magmas are absent and observed Ti contents of evolved magmas cannot be quantitatively related to source processes. Careful examination of the petrogenetic relationship between co-existing low-Ti and high-Ti mafic rocks is essential to using observed rock chemistry to infer source composition, location, and degree of melting.

  12. Early Miocene rapid exhumation in southern Tibet: Insights from P-T-t-D-magmatism path of Yardoi dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of Gneiss domes within orogenic belts poses challenges because domes can form in a variety of geodynamic settings and by multiple doming mechanisms. For the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), it is debated whether they formed during shortening, extension or collapse of the plateau, and what is the spatial and temporal relationship of magmatism, metamorphism and deformation. This study investigates the Yardoi dome in southern Tibet using field mapping, petrography, phase equilibria modelling and new monazite ages. The resulting P-T-time-deformation-magmatism path for the first time reveals the spatial and temporal relationship of metamorphism, deformation and magmatism in the Yardoi dome: a) the dome mantle recorded prograde loading to kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphic conditions of 650 ± 30 °C and 9 ± 1 kbar (M2) in the Early Miocene (18-17 Ma); b) the main top-to-the-north deformation fabric (D2) formed syn- to post-peak-metamorphism; c) the emplacement of leucorgranites related to doming is syn-metamorphism at 19-17 Ma. The link between the detachment shear zone in the Yardoi dome and the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) is confirmed. By comparing with orogen-scale tectonic processes in the Himalaya, we suggest that north-south extension in a convergent geodynamic setting during Early Miocene accounts for formation of the Yardoi dome. In a wider tectonic context, the Early Miocene rapid exhumation of deep crustal rocks was contemporaneous with the rapid uplift of southern Tibet and the Himalayan orogen.

  13. Berriasian (Early Cretaceous) radiometric ages from the Grindstone Creek Section, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bralower, T.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Obradovich, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Grindstone Creek Section, Glenn County, Northern California is a sequence of hemipelagic mudstone, siltstone and sandstone interbedded with concretionary limestone and a few thin tuffs and bentonites. Two tuffs have been collected from a narrow interval of this sequence and subjected to mineralogical and isotopic analyses. UPb isotopic analyses of zircon fractions from these volcanic horizons indicate an age of 137.1 + 1.6/-0.6 Ma. A detailed investigation has been conducted on the calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy of this section based on numerous samples with moderately preserved assemblages. The nannoflora is largely of Tethyan affinity, and allows direct correlation with the Berriasian stratotype section, with sections with published magnetostratigraphies and with a DSDP site drilled between known magnetic anomalies. The dated tuffs lie in the lower part of the upper Berriasian Cretarhabdus angustiforatus Zone (Assipetra infracretacea Subzone) and within the narrow range of Rhagodiscus nebulosus. At three different sections, this subzone can be correlated with M-sequence Polarity Zones M16 and M16n. An independent magnetostratigraphic correlation is provided at DSDP Site 387, drilled between anomalies M15 and M16, where basal sediments contain R. nebulosus. Buchia collected within a meter of the lower tuff lie within the B. uncitoides Zone which is Berriasian in age. The upper tuff level, which occurs 65 m above the lower tuff, is situated within the overlying B. pacifica Zone. This zone had previously been correlated with the early Valanginian, but is clearly also partly of Berriasian age based on nannofossil stratigraphy. Our results allow an estimate of the age of the Berriasian-Valanginian and Jurassic-Cretaceous boundaries of 135.1 Ma and 141.1 Ma, respectively, and these fall within the range of, but differ significantiy from, several published time-scales. ?? 1990.

  14. Structural implications of an offset Early Cretaceous shoreline in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.L.; Irwin, W.P.

    1971-01-01

    Recognition of a nonmarine to marine transition in sedimentary rocks at Glade Creek and Big Bar in the southern Klamath Mountains permits reconstruction of the approximate position of a north-trending Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) shoreline. At the southern end of the Klamath Mountains, the shoreline is displaced 60 mi or more to the east by a west-northwest-trending fault zone. South of this fault zone the shoreline is buried at a much lower level beneath late Cenozoic rocks in the Great Valley. This large displacement probably is the result of differential movement along a system of left-lateral tear faults in the upper plate of the Coast Range thrust. The westward bulge of the Klamath arc also may have resulted from this faulting, as the amount and direction of the bulge is comparable with the displacement of the Valanginian shoreline.Basal clastic strata at both Glade Creek and Big Bar contain abundant fresh-water or brackish-water clams, many of which consist of unabraded paired valves. These are conformably overlain by Valanginian marine strata containing Buchia crassicollis solida.The position of the Valanginian shoreline beneath the Great Valley cannot be directly observed because it is buried by thick late Cenozoic deposits. However, its approximate westernmost limit must lie between the outcrop belt of marine strata on the west side of the valley and drill holes to basement on the east side, in which equivalent strata are absent.Franciscan rocks containing Valanginian fossils occur 10 mi southwest of Glade Creek, but these are deep-water marine eugeosynclinal rocks that were deposited far to the west of the shoreline. The deformation responsible for the displacement of the Valanginian shoreline and juxtaposition of the Franciscan rocks and Klamath Mountain basement rocks involved eastward under-thrusting of the Franciscan beneath the Coast Range thrust contemporaneous with differential movement along tear faults within the upper plate.

  15. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North Atlantic. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North Atlantic and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic. These eastern North Atlantic sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North Atlantic, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North Atlantic Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North Atlantic along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% CaCO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.

  16. Mating and aggregative behaviors among basal hexapods in the Early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier; Engel, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca. 105 mya) give a detailed view of otherwise fleeting ethologies in Collembola. These occurrences are phylogenetically spaced across the class, and from species representing the two major clades of springtails-Symphypleona and Entomobryomorpha. Specifically, we report unique evidence from a symphypleonan male (Pseudosminthurides stoechus Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) with modified antennae that may have functioned as a clasping organ for securing females during mating on water's surface, and from an aggregation of entomobryomorphan individuals (Proisotoma communis Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) purportedly representing a swarming episode on the forest floor. We demonstrate that the mating behavioral repertoire in P. stoechus, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, likely implied elaborate courtship and maneuvering for guarantee sperm transfer in an epineustic species. These discoveries reveal significant behaviors consistent with modern counterparts and a generalized stasis for some ancient hexapod ethologies associated with complex mating and courtship and social or pre-social aggregations, so critical to specific constancy and dispersal.

  17. Mating and aggregative behaviors among basal hexapods in the Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Alba; Peñalver, Enrique; Delclòs, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges in paleobiology is the inference and reconstruction of behaviors that rarely, if ever, leave a physical trace on the environment that is suitable for fossilization. Of particular significance are those behaviors tied to mating and courtship, individual interactions critical for species integrity and continuance, as well as those for dispersal, permitting the taxon to expand its distribution as well as access new habitats in the face of local or long-term environmental change. In this context, two recently discovered fossils from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain (ca. 105 mya) give a detailed view of otherwise fleeting ethologies in Collembola. These occurrences are phylogenetically spaced across the class, and from species representing the two major clades of springtails—Symphypleona and Entomobryomorpha. Specifically, we report unique evidence from a symphypleonan male (Pseudosminthurides stoechus Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) with modified antennae that may have functioned as a clasping organ for securing females during mating on water’s surface, and from an aggregation of entomobryomorphan individuals (Proisotoma communis Sánchez-García & Engel, 2016) purportedly representing a swarming episode on the forest floor. We demonstrate that the mating behavioral repertoire in P. stoechus, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, likely implied elaborate courtship and maneuvering for guarantee sperm transfer in an epineustic species. These discoveries reveal significant behaviors consistent with modern counterparts and a generalized stasis for some ancient hexapod ethologies associated with complex mating and courtship and social or pre-social aggregations, so critical to specific constancy and dispersal. PMID:29466382

  18. Spatiotemporal evolution of magmatic pulses and regional metamorphism during a Cretaceous flare-up event: Constraints from the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area, central Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, Kota; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Skrzypek, Etienne; Sakata, Shuhei; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2018-05-01

    The spatiotemporal relationship between granitoid intrusions and low-pressure/temperature type regional metamorphism in the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area) is investigated to understand the tectono-thermal evolution of the upper- to middle-crust during a Cretaceous flare-up event at the Eurasian active continental margin. Three plutono-metamorphic stages are recognized; (1) 99-84 Ma: intrusion of granitoids (99-95 Ma pulse) into the upper crust and high-T regional metamorphism reaching sillimanite-grade (97.0 ± 4.4 Ma to 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma) in the middle crust, (2) 81-75 Ma: intrusion of gneissose granitoids (81-75 Ma Ma pulse) into the middle crust at 19-24 km depth, and (3) 75-69 Ma: voluminous intrusions of massive to weakly-foliated granitoids (75-69 Ma pulse) at 9-13 km depth and formation of contact metamorphic aureoles. Cooling of the highest-grade metamorphic zone below the wet solidus of granitic rocks is estimated at 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma. At ca. 75 Ma, the upper-middle crustal section underwent northward tilting, resulting in the exhumation of regional metamorphic zones to 9-13 km depth. Although the highest-grade metamorphic rocks and the 99-95 Ma pulse granitoids preserve similar U-Pb zircon ages, the absence of spatial association suggests that the regional metamorphic zones were mainly produced by a transient thermal anomaly in the mantle and thermal conduction through the crust, supplemented by localized advection due to granitoid intrusions. The successive emplacement of granitoids into shallow, deep and shallow levels of the crust was probably controlled by the combination of change in thermal structure of the crust and tectonics during granitoid intrusions.

  19. Petrological, geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological constraints for the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism in SW Gondwana (27-32°LS): an example of geodynamic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    We report a study integrating 13 new U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Hf-isotope data from dated magmatic zircons together with complete petrological and whole-rock geochemistry data for the dated granitic rocks. Sample selection was strongly based on knowledge reported in previous investigations. Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous granite samples were collected along a transect of 900 km, from the inner continental region (present-day Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) to the magmatic arc (now Western Sierras Pampeanas and Frontal Cordillera). Based on these data together with ca. 100 published whole-rock geochemical analyses we conclude that Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism at this latitude represents continuous activity (ranging from 322 to 379 Ma) on the pre-Andean margin of SW Gondwana, although important whole-rock and isotopic compositional variations occurred through time and space. Combined whole-rock chemistry and isotope data reveal that peraluminous A-type magmatism started in the intracontinental region during the Late Devonian, with subsequent development of synchronous Carboniferous peraluminous and metaluminous A-type magmatism in the retro-arc region and calc-alkaline magmatism in the western paleomargin. We envisage that magmatic evolution was mainly controlled by episodic fluctuations in the angle of subduction of the oceanic plate (between flat-slab and normal subduction), supporting a geodynamic switching model. Subduction fluctuations were relatively fast (ca. 7 Ma) during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, and the complete magmatic switch-off and switch-on process lasted for 57 Ma. Hf T DM values of zircon (igneous and inherited) from some Carboniferous peraluminous A-type granites in the retro-arc suggest that Gondwana continental lithosphere formed during previous orogenies was partly the source of the Devonian-Carboniferous granitic magmas, thus precluding the generation of the parental magmas from exotic terranes.

  20. Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V; Strömberg, C A E; Leaché, A D; Samant, B; Patnaik, R; Tang, L; Mohabey, D M; Ge, S; Sahni, A

    2011-09-20

    Rice and its relatives are a focal point in agricultural and evolutionary science, but a paucity of fossils has obscured their deep-time history. Previously described cuticles with silica bodies (phytoliths) from the Late Cretaceous period (67-65 Ma) of India indicate that, by the latest Cretaceous, the grass family (Poaceae) consisted of members of the modern subclades PACMAD (Panicoideae-Aristidoideae-Chloridoideae-Micrairoideae-Arundinoideae-Danthonioideae) and BEP (Bambusoideae-Ehrhartoideae-Pooideae), including a taxon with proposed affinities to Ehrhartoideae. Here we describe additional fossils and show that, based on phylogenetic analyses that combine molecular genetic data and epidermal and phytolith features across Poaceae, these can be assigned to the rice tribe, Oryzeae, of grass subfamily Ehrhartoideae. The new Oryzeae fossils suggest substantial diversification within Ehrhartoideae by the Late Cretaceous, pushing back the time of origin of Poaceae as a whole. These results, therefore, necessitate a re-evaluation of current models for grass evolution and palaeobiogeography.

  1. Early cretaceous platform-margin configuration and evolution in the central Oman mountains, Arabian peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.R.; Smewing, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    The Hajar Supergroup (Middle Permian-Lower Cretaceous) of northeastern Oman records rifting and development of a passive margin along the edge of the Arabian platform facing Neo-Tethys. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part, comprising the Sahtan, Kahmah, and Wasia groups, was deposited during the maximum extent of the broad epicontinental sea landward of this margin. These limestone units reach a total of 1500 m in thickness and correlate with the hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Arabian Peninsula. The trace of the Jurassic and Cretaceous margin in northeastern Oman followed a zigzag series of rift segments, resulting in promontories and reentrants that changedmore » in position through time in response to the configuration and differential motion of underlying rift blocks. Synsedimentary normal faulting occurred locally in the Middle Jurassic, whereas in the Late Jurassic, the margin was eroded from variable uplift of up to 300 m before subsiding to below storm wave base. This uplift may have been caused by compression from oceanic crust that obducted along the southeastern side of the platform. The Lower Cretaceous succession in the central Oman Mountains and adjacent subsurface began with regional drowning around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. The succession in the east (Saih Hatat) records a single regressive sequence, ending in the progradation of the shallow-water carbonate platform by the Cenomanian. However, the succession in the west (Jebel Akhdar and interior) is dominated by shallow-water carbonate facies, but punctuated by a second regional drowning in the late Aptian. A third, Late Cretaceous drowning terminated deposition of the Wasia Group in the Turonian and was caused by convergence of oceanic crust and foreland basic formation. The record of tectonic behavior of carbonate platforms has important implications for the development of hydrocarbon source rocks and porosity. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.« less

  2. The mantle source of island arc magmatism during early subduction: Evidence from Hf isotopes in rutile from the Jijal Complex (Kohistan arc, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Tanya A.; Müntener, Othmar

    2018-05-01

    The Cretaceous-Paleogene Kohistan arc complex, northern Pakistan, is renowned as one of the most complete sections through a preserved paleo-island arc. The Jijal Complex represents a fragment of the plutonic roots of the Kohistan arc, formed during its early intraoceanic history. We present the first Hf isotope determinations for the Jijal Complex, made on rutile from garnet gabbros. These lithologies are zircon-free, but contain rutile that formed as an early phase. Recent developments in analytical capabilities coupled with a careful analytical and data reduction protocol allow the accurate determination of Hf isotope composition for rutile with <30 ppm Hf for the first time. Rutile from the analysed samples contains 5-35 ppm Hf, with sample averages of 13-17 ppm. Rutile from five samples from the Jijal Complex mafic section, sampling 2 km of former crustal thickness, gave indistinguishable Hf isotope compositions with εHf(i) ranging from 11.4 ± 3.2 to 20.1 ± 5.7. These values are within error of or only slightly more enriched than modern depleted mantle. The analysed samples record variable degrees of interaction with late-stage melt segregations, which produced symplectitic overprints on the main mineral assemblage as well as pegmatitic segregations of hydrous minerals. The indistinguishable εHf(i) across this range of lithologies demonstrates the robust preservation of the Hf isotope composition of rutile. The Hf isotope data, combined with previously published Nd isotope data for the Jijal Complex garnet gabbros, favour derivation from an inherently enriched, Indian Ocean type mantle. This implies a smaller contribution from subducted sediments than if the source was a normal (Pacific-type) depleted mantle. The Jijal Complex thus had only a limited recycled continental crustal component in its source, and represents a largely juvenile addition of new continental crust during the early phases of intraoceanic magmatism. The ability to determine the Hf

  3. Geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault region, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Ge, Mao-Hui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present new geochemical and geochronological data for volcanic and related rocks in the regions of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults, in order to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that rhyolite and intermediate-mafic rocks along the southern part of the Jia-Yi Fault formed at 124 and 113 Ma, respectively, whereas the volcanic rocks along the northern parts of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults formed at 100 Ma. The rhyolite has an A-type granitoid affinity, with high alkalis, low MgO, Ti, and P contents, high rare earth element (REE) contents and Ga/Al ratios, enrichments in large-ion lithophile (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Y), and marked negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the rhyolites were derived from partial melting of crustal material in an extensional environment. The basaltic rocks are enriched in light REEs and LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, and U), and depleted in heavy REEs, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and Sr. These geochemical characteristics indicate that these rocks are calc-alkaline basalts that formed in an intraplate extensional tectonic setting. The dacite is a medium- to high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite that was derived from a mixed source involving both crustal and mantle components in a magmatic arc. Therefore, the volcanic rocks along the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults were formed in an extensional regime at 124-100 Ma (Early Cretaceous), and these faults were extensional strike-slip faults at this time.

  4. Latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician rift-related magmatic activity in the Kouřim Unit, Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejono, Igor; Machek, Matej; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, Vojtěch

    2017-04-01

    inherited from the source, represented most likely by recycled immature arc-related material (?metagraywackes). The real tectonic setting of this Late Cambrian magmatic activity seems rather indicated by the within-plate geochemistry of the metadiorite. These results bring further evidence for the presence of the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician extensional event documented throughout the basement of the European Variscan Belt. Together with other occurrences of bimodal magmatism, as well as metamorphic and sedimentary record, indicate an important period of lithospheric thinning. This overall Early Palaeozoic rift-related architecture is often considered as a consequence of the Rheic Ocean opening.

  5. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  6. A temporary pond in the Early Cretaceous of southern England: palaeoclimatic implications of nonmarine "Purbeck-Wealden" ostracod faunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, D. J.

    2009-04-01

    Excavation of the partial skeleton of an Iguanodon from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks near Ockley, Surrey, UK included detailed sampling for micropalaeontological and palynological and studies (Nye et al., 2008). Rich and well-preserved non-marine assemblages of pollen and spores include early angiosperms as well as freshwater green algae. Taphonomic analyses show the ostracod assemblages to be autochthonous thanatocoenoses, indicative of local environment at the time of deposition. Using a palaeobiological approach, the ostracods and palynomorphs demonstrate temporary / ephemeral freshwater conditions at the time when the Iguanodon died and the carcase was buried. Ostracod "faunicycles" in "Purbeck-Wealden" deposits may represent salinity variations in non-marine water-bodies, influenced by the balance between precipitation and evaporation, and/or the relative abundance of permanent and temporary waterbodies in the landscape; many assemblages resulted from post-mortem mixing, perhaps during flood events (Horne, 2002). Faunal alternations may therefore reflect shifts of the boundary between warm temperate and paratropical climate in the Early Cretaceous of NW Europe. The previously rejected suggestion that such assemblage variations record Milankovitch cyclicity deserves to be reconsidered, as does the possibility that they reflect changes on sub-Milankovitch timescales. Climate variability may have influenced the differential evolutionary success of sexual, mixed and parthenogenetic reproductive strategies in nonmarine ostracods. Latitudinally restricted distribution patterns and wind dispersal of resting eggs offer potential for inferring global climate patterns from ostracod palaeobiogeography, although dispersal by large animals (e.g., crocodiles, pterosaurs) is likely to have confused any aeolian transport patterns. References Horne, D. J. 2002. Ostracod biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Purbeck Limestone

  7. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Lockley, Martin G.; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25993285

  8. Inversion of the Erlian Basin (NE China) in the early Late Cretaceous: Implications for the collision of the Okhotomorsk Block with East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Xin; Shi, Yuan-Peng; Yang, Yong-Tai; Jiang, Shuan-Qi; Li, Lin-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-01

    A significant transition in tectonic regime from extension to compression occurred throughout East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous and has stimulated much attention. However, the timing and driving mechanisms of the transition remain disputed. The Erlian Basin, a giant late Mesozoic intracontinental petroliferous basin located in the Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, contains important sedimentary and structural records related to the mid-Cretaceous compressional event. The stratigraphical, sedimentological and structural analyses reveal that a NW-SE compressional inversion occurred in the Erlian Basin between the depositions of the Lower Cretaceous Saihan and Upper Cretaceous Erlian formations, causing intense folding of the Saihan Formation and underlying strata, and the northwestward migration of the depocenters of the Erlian Formation. Based on the newly obtained detrital zircon U-Pb data and previously published paleomagnetism- and fossil-based ages, the Saihan and Erlian formations are suggested as latest Aptian-Albian and post-early Cenomanian in age, respectively, implying that the inversion in the Erlian Basin occurred in the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian time). Apatite fission-track thermochronological data record an early Late Cretaceous cooling/exhuming event in the basin, corresponding well with the aforementioned sedimentary, structural and chronological analyses. Combining with the tectono-sedimentary evolutions of the neighboring basins of the Erlian Basin, we suggest that the early Late Cretaceous inversional event in the Erlian Basin and the large scale tectonic transition in East Asia shared the common driving mechanism, probably resulting from the Okhotomorsk Block-East Asia collisional event at about 100-89 Ma.

  9. Early Archean sialic crust of the Siberian craton: Its composition and origin of magmatic protoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovna, G. M.; Mishkin, M. A.; Sakhno, V. G.; Zarubina, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    This study demonstrates that the base of the Archean deep-seated granulite complexes within the Siberian craton consists of a metabasite-enderbite association. The major and trace element distribution patterns revealed that the protoliths of this association are represented by calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, containing several minor sequences of komatiitic-tholeiitic volcanic rocks. The origin of the primary volcanic rocks of the metabasite-enderbite association is inferred on the basis of a model of mantle plume magmatism, which postulates that both andesitic and dacitic melts were derived from the primary basitic crust at the expense of heat generated by ascending mantle plumes. The formation of the protoliths of the Archen metabasite-enderbite association of the Siberian craton began at 3.4 Ga and continued until the late Archean.

  10. Riftogenic magmatism of western part of the Early Mesozoic Mongolian-Transbaikalian igneous province: Results of geochronological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kozlovsky, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Travin, A. V.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    Geochronological studies of rocks from a bimodal high-alkali volcanic-plutonic complex collected in the area of Kharkhorin zone of the Early Mesozoic Mongolian-Transbaikalian igneous province (MTIP) are made. The age of alkali granites from Olziit sum is 211 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb ID-TIMS on zircon) to 209 ± 2 and 217 ± 4 Ma (40Ar/39Ar on alkali amphibole); the age of alkali granite-porphyries from the area of Sant sum is 206 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb ID-TIMS on zircon). These rock series formed syncronously to the analogous magmatism episode in the Northern Gobi and Western Transbaikalian rift zones of the MTIP. The similarity of the age and composition of igneous associations of the MTIP suggests a common mechanism of its formation related to the effect of a mantle plume on the continental lithosphere at the base of the entire igneous zone having a zonal structure.

  11. Submarine sliver in North Kona: A window into the early magmatic and growth history of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammer, Julia E.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Shamberger, Patrick J.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur-rich hawaiite glasses at the base of the elongate ridge may represent the first extant representatives of juvenile alkalic volcanism at Hualalai. They are geochemically distinct from shield tholeiite and post-shield alkalic magmas, but may be related to transitional basalt by high-pressure crystal fractionation of clinopyroxene. Tholeiitic glasses that compose the majority of the exposed outcrop are similar to Mauna Kea tholeiites and other Hualalai tholeiites, but they differ from younger basalts in having greater incompatible element enrichments and higher CaO for a given MgO. These differences could arise from small extents of partial melting during the transition from alkalic to shield stage magmatism. Low sulfur contents of most of the volcaniclastic tholeiites point to early emergence of Hualalai above sea level relative to the development of the midslope slump bench.

  12. The conchostracan subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) from the Tacuarembó Formation (Late Jurassic-?Early Cretaceous, Uruguay) with notes on its geological age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanbin, Shen; Gallego, Oscar F.; Martínez, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    Conchostracans from the Tacuarembó Formation s.s. of Uruguay are reassigned to the subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) Chen and Shen. They show more similarities to genera of Late Jurassic age in the Congo Basin and China than to those of Early Cretaceous age. On the basis of the character of the conchostracans, we suggest that the Tacuarembó Formation is unlikely to be older than Late Jurassic. It is probably Kimmeridgian, but an Early Cretaceous age cannot be excluded. This finding is consistent with isotopic dating of the overlying basalts, as well as the age range of recently described fossil freshwater sharks.

  13. A Triassic to Cretaceous Sundaland-Pacific subduction margin in West Sarawak, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Hall, Robert; Galin, Thomson; Forster, Margaret A.; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in West Sarawak are poorly exposed and studied. They were previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement but had never been dated. New 40Ar/39Ar ages from white mica in quartz-mica schists reveal metamorphism between c. 216 to 220 Ma. The metamorphic rocks are associated with Triassic acid and basic igneous rocks, which indicate widespread magmatism. New U-Pb dating of zircons from the Jagoi Granodiorite indicates Triassic magmatism at c. 208 Ma and c. 240 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from volcaniclastic sediments of the Sadong and Kuching Formations confirms contemporaneous volcanism. The magmatic activity is interpreted to represent a Triassic subduction margin in westernmost West Sarawak with sediments deposited in a forearc basin derived from the magmatic arc at the Sundaland-Pacific margin. West Sarawak and NW Kalimantan are underlain by continental crust that was already part of Sundaland or accreted to Sundaland in the Triassic. One metabasite sample, also previously assumed to be pre-Carboniferous basement, yielded Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages. They are interpreted to indicate resumption of subduction which led to deposition of volcaniclastic sediments and widespread magmatism. U-Pb ages from detrital zircons in the Cretaceous Pedawan Formation are similar to those from the Schwaner granites of NW Kalimantan, and the Pedawan Formation is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous forearc basin containing material eroded from a magmatic arc that extended from Vietnam to west Borneo. The youngest U-Pb ages from zircons in a tuff layer from the uppermost part of the Pedawan Formation indicate that volcanic activity continued until c. 86 to 88 Ma when subduction terminated.

  14. A synthesis of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous crustal evolution along the southern margin of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka microplate and implications for defining tectonic boundaries active during opening of Arctic Ocean basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    result of the rotation of Arctic Alaska into central and western Chukotka. In northeastern Chukotka, the thickened rocks are separated from the relatively little thickened continental crust of the remainder of Chukotka by the oceanic rocks of the Kolyuchin-Mechigmen zone. The zone is a candidate for an Early Cretaceous suture that separated most of Chukotka from northeast Chukotka and Alaska. Albian patterns of magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation in Chukotka and the Seward Peninsula may represent an example of escape tectonics that developed in response to final amalgamation of Chukotka with Eurasia.

  15. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds. PMID:26580402

  16. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  17. Closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean as Constrained by Late Permian to Early Cretaceous Paleomagnetic Data from the Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogne, J.; Kravchinsky, V.; Gilder, S.; Hankard, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Paleozoic Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean separated the Siberian craton to the north from a landmass composed of Amuria, Tarim, Qaidam, Tibet and the North and South China blocks to the south. Based on a comparison of paleomagnetic data from the NCB with the Eurasian apparent polar wander path, this ocean closed by the beginning of the Cretaceous. We present here a review of recent paleomagnetic studies of Late Permian to Early Cretaceous formations from the Transbaikal area of south Siberia, coming from localities situated on both sides of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The main conclusions that we draw from these studies are as follows. (1) A Late Permian ~4500 km latitude difference indeed existed between Amuria and the Siberia blocks at 110°E longitude. (2) In Middle-Late Jurassic times, a 1700 to 2700 km paleolatitudinal gap still existed between the two blocks. This contradicts geological interpretations of a Middle Jurassic closure of the ocean at this longitude. (3) Consistency of Early Cretaceous paleolatitudes from both sides of the suture demonstrates the closure of the ocean at that time. Altogether, these suggest a quite fast closure between the Middle Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, at about 15±11 cm/yr. Finally, all pre-Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles appear to be distributed along small-circles centered on site localities. We think this is due to continued deformation acting in the Mongol-Okhotsk suture region related to suturing. Conversely, the post-Early Cretaceous rotations may be related to Tertiary deformation under the effect of the India-Asia collision.

  18. Magmatic complexity on early Mars as seen through a combination of orbital, in-situ and meteorite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; Toplis, Michael J.; Beck, Pierre; Mangold, Nicolas; Wiens, Roger; Pinet, Patrick; Cousin, Agnes; Maurice, Sylvestre; LeDeit, Laetitia; Hewins, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Quantin, Cathy; Forni, Olivier; Newsom, Horton; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wray, James; Bridges, Nathan; Payré, Valérie; Rapin, William; Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    Until recently, Mars was considered a basalt-covered world, but this vision is evolving thanks to new orbital, in situ and meteorite observations, in particular of rocks of the ancient Noachian period. In this contribution we summarise newly recognised compositional and mineralogical differences between older and more recent rocks, and explore the geodynamic implications of these new findings. For example the MSL rover has discovered abundant felsic rocks close to the landing site coming from the wall of Gale crater ranging from alkali basalt to trachyte. In addition, the recently discovered Martian regolith breccia NWA 7034 (and paired samples) contain many coarse-grained noritic-monzonitic clasts demonstrably Noachian in age, and even some clasts that plot in the mugearite field. Olivine is also conspicuously lacking in these ancient samples, in contrast to later Hesperian rocks. The alkali-suite requires low-degree melting of the Martian mantle at low pressure, whereas the later Hesperian magmatism would appear to be produced by higher mantle temperatures. Various scenarios are proposed to explain these observations, including different styles of magmatic activity (i.e. passive upwelling vs. hotspots). A second petrological suite of increasing interest involves quartzo-feldspathic materials that were first inferred from orbit, in local patches in the southern highlands and in the lower units of Valles Marineris. However, identification of felsic rocks from orbit is limited by the low detectability of feldspar in the near infrared. On the other hand, the MSL rover has described the texture, mineralogy and composition of felsic rocks in Gale crater that are granodiorite-like samples akin to terrestrial TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite suites). These observations, and the low average density of the highlands crust, suggest the early formation of 'continental' crust on Mars, although the details of the geodynamic scenario and the importance of volatiles in

  19. Evolving Mantle Sources in Postcollisional Early Permian-Triassic Magmatic Rocks in the Heart of Tianshan Orogen (Western China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Cawood, Peter A.; Wyman, Derek A.; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Magmatism postdating the initiation of continental collision provides insight into the late stage evolution of orogenic belts including the composition of the contemporaneous underlying subcontinental mantle. The Awulale Mountains, in the heart of the Tianshan Orogen, display three types of postcollisional mafic magmatic rocks. (1) A medium to high K calc-alkaline mafic volcanic suite (˜280 Ma), which display low La/Yb ratios (2.2-11.8) and a wide range of ɛNd(t) values from +1.9 to +7.4. This suite of rocks was derived from melting of depleted metasomatized asthenospheric mantle followed by upper crustal contamination. (2) Mafic shoshonitic basalts (˜272 Ma), characterized by high La/Yb ratios (14.4-20.5) and more enriched isotope compositions (ɛNd(t) = +0.2 - +0.8). These rocks are considered to have been generated by melting of lithospheric mantle enriched by melts from the Tarim continental crust that was subducted beneath the Tianshan during final collisional suturing. (3) Mafic dikes (˜240 Ma), with geochemical and isotope compositions similiar to the ˜280 Ma basaltic rocks. This succession of postcollision mafic rock types suggests there were two stages of magma generation involving the sampling of different mantle sources. The first stage, which occurred in the early Permian, involved a shift from depleted asthenospheric sources to enriched lithospheric mantle. It was most likely triggered by the subduction of Tarim continental crust and thickening of the Tianshan lithospheric mantle. During the second stage, in the middle Triassic, there was a reversion to more asthenospheric sources, related to postcollision lithospheric thinning.

  20. Strongly foliated garnetiferous amphibolite clasts in ophiolitic melanges, Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet; Early Cretaceous disruption of a back-arc basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmette, C.; Hebert, R.; Wang, C.; Indares, A. D.; Ullrich, T. D.; Dostal, J.; Bedard, E.

    2007-12-01

    equilibrium between 11-13 kbars and 825-850°C, corresponding to high-P granulite facies conditions. In a general way, the geochemistry of the strongly foliated amphibolite clasts suggests that their igneous protolith probably crystallized within the same supra-subduction zone as the crustal rocks from the overlying ophiolite. Then some of these rocks were entrained to mantle depth and were rapidly exhumed, most likely along a lithospheric scale thrust fault underneath the ophiolite. This event corresponds with the end of magmatic activity within the ophiolitic crust and mantle and could be regarded as the inception of a subduction plane at the spreading ridge of a back-arc basin. The whole package was later on obducted over the Indian passive margin, at about 70 Ma. Such a model suggests that closure of the oceanic domain separating India from Eurasia implied disruption of at least one arc-back-arc system, thus requiring at least one early intraoceanic collision or major plate movement reorganization prior to the Late Cretaceous obduction.

  1. Palaeogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: palaeotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, A. C.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Rohais, S.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean is debated. Our objective is to better constraint the timing of its evolution by drawing palaeogeographic and deformation maps. Eight palaeogeographic and deformations maps were drawn from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollens) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains that have a different history in terms of deformation and palaeogeography. The southern domain includes Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the South, to Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the North. Extension started in the northern domain during Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain. This is time of emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp (Late Hauterivian-Early Barremian). Extension started in this southern domain during Early Barremian. The brittle extensional period is shorter in the South (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the North (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to Base Aptian). From Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower one, organic-rich with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until Early Barremian, North of Walvis Ridge. The Sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the southern domain, the transition between the brittle rift and the sag phase is continuous. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age, possible period of mantle exhumation. Marine

  2. New toothed flying reptile from Asia: close similarities between early Cretaceous pterosaur faunas from China and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Cheng, Xin

    2012-04-01

    Despite the great increase in pterosaur diversity in the last decades, particularly due to discoveries made in western Liaoning (China), very little is known regarding pterosaur biogeography. Here, we present the description of a new pterosaur from the Jiufotang Formation that adds significantly to our knowledge of pterosaur distribution and enhances the diversity of cranial anatomy found in those volant creatures. Guidraco venator gen. et sp. nov. has an unusual upward-directed frontal crest and large rostral teeth, some of which surpass the margins of the skull and lower jaw when occluded. The new species is closely related to a rare taxon from the Brazilian Crato Formation, posing an interesting paleobiogeographic problem and supporting the hypothesis that at least some early Cretaceous pterosaur clades, such as the Tapejaridae and the Anhangueridae, might have originated in Asia. The association of the new specimen with coprolites and the cranial morphology suggest that G. venator preyed on fish.

  3. Evolution of volcanically-induced palaeoenvironmental changes leading to the onset of OAE1a (early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During the Cretaceous, several major volcanic events occurred that initiated climate warming, altered marine circulation and increased marine productivity, which in turn often resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Therefore the negative C-isotope excursion covers the interval between the time, when volcanic activity became important enough to be recorded in the C-isotope composition of the oceans to the onset of widespread anoxic conditions (OAE1a). We chose this interval at the locality of Pusiano (N-Italy) to study the effect of a volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 on the marine palaeoenvironment and to observe the evolving palaeoenvironmental conditions that finally led to OAE1a. The Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation) was deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and has been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). We selected 18 samples from 12 black shale horizons for palynofacies analyses. Palynofacies assemblages consist of several types of particulate organic matter, providing information on the origin of the organic matter (terrestrial/marine) and conditions during deposition (oxic/anoxic). We then linked the palynofacies results to high-resolution inorganic and organic C-isotope values and total organic carbon content measurements. The pelagic Pusiano section consists of repeated limestone-black shale couplets, which are interpreted to be the result of changes in oxygenation of bottom waters. Towards the end of the negative C-isotope excursion we observe enhanced preservation of the fragile amorphous organic matter resulting in increased

  4. Early Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia based on food-web and energy-flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsukawa, M.; Saiki, K.; Ito, M.; Obata, I.; Nichols, D.J.; Lockley, M.G.; Kukihara, R.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, there has been global interest in the environments and ecosystems around the world. It is helpful to reconstruct past environments and ecosystems to help understand them in the present and the future. The present environments and ecosystems are an evolving continuum with those of the past and the future. This paper demonstrates the contribution of geology and paleontology to such continua. Using fossils, we can make an estimation of past population density as an ecosystem index based on food-web and energy-flow models. Late Mesozoic nonmarine deposits are distributed widely on the eastern Asian continent and contain various kinds of fossils such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, mammals, bivalves, gastropods, insects, ostracodes, conchostracans, terrestrial plants, and others. These fossil organisms are useful for late Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystem reconstruction using food-web and energy-flow models. We chose Early Cretaceous fluvio-lacustrine basins in the Choyr area, southeastern Mongolia, and the Tetori area, Japan, for these analyses and as a potential model for reconstruction of other similar basins in East Asia. The food-web models are restored based on taxa that occurred in these basins. They form four or five trophic levels in an energy pyramid consisting of rich primary producers at its base and smaller biotas higher in the food web. This is the general energy pyramid of a typical ecosystem. Concerning the population densities of vertebrate taxa in 1 km2 in these basins, some differences are recognized between Early Cretaceous and the present. For example, Cretaceous estimates suggest 2.3 to 4.8 times as many herbivores and 26.0 to 105.5 times the carnivore population. These differences are useful for the evaluation of past population densities of vertebrate taxa. Such differences may also be caused by the different metabolism of different taxa. Preservation may also be a factor, and we recognize that various problems occur in

  5. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous convergent margins of Northeastern Asia with Northwestern Pacific and Proto-Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Luchitskaya, Marina; Tuchkova, Marianna; Moiseev, Artem; Ledneva, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin of Northeastern Asia includes many island arc terranes that differ in age and tectonic position. Two convergent margins are reconstructed for Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous time: Uda-Murgal and Alazeya - Oloy island arc systems. A long tectonic zone composed of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks is recognized along the Asian continent margin from the Mongol-Okhotsk thrust-fold belt on the south to the Chukotka Peninsula on the north. This belt represents the Uda-Murgal arc, which was developed along the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern Meso-Pacific. Several segments are identified in this arc based upon the volcanic and sedimentary rock assemblages, their respective compositions and basement structures. The southern and central parts of the Uda-Murgal island arc system were a continental margin belt with heterogeneous basement represented by metamorphic rocks of the Siberian craton, the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex of Siberian passive margin and the Koni-Taigonos late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic island arc with accreted oceanic terranes. At the present day latitude of the Pekulney and Chukotka segments there was an ensimatic island arc with relicts of the South Anyui oceanic basin in backarc basin. Alazeya-Oloy island arc systems consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic complexes that belong to the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Proto-Artic Ocean. It separated structures of the North American and Siberian continents. The Siberian margin was active whereas the North American margin was passive. The Late Jurassic was characterized by termination of a spreading in the Proto-Arctic Ocean and transformation of the latter into the closing South Anyui turbidite basin. In the beginning the oceanic lithosphere and then the Chukotka microcontinent had been subducted beneath the Alazeya-Oloy volcanic belt

  6. Petroleum system elements within the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Nigeria's inland basins: An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dim, Chidozie Izuchukwu Princeton; Onuoha, K. Mosto; Okeugo, Chukwudike Gabriel; Ozumba, Bertram Maduka

    2017-06-01

    Sequence stratigraphic studies have been carried out using subsurface well and 2D seismic data in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene sediments of Anambra and proximal onshore section of Niger Delta Basin in the Southeastern Nigeria. The aim was to establish the stratigraphic framework for better understanding of the reservoir, source and seal rock presence and distribution in the basin. Thirteen stratigraphic bounding surfaces (consisting of six maximum flooding surfaces - MFSs and seven sequence boundaries - SBs) were recognized and calibrated using a newly modified chronostratigraphic chart. Stratigraphic surfaces were matched with corresponding foraminiferal and palynological biozones, aiding correlation across wells in this study. Well log sequence stratigraphic correlation reveals that stratal packages within the basin are segmented into six depositional sequences occurring from Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene age. Generated gross depositional environment maps at various MFSs show that sediment packages deposited within shelfal to deep marine settings, reflect continuous rise and fall of sea levels within a regressive cycle. Each of these sequences consist of three system tracts (lowstand system tract - LST, transgressive system tract - TST and highstand system tract - HST) that are associated with mainly progradational and retrogradational sediment stacking patterns. Well correlation reveals that the sand and shale units of the LSTs, HSTs and TSTs, that constitute the reservoir and source/seal packages respectively are laterally continuous and thicken basinwards, due to structural influences. Result from interpretation of seismic section reveals the presence of hanging wall, footwall, horst block and collapsed crest structures. These structural features generally aid migration and offer entrapment mechanism for hydrocarbon accumulation. The combination of these reservoirs, sources, seals and trap elements form a good petroleum system that is viable

  7. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from Lingshan Island in the Sulu Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuanku; Santosh, M.; Li, Rihui; Xu, Yang; Hou, Fanghui

    2018-07-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in eastern China marks the boundary between the Yangtze Block and the North China Block. Here we investigate a suite of volcanic rocks from Lingshan Island in the Sulu belt comprising rhyolite, trachyte, trachyandesite and basaltic trachyandesite. We present petrological, geochemical and zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hfsbnd O isotope data with a view to gain insights on the petrogenesis and tectonic implications. SHRIMP II analyses of zircon grains from the rhyolite yield 206Pb/238U age of 127.6 ± 1.3 Ma and LA-MC-ICP-MS dating show 126.3 ± 1.2 Ma and 127.3 ± 1.1 Ma, together constraining the eruption time as Early Cretaceous. LA-MC-ICP-MS analyses of zircon grains from the andesitic rocks yield 206Pb/238U ages of 129.0 ± 1.6 Ma, 129.8 ± 1.5 Ma and 130.9 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemically, the rhyolite shows shoshonitic features with low MgO and Cr, but high Na2O + K2O. The zircon grains from these rocks yield negative εHf(t) values and low δ18O values, and these together with the presence of Neoproterozoic inherited zircons suggest that the magma source involved melting of the Yangtze crust. The andesitic rocks, including basaltic trachyandesite, trachyandesite and trachyte, show a wide range of SiO2, Mg# values, and Cr, enriched in LILE and LREE, depleted in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti), and have significantly negative zircon εHf(t) values, suggesting derivation from subcontinental lithosphere mantle that was metasomatized by felsic melts. Our results, integrated with those from previous studies suggest heterogeneous magma involving the mixing of mantle and crustal sources within an extensional setting in the Early Cretaceous.

  8. A bizarre theropod from the Early Cretaceous of Japan highlighting mosaic evolution among coelurosaurians

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Yoichi; Xu, Xing; Shibata, Masateru; Kawabe, Soichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Imai, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of coelurosaurian evolution, particularly of bird origins, has been greatly improved, mainly due to numerous recently discovered fossils worldwide. Nearly all these discoveries are referable to the previously known coelurosaurian subgroups. Here, we report a new theropod, Fukuivenator paradoxus, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Kitadani Formation of the Tetori Group, Fukui, Japan. While Fukuivenator possesses a large number of morphological features unknown in any other theropod, it has a combination of primitive and derived features seen in different theropod subgroups, notably dromaeosaurid dinosaurs. Computed-tomography data indicate that Fukuivenator possesses inner ears whose morphology is intermediate between those of birds and non-avian dinosaurs. Our phylogenetic analysis recovers Fukuivenator as a basally branching maniraptoran theropod, yet is unable to refer it to any known coelurosaurian subgroups. The discovery of Fukuivenator considerably increases the morphological disparity of coelurosaurian dinosaurs and highlights the high levels of homoplasy in coelurosaurian evolution. PMID:26908367

  9. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  10. A stem acrodontan lizard in the Cretaceous of Brazil revises early lizard evolution in Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Simões, Tiago R; Wilner, Everton; Caldwell, Michael W; Weinschütz, Luiz C; Kellner, Alexander W A

    2015-08-26

    Iguanians are one of the most diverse groups of extant lizards (>1,700 species) with acrodontan iguanians dominating in the Old World, and non-acrodontans in the New World. A new lizard species presented herein is the first acrodontan from South America, indicating acrodontans radiated throughout Gondwana much earlier than previously thought, and that some of the first South American lizards were more closely related to their counterparts in Africa and Asia than to the modern fauna of South America. This suggests both groups of iguanians achieved a worldwide distribution before the final breakup of Pangaea. At some point, non-acrodontans replaced acrodontans and became the only iguanians in the Americas, contrary to what happened on most of the Old World. This discovery also expands the diversity of Cretaceous lizards in South America, which with recent findings, suggests sphenodontians were not the dominant lepidosaurs in that continent as previously hypothesized.

  11. Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous dioritic dikes in the Shanyang-Zhashui area, South Qinling, central China: Evidence for partial melting of thickened lower continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Zongqi; Wang, Kunming

    2018-06-01

    environments in the Early Cretaceous. This process resulted in the upwelling of the asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle, causing partial melting of the mafic lower crust and forming the adakitic dioritic melts.

  12. Polyphase exhumation in the western Qinling Mountains, China: Rapid Early Cretaceous cooling along a lithospheric-scale tear fault and pulsed Cenozoic uplift

    PubMed Central

    Heberer, Bianca; Anzenbacher, Thomas; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Dong, Yunpeng; Dunkl, István

    2014-01-01

    The western sector of the Qinling–Dabie orogenic belt plays a key role in both Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous “Yanshanian” intracontinental tectonics and Cenozoic lateral escape triggered by India–Asia collision. The Taibai granite in the northern Qinling Mountains is located at the westernmost tip of a Yanshanian granite belt. It consists of multiple intrusions, constrained by new Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous U–Pb zircon ages (156 ± 3 Ma and 124 ± 1 Ma). Applying various geochronometers (40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar, apatite fission-track, apatite [U–Th–Sm]/He) along a vertical profile of the Taibai Mountain refines the cooling and exhumation history. The new age constraints record the prolonged pre-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation as well as the cooling history mostly related to India–Asia collision. We detected rapid cooling for the Taibai granite from ca. 800 to 100 °C during Early Cretaceous (ca. 123 to 100 Ma) followed by a period of slow cooling from ca. 100 Ma to ca. 25 Ma, and pulsed exhumation of the low-relief Cretaceous peneplain during Cenozoic times. We interpret the Early Cretaceous rapid cooling and exhumation as a result from activity along the southern sinistral lithospheric scale tear fault of the recently postulated intracontinental subduction of the Archean/Palaeoproterozoic North China Block beneath the Alashan Block. A Late Oligocene to Early Miocene cooling phase might be triggered either by the lateral motion during India–Asia collision and/or the Pacific subduction zone. Late Miocene intensified cooling is ascribed to uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27065503

  13. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  14. New Evidence for opening of the Black Sea; U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons and paleocurrent measurements of the Early Cretaceous turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, Remziye; Okay, Aral I.; Sunal, Gürsel; Tari, Gabor; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-04-01

    Shelf to submarine turbidite fan deposits of the Early Cretaceous crop out over a large area along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Early Cretaceous turbidites have a thickness of over 2000 meters in the Central Pontides. The shelf of this turbidite basin, represented by shallow marine clastics and carbonates, crops out along the Black Sea coast between Zonguldak and Amasra. Paleocurrent directions in the Lower Cretaceous turbidites were measured in 90 localities using mostly flute and groove casts and to a lesser extend cross-beds. At the eastern part of the basin, the paleocurrents were from north to south. It is scattered in the west of the basin, however, the main paleocurrent directions were from the north. Detrital zircons were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS in eleven samples from the turbiditic sandstones and two samples from the shelf sandstones. Four samples are from the western part (two samples from shelf sediments), four samples from the central part and five samples from the eastern part of the Lower Cretaceous basin. 1085 of 1348 zircon analyses are concordant with rates of 95-105% and the zircon ages range between 141 ± 4 Ma (Berriasian) and 3469 ± 8 Ma (Paleoarchean). 22% of the detrital zircon ages are Paleoproterozoic, 20% Archean, 16% Carboniferous, 13% Neoproterozoic, 8% Permian, 6% Triassic, 5% Mesoproterozoic and 11% other ages. In the western part of the basin the Carboniferous zircons constitute the main population with a less dominant peak at Ordovician, Cambrian and Late Neoproterozoic. The zircons from the center of the basin show scattered distribution with dominant populations in the Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous, Silurian, Paleoproterozoic, Early Neoproterozoic-Late Mesoproterozoic, and minor peak at Late Neoarchean. On the other hand, zircons from the eastern most part of the basin, show dominant peaks in the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoarchean and Permian with minor peaks in Triassic, Carboniferous and Silurian. Anatolia and the Balkans

  15. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from Cenozoic sediments in the southwestern Tarim Basin, NW China: Implications for Eocene-Pliocene source-to-sink relations and new insights into Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Ling; Wu, Chaodong; Song, Yan; Jiang, Zhenxue; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Ziya; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Bei

    2018-05-01

    A detailed investigation of potential provenance is still lacking in the southwestern Tarim Basin, which restricts our complete understanding of Cenozoic source-to-sink relations between the basin interior and the Pamir salient - western Kunlun Mountain Range. Debate also exists concerning the potential sources of the Paleogene and Cretaceous igneous detritus present in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. Here, we present U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) ages of detrital zircons from the continuous Eocene-Pliocene sediment series in the well-exposed Aertashi section to investigate changes in sediment provenance through time. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages range widely from 45 to 3204 Ma and can be divided into seven main groups: 45-65 Ma (sub-peak at 49 Ma), 67-103 Ma (sub-peak at 95 Ma), 196-251 Ma (sub-peak at 208 Ma), 252-416 Ma (sub-peak at 296 Ma), 417-540 Ma (sub-peak at 446 Ma), 550-1429 Ma (sub-peaks at 614 Ma, 828 Ma and 942 Ma) and 1345-3204 Ma (sub-peaks at 1773 Ma and 2480 Ma). These zircons were mainly derived from the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient to the west and south. The evolution of the provenance and source-to-sink relationship patterns in the southwestern Tarim Basin can be divided into three stages: (1) The Middle Eocene to Lower Oligocene sediments display a wide variety of detrital zircon ages, suggesting that the source area was extensive. (2) A major change in provenance occurred during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene and was characterized by an abrupt increase in the proportion of Triassic and Lower Paleozoic igneous components, implying a significant adjustment in topography induced by the initial uplift and exhumation of the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient. (3) In the Late Miocene, the source-to-sink system transformed again, and contributions of Triassic to Lower Paleozoic material weakened substantially due to the sufficient indentation of the Pamir salient. Our integrated analyses of zircon

  16. Astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage (Early Cretaceous) : implications for the origin of the Weissert Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Deconinck, Jean-François; Pellenard, Pierre; Reboulet, Stéphane; Riquier, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of available radioisotopic ages in the Lower Cretaceous, the Geologic Time Scale presents uncertainties that impact palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Particularly, the chronological relationship between the Mid-Valanginian carbon-isotope excursion (namely the 'Weissert Event') and the activity of the Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province is debated. To better constrain this relationship, an astrochronology of the Valanginian Stage is proposed based on high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed on five biostratigraphically well-constrained sections throughout the Vocontian Basin (SE France). The Valanginian sediments of the Vocontian Basin are composed of decimetric hemipelagic marl-limestone alternations. These lithologic cycles are attributed to orbital forcing because marls and limestones display significant differences within clay mineralogy, geochemistry and faunal assemblages and these marl-limestone alternations are correlated throughout the Western Tethys and the Atlantic Ocean. Among the analyzed sections, Vergol (GSSP candidate for the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary), La Charce (GSSP candidate for the Valanginian-Hauterivian boundary) and Angles (Valanginian Hypostratotype) are standard sections for the Valanginian Stage since all ammonite zones and subzones are precisely identified and bounded. Spectral analyses were performed using the multi-taper method and amplitude spectrograms on the gamma-ray signals. The comparison between sedimentary frequency ratios derived from the spectral analyses and orbital frequency ratios calculated from astronomical solutions allows the identification of a pervasive dominance of the precession and the 405 kyr-eccentricity cycles throughout the Valanginian Stage. A duration of 5.1 myr is proposed for the Valanginian Stage on the base of the recognition of the 405 kyr-eccentricity cycles. This duration is in agreement with the orbital calibration proposed from

  17. A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China and the phylogeny of Cretaceous basal eucryptodiran turtles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is an emblematic turtle from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China, a geological rock unit that is famous for yielding perfectly preserved skeletons of fossil vertebrates, including that of feathered dinosaurs. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis was one of the first vertebrates described from this fauna, also known as the Jehol Biota. The holotype was lost during World War II and only one additional specimen has been described since. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is a critical taxon for unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of Cretaceous pancryptodires from Asia, a group that is considered to be of key importance for the origin of crown-group hidden-neck turtles (Cryptodira). Results A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is described here from the Jiufotang Formation of Qilinshan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China. This is the third specimen described and expands the range of this taxon from the Yixian Formation of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin in Liaoning to the Jiufotang Formation of the Chifeng-Yuanbaoshan Basin. A possible temporal extension of the range is less certain. The new finding adds to our understanding of the morphology of this taxon and invites a thorough revision of the phylogeny of Macrobaenidae, Sinemydidae, and closely allied forms. Conclusions Our comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Cretaceous Asian pancryptodires yielded two main competing hypotheses: in the first these taxa form a paraphyletic grade, whereas in the second they form a monophyletic clade. The inclusion of problematic tree changing taxa, such as Panpleurodires (stem + crown side-neck turtles) has a major influence on the phylogenetic relationships of Sinemydidae and closely allied forms. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis nests within Sinemydidae together with Sinemys spp. and Dracochelys bicuspis in the majority of our analyses. PMID:24707892

  18. Early Evolution of Modern Birds Structured by Global Forest Collapse at the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction.

    PubMed

    Field, Daniel J; Bercovici, Antoine; Berv, Jacob S; Dunn, Regan; Fastovsky, David E; Lyson, Tyler R; Vajda, Vivi; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2018-06-04

    The fossil record and recent molecular phylogenies support an extraordinary early-Cenozoic radiation of crown birds (Neornithes) after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction [1-3]. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the survival of the deepest lineages within crown birds across the K-Pg boundary, particularly since this global catastrophe eliminated even the closest stem-group relatives of Neornithes [4]. Here, ancestral state reconstructions of neornithine ecology reveal a strong bias toward taxa exhibiting predominantly non-arboreal lifestyles across the K-Pg, with multiple convergent transitions toward predominantly arboreal ecologies later in the Paleocene and Eocene. By contrast, ecomorphological inferences indicate predominantly arboreal lifestyles among enantiornithines, the most diverse and widespread Mesozoic avialans [5-7]. Global paleobotanical and palynological data show that the K-Pg Chicxulub impact triggered widespread destruction of forests [8, 9]. We suggest that ecological filtering due to the temporary loss of significant plant cover across the K-Pg boundary selected against any flying dinosaurs (Avialae [10]) committed to arboreal ecologies, resulting in a predominantly non-arboreal post-extinction neornithine avifauna composed of total-clade Palaeognathae, Galloanserae, and terrestrial total-clade Neoaves that rapidly diversified into the broad range of avian ecologies familiar today. The explanation proposed here provides a unifying hypothesis for the K-Pg-associated mass extinction of arboreal stem birds, as well as for the post-K-Pg radiation of arboreal crown birds. It also provides a baseline hypothesis to be further refined pending the discovery of additional neornithine fossils from the Latest Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Litho- and biofacies of Early Cretaceous rudist-bearing carbonate sediments in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Shin-ichi

    1995-11-01

    Carbonate blocks of late Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) age occur in the Lower Yezo Group of central Hokkaido in northeast Japan. The shallow-water carbonates were emplaced by gravity sliding and rock fall into a deep-water flysch basin. Various lithofacies can be distinguished within the blocks including massive wackestone, bedded packstone and micro-oncoid grainstone, containing corals, rudists, an oyster, gastropods, calcareous algae and an orbitolinid foraminifer. Facies and palaeoecological analyses suggest deposition of low-energy biostromes and sand banks in open lagoonal and restricted environments with local higher-energy shoals and beaches. The presence of calcareous sandstones and abundant insoluble residues in limestones suggest deposition in an attached carbonate platform close to a supply of terrigenous material, rather than deposition upon seamounts within an oceanic setting. A narrow rimmed shelf in tropical-subtropical conditions would have been the depositional environment for these carbonates, which were subsequently deformed into blocks and transported into deep water as a result of the tectonic collapse of the platform.

  20. Stable Isotopes Reveal Rapid Enamel Elongation (Amelogenesis) Rates for the Early Cretaceous Iguanodontian Dinosaur Lanzhousaurus magnidens.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Celina A; You, Hai-Lu; Suarez, Marina B; Li, Da-Qing; Trieschmann, J B

    2017-11-10

    Lanzhousaurus magnidens, a large non-hadrosauriform iguanodontian dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group of Gansu Province, China has the largest known herbivorous dinosaur teeth. Unlike its hadrosauriform relatives possessing tooth batteries of many small teeth, Lanzhousaurus utilized a small number (14) of very large teeth (~10 cm long) to create a large, continuous surface for mastication. Here we investigate the significance of Lanzhousaurus in the evolutionary history of iguanodontian-hadrosauriform transition by using a combination of stable isotope analysis and CT imagery. We infer that Lanzhousaurus had a rapid rate of tooth enamel elongation or amelogenesis at 0.24 mm/day with dental tissues common to other Iguanodontian dinosaurs. Among ornithopods, high rates of amelogenesis have been previously observed in hadrosaurids, where they have been associated with a sophisticated masticatory apparatus. These data suggest rapid amelogenesis evolved among non-hadrosauriform iguanodontians such as Lanzhousaurus, representing a crucial step that was exapted for the evolution of the hadrosaurian feeding mechanism.

  1. Early Cretaceous to Paleocene North American Drainage Reorganization and Sediment Routing from Detrital Zircons: Significance to the Alberta Oil Sands and Gulf of Mexico Petroleum Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons (DZs) represent a powerful tool for reconstructing continental paleodrainage. This paper uses new DZ data from Lower Cretaceous strata of the Alberta foreland basin, and Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata of the Gulf of Mexico passive margin, to reconstruct paleodrainage and sediment routing, and illustrate significance to giant hydrocarbon systems. DZ populations from the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group of Alberta and Saskatchewan infer a continental-scale river system that routed sediment from the eastern 2/3rds of North America to the Boreal Sea. Aptian McMurray Formation fluvial sands were derived from a drainage sourced in the Appalachians that was similar in scale to the modern Amazon. Albian fluvial sandstones of the Clearwater and Grand Rapids Formations were derived from the same Appalachian-sourced drainage area, which had expanded to include tributaries from the Cordilleran arc of the northwest US and southwest Canada. DZ populations from the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain complement this view, showing that only the southern US and Appalachian-Ouachita cordillera was integrated with the Gulf through the Late Cretaceous. However, by the Paleocene, drainage from the US Western Cordillera to the Appalachians had been routed to the Gulf of Mexico, establishing the template for sediment routing that persists today. The paleodrainage reorganization and changes in sediment routing described above played key roles in establishment of the Alberta oil sands and Gulf of Mexico as giant petroleum provinces. Early Cretaceous routing of a continental-scale fluvial system to the Alberta foreland provided large and contiguous fluvial point-bar sand bodies that became economically viable reservoirs, whereas mid- to late Cretaceous drainage reorganization routed greatly increased sediment loads to the Gulf of Mexico, which loaded the shelf, matured source rocks, and drove the gravitational and salt tectonics that helped establish the working hydrocarbon

  2. Widespread Magmatism as a Result of Impact Related Decompression Melting on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Flat-floored craters on Mars have been observed since early spacecraft viewed the surface. Early work characterized these craters as infilled by sedimentary materials [e.g. Christensen, 1983] but later work using THEMIS thermal inertia determined these craters contain some of the rockiest materials on the planet and not sedimentary materials [Edwards et al., 2009]. Here we investigate the distribution, physical properties (morphology and thermal inertia), and composition of these craters over the entire planet. We find the majority of rocky crater floors identified (~3300) are concentrated in the low albedo (0.1-0.17), cratered southern highlands. These craters are associated with the highest thermal inertia values (e.g. > 500 to 2000 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), some of the most mafic materials on the planet (enriched in olivine/pyroxene vs. high-Si phases/plagioclase, often with >10-15% olivine areal abundance), and formed ~3.5 billion years ago. Based on the properties of the crater fill materials described, three mechanisms are considered for the formation of flat-floored, high thermal inertia crater floors on Mars including: 1) the lithification/induration of sediments, 2) the ponding of crustal melt material related to the heat generated during the impact process, and 3) infilling by volcanic materials. We find the only likely scenario is volcanic infilling through fractures created in the impact event. Furthermore, we find the generation of the primitive magma would be directly sourced from the decompression melting of the martian mantle due to the removal of several kilometers of overlying crustal material by the impactor. As the ancient martian crust was likely thin and the geothermal gradients were significantly higher than present day [e.g. Zuber, 2001], the decompression melting of the mantle [Bertka and Holloway, 1994] would be more likely to occur on early Mars then under present day conditions. This is borne out by the ancient ages (~3-4Ga) of the crater floors

  3. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: Carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Coombs, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids' distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400??C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ???3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  4. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Kimura, J.-I.; Coombs, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids’ distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400°C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ~3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  5. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and

  6. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  7. Magmatic @d^1^8O in 4400-3900 Ma detrital zircons: A record of the alteration and recycling of crust in the Early Archean [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.; Valley, J. W.; Wilde, S. A.

    2005-07-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of δ 18O in 4400-3900 Ma igneous zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, provide a record of the oxygen isotope composition of magmas in the earliest Archean. We have employed a detailed analysis protocol aimed at correlating spatially related micro-volumes of zircon concordant in U/Pb age with δ 18O and internal zoning. Simultaneous analysis of 18O and 16O with dual Faraday cup detectors, combined with frequent standardization, has yielded data with improved accuracy and precision over prior studies, and resulted in a narrower range of what is interpreted as magmatic δ 18O in > 3900 Ma zircons. Preserved magmatic δ 18O values from individual zircons (Zrc) range from 5.3‰ to 7.3‰ (VSMOW), and increasingly deviate from the mantle range of 5.3 ± 0.3‰ as zircons decrease in age from 4400 to 4200 Ma. Elevated δ 18O (Zrc) values up to 6.5‰ occur as early as 4325 Ma, which suggests that evolved rocks were incorporated into magmas within ˜230 Ma of Earth's accretion. Values of magmatic δ 18O (Zrc) as high as 7.3‰ are recorded in zircons by 4200 Ma, and are common thereafter. The protoliths of the magmas these zircons crystallized in were altered by low temperature interaction with liquid water near Earth's surface. These results provide the strongest evidence yet for the existence of liquid water oceans and supracrustal rocks by approximately 4200 Ma, and possibly as early as 4325 Ma. The range of magmatic δ 18O values in the 4400-3900 Ma zircons is indistinguishable from Archean igneous zircons, suggesting similar magmatic processes occurred over the first two billion years of recorded Earth history. Zircons with sub-solidus alteration histories, identified by the presence of disturbed internal zoning patterns, record δ 18O values both below (4.6‰) and above (10.3‰) the observed range for primary magmatic zircon, and are unreliable indicators of Early Archean magma chemistry.

  8. Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D; Price, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous interval represents a time of environmental upheaval and cataclysmic events, combined with disruptions to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Historically, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary was classified as one of eight mass extinctions. However, more recent research has largely overturned this view, revealing a much more complex pattern of biotic and abiotic dynamics than has previously been appreciated. Here, we present a synthesis of our current knowledge of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous events, focusing particularly on events closest to the J/K boundary. We find evidence for a combination of short-term catastrophic events, large-scale tectonic processes and environmental perturbations, and major clade interactions that led to a seemingly dramatic faunal and ecological turnover in both the marine and terrestrial realms. This is coupled with a great reduction in global biodiversity which might in part be explained by poor sampling. Very few groups appear to have been entirely resilient to this J/K boundary 'event', which hints at a 'cascade model' of ecosystem changes driving faunal dynamics. Within terrestrial ecosystems, larger, more-specialised organisms, such as saurischian dinosaurs, appear to have suffered the most. Medium-sized tetanuran theropods declined, and were replaced by larger-bodied groups, and basal eusauropods were replaced by neosauropod faunas. The ascent of paravian theropods is emphasised by escalated competition with contemporary pterosaur groups, culminating in the explosive radiation of birds, although the timing of this is obfuscated by biases in sampling. Smaller, more ecologically diverse terrestrial non-archosaurs, such as lissamphibians and mammaliaforms, were comparatively resilient to extinctions, instead documenting the origination of many extant groups around the J/K boundary. In the marine realm, extinctions were focused on low-latitude, shallow marine shelf-dwelling faunas

  9. The Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada-Evidence for Early Proterozoic magmatic arc crust at the edge of the North American craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the nature of the source of the high-amplitude, long-wavelength, Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly (MRA), Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, based on magnetic field data collected at three different altitudes: 300??m, 3.5??km and 400??km. The MRA is the largest amplitude (13??nT) satellite magnetic anomaly over Canada. Within the extent of the MRA, source depth estimates (8-12??km) from Euler deconvolution of low-altitude aeromagnetic data show coincidence with basement depths interpreted from reflection seismic data. Inversion of high-altitude (3.5??km) aeromagnetic data produces an average magnetization of 2.5??A/m within a 15- to 35-km deep layer, a value typical of magmatic arc complexes. Early Proterozoic magmatic arc rocks have been sampled to the southeast of the MRA, within the Fort Simpson magnetic anomaly. The MRA is one of several broad-scale magnetic highs that occur along the inboard margin of the Cordillera in Canada and Alaska, which are coincident with geometric changes in the thrust front transition from the mobile belt to stable cratonic North America. The inferred early Proterozoic magmatic arc complex along the western edge of the North American craton likely influenced later tectonic evolution, by acting as a buttress along the inboard margin of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. Crown Copyright ?? 2008.

  10. Estimating long-wavelength dynamic topographic change of passive continental margins since the Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dietmar; Hassan, Rakib; Gurnis, Michael; Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The influence of mantle convection on dynamic topographic change along continental margins is difficult to unravel, because their stratigraphic record is dominated by tectonic subsidence caused by rifting. Yet, dynamic topography can potentially introduce significant depth anomalies along passive margins, influencing their water depth, sedimentary environments and geohistory. Here we follow a three-fold approach to estimate changes in dynamic topography along both continental interiors and passive margins based on a set of seven global mantle convection models. These models include different methodologies (forward and hybrid backward-forward methods), different plate reconstructions and alternative mantle rheologies. We demonstrate that a geodynamic forward model that includes adiabatic heating in addition to internal heating from radiogenic sources, and a mantle viscosity profile with a gradual increase in viscosity below the mantle transition zone, provides a greatly improved match to the spectral range of residual topography end-members as compared with previous models at very long wavelengths (spherical degrees 2-3). We combine global sea level estimates with predicted surface dynamic topography to evaluate the match between predicted continental flooding patterns and published paleo-coastlines by comparing predicted versus geologically reconstructed land fractions and spatial overlaps of flooded regions for individual continents since 140 Ma. Modelled versus geologically reconstructed land fractions match within 10% for most models, and the spatial overlaps of inundated regions are mostly between 85% and 100% for the Cenozoic, dropping to about 75-100% in the Cretaceous. We categorise the evolution of modelled dynamic topography in both continental interiors and along passive margins using cluster analysis to investigate how clusters of similar dynamic topography time series are distributed spatially. A subdivision of four clusters is found to best reveal end

  11. Early Cretaceous MORB-type basalt and A-type rhyolite in northern Tibet: Evidence for ridge subduction in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Sun, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Wei; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2018-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, major- and trace-element data, and Hf isotopic compositions are presented for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Zhaga Formation (ZF) in the western-middle segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), northern Tibet. The genesis of these rocks is described, and implications for late-stage evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO) are considered. Detailed studies show that the ZF bimodal rocks, which occur as layers within a typical bathyal to abyssal flysch deposit, comprise MORB-type basalt that formed at a mid-ocean ridge, and low-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite derived from juvenile crust. The combination of MORB-type basalt, calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite, and bathyal to abyssal flysch deposits in the ZF leads us to propose that they formed as a result of ridge subduction. The A-type ZF rhyolites yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 118-112 Ma, indicating formation during the Early Cretaceous. Data from the present study, combined with regional geological data, indicate that the BNTO underwent conversion from ocean opening to ocean closure during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The eastern segment of the BNTO closed during this period, while the western and western-middle segments were still at least partially open and active during the Early Cretaceous, accompanied by ridge subduction within the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean.

  12. Transfer of Metasupracrustal Rocks to Midcrustal Depths in the North Cascades Continental Magmatic Arc, Skagit Gneiss Complex, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. B.; Gordon, S. M.; Miller, R. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fisher, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The metasupracrustal units within the north central Chelan block of the North Cascades Range, Washington, are investigated to determine mechanisms and timescales of supracrustal rock incorporation into the deep crust of continental magmatic arcs. Zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope analyses were used to characterize the protoliths of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks from the Skagit Gneiss Complex, metasupracrustal rocks from the Cascade River Schist, and metavolcanic rocks from the Napeequa Schist. Skagit Gneiss Complex metasedimentary rocks have (1) a wide range of zircon U-Pb dates from Proterozoic to latest Cretaceous and (2) a more limited range of dates, from Late Triassic to latest Cretaceous, and a lack of Proterozoic dates. Two samples from the Cascade River Schist are characterized by Late Cretaceous protoliths. Amphibolites from the Napeequa Schist have Late Triassic protoliths. Similarities between the Skagit Gneiss metasediments and accretionary wedge and forearc sediments in northwestern Washington and Southern California indicate that the protolith for these units was likely deposited in a forearc basin and/or accretionary wedge in the Early to Late Cretaceous (circa 134-79 Ma). Sediment was likely underthrust into the active arc by circa 74-65 Ma, as soon as 7 Ma after deposition, and intruded by voluminous magmas. The incorporation of metasupracrustal units aligns with the timing of major arc magmatism in the North Cascades (circa 79-60 Ma) and may indicate a link between the burial of sediments and pluton emplacement.

  13. A major 2.1 Ga event of mafic magmatism in west Africa: An Early stage of crustal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchami, Wafa; Boher, Muriel; Michard, Annie; Albarede, Francis

    1990-10-01

    environments. Back-arc or low-Ti continental flood basalts provide a marginally good agreement but still face some difficulties. Oceanic flood basalts similar to those which form oceanic plateaus (e.g. in the Nauru basin) and later accreted to continents as allochtonous terranes represent the most acceptable modern analogue of many Proterozoic basalts. It is suggested that deep plumes piercing young lithosphere can generate huge amounts of tholeiites in a short time. Birimian basalts, like many Early Proterozoic basalts, may also be viewed as recent equivalents of the Archean greenstone belts. The modern komatiite of Gorgona Island is suggested to fit this model of intraplate volcanism. Although the 2.1 Ga magmatic event in West Africa has gone virtually unnoticed in the literature, it extends over several thousand kilometers and compares with the distribution of mantle-derived magmatic activity in other major orogenic provinces (e.g. Superior). It shows that the growth rate of continents cannot be extrapolated from the data obtained solely from the best studied continents (North America, Europe, Australia). If such large crustal segments were overlooked, a spurious pattern of episodic activity of the mantle could arise.

  14. Nannofossil carbonate fluxes during the Early Cretaceous: Phytoplankton response to nutrification episodes, atmospheric CO2, and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Tremolada, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Greenhouse episodes during the Valanginian and Aptian correlate with major perturbations in the C cycle and in marine ecosystems, carbonate crises, and widespread deposition of Corg-rich black shales. Quantitative analyses of nannofossil micrite were conducted on continuous pelagic sections from the Southern Alps (northern Italy), where high-resolution integrated stratigraphy allows precise dating of Early Cretaceous geological events. Rock-forming calcareous nannofloras were quantified in smear slides and thin sections to obtain relative and absolute abundances and paleofluxes that are interpreted as the response of calcareous phytoplankton to global changes in the ocean-atmosphere system. Increased rates of volcanism during the formation of Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus and the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) are proposed to have caused the geological responses associated with early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1a and the Valanginian event, respectively. Calcareous nannofloras reacted to the new conditions of higher pCO2 and fertility by drastically reducing calcification. The Valanginian event is marked by a 65% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes that would correspond to a 2-3 times increase in pCO2 during formation of the Paranà-Endenteka LIP. A 90% reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes, which occurred in a 1.5 myr-long interval leading into OAE1a, is interpreted as the result of a 3-6 times increase in pCO2 produced by emplacement of the giant Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. High pCO2 was balanced back by an accelerated biological pump during the Valanginian episode, but not during OAE1a, suggesting persisting high levels of pCO2 in the late Aptian and/or the inability of calcareous phytoplankton to absorb excess pCO2 above threshold values.

  15. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan

    2016-02-17

    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = -65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1-124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma.

  16. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic and geochronologic results from the Tethyan Himalaya: Insights into the Neotethyan paleogeography and the India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiming; Yang, Tianshui; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the Neotethyan paleogeography, a paleomagnetic and geochronological study has been performed on the Early Cretaceous Sangxiu Formation lava flows, which were dated from ~135.1 Ma to ~124.4 Ma, in the Tethyan Himalaya. The tilt-corrected site-mean characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) direction for 26 sites is Ds = 296.1°, Is = -65.7°, ks = 51.7, α95 = 4.0°, corresponding to a paleopole at 5.9°S, 308.0°E with A95 = 6.1°. Positive fold and reversal tests prove that the ChRM directions are prefolding primary magnetizations. These results, together with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic data observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane, as well as the paleolatitude evolution indicated by the apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of India, reveal that the Tethyan Himalaya was a part of Greater India during the Early Cretaceous (135.1-124.4 Ma) when the Neotethyan Ocean was up to ~6900 km, it rifted from India sometime after ~130 Ma, and that the India-Asia collision should be a dual-collision process including the first Tethyan Himalaya-Lhasa terrane collision at ~54.9 Ma and the final India-Tethyan Himalaya collision at ~36.7 Ma.

  17. Siderite concretions: indicators of early diagenesis in the Gammon shale (Cretaceous).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Gammon member of the Pierre shale of the northern Great Plains, USA, contains abundant siderite concretions. The relative depth and time of siderite precipitation can be inferred from the structure, mineralogy and isotopic composition of these concretions. Concretions that formed at shallow depths, early in the history of the sediment, contain a high percentage (75-85%) of carbonate, preserve uncompacted structures and have oxygen isotopic ratios similar to that of sea-water. In contrast, concretions that formed later and/or at greater depths have lower carbonate content and lower 18O/16O ratios. Concretions in rapidly deposited sediments formed at shallow depths (<10 m), and those in sediments that accumulated slowly formed at greater depths. These differences agree with the fossil evidence. Siderite did not form until nearly all the dissolved sulphur had been reduced and precipitated as pyrite; the excess organic matter produced methane at about the same time.-H.R.B.

  18. Cycles and trends in the δ18O and δ13C records over the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Dera, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    The million-year fluctuations of the Mesozoic climate are explored through spectral analyses performed on an exhaustive compilation of δ18O and δ13C data measured on belemnite rostra. The data include more than 3500 data points, all coming from Western Tethys and Euro-boreal domains, and covering a time interval spanning 76 Myr from the Sinemurian (~197 Ma; Early Jurassic) to the Aptian (~123 Ma; Early Cretaceous) with an average sample step of ~0.04 Myr. Spectral analyses are performed using the multi-taper method and the evolutive Fast Fourier Transform in order to get an accurate estimate of significant periods and their evolution during geological times. The age uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale 2012 are taken into account to assess the impact of these uncertainties on the identification of the significant periods. After implementing an error model that simulates the uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale, two periods remains significant: the δ13C displays a high-amplitude period at 9.1 Myr, while the δ18O displays a high-amplitude period at 16.4 Myr. The 16.4-Myr period is only expressed in the Early and Middle Jurassic, with maximum amplitudes reached during the 'Toarcian Plateau' (Dera et al., 2011). It is probably a consequence of the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province and is an event in the δ18O rather than a true cycle. The 9.1-Myr period displays a spectacular continuity from the Toarcian to the Aptian, and could be related to this intriguing 9.1-Myr cycle observed in the δ13C from the Cenozoic, related to a Myr-amplitude modulation of the eccentricity cycles (Boulila et al., 2012). The δ13C in the Western Tethys thus appears to have a very rhythmic behaviour, interpreted here as a long-term orbital modulation of moisture and heat transfer from equatorial to higher latitudes, modulating in return continental weathering, nutrient and detrital exports to basins, neritic vs. pelagic productivity and finally preservation

  19. TEX 86 and stable δ 18O paleothermometry of early Cretaceous sediments: Implications for belemnite ecology and paleotemperature proxy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutterlose, Jörg; Malkoc, Matthias; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Forster, Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the unadjusted usage of Jurassic and Cretaceous δ 18O paleotemperature data derived from belemnites, since the latter data often reflect cooler paleotemperature estimates than would be expected. In this study we address this problem by analysing rocks of Barremian to early Aptian age from two outcrops in northern Germany using TEX 86 paleothermometry, along with 142 belemnite guards studied for their stable isotope (δ 13C, δ 18O) and trace element composition (magnesium, strontium, iron, and manganese). Both TEX 86 and δ 18O Bel indicate very warm water temperatures for a distinctive black shale sequence of late early Barremian age ("Hauptblätterton") with temperatures of up to 29 °C and 23 °C, respectively. We observe a constant offset of TEX 86 temperatures versus the 4 to 5 °C cooler δ 18O belemnite signal for this interval. The late Barremian sequence shows an increase of the δ 18O Bel values from - 1‰ to 0‰ reflecting temperatures around 16 to 12 °C, while the contemporaneous TEX 86 temperatures vary between 26 and 32 °C. The common occurrence of belemnites in the anoxic sediments of the early Barremian implies, however, clearly a nektonic way of life similar to that of recent teuthids, rather than a nektobenthic one like Sepia. This in turn suggests that the belemnites investigated here (genera Praeoxyteuthis, Aulacoteuthis, Oxyteuthis, and Neohibolites) were active swimmers, which inhabited a deeper habitat below the thermocline in an epicontinental sea of perhaps 100 to 250 m water depth. The offset of the TEX 86 and δ 18O Bel data is therefore interpreted to reflect temperature signals from two different depth habitats, i.e. the TEX 86 is selectively derived from warm sea-surface waters, and the belemnites likely occupied deeper and cooler waters with relative increasing salinities in the late Barremian. This study stresses the importance that the taxonomy, paleobiology and ecology of the belemnite taxa

  20. Extensive crustal melting during craton destruction: Evidence from the Mesozoic magmatic suite of Junan, eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tang, Li

    2018-05-01

    The cratonic destruction associated with the Pacific plate subduction beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) shows a close relationship with the widespread magmatism during the Late Mesozoic. Here we investigate a suite of intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks from the Junan region of the eastern NCC in order to evaluate the role of extensive crustal melting related to decratonization. We present petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb geochronological and Lu-Hf isotopic data to evaluate the petrogenesis, timing and tectonic significance of the Early Cretaceous magmatism. Zircon grains in the basalt from the extrusive suite of Junan show multiple populations with Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic xenocrystic grains ranging in age from 764 Ma to 495 Ma as well as Jurassic grains with an age range of 189-165 Ma. The dominant population of magmatic zircon grains in the syenite defines three major age peaks of 772 Ma, 132 Ma and 126 Ma. Zircons in the granitoids including alkali syenite, monzonite and granodiorite yield a tightly restricted age range of 124-130 Ma representing their emplacement ages. The Neoproterozoic (841-547 Ma) zircon grains from the basalt and the syenite possess εHf(t) values of -22.9 to -8.4 and from -18.8 to -17.3, respectively. The Early Paleozoic (523-494 Ma) zircons from the basalt and the syenite also show markedly negative εHf(t) values of -22.7 to -18.0. The dominant population of Early Cretaceous (134-121 Ma) zircon grains presented in all the samples also displays negative εHf(t) values range from -31.7 to -21.1, with TDM of 1653-2017 Ma and TDMC in the range of 2193-3187 Ma. Accordingly, the Lu-Hf data suggest that the parent magma was sourced through melting of Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks. Geochemical data on the Junan magmatic suite display features similar to those associated with the arc magmatic rocks involving subduction-related components, with interaction of fluids and melts in the suprasubduction

  1. Geochemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and geodynamic implications of Early Cretaceous basalts from the western Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Yuejun; Cawood, Peter A.; Dong, Yunpeng

    2018-01-01

    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt was formed by the collision of the North and South China Cratons during the Early Mesozoic and subsequently developed into an intracontinental tectonic process during late Mesozoic. Field investigations identified the presence of late Mesozoic basalts in the Duofutun and Hongqiang areas in the western Qinling orogenic belt. The petrogenesis of these basalts provides an important constraint on the late Mesozoic geodynamics of the orogen. The representative basaltic samples yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of about 112 Ma. These samples belong to the alkaline series and have SiO2 ranging from 44.98 wt.% to 48.19 wt.%, Na2O + K2O from 3.44 wt% to 5.44 wt%, and MgO from 7.25 wt.% to 12.19 wt.%. They demonstrate the right-sloping chondrite-normalized REE patterns with negligible Eu anomalies (1.00-1.10) and PM-normalized patterns enriched in light rare earth element, large ion lithophile element and high field strength element, similar to those of OIB rocks. These samples additionally show an OIB-like Sr-Nd isotopic signature with εNd(t) values ranging from +6.13 to +10.15 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7028 to 0.7039, respectively. These samples are geochemically subdivided into two groups. Group 1 is characterized by low Al2O3 and high TiO2 and P2O5 contents, as well as high La/Yb ratios (>20), being the product of the high-pressure garnet fractionation from the OIB-derived magma. Group 2 shows higher Al2O3 but lower P2O5 contents and La/Yb ratios (<20) than Group 1, originating from asthenospheric mantle with input of delaminated lithospheric component. In combination with available data, it is proposed for the petrogenetic model of the Early Cretaceous thickened lithospheric delamination in response to the asthenospheric upwelling along the western Qinling orogenic belt.

  2. The toothless pterosaur Jidapterus edentus (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea) from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota and its paleoecological implications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Andres, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota, the toothless pterosaurs flourished with the chaoyangopterids and tapejarids playing a key role in understanding the early diversity and evolution of the Azhdarchoidea. Unlike the more diverse tapejarids, the rarer chaoyangopterids are characterized by a long and low rostrum, supporting a close relationship with the huge azhdarchids. Unfortunately, our knowledge is still limited in the osteology, paleoecology, and taxonomy of the Chaoyangopteridae. As one of the best preserved skeletons, the type and only specimen of Jidapterus edentus provides an opportunity to understand the morphology and paleoecology of the chaoyangopterids. Results Our study of the osteology of Jidapterus edentus reveals valuable information about the morphology of the Chaoyangopteridae such as a rostrum with a curved dorsal profile, high Rostral Index (RI), larger angle between the dorsal and postorbital processes of the jugal, sequentially shorter fourth to seventh cervical vertebrae, sternum with a plate wider than long, contact of the metacarpal I with the distal syncarpal, pneumatic foramen on first wing phalanx, hatchet-like postacetabular process with unconstricted neck and small dorsal process, distinctly concave anterior margin of pubis, subrectangular pubic plate with nearly parallel anterior and posterior margins, longer proximal phalanges of pedal digits III and IV, as well as reduced and less curved pedal unguals. These features further support the validity of Jidapterus edentus as a distinct species and the close relationship of the chaoyangopterids with the azhdarchids. Paleoecologically, the chaoyangopterids are probably like the azhdarchids, more terrestrial than the contemporaneous and putatively arboreal tapejarids, which may have been limited to the forest-dominated ecosystem of the Jehol Biota. Discussion The osteology of Jidapterus edentus further supports the close relationship of the Chaoyangopteridae with the Azhdarchidae

  3. Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic characterization of Mesozoic rocks throughout the northern end of the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Isotopic evidence for the magmatic evolution of oceanic arc–continental margin accretion during the Late Cretaceous of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the duration of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–based Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), many samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith were studied for their whole-rock radioisotopic systematics (rubidium-strontium [Rb-Sr], uranium-thorium-lead [U-Th-Pb], and samarium-neodymium [Sm-Nd]), as well as oxygen (O), a stable isotope. The results of three main studies are presented separately, but here we combine them (>400 analyses) to produce a very complete Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic profile of an arc-continent collisional zone—perhaps the most complete in the world. In addition, because many of these samples have U-Pb zircon as well as argon mineral age determinations, we have good control of the timing for Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic variations.The ages and isotopic variations help to delineate at least four zones across the batholith from west to east—an older western zone (126–108 Ma), a transitional zone (111–93 Ma), an eastern zone (94–91 Ma), and a much younger allochthonous thrust sheet (ca. 84 Ma), which is the upper plate of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone. Average initial 87Sr/86 Sr (Sri), initial 206Pb/204Pb (206 Pbi), initial 208Pb/204Pb (average 208Pbi), initial epsilon Nd (average εNdi), and δ18O signatures range from 0.704, 18.787, 38.445, +3.1, and 4.0‰–9.0‰, respectively, in the westernmost zone, to 0.7071, 19.199, 38.777, −5, and 9‰–12‰, respectively, in the easternmost zone. The older western zone is therefore the more chemically and isotopically juvenile, characterized mostly by values that are slightly displaced from a mantle array at ca. 115 Ma, and similar to some modern island-arc signatures. In contrast, the isotopic signatures in the eastern zones indicate significant amounts of crustal involvement in the magmatic plumbing of those plutons. These isotopic signatures confirm previously published results that interpreted the Peninsular Ranges batholith as a progressively

  4. Multi-stage metamorphism in the South Armenian Block during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous: Tectonics over south-dipping subduction of Northern branch of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hässig, M.; Rolland, Y.; Sahakyan, L.; Sosson, M.; Galoyan, G.; Avagyan, A.; Bosch, D.; Müller, C.

    2015-04-01

    The geologic evolution of the South Armenian Block (SAB) in the Mesozoic is reconstructed from a structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic study including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating. The South Armenian Block Crystalline Basement (SABCB) outcrops solely in a narrow tectonic window, NW of Yerevan. The study of this zone provides key and unprecedented information concerning closing of the Northern Neotethys oceanic domain north of the Taurides-Anatolides platform from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The basement comprises of presumed Proterozoic orthogneiss overlain by metamorphosed pelites as well as intrusions of granodiorite and leucogranite during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Structural, geochronological and petrological observations show a multiphased evolution of the northern margin of the SAB during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A south-dipping subduction under the East Anatolian Platform-South Armenian Block (EAP-SAB) is proposed in order to suit recent findings pertaining emplacement of relatively hot subduction related granodiorite as well as the metamorphic evolution of the crystalline basement in the Lesser Caucasus area. The metamorphism is interpreted as evidencing: (1) M1 Barrovian MP-MT conditions (staurolite-kyanite) at c. 157-160 Ma and intrusion of dioritic magmas at c. 150-156 Ma, (2) near-adiabatic decompression is featured by partial melting and production of leucogranites at c. 153 Ma, followed by M2 HT-LP conditions (andalusite-K-feldspar). A phase of shearing and recrystallization is ascribed to doming at c. 130-150 Ma and cooling at 400 °C by c. 123 Ma (M3). Structural observations show (1) top to the north shearing during M1 and (2) radial extension during M2. The extensional event ends by emplacement of a thick detrital series along radial S, E and W-dipping normal faults. Further, the crystalline basement is unconformably covered by Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene series dated by nannofossils, evolving from

  5. Aeromagnetic anomalies reveal the link between magmatism and tectonics during the early formation of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Montesinos, Fuensanta G; Arnoso, José

    2018-01-08

    The 3-D inverse modelling of a magnetic anomaly measured over the NW submarine edifice of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria revealed a large, reversely-magnetized, elongated structure following an ENE-WSW direction, which we interpreted as a sill-like magmatic intrusion emplaced during the submarine growth of this volcanic island, with a volume that could represent up to about 20% of the whole island. The elongated shape of this body suggests the existence of a major crustal fracture in the central part of the Canary Archipelago which would have favoured the rapid ascent and emplacement of magmas during a time span from 0.5 to 1.9 My during a reverse polarity chron of the Earth's magnetic field prior to 16 Ma. The agreement of our results with those of previous gravimetric, seismological and geodynamical studies strongly supports the idea that the genesis of the Canary Islands was conditioned by a strike-slip tectonic framework probably related to Atlas tectonic features in Africa. These results do not contradict the hotspot theory for the origin of the Canary magmatism, but they do introduce the essential role of regional crustal tectonics to explain where and how those magmas both reached the surface and built the volcanic edifices.

  6. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking in Singhbhum craton: Evidence from Pala Lahara area, Orissa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topno, Abhishek; Dey, Sukanta; Liu, Yongsheng; Zong, Keqing

    2018-04-01

    Several volumetrically minor ˜ 2.8 Ga anorogenic granites and rhyolites occur along the marginal part of the Singhbhum craton whose origin and role in crustal evolution are poorly constrained. This contribution presents petrographic, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and trace element, and mineral chemical data on such granites exposed in the Pala Lahara area to understand their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The Pala Lahara granites are calc-alkaline, high-silica rocks and define a zircon U-Pb age of 2.79 Ga. These granites are ferroan, weakly metaluminous, depleted in Al, Ca and Mg and rich in LILE and HFSE. They are classified as A2-type granites with high Y/Nb ratios. Geochemical characteristics (high SiO2 and K2O, very low MgO, Mg#, Cr, Ni and V, negative Eu anomaly, flat HREE and low Sr/Y) and comparison with melts reported by published experimental studies suggest an origin through high-temperature, shallow crustal melting of tonalitic/granodioritic source similar to the ˜ 3.3 Ga Singhbhum Granite. Intrusion of the Pala Lahara granites was coeval with prominent mafic magmatism in the Singhbhum craton (e.g., the Dhanjori mafic volcanic rocks and NNE-SSW trending mafic dyke swarm). It is suggested that the ˜ 2.8 Ga A-type granites in the Singhbhum craton mark a significant crustal reworking event attendant to mantle-derived mafic magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting.

  7. High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary events determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven

    1988-01-01

    A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and early Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the early Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure events across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T event, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic events in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction event, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.

  8. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal gold-silver deposits in the northern Great Basin, western United States: Characteristics, distribution, and relationship to Magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous important Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal Au-Ag deposits are present in the northern Great Basin. Most deposits are spatially and temporally related to two magmatic assemblages: bimodal basalt-rhyolite and western andesite. These magmatic assemblages are petrogenetic suites that reflect variations in tectonic environment of magma generation. The bimodal assemblage is a K-rich tholeiitic series formed during continental rifting. Rocks in the bimodal assemblage consist mostly of basalt to andesite and rhyolite compositions that generally contain anhydrous and reduced mineral assemblages (e.g., quartz + fayalite rhyolites). Eruptive forms include mafic lava flows, dikes, cinder and/or spatter cones, shield volcanoes, silicic flows, domes, and ash-flow calderas. Fe-Ti oxide barometry indicates oxygen fugacities between the magnetite-wustite and fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffers for this magmatic assemblage. The western andesite assemblage is a high K calc-alkaline series that formed a continental-margin are related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the western coast of North America. In the northern Great Basin, most of the western andesite assemblage was erupted in the Walker Lane belt, a zone of transtension and strike-slip faulting. The western andesite assemblage consists of stratovolcanoes, dome fields, and subvolcanic plutons, mostly of andesite and dacite composition. Biotite and hornblende phenocrysts are abundant in these rocks. Oxygen fugacities of the western andesite assemblage magmas were between the nickel-nickel oxide and hematite-magnetite buffers, about two to four orders of magnitude greater than magmas of the bimodal assemblage. Numerous low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits in the bimodal assemblage include deposits in the Midas (Ken Snyder), Sleeper, DeLamar, Mule Canyon, Buckhorn, National, Hog Ranch, Ivanhoe, and Jarbidge districts; high-sulfidation gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits are absent. Both high- and low

  10. Shoshonitic- and adakitic magmatism of the Early Paleozoic age in the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the early evolution of the northwestern Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hattori, Keiko; Liu, Jianguo; Song, Yue; Gao, Yongbao; Zhang, Han

    2017-08-01

    The Western Kunlun orogenic belt in the northwestern margin of the Tibetan plateau contains two magmatic belts; early Paleozoic belt in the northern part of Western Kunlun Terrane (WKT), and early Mesozoic belt in the southern part of WKT. Both formed from northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys. The early Paleozoic belt contains large Datong and Qiukesu igneous complexes and many smaller plutons. The Datong complex is mainly composed of dark-colored porphyritic syenite and monzonite with minor light-colored dykes of granite and monzonite. The dark-colored rocks are characterized by moderate SiO2 (58.2-69.3 wt.%), and high Al2O3 (15.3-17.1 wt.%), total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 8.07-10.2 wt.%) and ratios of K2O/Na2O (0.77-1.83). They plot in "shoshonite" field, and show high abundances of LILE including LREE ((La/Yb)n = 15.4-26.2; mean 20.2) with pronounced negative anomalies of Nb-Ta-P-Ti in normalized trace elemental patterns and weak negative anomalies of Eu (δEu = 2Eun/(Smn + Gdn) = 0.68-0.80). The light-colored rocks contain slightly higher concentrations of SiO2 (60.3-72.0 wt.%), similar Al2O3 (14.7-17.6 wt.%), and slightly lower total alkalis (6.57-9.14 wt.%) than dark-colored rocks. They show adakitic geochemical signatures with low Y (5.80-17.2 ppm) and Yb (0.63-1.59 ppm), and high Sr/Y (> 40). U-Pb zircon dating indicates that shoshonitic rocks and adakitic dykes formed at 444 Ma to 443 Ma, and a separate small adakitic plug at 462 Ma. The mean εHf(t) values of zircon range from - 1.6 to - 0.94 (n = 14) with TDM2 of 1.5 Ga for shoshonitic rocks and εHf(t) values from - 1.8 to + 0.72 (n = 12) with TDM2 of 1.4 to 1.5 Ga for adakitic rocks. Shoshonitic rocks show initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) of 0.7092-0.7100 and - 3.9 to - 3.2, respectively, and adakitic rocks yield initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) of 0.7099-0.7134 and - 3.6 to - 3.1, respectively. Similar Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope compositions for the shoshonitic and adakitic rocks suggest similar ancient rocks

  11. The Afar-Red Sea-Gulf of Aden volcanic margins system : early syn-rift segmentation and tectono-magmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stab, Martin; Leroy, Sylvie; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Khanbari, Khaled

    2017-04-01

    The Afro-Arabian rift system is characterized by complex interactions between magmatism and rifting, leading to long-term segmentation of the associated continental margins. However, past studies focused on specific rift segments and no attempt has yet been made to reconcile them into a single comprehensive geodynamic model. To address this, we present interpretations of seismic profiles offshore the Eritrea-Yemeni margins in the southern Red Sea and the Yemeni margin in the Gulf of Aden and reassess the regional geodynamic evolution including the new tectonic evolution of the Central Afar Magmatic margin. We point out the role of two major transform zones in structuring the volcanism and faulting of the Red Sea-Afar-Aden margins. We show that those transform zones not only control the present-day rift organization, but were also active since the onset of rifting in Oligocene times. Early syn-rift transform zones control the emplacement and the development of seaward-dipping-reflector wedges immediately after the Continental Flood basalts (30 Ma), and are closely associated with mantle plume melts in the course of the segment extension. The margins segmentation thus appears to reflect the underlying mantle dynamics and thermal anomaly, which have directly influenced the style of rifting (wide vs. narrow rift), in controlling the development of preferential lithospheric thinning and massive transfer of magmas in the crust.

  12. Geological and technological characterization of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous clay deposits (Jebel Ammar, northeastern Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek-Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Ben Salah, Imed; Ben Aissa, Lassaad; Bouaziz, Samir; Duplay, Joelle

    2017-05-01

    Late Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clays of the Jebel Ammar study site were used as raw materials for potential applications in ceramic industry. Physico-chemical characterization of the collected samples was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and dilatometry (Bugot's curve). Geotechnical study was also undertaken by the assessment of plasticity and liquidity limits. It was found that high concentrations of silica, alumina with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio characterized the studied clays; its high amounts of CaO and Fe2O3 in the Late Jurassic clays indicated their calcareous nature. In addition, technological tests indicated moderate to low plasticity values for the Late Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous clays, respectively. Clay fraction (<2 μm) reached 50% of the natural clay in some cases. Mineralogical analysis showed that Jurassic clays were dominated by smectite, illite and kaolinite, as clay mineral species; calcite was the main associated mineral. Lower Cretaceous clays were mainly composed of abundant illite accompanied by well-crystallized smectite and kaolinite. Kaolinite gradually increased upwards, reaching 70% of the total clay fraction (i.e. <2 μm). Quartz, calcite and feldspar were the main non-clay minerals. Based on these analyses, the clays meet technological requirements that would allow their use in the ceramic industry and for the manufacturing of ceramic tiles.

  13. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  14. Altered carbon cycling and coupled changes in Early Cretaceous weathering patterns: Evidence from integrated carbon isotope and sandstone records of the western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortmann, Ulrich Georg; Herrle, Jens Olaf; Weissert, Helmut

    2004-03-01

    In this study we investigate if a major perturbation of the Early Cretaceous carbon cycle was accompanied by altered weathering and erosion rates. The large Aptian carbon isotope anomaly records the response of the biosphere to widespread volcanic activity and probably resulting changes in atmospheric pCO2 levels. Elevated pCO2 levels should also result in an accelerated hydrological cycle and increased silicate weathering, creating a negative feedback loop removing CO2 from the atmosphere. We propose to interpret the widespread occurrence of quartz sandstones in the Tethys-Atlantic seaway as a result of altered weathering and erosion rates in the wake of the Aptian carbon cycle excursion. We challenge the traditional notion that these are 'flysch' deposits associated with Early Cretaceous orogenic movements in the western Tethys. We propose that these sandstones were most likely part of a large conveyor belt system, acting along the Iberian and European margin of the Tethys seaway. Using chemostratigraphic correlations, we show that the activity of this system was only short-lived and coeval with changes in coastal ecology and the Aptian carbon cycle perturbations. We tentatively relate the existence of this system to a transient climate regime, characterized by fluctuating pCO2 levels.

  15. Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleontology, and sedimentary tectonics in Paris overthrust foredeep (western Wyoming and southeastern Idaho) compared with Quaternary features of indo-gangetic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, J.A. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Fluviatile clastics of the nonmarine, early Cretaceous Gannett and Wayan groups were deposited on wet alluvial megafans and on intervening interfan piedmont slopes which declined eastward into more poorly drained lowlands from a western highland source area uplifted episodically by movements of the Paris overthrust. Lacustrine episodes of deposition intercalated Peterson and Draney limestones with Gannett fluvial clastics. Westward marine transgressions (Skull Creek, Mowry) intercalated mixed lacustrine and brackish facies (Smiths and Cokedale formations) into Wayan fluviatile clastics. Newly discovered fossil vertebrate and invertebrate materials (all fragmentary but identifiable) include: Gannett Group - large reptiles including turtles; Thomas Fork Formationmore » - freshwater gastropods and unionid pelecypods, gastroliths, two types of turtles, large reptilian fragments (dinosaur), and abundant dinosaur eggshell fragments; Wayan Formation - perennially aquatic snails, turtles, unidentifiable large reptiles, two types of crocodilians, an iguanodontid dinosaur (Tenontosaurus), an ankylosaurian dinosaur, a large ornithopod dinosaur, gastroliths, abundant and ubiquitous dinosaur eggshell fragments (numerous types and sizes), and miscellaneous unidentifiable small vertebrate bone fragments. A census of analogous modern reptile reproductive behaviors supports the conclusion that the Wayan, and probably also the Gannett, alluvial fan environments were used as upland breeding grounds by dinosaurs and perhaps other reptiles. Comparison of these Early Cretaceous data with observations on the tectonic setting, sedimentology, and biology of the Quaternary indo-gangetic plain suggests many close analogies between the two sedimentary tectonic settings.« less

  16. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  17. Asymmetric Early Crust-Building Magmatism on the Lunar Nearside Due to KREEP-Induced Melting Point Depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elardo, S. M.; Shearer, C. K.; McCuddin, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The lunar magnesian-suite, or Mg-suite, is a series of ancient plutonic rocks from the lunar crust with ages and compositions indicating that they represent crust-building magmatism occurring immediately after the end of magma ocean crystallization. Samples of the Mg-suite were found at every Apollo landing site except 11 and ubiquitously have geochemical characteristics indicating the involvement of KREEP in their petrogenesis. This observation has led to the suggestion that the presence of the KREEP reservoir under the lunar nearside was responsible for this episode of crust building. The lack of any readily identifiable Mg-suite rocks in meteoritic regolith breccias sourced from outside the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) seemingly supports this interpretation.

  18. Reappraisal of Europe’s most complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian: Brancasaurus brancai Wegner, 1914 from the “Wealden facies” of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Jahn J.; Kear, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European “Wealden facies,” but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian). Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B. brancai has suffered damage both during, and after WWII. Sadly, these mishaps have resulted in the loss of substantial information, in particular many structures of the cranium and limb girdles, which are today only evidenced from published text and/or illustrations. This non-confirmable data has, however, proven crucial for determining the relationships of B. brancai within Plesiosauria: either as an early long-necked elasmosaurid, or a member of the controversial Early Cretaceous leptocleidid radiation. To evaluate these competing hypotheses and compile an updated osteological compendium, we undertook a comprehensive examination of the holotype as it is now preserved, and also assessed other Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian fossils to establish a morphological hypodigm. Phylogenetic simulations using the most species-rich datasets of Early Cretaceous plesiosaurians incorporating revised scores for B. brancai, together with a second recently named Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian Gronausaurus wegneri (Hampe, 2013), demonstrated that referral of these taxa to Leptocleididae was not unanimous, and that the topological stability of this clade is tenuous. In addition, the trait combinations manifested by B. brancai and G. wegneri were virtually identical. We therefore conclude that these monotypic individuals are ontogenetic morphs and G. wegneri is a junior synonym of B. brancai. Finally, anomalies detected in the diagnostic features for other

  19. Early Cretaceous ( 140 Ma) aluminous A-type granites in the Tethyan Himalaya, Tibet: Products of crust-mantle interaction during lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Kerr, Andrew C.; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Hu, Wan-Long

    2018-02-01

    A-type granites have been the focus of considerable research due to their distinctive major- and trace-element signatures and tectonic significance. However, their petrogenesis, magmatic source and tectonic setting remain controversial, particularly for aluminous A-type granites. The earliest Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) Comei granite in the eastern Tethyan Himalaya is associated with coeval oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type mafic lava, and has A-type granite geochemical characteristics including high 10,000 × Ga/Al (up to 6), FeOtotal/MgO (4.6-6.1) and (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 (0.50-0.61) ratios but low CaO (0.6-1.6 wt%) and Na2O (1.8-2.6 wt%) contents. The Comei granite also has variable peraluminous compositions (A/CNK = 1.00-1.36) along with zircon δ18O, εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 8.2‰ to 9.3‰, - 13.0 to - 12.4 and 0.7238 to 0.7295, respectively. This range of compositions can be interpreted as the interaction between high-temperature upwelling OIB type basaltic magmas and a shallow crustal (< 5 kbar) metapelitic source. The Comei granite and coeval OIB type basaltic rock could represent the earliest stage (145-140 Ma) of a large igneous event in eastern Tethyan Himalaya, which may well have been triggered by pre-breakup lithospheric extension prior to the arrival of the Kerguelen plume head.

  20. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic pulses in the Uliastai continental margin linked to slab rollback: Implications for evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Hui; Wang, Qingfei; Tao, Jixiong; Santosh, M.; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The Paleo Asian Ocean underwent a protracted closure history during Late Paleozoic. Here we investigate the magmatic evolution during this process based on a detailed study in the Baiyinwula region along the Uliastai continental margin. The major rock types in this area are Late Carboniferous-Early Permian volcanic sequences and coeval intrusions. We identified four stages of magmatic evolution based on the diverse assemblages and their precise isotopic ages. The first stage is represented by andesites with a zircon 206Pb/238U age of ca. 326 ± 12 Ma. These rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, and possess high Na2O/K2O ratios in the range of 1.23 to 2.45. They also display enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), with markedly positive zircon εHf (t) varying from 8.1 to 15.6.The geochemical features of these andesites are similar to those of typical arc volcanic rocks. The second stage includes granodiorites emplaced at 318.6 + 1.8 Ma. The rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with A/CNK values ranging from 0.95 to 1.06, and show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. They show geochemical affinities to adakites, with high Sr and low Y and Yb contents, indicating magma derivation from thickened lower crust. Zircon grains from these rocks display positive initial εHf (t) values ranging from 11.1 to 14.6 with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 394-622 Ma. The third stage consists of syenogranite together with a volcanic suite ranging in composition from rhyolite todacite, which formed during 303.4 ± 1.2 to 285.1 ± 2.2 Ma. They possess elevated silica and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, low Al2O3, MgO and CaO contents, and high Rb, Y, Nb, Ce, Zr, Y, and Ga contents, strong negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies, showing I- to A-type granitic affinities. Zircons in these rocks show elevated Hf isotopic compositions (εHf (t) = 9.9 to 14.6) with TDM2

  1. The final pulse of the Early Cenozoic adakitic activity in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): An integrated study on the nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Dudas, Francis O.; Santosh, M.; Eroğlu-Gümrük, Tuğba; Akbulut, Kübra; Yi, Keewook; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2018-05-01

    The Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, one of the best examples of a fossil continental arc in the Alpine-Himalayan system, is characterized by adakitic magmatism during the Early Cenozoic. Popular models correlate the adakitic magmatism to syn- or post-collisional processes occurring after the collision between the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt and the Tauride Platform at the end of Late Mesozoic and/or beginning of the Cenozoic. We present new geological, petrological and chronological data from andesites and felsic tuffs exposed in the Bayburt area, in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, and discuss the nature of the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic activities in a continental arc. Major, trace and rare earth element concentrations of both andesites and felsic tuffs clearly suggest that they are related to arc magmatism in a continental arc with adakitic composition. The isotopic compositions are permissive of mixing between a component similar to depleted mantle and a second component that is either mafic lower crust or subducted oceanic crust. 39Ar/40Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon dating indicate that this adakitic magmatism in the Bayburt area ended by about 47 Ma, and transformed into non-adakitic, granitoid arc magmatism in the area immediately north of Bayburt in the Lutetian (∼46 Ma). Based on our new results in conjunction with available data, we propose that the beginning of northward rollback of a south-directed subducting slab, and simultaneous opening of a slab window related to ridge subduction, triggered both adakitic magmatism for approximately a 10 Myr period between 57.6 and 47 Ma and arc-parallel extension that caused the opening of the Early Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We also suggest that the shallow marine environment, in which Nummulite-bearing sandy limestones accumulated in the Early Cenozoic, was transformed into a saline-lake environment during the pyroclastic activity that produced the studied felsic tuffs

  2. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early Cretaceous Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    PubMed

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia , Bartramiopsis , and Alophosia . Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. A new hynobiid-like salamander (Amphibia, Urodela) from Inner Mongolia, China, provides a rare case study of developmental features in an Early Cretaceous fossil urodele

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th–45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes. The new salamander appears to be closely related to hynobiids, although this inferred relationship awaits confirmation by research in progress by us on a morphological and molecular combined analysis of cryptobranchoid relationships. Comparison of adult with larval and postmetamorphic juvenile specimens provides insights into developmental patterns of cranial and postcranial skeletons in this fossil species, especially resorption of the palatine and anterior portions of the palatopterygoid in the palate and the coronoid in the mandible during metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic ossification of the mesopodium in both manus and pes. Thus, this study provides a rare case study of developmental features in a Mesozoic salamander. PMID:27761316

  4. Vertical movements following intracontinental magmatism: An example from southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Garfunkel, Zvi

    1997-02-01

    We present a quantitative thermal model for vertical movements following continental magmatism, focusing on how the associated elevation changes depend on the depth of intrusion. When an intrusion is emplaced within the lithosphere, its buoyancy causes a quick initial movement which is followed by long-term movements caused by thermal relaxation. Intrusions emplaced within the gabbro stability field produce initial uplifting which is about 12% of their thickness. Subsequent thermal relaxation reduces the uplift to a residual value of 9-10% of the intrusion thickness. In contrast, intrusions emplaced within the eclogite stability field produce a small subsidence from the very beginning which is slowly increased by thermal relaxation and may reach a residual value of some 4% of the intrusion thickness. In both cases the rates of the thermal subsidence depend on the depth of intrusion: it is relatively fast when the intrusions are shallow but considerably slower when the intrusions are deep. The model enables us to infer volumes and depths of intrusions from amplitudes and rates of vertical movements. As an example we apply the model to analyze the geodynamic evolution of the central Negev, southern Israel, during the Early Cretaceous. Two distinct magmatic pulses that were recognized there represent the two basic situations envisaged by the model, i.e., shallow magma emplacement in the gabbro field associated with uplifting, and deep intrusion in the eclogite field associated with subsidence. In a wider context we think that this model may help in understanding intracratonic basins in nonextensional settings. In particular, deep and thick eclogite intrusions can explain subsidence of regions which were not extended nor uplifted and in regions where crustal magmatism and heating were not observed.

  5. Preliminary source rock evaluation and hydrocarbon generation potential of the early Cretaceous subsurface shales from Shabwah sub-basin in the Sabatayn Basin, Western Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Matary, Adel M.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Al Sofi, Sadam; Al-Nehmi, Yousif A.; Al-haj, Mohammed Ail; Al-Hmdani, Yousif A.; Al-Sarhi, Ahmed A.

    2018-06-01

    A conventional organic geochemical study has been performed on the shale samples collected from the early Cretaceous Saar Formation from the Shabwah oilfields in the Sabatayn Basin, Western Yemen. The results of this study were used to preliminary evaluate the potential source-rock of the shales in the Saar Formation. Organic matter richness, type, and petroleum generation potential of the analysed shales were assessed. Total organic carbon content and Rock- Eval pyrolysis results indicate that the shale intervals within the early Cretaceous Saar Formation have a wide variation in source rock generative potential and quality. The analysed shale samples have TOC content in the range of 0.50 and 5.12 wt% and generally can be considered as fair to good source rocks. The geochemical results of this study also indicate that the analysed shales in the Saar Formation are both oil- and gas-prone source rocks, containing Type II kerogen and mixed Types II-III gradient to Type III kerogen. This is consistent with Hydrogen Index (HI) values between 66 and 552 mg HC/g TOC. The temperature-sensitive parameters such as vitrinite reflectance (%VRo), Rock-Eval pyrolysis Tmax and PI reveal that the analysed shale samples are generally immature to early-mature for oil-window. Therefore, the organic matter has not been altered by thermal maturity thus petroleum has not yet generated. Therefore, exploration strategies should focus on the known deeper location of the Saar Formation in the Shabwah-sub-basin for predicting the kitchen area.

  6. Early dolomitization in the Lower Cretaceous shallow-water carbonates of Southern Apennines (Italy): Clues about palaeoclimatic fluctuations in western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Francesco; Iannace, Alessandro; Parente, Mariano; Pirmez, Carlos; Torrieri, Stefano; Giorgioni, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the dolomitized bodies present in the Lower Cretaceous platform carbonates of Mt. Faito (Southern Apennines - Italy) was carried out in order to explore the connection between early dolomite formation and fluctuating climate conditions. The Berriasian-Aptian investigated succession is 466 m thick and mainly consists of shallow-water lagoonal limestones with frequent dolomite caps. The dolomitization intensity varies along the succession and reaches its peak in the upper Hauterivian-lower Barremian interval, where it is present a completely dolomitized interval about 100-m-thick. Field relations, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the analyzed dolomite bodies allowed identifying two populations of early dolomites, a fine-medium crystalline (FMdol) and a coarse crystalline dolomite (Cdol), both interpreted as the product of mesohaline water reflux. According to our interpretation, FMdol precipitated from concentrated brines in the very early stage of the reflux process, producing typical sedimentary features as dolomite caps. In the successive step of the process, the basin-ward 'latent' reflux precipitated Cdol from less concentrated brines. A peculiar feature of the studied succession is the great consistency between stratigraphic distribution of dolomite bodies and their geochemical signature. The completely dolomitized Hauterivian-Barremian interval, in fact, is characterized by geochemical values suggesting an origin from distinctly saltier brines. Considering that the observed near-surface dolomitization process is controlled by physical and chemical parameters reflecting the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during dolomite formation, we propose that the stratigraphically controlled dolomitization intensity reflects periodic fluctuations in the salinity of dolomitizing fluid, in turn controlled by long-term climate oscillations. The present work highlights that the stratigraphic distribution of early

  7. Evidence for Proterozoic and late Cretaceous-early Tertiary ore-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Church, S.E.; Snee, L.W.; Vaughn, R.B.; Zartman, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on sericite and lead isotope data on tetrahedrite, siderite, galena, bournonite, and stibnite, together with previously published isotopic, geochemical, and geologic studies provide evidence for two major vein-forming events in the Coeur d'Alene district and surrounding area of the Belt basin. The data suggest that the zinc- and lead-rich veins (e.g., Bunker Hill and Star-Morning mines) formed in the Proterozoic (1.0 Ga), whereas the silver-rich veins (e.g., Silver belt mines), antimony veins (e.g., US Antimony mine), and gold-bearing quartz veins (Murry subdistrict) formed in Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time.

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.

    2017-05-01

    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  9. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  10. A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and the early radiation of duck-billed dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Sues, Hans-Dieter; Averianov, Alexander

    2009-07-22

    Levnesovia transoxiana gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous (Middle-Late Turonian) of Uzbekistan, is the oldest well-documented taxon referable to Hadrosauroidea sensu Godefroit et al. It differs from a somewhat younger and closely related Bactrosaurus from Inner Mongolia (China) by a tall sagittal crest on the parietals and the absence of club-shaped dorsal neural spines in adult specimens. Levnesovia, Bactrosaurus and possibly Gilmoreosaurus represent the earliest radiation of Hadrosauroidea, which took place during the Cenomanian-Turonian and possibly in North America. The second, Santonian-age radiation of Hadrosauroidea included Aralosaurus, Hadrosauridae and lineages leading to Tanius (Campanian) and Telmatosaurus (Maastrichtian). Hadrosauridae appears to be monophyletic, but Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae originated in North America and Asia, respectively.

  11. Linkages Between Cretaceous Forearc and Retroarc Basin Development in Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orme, D. A.; Laskowski, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated provenance and subsidence analysis of forearc and retroarc foreland basin strata were used to reconstruct the evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia during the Early to Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous-Eocene Xigaze forearc basin, preserved along ~600 km of the southern Lhasa terrane, formed between the Gangdese magmatic arc and accretionary complex as subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere accommodated the northward motion and subsequent collision of the Indian plate. Petrographic similarities between Xigaze forearc basin strata and Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary rocks of the northern Lhasa terrane, interpreted as a retroarc foreland basin, were previously interpreted to record N-S trending river systems connecting the retro- and forearc regions during Cretaceous time. New sandstone petrographic and U-Pb detrital zircon provenance analysis of Xigaze forearc basin strata support this hypothesis. Qualitative and statistical provenance analysis using cumulative distribution functions and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests show that the forearc basin was derived from either the same source region as or recycled from the foreland basin. Quartz-rich sandstones with abundant carbonate sedimentary lithic grains and rounded, cobble limestone clasts suggests a more distal source than the proximal Gangdese arc. Therefore, we interpret that the northern Lhasa terrane was a significant source of Xigaze forearc detritus and track spatial and temporal variability in the connection between the retro- and forearc basin systems during the Late Cretaceous. A tectonic subsidence curve for the Xigaze forearc basin shows a steep and "kinked" shape similar to other ancient and active forearc basins. Initial subsidence was likely driven by thermal relaxation of the forearc ophiolite after emplacement while additional periods of rapid subsidence likely result from periods of high flux magmatism in the Gangdese arc and changes in plate convergence rate. Comparison of the

  12. Taxonomic Composition and Trophic Structure of the Continental Bony Fish Assemblage from the Early Late Cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to ‘Stromerichthys’ from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large ‘Lepidotes’ plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa. PMID:26018561

  13. Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the continental bony fish assemblage from the early late cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to 'Stromerichthys' from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large 'Lepidotes' plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa.

  14. Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the

  15. Potomacapnos apeleutheron gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm from the Potomac Group and its implications for the evolution of eudicot leaf architecture.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A; Hickey, Leo J

    2013-12-01

    Eudicots diverged early in the evolution of flowering plants and now comprise more than 70% of angiosperm species. In spite of the importance of eudicots, our understanding of the early evolution of this clade is limited by a poor fossil record and uncertainty about the order of early phylogenetic branching. The study of Lower Cretaceous fossils can reveal much about the evolution, morphology, and ecology of the eudicots. Fossils described here were collected from Aptian sediments of the Potomac Group exposed at the Dutch Gap locality in Virginia, USA. Specimens were prepared by degaging, then described and compared with leaves of relevant extant and fossil plants. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters using parsimony while constraining the tree search with the topology found through molecular phylogenetic analyses. The new species is closely related to ranunculalean eudicots and has leaf architecture remarkably similar to some living Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae). These are the oldest eudicot megafossils from North America, and they show complex leaf architecture reflecting developmental pathways unique to extant eudicots. The morphology and small size of the fossils suggest that they were herbaceous plants, as is seen in other putative early eudicots. The absence of co-occurring tricolpate pollen at Dutch Gap either (1) reflects low preservation probability for pollen of entomophilous herbs or (2) indicates that some leaf features of extant eudicots appeared before the origin of tricolpate pollen.

  16. The dynamics of continental breakup-related magmatism on the Norwegian volcanic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.; Mjelde, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Vøring margin off mid-Norway was initiated during the earliest Eocene (~54 Ma), and large volumes of magmatic rocks were emplaced during and after continental breakup. In 2003, an ocean bottom seismometer survey was acquired on the Norwegian margin to constrain continental breakup and early seafloor spreading processes. The profile P-wave model described here crosses the northern part of the Vøring Plateau. Maximum igneous crustal thickness was found to be 18 km, decreasing to ~6.5 km over ~6 M.y. after continental breakup. Both the volume and the duration of excess magmatism after breakup is about twice of what is observed off the Møre Margin south of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone, which offsets the margin segments by ~170 km. A similar reduction in magmatism occurs to the north over an along-margin distance of ~100 km to the Lofoten margin, but without a margin offset. There is a strong correlation between magma productivity and early plate spreading rate, which are highest just after breakup, falling with time. This is seen both at the Møre and the Vøring margin segments, suggesting a common cause. A model for the breakup- related magmatism should be able to (1) explain this correlation, (2) the magma production peak at breakup, and (3) the magmatic segmentation. Proposed end-member hypotheses are elevated upper-mantle temperatures caused by a hot mantle plume, or edge-driven small-scale convection fluxing mantle rocks through the melt zone. Both the average P-wave velocity and the major-element data at the Vøring margin indicate a low degree of melting consistent with convection. However, small scale convection does not easily explain the issues listed above. An elaboration of the mantle plume model by N. Sleep, in which buoyant plume material fills the rift-topography at the base of the lithosphere, can explain these: When the continents break apart, the buoyant plume-material flows up into the rift zone, causing excess magmatism by both elevated

  17. Paleomagnetic results from the Early Cretaceous Lakang Formation lavas: Constraints on the paleolatitude of the Tethyan Himalaya and the India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianshui; Ma, Yiming; Bian, Weiwei; Jin, Jingjie; Zhang, Shihong; Wu, Huaichun; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Zhenyu; Ding, Jikai

    2015-10-01

    To better constrain the Early Cretaceous paleogeographic position of the Tethyan Himalaya and the India-Asia collision process, a paleomagnetic study was performed on the Lakang Formation lava flows in the Cuona area in the southeastern Tethyan Himalaya. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations successfully isolated reliable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions that include antipodal dual polarities and pass positive fold tests at the 99% confidence level and reversal tests at 95% confidence level, indicating prefolding primary magnetizations. The distribution patterns of ChRM directions from the Lakang Formation lava flows are consistent with young lava flows at similar latitudes, suggesting that secular variation has likely been averaged out. The tilt-corrected site-mean direction for 31 sites is D = 261.6 °, I = - 68.5 ° with α95 = 3.6 °, which provides a paleopole at 26.8°S, 315.2°E (A95 = 5.7 °), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 52.2 ° ± 5.7 °S for the study area. Comparison of the paleolatitude observed from the Lakang Formation lava flows with that expected from the apparent polar wander paths of India at 130 Ma show a paleolatitude difference of ∼2.1° (∼230 km), indicating that neither a great north-south continental crustal shortening occurred between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya after 130 Ma, nor that a wide ocean separated them at that time. Comparison with reliable Cretaceous-Paleocene paleomagnetic results observed from the Tethyan Himalaya and the Lhasa terrane indicates that the latitudinal width of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean could have been up to ∼7000 km at 134-130 Ma and an extension should have existed between the Indian craton and the Tethyan Himalaya during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. Furthermore, reliable paleomagnetic results suggest that the India-Asia collision was a dual-collision process, consisting of a first collision of the Tethyan Himalaya with the Lhasa terrane

  18. Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and stratigraphic development of the Early Cretaceous sediments (Lower Bima Member) in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abubakar, M. B.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Amir Hassan, M. H.; Adamu, Bappah U.; Jitong, John S.; Aliyu, Abdulkarim H.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2014-08-01

    The Benue Trough of Nigeria is a major rift basin formed from the tension generated by the separation of African and South American plates in the Early Cretaceous. It is geographically sub-divided into Southern, Central and Northern Benue portions. The Northern Benue Trough comprises two sub-basins; the N-S trending Gongola Sub-basin and the E-W trending Yola Sub-basin. The Bima Formation is the oldest lithogenetic unit occupying the base of the Cretaceous successions in the Northern Benue Trough. It is differentiated into three members; the Lower Bima (B1), the Middle Bima (B2) and the Upper Bima (B3). Facies and their stratigraphical distribution analyses were conducted on the Lower Bima Member exposed mainly at the core of the NE-SW axially trending Lamurde Anticline in the Yola Sub-basin, with an objective to interpret the paleodepositional environments, and to reconstruct the depositional model and the stratigraphical architecture. Ten (10) lithofacies were identified on the basis of lithology, grain size, sedimentary structures and paleocurrent analysis. The facies constitute three (3) major facies associations; the gravelly dominated, the sandy dominated and the fine grain dominated. These facies and facies associations were interpreted and three facies successions were recognized; the alluvial-proximal braided river, the braided river and the lacustrine-marginal lacustrine. The stratigraphic architecture indicates a rifted (?pull-apart) origin as the facies distribution shows a progradational succession from a shallow lacustrine/marginal lacustrine (at the axial part of the basin) to alluvial fan (sediment gravity flow)-proximal braided river (gravel bed braided river) and braided river (channel and overbank) depositional systems. The facies stacking patterns depict sedimentation mainly controlled by allogenic factors of climate and tectonism.

  19. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameil, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  20. Deciphering the preservation of fossil insects: a case study from the Crato Member, Early Cretaceous of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Setembrino; Becker-Kerber, Bruno; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Rizzutto, Marcia de Almeida; Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; da Silva, Tiago Fiorini; Curado, Jessica F.; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Ribeiro, Rafael Parra; Pacheco, Mírian Liza Alves Forancelli

    2016-01-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved three-dimensional insects with fine details and even labile tissues are ubiquitous in the Crato Member Konservat Lagerstätte (northeastern Brazil). Here we investigate the preservational pathways which yielded such specimens. We employed high resolution techniques (EDXRF, SR-SXS, SEM, EDS, micro Raman, and PIXE) to understand their fossilisation on mineralogical and geochemical grounds. Pseudomorphs of framboidal pyrite, the dominant fossil microfabric, display size variation when comparing cuticle with inner areas or soft tissues, which we interpret as the result of the balance between ion diffusion rates and nucleation rates of pyrite through the originally decaying carcasses. Furthermore, the mineral fabrics are associated with structures that can be the remains of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Geochemical data also point to a concentration of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the fossils in comparison to the embedding rock. Therefore, we consider that biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) had a central role in insect decay and mineralisation. Therefore, we shed light on exceptional preservation of fossils by pyritisation in a Cretaceous limestone lacustrine palaeoenvironment. PMID:28028459

  1. Multiple nuclear genes and retroposons support vicariance and dispersal of the palaeognaths, and an Early Cretaceous origin of modern birds.

    PubMed

    Haddrath, Oliver; Baker, Allan J

    2012-11-22

    The origin and timing of the diversification of modern birds remains controversial, primarily because phylogenetic relationships are incompletely resolved and uncertainty persists in molecular estimates of lineage ages. Here, we present a species tree for the major palaeognath lineages using 27 nuclear genes and 27 archaic retroposon insertions. We show that rheas are sister to the kiwis, emu and cassowaries, and confirm ratite paraphyly because tinamous are sister to moas. Divergence dating using 10 genes with broader taxon sampling, including emu, cassowary, ostrich, five kiwis, two rheas, three tinamous, three extinct moas and 15 neognath lineages, suggests that three vicariant events and possibly two dispersals are required to explain their historical biogeography. The age of crown group birds was estimated at 131 Ma (95% highest posterior density 122-138 Ma), similar to previous molecular estimates. Problems associated with gene tree discordance and incomplete lineage sorting in birds will require much larger gene sets to increase species tree accuracy and improve error in divergence times. The relatively rapid branching within neoaves pre-dates the extinction of dinosaurs, suggesting that the genesis of the radiation within this diverse clade of birds was not in response to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.

  2. Marine vs. local control on seawater Nd-isotope ratios at the northwest coast of Africa during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Ulianov, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2013-12-01

    At the northwest corner of Africa excellent conditions existed for phosphate formation (i.e., stable upwelling system) during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene. This is probably in relation to stable tectonic evolution of shallow epicontinental basins at a passive continental margin and to their paleogeographic situation between the Atlantic and Tethys marine realms. To better comprehend paleoceanic conditions in this area, radiogenic isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd) and trace element compositions of fossil biogenic apatite are investigated from Maastrichtian to Ypresian shallow marine phosphorite deposits in Morocco (Ouled Abdoun and Ganntour Basins). Rare earth elements (REE) distributions in the fossils are compatible with early diagenetic marine pore fluid represented by negative Ce-anomaly and heavy REE enrichment. An overall shift in Ce-anomaly is apparent with gradually lower values in younger fossils along three distinct assemblages that correspond to Maastrichtian, Danian-Thanetian and Ypresian periods. The temporal change can be interpreted as presence of gradually more oxygenated seawater in the basins. Strontium isotopic ratios of the fossils follow the global Sr-evolution curve. However, the latest Cretaceous and the oldest Paleocene fossils yielded slightly higher ratios than the global ocean, which could reflect minor diagenetic alteration. Neodymium isotopic ratios are quite even along the phosphate series with ɛNd(t) values ranges from -6.8 to -5.8. These values are higher than those reported for average North Atlantic deep water and Tethyan seawater (e.g., Stille et al., 1996; Thomas et al., 2003). For the origin of the stable, high 143Nd/144Nd we propose three main hypotheses: (1) contribution of continental Nd-source, (2) locally controlled deep water Nd-isotope ratios near the coast from where upwelling originated in the area and (3) possible surface marine water contribution from the Pacific across the Atlantic. Stille, P., Steinmann

  3. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within

  4. Cretaceous plate interaction during the formation of the Colombian plateau, Northandean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Andreas; Piraquive, Alejandro; Díaz, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    The Cretaceous subduction cycle at the Northandean margin ends with an accretionary event that welds the plateau rocks of the present Western Cordillera to the continental margin. A suture between plateau and rock associations of the continental margin is well exposed at the western border of the Central Cordillera, but overprinted by intense block tectonics. Analyzed in detail, its evolution tracks an increased coupling between lower and upper plate, as may be accounted for by the following stages: 1) The Cretaceous plateau suite records at its onset passive margin conditions, as it encroaches on the continental margin and accounts for an extensional event that triggered the emplacement of ultramafic and mafic igneous rock suites along major faults. 2) An early subduction stage of a still moderate plate coupling is documented by the formation of a magmatic arc in an extensional setting that may have been prompted by slab retreat. Convergence direction was oblique, as attested the transfer of strike-slip displacements to the forearc region. 3) A phase of strong plate interaction entailed the delamination of narrow crustal flakes and their entrainment to depths below the petrologic Moho, as evidenced by their present association to serpentinites in a setting that bears characteristics of a subduction channel. 4) During the final collisional stage deformation is transferred to the lower plate, where the stacking of imbricate sheets, combined with their erosional unloading, led to the formation of an antiformal bulge that fed a foreland basin. - The life time of this Cretaceous subduction cycle was strictly synchronous to the construction of the Colombian plateau. With the final collisional stage magmatic activity vanished. This coincidence incites to explore a relationship between plume activity and subduction.

  5. Grimmiaceae in the Early Cretaceous: Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. and the value of anatomically preserved bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Savoretti, Adolfina; Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2018-06-08

    Widespread and diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are rare in the fossil record, especially in pre-Cenozoic rocks. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known from compression fossils, which lack detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy significantly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) deposits on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora including numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is the grimmiaceous moss described here. One fossil moss gametophyte preserved in a carbonate concretion was studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Tricarinella crassiphylla gen. et sp. nov. is a moss with tristichous phyllotaxis and strongly keeled leaves. The combination of an acrocarpous condition (inferred based on a series of morphological features), a central conducting strand, a homogeneous leaf costa and a lamina with bistratose portions and sinuous cells, and multicellular gemmae, supports placement of Tricarinella in family Grimmiaceae. Tricarinella is similar to Grimmia, a genus that exhibits broad morphological variability. However, tristichous phyllotaxis and especially the lamina, bistratose at the base but not in distal portions of the leaf, set Tricarinella apart as a distinct genus. Tricarinella crassiphylla marks the oldest record for both family Grimmiaceae and sub-class Dicranidae, providing a hard minimum age (136 million years) for these groups. The fact that this fossil could be placed in an extant family, despite a diminutive size, emphasizes the considerable resolving power of anatomically preserved bryophyte fossils, even when recovered from allochthonous assemblages of marine sediments, such as the Apple Bay flora. Discovery of Tricarinella re-emphasizes the importance of paleobotanical studies as the only approach allowing access to a significant segment

  6. Radio-astrochronology of the Agrio Formation (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) to reduce the uncertainties of the geological time scale in Early Cretaceous times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Beatriz, Aguirre-Urreta; Marina, Lescano; Julieta, Omarini; Maisa, Tunik; Thomas, Frederichs; Anna-Leah, Nickl; Heiko, Pälike

    2017-04-01

    the range of uncertainty mentioned by Martinez et al. (2015) (2.5 ± 0.4 myr), but being much longer than the duration of 1.21 myr proposed in the geological time scale 2016 (Ogg et al., 2016), suggesting the duration of the Hauterivian stage has to be increased by, at least, 0.9 myr for the next compilation. References: Aguirre-Urreta, B., et al., 2015. Filling the gap: new precise Early Cretaceous radioisotopic ages from the Andes. Geological Magazine 152, 557-564. Martinez, M., et al., 2015. Astrochronology of the Valanginian-Hauterivian stages (Early Cretaceous): chronological relationships between the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province, the Weissert and the Faraoni events. Global and Planetary Change 131, 158-173. Ogg, J.G., et al., 2016. A Concise Geological Time Scale 2016. Elsevier B.V., 243 pp. Sagasti, G., 2005. Hemipelagic record of orbitally-induced dilution cycles in Lower Cretaceous sediments of the Neuquén Basin, in Veiga, G.D., Spaletti, L.A., Howell, J.A. and Schwarz E. (Eds.). The Neuquén Basin, Argentina: A Case Study in Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Dynamics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 252, 231-250.

  7. Early Carboniferous magmatism in Lhasa generated in passive continental margin: constrained by new SIMS dating from Carboniferous arc in Qiantang terrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Dan, W.; Wang, Q.; Hao, L. L.; Qi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In today's oceans, they are rarely undergone subduction on one side and extension on the opposite side. In contrast, there are a few magmatisms in the passive continental margins in the Tethys Ocean. However, because of their long and complex evolution of the northern continental margin of the Gondwana, the geodynamics of the magmatism occurred in this area is speculative or highly depute. One of these examples is the geodynamics of the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa, Tibet. Many authors speculated that it was generated in back-arc setting. Our recent new high-resolution SIMS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that there is a subduction arc with ages of 370-350 Ma in the Qiangtang terrane. The arc rocks compose of andesites, plagiogranites, A-type granites and cumulated gabbros, indicating an initial subduction. This initial subduction arc is located on the north margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and it was formed slightly earlier than the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa, located on the south margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Combined with similar aged magmatism generating the back-arc basin in the Sanjiang area, the 360-350 Ma magmatism in southern Lhasa was proposed to be generated in a passive continental margin, and induced by the regional extensional setting related to the subduction in the north margin of the eastern Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  8. Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Deposits, Upper Abu Gabra Formation, Sufyan Sub-basin, Muglad Rift Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassin, Mohamed; Abdullatif, Osman; Hariri, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Sufyan Sub-basin is an East-West trending Sub-basin located in the northwestern part of the Muglad Basin (Sudan), in the eastern extension of the West and Central Africa Rift System (WCARS). The Early Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation considered as the main source rock in the Muglad Basin. In Sufyan Sub-basin the Early Cretaceous Upper Abu Gabra Formation is the main oil-producing reservoir. It is dominated by sandstone and shales deposited in fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine environment during the first rift cycle in the basin. Depositional and post-depositional processes highly influenced the reservoir quality and architecture. This study investigates different scales of reservoir heterogeneities from macro to micro scale. Subsurface facies analysis was analyzed based on the description of six conventional cores from two wells. Approaches include well log analysis, thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations, grain-size, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the Abu Gabra sandstone. The cores and well logs analyses revealed six lithofacies representing fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine depositional environment. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted and sub-angular to subrounded, Sub-feldspathic arenite to quartz arenite. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies within Abu Gabra reservoir where it shows progressive coarsening upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The upper part of the reservoir showed well connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to lower parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenesis.The XRD and SEM analyses show that kaolinite and chlorite clay are the common clay minerals in the studied samples. Clay matrix and quartz overgrowth have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability, while the dissolution of feldspars

  9. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  10. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.

    2012-12-01

    and Phanerozoic zircons. The metamorphic rocks from SW Borneo are not an ancient core to the island as previously assumed. We propose that extensive arc volcanism produced fine grained volcanogenic sediments during the Early Cretaceous deposited on, or reworking, older crust. These sediments were subjected to low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism soon after deposition. Magmatism continued into the Late Cretaceous, resulting in contact metamorphism.

  11. Absurdaster, a new genus of basal atelostomate from the Early Cretaceous of Europe and its phylogenetic position☆

    PubMed Central

    Kroh, Andreas; Lukeneder, Alexander; Gallemí, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Field work in the Lower Cretaceous of the Dolomites (Italy) has resulted in the recovery of a new genus of ‘disasteroid’ echinoid, which successively was also discovered in slightly older strata in Northern Hungary. This new genus, Absurdaster, is characterized by its highly modified, disjunct apical disc in which all genital plate except genital plate 2 are reduced or fused. The gonopores (which may be multiple) have shifted and pierce interambulacral plates. Anteriorly ambulacrum III is distinctly sunken and forms a distinct frontal notch, while the posterior end is pointed and features a small sharply defined posterior face bearing the periproct. Two new species are established: Absurdaster puezensis sp. nov. from the Upper Hauterivian to Lower Barremian Puez Formation of Northern Italy is characterized by its rudimentary ambulacral pores in the paired ambulacra, high hexagonal ambulacral plates aborally and multiple gonopores in the most adapical plates of interambulacral columns 1b and 4a. Absurdaster hungaricus sp. nov. from the Lower Hauterivian Bersek Marl Formation of Northern Hungary, in contrast, shows circumflexed ambulacral pores, low ambulacral plates, a single gonopore each in the most adapical plates of interambulacral columns 1b and 4a and a flaring posterior end, with sharp margin and invaginated periproct. In addition to those two species Collyrites meriani Ooster, 1865 from the uppermost Berriasian to basal Barremian of Switzerland is attributed to the new genus. Despite the poor knowledge on this form it seems to be distinguished from the new species by its smaller ambulacral plates and higher interambulacral/ambulacral plate ratio. Phylogenetic analyses based on previous work by Barras (2007) and Saucède et al. (2007) indicate that the new genus is a highly derived stem-group member of the Atelostomata close to the split of holasteroids and spatangoids. A combined analysis based on a subset of the characters employed in these two studies

  12. 50 Myr of pulsed mafic magmatism in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, D. G.; Dockman, D. M.; Heaman, L. M.; Gibson, S. A.; Sarkar, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive and voluminous Cretaceous mafic magmatism in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada forms the circum-Arctic High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The small number of published high-precision ages for this LIP indicate its eruption over a considerable timespan raising concerns over whether the HALIP can be strictly defined as a single LIP and questioning the role of a single or multiple plumes in its genesis. Here we present an integrated geochemical and geochronological study to better constrain the timing and cause of mafic magma genesis in the Canadian HALIP. Six new U-Pb and four 40Ar/39Ar ages of mafic lavas and intrusive sheets range from 121 Ma to 78 Ma. The U-Pb ages are the first analyzed from the mafic intrusions of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands. The new geochronology, combined with other published high-precision ages, reveal a > 50 Myr duration of mafic magmatism in the HALIP defined by three main pulses. Tholeiites dominate the initial 25 Myr of magmatism, transitioning to coeval emplacement of alkali and tholeiitic basalts. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that both magma types are derived from a similar source dominated by convecting mantle. Rare-earth-element inversion models reveal that the alkalic and tholeiitic magmas were generated beneath a bimodal lithospheric `lid' thickness of 65 ± 5 and 45 ± 4 km, respectively. We suggest that the early 128 - 122 Ma tholeiitic event is primarily plume-generated and correlates across the circum-Arctic with the other HALIP tholeiites. Younger HALIP magmatism, with coeval alkalic and tholeiitic magmas erupting over 25 Myr, may be explained by alternating modes of edge-driven mantle convection as the primary control on magma genesis. A distal plume may have intensified magma production by edge-driven convection.

  13. Supra-subduction zone extensional magmatism in Vermont and adjacent Quebec: Implications for early Paleozoic Appalachian tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, J.; Coish, R.; Evans, M.; Dick, G.

    2003-01-01

    Metadiabasic intrusions of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite occur in fault-bounded lithotectonic packages containing Stowe, Moretown, and Cram Hill Formation lithologies in the northern Vermont Rowe-Hawley belt, a proposed Ordovician arc-trench gap above an east-dipping subduction zone. Rocks of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite are characteristically massive and weakly foliated, have chilled margins, contain xenoliths, and have sharp contacts that both crosscut and are parallel to early structural fabrics in the host metasedimentary rocks. Although the mineral assemblage of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite is albite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + calcite + quartz, intergrowths of albite + actinolite are probably pseudomorphs after plagioclase + clinopyroxene. The metadiabases are subalkaline, tholeiitic, hypabyssal basalts with preserved ophitic texture. A backarc-basin tectonic setting for the intrusive suite is suggested by its LREE (light rare earth element) enrichment, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and Ta/Yb vs. Th/Yb trends. Although no direct isotopic age data are available, the intrusions are broadly Ordovician because their contacts are clearly folded by the earliest Acadian (Silurian-Devonian) folds. Field evidence and geochemical data suggest compelling along-strike correlations with the Coburn Hill Volcanics of northern Vermont and the Bolton Igneous Group of southern Quebec. Isotopic and stratigraphic age constraints for the Bolton Igneous Group bracket these backarc magmas to the 477-458 Ma interval. A tectonic model that begins with east-dipping subduction and progresses to outboard west-dipping subduction after a syncollisional polarity reversal best explains the intrusion of deformed metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks by backarc magmas.

  14. A large, short-armed, winged dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China and its implications for feather evolution.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2015-07-16

    The famous 'feathered dinosaurs' from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, northeastern China, include several dromaeosaurids, which are among the closest relatives of birds. Most of these are small-bodied taxa with long arms and broad wings comprised of vaned feathers, but a single specimen (the holotype of Tianyuraptor) belongs to a much larger individual with reduced forelimbs, which unfortunately lacks any preserved integument. We describe a new specimen of large-bodied, short-armed Liaoning dromaeosaurid, which we designate as a new genus and species, Zhenyuanlong suni. The integument is well preserved and provides the first evidence of feather morphologies and distribution in a short-armed (and probably non-volant) dromaeosaurid, indicating that these rare and aberrant taxa had large wings consisting of pennaceous feathers on the arms and long pennaceous feathers on the tail very similar to their smaller and longer-armed relatives, but potentially lacked vaned feathers on the legs. Zhenyuanlong adds yet more diversity to the Liaoning dromaeosaurid fauna, helps further reveal a distinct short-armed bauplan among dromaeosaurids, and illuminates previously-unrecognized homoplasy that complicates dromaeosaurid phylogeny and suggests that the Liaoning taxa may not have formed their own clade.

  15. The Changing Nature of the Hawaiian Hotspot in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary: Evidence From Helium Isotopes and Melt Inclusion Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.; Graham, D.; Duncan, R.; Regelous, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 recovered basaltic basement from three of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Emperor seamounts: Detroit (Sites 1203 and 1204), Nintoku (Site 1205), and Koko (Site 1206) seamounts. The depths of penetration into basement achieved by this drilling (140-450 m), the range of rock types recovered (hawaiites, alkalic basalts, and tholeiitic basalts), and the age range (48-76 Ma) makes this one of the most comprehensive collections of the volcanic products of the Hawaiian hotspot available, and opens up new opportunities to study the temporal evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Previous studies of the chemical evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot (Lanphere et al., 1980; Keller et al., 2000) found significant temporal variations. For example, Sr isotopic ratios of the tholeiitic basalts remain fairly constant along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge between Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, but then decrease steadily northward along the Emperor seamounts. Trace element compositions (especially the rare earth element patterns) also show limited variations along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge, but change toward more depleted values northward along the Emperor seamounts. The trend to more MORB-like compositions back in time was attributed to a decrease in distance between the hotspot and the nearest spreading center, although a more comprehensive study suggests that variations in lithospheric thickness also caused changes in the composition of the plume melts (Regelous et al., 2002). We will complement these previous studies and the ongoing work of the other Leg 197 scientists by studying two aspects of the Emperor seamount basalts: helium isotopes and melt inclusion compositions. We will measure the helium isotopic ratios of selected olivine separates from three of the Leg 197 drill sites and from DSDP Site 433 on Suiko seamount (65 Ma) to determine if the composition of the Hawaiian "plume signal

  16. Syn-convergence extension in the southern Lhasa terrane: Evidence from late Cretaceous adakitic granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xuxuan; Xu, Zhiqin; Meert, Joseph G.

    2017-10-01

    Late Cretaceous (∼100-80 Ma) magmatism in the Gangdese magmatic belt plays a pivotal role in understanding the evolutionary history and tectonic regime of the southern Lhasa terrane. The geodynamic process for the formation of the early Late Cretaceous magmatism has long been an issue of hot debates. Here, petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of early Late Cretaceous granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes in the Caina region, southern Lhasa, were investigated in an effort to ascertain their petrogenesis, age of intrusion, magma mixing and tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorite yields 206Pb/238U ages of 85.8 ± 1.7 and 86.4 ± 1.1 Ma, whilst that of the E-W trending dykes yields ages of 82.7 ± 2.6 and 83.5 ± 3.5 Ma. Within error, the crystallization ages of the dykes and the granodiorite are indistinguishable. Field observations and mineralogical microstructures are suggestive of a magma mixing process during the formation of the dykes and the granodiorite. The granodiorite exhibits geochemical features that are in agreement with those of subduction-related high-SiO2 adakites. The granodiorite and dykes have relatively constant εNd(t) values of +2.2 to +4.9 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7045-0.7047). These similar characteristics are herein interpreted as an evolutionary series from the dykes to granodiorite, consistent with magma mixing process. Ti-in-zircon thermometer and Al-in-hornblende barometer indicate that the granodiorite and the dioritic dyke crystallized at temperatures of ca. 750 and 800 °C, depths of ca. 6-10 and 5-9 km, respectively. Taking into account the synchronous magmatic rocks in the Gangdese Belt and the coeval rifted basin within the Lhasa terrane, the granodiorite and dykes reveal an early Late Cretaceous syn-convergence extensional regime in the southern Lhasa terrane, triggered by slab rollback of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  17. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds. PMID:24482756

  18. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph.

    PubMed

    Chiappe, Luis M; Zhao, Bo; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds.

  19. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  20. Atolchelys lepida, a new side-necked turtle from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and the age of crown Pleurodira

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Pedro S. R.; Gallo, Valéria; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Antonioli, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    We report a new pleurodiran turtle from the Barremian Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil. We tested the phylogenetic position of Atolchelys lepida gen. et sp. nov. by including it in a comprehensive cladistic analysis of pleurodires. The new species is a basal member of Bothremydidae and simultaneously the oldest unambiguous crown Pleurodira. The biogeographic and chronostratigraphic significance of the finding has implications for the calibration of molecular clocks studies by pushing back the minimum age of crown Pleurodira by more than 12 Ma (ca 125 Ma). The reanalysis of Pelomedusoides relationships provides evidence that the early evolution and relationships among the main lineages of side-necked turtles can be explained, at least partially, by a sequence of vicariance events. PMID:25079494

  1. The Aucellina biostratigraphy of the Upper Albian (Early Cretaceous) of the Kirchrode I cored borehole, Hannover-Kirchrode, northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Christopher J.

    2016-12-01

    The Aucellina biostratigraphy of the Upper Albian Kirchrode Marls Member succession in the Kirchrode I (1/91) cored borehole is described and the fauna illustrated. The borehole commenced at an unknown depth below the Early Cenomanian marls of the Bemerode Member, but higher beds of the Kirchrode Marls and the basal beds of the Bemerode Member were exposed in the Mittellandkanal and its Stichkanal extension at Misburg. The borehole and surface exposures permit a virtually complete Late Albian succession of Aucellina species to be observed. Published Aucellina range data from the borehole are reassessed and it is suggested that the lower part of the recorded range is based partly on misidentifications of fragments of thin-shelled bivalves such as Syncyclonema and Amussium. Aucellina appears in the borehole succession within the upper part of the Callihoplites auritus ammonite Subzone (Mortoniceras inflatum Zone) and continues to the top of the borehole succession within the Preaeschloenbachia briacensis ammonite Subzone (Stoliczkaia spp. Zone). Aucellina from higher in the briacensis Subzone collected from the Misburg Mittellandkanal section are also discussed and illustrated. There is some evidence that Aucellina occurs typically at levels in the borehole containing predominantly Boreal European Province ammonites, supporting the general inference that Aucellina lived in cooler northern waters. In contrast, Aucellina is poorly represented in intervals with Tethyan ammonites and thin-shelled inoceramids (e.g. the Mortoniceras (Durnovarites) perinflatum Subzone, Stoliczkaia spp. Zone). The briacensis Subzone, with an admixture of Tethyan (Stoliczkaia) and Boreal ammonites contains a distinctive, taxonomically highly diverse Aucellina assemblage. Relevant taxonomic research on European Late Albian and Early Cenomanian Aucellina faunas is reviewed. The Late Albian Aucellina succession in the borehole differs from that established from partially correlative successions

  2. Geochemical and Nd-Sr isotopic constraints on the genesis of Mesozoic alkaline magmatism in Tu Le basin, Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. A.; Tran, T. H.; Lan, C. Y.; Chung, S. L.; Lo, C. H.; Wang, P. L.; Lee, T. Y.; Merztman, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    China, we propose an intraplate lithospheric extension setting to account for the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism whose generation postdated the continental collision between the Indochina and South China blocks in the early Triassic. Formed originally in the western margin of the South China block, SW China, the Tu Le basin and associated Mesozoic magmatic rocks were transported southeastward to the present location by the mid-Tertiary sinistral displacement of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, related to the India-Asia collision.

  3. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  4. Range of movement in ray I of manus and pes and the prehensility of the autopodia in the Early Permian to Late Cretaceous non-anomodont Synapsida.

    PubMed

    Kümmell, Susanna B; Frey, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of ray I was analysed in seventy-eight Early Permian to Late Cretaceous specimens of non-mammalian Synapsida and one extant mammal. In all non-mammaliamorph Synapsida investigated, ray I formed a digital arcade. The first phalanx was maximally extendable to the zero position in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Metapodiale I was the functional equivalent to a basal phalanx of digits II-V. In contrast, there was no digital arcade in ray I in Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha. Phalanx 1 I was dorsally extendable and metapodiale I was functionally part of the metapodium. During the propulsion phase, autopodial rotation occurred in the majority of Synapsida with abducted limb posture. Regarding ray I, the reduction of autopodial rotation can be estimated, e.g., from the decrease of lateral rotation and medial abduction of the first phalanx in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Autopodial rotation was high in Titanophoneus and reduced in derived Cynodontia. In Mammaliamorpha the mobility of the first ray suggests autopodial rolling in an approximately anterior direction. Most non-mammaliamorph Therapsida and probably some Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha had prehensile autopodia with an opposable ray I. In forms with a pronounced relief of the respective joints, ray I could be opposed to 90° against ray III. A strong transverse arch in the row of distalia supported the opposition movement of ray I and resulted in a convergence of the claws of digits II-V just by flexing those digits. A tight articular coherence in the digital joints of digits II-V during strong flexion supported a firm grip capacity. Usually the grip capacity was more pronounced in the manus than in the pes. Prehensile autopodia of carnivorous Therapsida may have been utilized to hold prey while biting, thus helping to avoid fractures of the laterally compressed fangs.

  5. Range of Movement in Ray I of Manus and Pes and the Prehensility of the Autopodia in the Early Permian to Late Cretaceous Non-Anomodont Synapsida

    PubMed Central

    Kümmell, Susanna B.; Frey, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    The mobility of ray I was analysed in seventy-eight Early Permian to Late Cretaceous specimens of non-mammalian Synapsida and one extant mammal. In all non-mammaliamorph Synapsida investigated, ray I formed a digital arcade. The first phalanx was maximally extendable to the zero position in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Metapodiale I was the functional equivalent to a basal phalanx of digits II–V. In contrast, there was no digital arcade in ray I in Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha. Phalanx 1 I was dorsally extendable and metapodiale I was functionally part of the metapodium. During the propulsion phase, autopodial rotation occurred in the majority of Synapsida with abducted limb posture. Regarding ray I, the reduction of autopodial rotation can be estimated, e.g., from the decrease of lateral rotation and medial abduction of the first phalanx in the metapodiophalangeal joint I. Autopodial rotation was high in Titanophoneus and reduced in derived Cynodontia. In Mammaliamorpha the mobility of the first ray suggests autopodial rolling in an approximately anterior direction. Most non-mammaliamorph Therapsida and probably some Mesozoic Mammaliamorpha had prehensile autopodia with an opposable ray I. In forms with a pronounced relief of the respective joints, ray I could be opposed to 90° against ray III. A strong transverse arch in the row of distalia supported the opposition movement of ray I and resulted in a convergence of the claws of digits II–V just by flexing those digits. A tight articular coherence in the digital joints of digits II–V during strong flexion supported a firm grip capacity. Usually the grip capacity was more pronounced in the manus than in the pes. Prehensile autopodia of carnivorous Therapsida may have been utilized to hold prey while biting, thus helping to avoid fractures of the laterally compressed fangs. PMID:25517726

  6. Early cretaceous lower crustal reworking in NE China: insights from geochronology and geochemistry of felsic igneous rocks from the Great Xing'an range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinglei; Liu, Huichuan; Huangfu, Pengpeng; He, Hongyun; Liu, Yongzheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for two granitic plutons and rhyolites of the Baiyingaolao Formation in the western Xing'an range (NE China). The two syenogranite granitic plutons yield identical zircon U-Pb age of 142 ± 1 Ma, and the Baiyingaolao rhyolites yield zircon U-Pb age of 138 ± 2 Ma. The granites contain some hornblendes, and show low Zr and Zr + Nb + Ce + Y contents, and low A/CNK (0.98-1.11), Mg# (6-55), and FeOT/MgO values. Rhyolite samples show similar geochemical characteristics with A/CNK of 0.99-1.10 and Mg# of 14-21. In combination with the high K2O contents (4.43-5.61 wt%) and negative correlations between P2O5 and SiO2, both the granites and rhyolites were classified as high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids. All samples give high zirconium saturation temperature of 794-964 °C with few initially inherited zircons, and belong to high-temperature I-type granitoids. They were generated by dehydration melting of biotite/muscovite from sub-alkaline meta-basalts in lower crust depth, leaving garnet, amphibole, and plagioclase as the major residual minerals. The syenogranites and rhyolites are likely formed in Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic subduction setting. Incorporating other lower crust-originated felsic rocks in Erguna and Xing'an massifs and Songliao basin, it is argued that lower crustal reworking is pronounced in NE China during Early Cretaceous.

  7. Magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Ladakh Block from field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, U.; Honegger, K.

    1989-04-01

    The Ladakh Block is in an intermediate position between the Indian plate in the south and the Karakorum-Tibetan plate in the north. To the west it is separated from the Kohistan Arc by the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, to the east it is cut off from the Lhasa Block by the Gartok-Nubra Fault. Present data, together with previously published results, show, that the Ladakh Block consists of an island arc in the south and a calc-alkaline batholith in the north with remnants of a continental crust. Migmatitic gneisses and metasedimentary sequences, such as quartzites and metapelites, interbedded with basaltic volcanics and overlain by thick platform carbonates were found as evidence of a continental crust. Remnants of megafossils ( Megalodon and Lithiotis) within the high-grade metamorphic marbles indicate a probable age of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These sediments were intruded by a faintly layered hornblende-gabbro, which preceded the calc-alkaline magmatic episode. Gabbro and gabbronorites are found as roof pendants and large inclusions within diorites and granodiorites. The major part of the batholith consists of granodiorite and biotite-granite plutons, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Tertiary. Associated with the intrusives are volcanic rocks with trachyandesite to alkalibasalt and basalt-andesite to rhyolite compositions. Garnet-bearing leucogranites succeeded the emplacement of the major plutons. The magmatic stage ended, finally, by intense fracturing and injections of NE-SW striking andesitic dykes. The southernmost unit of the Ladakh Block is formed by oceanic crust with serpentinized peridotite and hornblende-gabbro and is covered by volcanics of an island-arc type (Dras volcanics). These units are intruded by gabbronorite, as well as Middle and Upper Cretaceous granodiorite and coarse-grained biotite-granite. In a plate tectonic view the Ladakh Block represents a transitional sector between the pure island arc of Kohistan in the west and the Andean type

  8. Early and late lithification of aragonitic bivalve beds in the Purbeck Formation (upper jurassic-lower cretaceous) of Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shahat, Adam; West, Ian

    1983-05-01

    Beds of euryhaline bivalves alternating with shales constitute much of the middle Purbeck Formation. They originated on "tidal" flats at the western margin of an extensive brackish lagoon. When these shell beds are thin and enclosed in shale they are often still preserved as aragonite and are associated with "beef", fibrous calcite formed during compaction. In most cases, however, the shell debris has been converted by diagenesis into calcitic biosparrudite limestones. A compacted type has been lithified at a late stage, after deep burial. In this, pyrite is abundant and most of the shell aragonite has been replaced neomorphically by ferroan pseudopleochroic calcite. A contrasting uncompacted type of biosparrudite is characterised by bivalve fragments with micrite envelopes. Shells and former pores are occupied by non-ferroan sparry calcite cement, and there is little pyrite. These limestones frequently contain dinosaur footprints and originated in "supratidal" environments where they were cemented early, mainly in meteoric water. Once lithified they were unaffected by compaction. This uncompacted type indicates phases of mild uplift or halts in subsidence. These shell-bed lithologies, and also intermediate types described here, will probably be recognised in other lagoonal formations.

  9. Dynamic depositional and early diagenetic processes in a deep-water shelf setting, upper cretaceous Austin Chalk, North Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.; Nance, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk of north Texas was deposited on a deep-water shelf north of the Sea Marcos Platform during a worldwide Coniacian and Santonian sea-level highstand. Transgressive (lowermost lower Austin Chalk), highstand (uppermost lower Austin Chalk), and regressive (middle and upper Austin Chalk) phases of cyclic chalk and marl sedimentation are recognized in excavations and tunnels created in Ellis County for the Superconducting Super Collider provide new evidence of sediment transport during Austin Chalk deposition. During transgression, bottom currents syndepositionally reworked nannoplankton oozes, incising channels as much as 120 ft across and 8 ft deep. Weakly burrowed channel fills havingmore » preservation of fine lamination document rapid infilling. Channel fills are composed of pyritized and carbonized wood and Inoceramus lag deposits, pellets, echinoderm fragments, and globigerinid grainstones, and coccolith ooze. During maximum highstand, bottom reworking was suppressed. Detrital content of highstand marls is low (>20 percent); organic content is high (1.4 to 3.5 percent). Coccolith preservation is excellent because of minimal diagenetic alteration. Regression is marked by resumed channel cutting and storm-bed winnowing in the middle and upper Austin Chalk. Suppressed resistivity log response and recessive weathering characteristics of the middle Austin Chalk are not primarily related to depositional environment but rather to increased input of volcanic ash during the accumulation of this interval. Early stabilization of ash produced clay-coated microfabrics in sediments that are otherwise similar to the transgressive deposits.« less

  10. Contemporaneous alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism in the Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province: Constraints from U-Pb zircon/baddeleyite and 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite dating of the José Fernandes Gabbro and mafic dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Vidyã V.; Janasi, Valdecir A.; Heaman, Larry M.; Shaulis, Barry J.; Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M.; Renne, Paul R.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon and 40Ar/39Ar step-heating phlogopite age data for diabase and lamprophyre dykes and a mafic intrusion (José Fernandes Gabbro) located within the Ponta Grossa Arch, Brazil, in order to constrain the temporal evolution between Early Cretaceous tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province. U-Pb dates from chemically abraded zircon data yielded the best estimate for the emplacement ages of a high Ti-P-Sr basaltic dyke (133.9 ± 0.2 Ma), a dyke with basaltic andesite composition (133.4 ± 0.2 Ma) and the José Fernandes Gabbro (134.5 ± 0.1 Ma). A 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite step-heating age of 133.7 ± 0.1 Ma from a lamprophyre dyke is identical within error to the U-Pb age of the diabase dykes, indicating that tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism were coeval in the Ponta Grossa Arch. Although nearly all analysed fractions are concordant and show low analytical uncertainties (± 0.3-0.9 Ma for baddeleyite; 0.1-0.4 Ma for zircon; 2σ), Pb loss is observed in all baddeleyite fractions and in some initial zircon fractions not submitted to the most extreme chemical abrasion treatment. The resulting age spread may reflect intense and continued magmatic activity in the Ponta Grossa Arch.

  11. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  12. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  13. Mesozoic arc magmatism along the southern Peruvian margin during Gondwana breakup and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Spikings, Richard; Sempere, Thierry; Chiaradia, Massimo; Ulianov, Alexey; Schaltegger, Urs

    2012-08-01

    A high-resolution U-Pb zircon geochronological study of plutonic units along the south Peruvian margin between 17° and 18°S allows the integration of the geochemical, geodynamic and tectonic evolution of this part of the Andean margin. This study focuses on the composite Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo Batholith that was emplaced along the southern Peruvian coast during two episodes of intrusive magmatism; a first period between 173 and 152 Ma (with a peak in magmatic activity between roughly 168 and 162 Ma) and a second period between 110 and 106 Ma. Emplacement of the Jurassic part of the composite Ilo Batholith shortly post-dated the accumulation of the volcanosedimentary succession it intruded (Chocolate formation), which allows to estimate a subsidence rate for this unit of ~ 3.5 km/Ma. The emplacement of the main peak of Jurassic plutonism of the Ilo Batholith was also closely coeval with widespread and repeated slumping (during deposition of the Cachíos Formation) in the back-arc region, suggesting a common causal link between these phenomena, which is discussed in the context of an observed 100 km trenchward arc migration at ~ 175 Ma, and the relation with extensional tectonics that prevailed along the Central Andean margin during Pangaea break-up.

  14. Age, tectonic setting, and metallogenic implication of Phanerozoic granitic magmatism at the eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Ren, Yunsheng; Zhao, Hualei; Yang, Qun; Shang, Qingqing

    2017-08-01

    The eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt is characterised by widespread Phanerozoic granitic magmatism, some of which is closely related to significant ore mineralisation. This paper presents new geochronological, petrogenetic, and tectonic data for selected intrusions. Zircon U-Pb geochronology for five granitoid plutons indicates they were emplaced during the middle-late Permian (264-255 Ma) and Cretaceous (106-94 Ma), and thus granitic magmatism occurred throughout the Phanerozoic, Permian (268-252 Ma), Early-Middle Triassic (248-240 Ma), Early Jurassic (183 Ma), and Cretaceous (112-94 Ma). The Permian granitoids consist of monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite, characterised by enrichment in Na2O (3.60-4.72 wt.%), depletion in K2O (0.97-2.66 wt.%), and a negative correlation between P2O5 and SiO2. Together with the presence of hornblende, these geochemical features are indicative of an I-type affinity. The Permian granitic magmatism is associated with quartz-vein-type tungsten deposits (252 Ma; unpublished Sm-Nd isochron age), which formed in an active continental margin setting related to subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The Cretaceous quartz diorites have an adakitic affinity, having relatively high Sr (374-502 ppm), low Yb (0.51-0.67 ppm) and Y (8.7-10.7 ppm), and high Sr/Y (39.4-46.8) and (La/Yb)N values (16.2-34.7), suggesting that they were related to the partial melting of subducted oceanic crust. In addition, they are associated with porphyry Au-Cu deposits. We conclude that the Cretaceous granitic rocks and associated porphyry Au-Cu mineralisation occurred in an extensional tectonic setting related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. In addition, the large-scale Early-Middle Triassic syn-collisional granite belt at the eastern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt extends from the middle of Jilin Province to the Wangqing-Hunchun region, constraining the timing of the

  15. Provenance of a large Lower Cretaceous turbidite submarine fan complex on the active Laurasian margin: Central Pontides, northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, Remziye; Okay, Aral I.; Sunal, Gürsel; Tari, Gabor; Meinhold, Guido; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2017-02-01

    The Pontides formed the southern active margin of Laurasia during the Mesozoic. They became separated from mainland Laurasia during the Late Cretaceous, with the opening of the Black Sea as an oceanic back-arc basin. During the Early Cretaceous, a large submarine turbidite fan complex developed in the Central Pontides. The turbidites cover an area of 400 km by 90 km with a thickness of more than 2 km. We have investigated the provenance of these turbidites-the Çağlayan Formation-using paleocurrent measurements, U-Pb detrital zircon ages, REE abundances of dated zircons and geochemistry of detrital rutile grains. 1924 paleocurrent measurements from 96 outcrop stations indicate flow direction from northwest to southeast in the eastern part of the Çağlayan Basin and from north-northeast to west-southwest in the western part. 1194 detrital zircon ages from 13 Lower Cretaceous sandstone samples show different patterns in the eastern, central and western parts of the basin. The majority of the U-Pb detrital zircon ages in the eastern part of the basin are Archean and Paleoproterozoic (61% of all zircon ages, 337 grains); rocks of these ages are absent in the Pontides and present in the Ukrainian Shield, which indicates a source north of the Black Sea. In the western part of the basin the majority of the zircons are Carboniferous and Neoproterozoic (68%, 246 grains) implying more local sources within the Pontides. The detrital zircons from the central part show an age spectrum as mixture of zircons from western and eastern parts. Significantly, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous zircons make up less than 2% of the total zircon population, which implies lack of a coeval magmatic arc in the region. This is compatible with the absence of the Lower Cretaceous granites in the Pontides. Thus, although the Çağlayan Basin occupied a fore-arc position above the subduction zone, the arc was missing, probably due to flat subduction, and the basin was largely fed from the Ukrainian

  16. Tracing climatic conditions during the deposition of late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate beds in Morocco by geochemical compositions of biogenic apatite fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Yans, J.; Ulianov, A.; Amaghzaz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Morocco's Western Atlantic coast was covered by shallow seas during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene when large amount of phosphate rich sediments were deposited. This time interval envelops a major part of the last greenhouse period and gives the opportunity to study the event's characteristics in shallow water settings. These phosphate deposits are extremely rich in vertebrate fossils, while other types of fossils are rare or often poorly preserved. Hence the local stratigraphy is based on the most abundant marine vertebrate fossils, on the selachian fauna (sharks and rays). Our geochemical investigations were also carried out on these remains, though in some cases frequently found coprolites were involved as well. The main goal of our study was to test whether stable isotope compositions (δ18OPO4, δ13C) of these fossils reflect any of the hyperthermal events and/or the related perturbations in the carbon cycle during the early Paleogene (Lourens et al. 2005) and whether these geochemical signals can be used to refine the local stratigraphy. Additionally, the samples were analyzed for trace element composition in order to better assess local taphonomy and burial conditions. The samples came from two major phosphate regions, the Ouled Abdoun and the Ganntour Basins and they were collected either directly on the field during excavations (Sidi Chennane) or were obtained from museum collections with known stratigraphical position (Sidi Daoui, Ben Guerrir). The phosphate oxygen isotopic compositions of shark teeth display large range across the entire series (18.5-22.4 ) which can partly be related to the habitat of sharks. For instance the genus Striatolamnia often yielded the highest δ18O values indicating possible deep water habitat. Despite the large variation in δ18O values, a general isotope trend is apparent. In the Maastrichtian after a small negative shift, the δ18O values increase till the Danian from where the trend decrease till the Ypresian. The

  17. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    ± 3 Ma and 115 Ma, which are close to the zircon ages of nearby calc-alkaline granite and diorite, which belong to an active continental margin arc that extends along the western side of the Shan-Thai block. The IBR accretionary complex and the active continental margin arc were generated during Early Cretaceous (115-128 Ma) subduction of the Neotethys Ocean.

  18. Evolution of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture as constrained by new Early Cretaceous palaeomagnetic data from the North China and southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, H.; Ding, J.; Turbold, S.; Gao, Y.; Xu, B.; Wu, Y.; Fu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The closure time of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean and subsequent collision between the Siberia and Amuria-North China block (AMU-NCB) during the final episode of the amalgamation of Northeast Asia have been hotly debating for decades. In order to better puzzle out the controversy, we carried out new paleomagnetic investigations from the Early Cretaceous geological units on the northern margin of the NCB and southern AMU. These geological units have been well-dated. Within the Yanshan Belt of the northern margin of the NCB, we collected the 209 paleomagnetic samples from the sandstone of the middle-upper member of the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) and the volcanic rocks of the bottom of the Yixian Formation ( 130 Ma). We drilled 225 samples from the lava flows of two sections of the Tsagantsav Formation ( 130 Ma) in the southern Mongolia of the AMU. All samples were subjected to stepwise thermal demagnetization. After removal of a recent geomagnetic field viscous component, the stable high temperature component can pass a reversal test and a fold test at 95% and 99% confidence level. They are thus interpreted as primary. The virtual geomagnetic poles observed from the 130 Ma volcanic rocks of the Yixian Formation and the Tsagantsav Formation respectively averaged out the paleosecular variation and they overlapped each other, indicating that NCB and AMU was a single unit (NCB-AMU) at that time. The paleopole from the Tuchengzi Formation ( 140 Ma) of the NCB is different from the coeval pole of the Siberia, indicating that there was a significant latitudinal convergence between the Siberia and the NCB. Compared the 130 Ma paleopoles of the NCB-AMU and Siberia, there was no significant latitudinal difference, but the relative tectonic rotation was existing. It has been suggested that the plate convergence or Mongol-Okhotsk collisional orogeny was stopped between Siberia and NCB-AMU during the 140-130 Ma. After Mongol-Okhotsk orogeny, the widely extensional rift basins were

  19. Lacustrine fan delta deposition alongside intrabasinal structural highs in rift basins: an example from the Early Cretaceous Jiuquan Basin, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Muirhead, James D.; Wang, Hua; Chen, Si; Liao, Yuantao; Lu, Zongsheng; Wei, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Development of fan deltas alongside intrabasinal structural highs has been overlooked compared to those forming on basin margins. However, these fan deltas may provide important clues regarding the tectonic and climatic controls on deposition during rift development. This paper documents fan delta deposition alongside an intrabasinal structural high within the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of the Jiuquan Basin, China, using subsurface geological and geophysical data. Deposits observed in drill core support fan delta deposition occurring almost exclusively through subaerial and subaqueous gravity flows. Subsurface mapping reveals a consistent decrease in the areal extent of fan deltas from lowstand to highstand system tracts, suggesting that deposition alongside the structural high is sensitive to lake-level changes. The temporal and spatial distribution of the fan deltas display retrogradational stacking patterns, where fan deltas exhibit a decreasing lateral extent up-sequence until fan delta deposition terminated and was replaced by deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits. The retrogradational stacking patterns observed alongside the intrabasinal structural high are not observed in fan deltas along the basin margin in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation. Subsidence profiles also show differential subsidence across the basin during the earliest stages of this formation, likely resulting from border fault movements. These data suggest that non-uniform stacking patterns in the lower parts of the Xiagou Formation reflect basin-scale tectonic movements as the dominant control on synrift deposition patterns. However, later stages of Xiagou Formation deposition were characterized by uniform subsidence across the basin, and uniform retrogradational stacking patterns for fan deltas alongside the intrabasinal structural high and border fault. These observations suggest that basin-scale tectonic movements played a relatively limited role in controlling

  20. Petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: Implications for the generation of high-Nb basalt magmas in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mariko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Kamei, Atsushi; Yagi, Koshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    We studied a 107 Ma vogesite (a kind of lamprophyre with alkali-feldspar > plagioclase, and hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± biotite) dike in the Kinki district of the Tamba Belt, Kyoto Prefecture, SW Japan, using petrography, mineralogy, K-Ar ages, and geochemistry to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The dike has the very specific geochemical characteristics of a primitive high-Mg basalt, with 48-50 wt.% SiO2 (anhydrous basis), high values of Mg# (67.3-72.4), and high Cr ( 431 ppm), Ni ( 371 ppm), and Co ( 52 ppm) contents. The vogesite is alkaline and ne-normative with high concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Sr = 1270-2200 ppm, Ba = 3910-26,900 ppm), light rare earth elements (LREEs) [(La/Yb)n = 58-62), and high field strength elements (HFSEs: TiO2 = 1.5-1.8 wt.%, Nb = 24-33 ppm, Zr = 171-251 ppm), and the vogesite can be classified as a high-Nb basalt (HNB). The vogesite was formed by the lowest degree of melting of metasomatized mantle in the garnet stability field, and it may also have been formed at higher melting pressures than other Kyoto lamprophyres. The low degree of melting is the primary reason for the high-Nb content of the vogesite, not mantle metasomatism, and a higher degree of melting would have changed the primary magma composition from a HNB to a Nb-enriched basalt (NEB). The vogesite magma was contaminated at an early stage of its development by melts derived from sediments drawn down a subduction zone, as indicated by some geochemical indices and the initial Nd isotope ratios. The vogesite exhibits positive correlations between εSr(107 Ma) values (5.4-50.9) and its high Ba and Sr concentrations, and it has a limited range of εNd(107 Ma) values (+ 0.97 to + 2.4). The fact that the vogesite contains centimeter-sized xenoliths of chert, which are composed of polycrystalline quartz, calcite, barite, pyrite, and magnetite, indicates that the barium contamination took place during the ascent of the

  1. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang

    2017-08-01

    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2 σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2 σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  2. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  3. High Arctic paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic changes in the Mid-Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrle, Jens; Schröder-Adams, Claudia; Selby, David; Du Vivier, Alice; Flögel, Sascha; McAnena, Alison; Davis, William; Pugh, Adam; Galloway, Jennifer; Hofmann, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although major progress in Cretaceous (145-66 Ma) paleoclimate and paleoceanography has been made during the last decades (e.g., Hay, 2008, 2011; Föllmi, 2012 and references therein), our knowledge of high latitudinal environmental change remains largely unknown compared to low- and mid-latitude marine and terrestrial environments. Drilling the Arctic Ocean remains challenging and expensive, whereas the Sverdrup Basin provides excellent exposures on land. To fully understand the climate and paleoceanographic dynamics of the warm, equable greenhouse world of the Cretaceous Period it is important to determine polar paleotemperatures and to study paleoceanographic changes in a well-established and continuous bio- and chemostratigraphic context. Exceptional exposures of Cretaceous sediments on the central to southern part of Axel Heiberg Island at a Cretaceous paleolatitude of about 71°N (Tarduno et al., 1998) provide a unique window on the Cretaceous Arctic paleoenvironment and climate history (Schröder-Adams et al., 2014). Here we present high-resolution records combining sedimentological studies, U-Pb zircon geochronology, marine organic carbon isotopes and initial 187Os/188Os data, TEX86-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and climate modelling, that constrain the timing and magnitude of major Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and climate events constructed from a ~1.8 km sedimentary succession exposed on Axel Heiberg and Ellef Ringnens islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The first high latitude application of initial 187Os/188Os data are agreeable with global profiles (Du Vivier et al., 2014) indicating the widespread magmatic pulse of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (LIP) at the onset of OAE2 but also record the emplacement of local High Arctic LIP prior to the OAE2 in the Sverdrup Basin. Initial SST data suggest a slightly lower meridional temperature gradient during the Middle/Late Albian compared to present and a similar to the present one during

  4. Aeromagnetic signatures over western Marie Byrd Land provide insight into magmatic arc basement, mafic magmatism and structure of the Eastern Ross Sea Rift flank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bozzo, E.; Damaske, D.

    2002-03-01

    Aeromagnetic signatures over the Edward VII Peninsula (E7) provide new insight into the largely ice-covered and unexplored eastern flank of the Ross Sea Rift (RSR). Positive anomalies, 10-40 km in wavelength and with amplitudes ranging from 50 to 500 nT could reveal buried Late Devonian(?)-Early Carboniferous Ford Granodiorite plutons. This is suggested by similar magnetic signature over exposed, coeval Admiralty Intrusives of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). Geochemical data from mid-Cretaceous Byrd Coast Granite, contact metamorphic effects on Swanson Formation and hornblende-bearing granitoid dredge samples strengthen this magnetic interpretation, making alternative explanations less probable. These magnetic anomalies over formerly adjacent TAM and western Marie Byrd Land (wMBL) terranes resemble signatures typically observed over magnetite-rich magmatic arc plutons. Shorter wavelength (5 km) 150 nT anomalies could speculatively mark mid-Cretaceous mafic dikes of the E7, similar to those exposed over the adjacent Ford Ranges. Anomalies with amplitudes of 100-360 nT over the Sulzberger Bay and at the margin of the Sulzberger Ice Shelf likely reveal mafic Late Cenozoic(?) volcanic rocks emplaced along linear rift fabric trends. Buried volcanic rock at the margin of the interpreted half-graben-like "Sulzberger Ice Shelf Block" is modelled in the Kizer Island area. The volcanic rock is marked by a coincident positive Bouguer gravity anomaly. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks over the TAM, in the RSR, and beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibit comparable magnetic anomaly signature reflecting regional West Antarctic Rift fabric. Interpreted mafic magmatism of the E7 is likely related to mid-Cretaceous and Late Cenozoic regional crustal extension and possible mantle plume activity over wMBL. Magnetic lineaments of the E7 are enhanced in maximum horizontal gradient of pseudo-gravity, vertical derivative and 3D Euler Deconvolution maps. Apparent vertical offsets in

  5. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  6. Petrology and zircon U-Pb geochronology of metagabbros from a mafic-ultramafic suite at Aniyapuram: Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic convergent margin magmatism and Middle Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Tatsuya; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Chetty, T. R. K.; Saitoh, Yohsuke

    2014-12-01

    Several mafic-ultramafic complexes occur within the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ) in southern India. The PCSZ is regarded in recent models as the zone along which crustal blocks were amalgamated during the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian (550-530 Ma) Gondwana assembly. Here we report petrologic and zircon U-Pb geochronologic data from gabbros associated with the Aniyapuram mafic-ultramafic suite in the central domain of the PCSZ. Geothermobarometry and pseudosection approach in the system NCFMASHTO for the metagabbro (Grt + Cpx + Opx + Hbl + Pl + Qtz + Ilm + Rt) yield peak P-T condition of 9.8-10.6 kbar and 730-790 °C, which was followed by decompression to 6.5-8.0 kbar and ca. 750 °C as inferred from the formation of Opx + Pl symplectite around garnet, probably along a clockwise P-T path. Zircon U-Pb data analyzed by LA-ICP-MS plot along a well-defined discordia with upper and lower intercepts in the concordia at 2436 ± 22 Ma and 731 ± 11 Ma respectively, suggesting Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic magmatic emplacement of the protolith and progressive Pb loss related to the Middle Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian) thermal event (or high-grade metamorphism). These results closely compare with the available Neoarchean magmatic ages of mafic-ultramafic complexes (e.g., Sittampundi, Devanur, Agali Hills, and Kanja Malai) and Middle Neoproterozoic magmatic event (e.g., Manamedu and Kadavur) in the PCSZ and adjacent granulite blocks. The 650 Ma concordia ages obtained from unzoned zircons might indicate the timing of high-grade metamorphism or post-peak hydration event. The P-T conditions obtained from Aniyapuram are significantly lower than the high-pressure and ultrahigh-temperature conditions of the 550-530 Ma final collisional event (P > 14 kbar and T > 950 °C). The Middle Neoproterozoic (ca. 730 Ma or 650 Ma) high-grade metamorphism in Aniyapuram reported for the first time from the PCSZ is possibly associated with magmatism in arc tectonic setting.

  7. Influence of lithological heterogeneity, mechanical anisotropy, and magmatism on the rheology of an arc, North Cascades, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert B.; Paterson, Scott R.

    2001-12-01

    Many aspects of crustal dynamics are dependent on changes in rheology and strength with depth in the lithosphere. Several of the controlling factors for rheology are difficult to study experimentally, particularly lithological heterogeneity, mechanical anisotropy, and magmatism, and we focus on these in a study of the deformation patterns in a thick crustal section (˜5- to 40-km paleodepth) through the Cretaceous Cascades core of the NW Cordillera. This magmatic arc consists of metamorphosed oceanic and arc terranes intruded by magmatic bodies ranging from <10-cm-thick sheets to large plutons. Heterogeneous brittle deformation marked by serpentinite melange characterizes the shallowest part of the crustal section, and the remainder of the section is characterized by heterogeneous, fold-dominated ductile deformation. Early tight to isoclinal recumbent folds and associated axial-planar fabrics are refolded by one or more cycles of nearly coaxial, open to isoclinal, upright to overturned folds. Layering played a mechanically active role during folding at all levels, as indicated by cleavage refraction, boudinaged layers, and kinematic indicators that record fold-related shear. Ductile deformation intensifies in the narrow structural aureoles of plutons, and SW-directed, reverse shear was partitioned into some of the aureoles. The poor strain memory of these magmatic bodies makes it difficult to determine if deformation was focused in the pluton magma chambers before they reached the solidus, as commonly predicted. All of the plutons have magmatic foliations that at least in part reflect regional strains, and these foliations are strong in the deeper plutons. The thinner sheets acted as competent bodies during folding and boudinage, after they reached the solidus, but generally did not cause marked strain gradients in their hosts. A relative strength profile constructed for the Cascades crustal section shows an overall decrease in strength with depth for the ductile

  8. Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt, NW China: Constraints on the initiation of a magmatic arc in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Long; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yunying; Huang, Zongying; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (ETOB) have been studied in order to constraint the initiation of a magmatic arc formed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that two dioritic plutons in the northern ETOB were generated in the Late Ordovician (452 ± 4 Ma) and the Early Silurian (442 ± 3 Ma), respectively. Diorites from the two plutons are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and highly incompatible elements, with depletions in high field strength elements (HSFE) displaying typical geochemical features of a subduction-related origin. They have positive εNd(t) values (+5.08-+6.58), relatively young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.71-1.08 Ga), with Ta/Yb (0.05-0.09) and Nb/Ta ratios (12.06-15.19) similar to those of depleted mantle, suggesting a juvenile mantle origin. Their high Ba/La (13.3-35.9), low Th/Yb (0.72-2.02), and relatively low Ce/Th (4.57-14.7) and Ba/Th (47.8-235) ratios indicate that these diorites were probably produced by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by both subducted sediment-derived melts and slab-derived aqueous fluids. Zircon U-Pb dating of a granitic pluton in the northern ETOB yielded a Late Ordovician intrusion age of 447 ± 5 Ma. Granites from this pluton show calc-alkaline compositions with geochemical characteristics of I-type granites. They also show positive εNd(t) values (+6.49-+6.95) and young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.69-0.87 Ga), indicating that the granites were most likely derived from juvenile lower crust. Our new dating results on the dioritic and granitic plutons suggest that arc-type magmatism in the northern ETOB began prior to or at the Late Ordovician (452-442 Ma). In addition, north-dipping subduction of the Kangguertage oceanic lithosphere may account for the arc-type magmatism and the geodynamic process of the ETOB in the Early Paleozoic.

  9. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the early Triassic (or earlier). The latest Cretaceous-early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with subalkaline to alkaline geochemical affinities represent intraoceanic magmatism that developed on and across the subduction-accretion complex above a N-dipping, southward-rolling subducted lithospheric slab within the northern Neotethys. The Ankara Mélange thus exhibits the record of ∼ 120-130 million years of oceanic magmatism in geological history of the northern Neotethys.

  10. Ontong Java volcanism initiated long-term climate warming that caused substantial changes in terrestrial vegetation several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a (Early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During Cretaceous times, several intense volcanic episodes are proposed as trigger for episodic climate warming, for changes in marine circulation patterns and for elevated marine productivity, which resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Volcanic outgassing results in an increased pCO2 and should lead to a rise in global temperatures. We therefore investigated if the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 at the onset of OAE1a in the early Aptian led to a temperature rise that was sufficient to affect terrestrial vegetation assemblages. In order to analyse changes in terrestrial palynomorph assemblages, we examined 15 samples from 12 black shale horizons throughout the early Aptian negative C-isotope spike interval of the Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation; N-Italy). These sediments were deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and have been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). In order to obtain a continuous palynological record of the negative C-isotope spike interval and the base of OAE1a, we combined this pre-OAE1a interval of Pusiano with the OAE1a interval of the nearby Cismon section (Hochuli et al., 1999). The sporomorph assemblages at the base of this composite succession feature abundant bisaccate pollen, which reflects a warm-temperate climate. Rather arid conditions are inferred from low trilete spore percentages. Several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a, C-isotope values started to decrease. Some thousand years later, bisaccate pollen began to decrease, whereas an increase of Classopollis spp. and Araucariacites spp

  11. Detrital geochronology of unroofing magmatic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Villa, Igor Maria; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    . 110, 985-1009 (1998). DeCelles, P. G., Gehrels, G. E., Najman, Y., Martin, A. J., Carter, A., Garzanti, E. Detrital geochronology and geochemistry of Cretaceous-Early Miocene strata of Nepal: implications for timing and diachroneity of initial Himalayan orogenesis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 227, 313-330 (2004). Jäger, E. in Rb-Sr Altersbestimmungen an Glimmern der Zentralalpen, Beitr. Geol. Karte Schweiz NF 134 (eds. Jäger, E., Niggli, E. & Wenk, E.) 28-31 (Bern, Kümmerly & Frey, 1967). Dodson, M. H. Closure temperature in cooling geochronological and petrological systems. Contr. Miner. Petrol. 40, 259-274 (1973). Giger, M. & Hurford, A. J. Tertiary intrusives of the Central Alps: their Tertiary uplift, erosion, redeposition and burial in the south-alpine foreland. Eclogae geol. Helv. 82, 857-866 (1989). Garzanti, E. & Malusà, M. G. The Oligocene Alps: Domal unroofing and drainage development during early orogenic growth. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 268, 487-500 (2008). Villa, I. M. From nanometer to megameter: Isotopes, atomic-scale processes, and continent-scale tectonic models. Lithos 87, 155-173 (2006).

  12. Co-axial superposed folding and inverted regional metamorphism in the Tonga Formation: Cretaceous accretionary thrust tectonics in the Cascades crystalline core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Jensen; Lebit, Hermann; Paterson, Scott; Miller, Robert; Vernon, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The Cascades crystalline core forms part of the Cretaceous magmatic belt of western North America and exposes a crustal section composed of primarily tonalitic plutons that intruded siliciclastic metasediments of an arc-derived accretional system, and local meta-basalt/chert sequences. This study is the first attempt to correlate the well understood intrusive and P-T-t history of the metasedimentary and plutonic terrane with the kinematics and tectonic boundary conditions by rigorous analysis of structures documented in the Tonga Formation exposed at the western edge of the core. The Tonga Formation comprises pelite-psammite metasediments, which increase from greenschist ( 300-350° C) to amphibolite grade ( 500-600° C) from south to north. This metamorphic gradient is inverted relative to a major westward verging and downward facing fold system that dominates the internal architecture of the formation and implies that the initial regional metamorphic signature was established prior to the early fold generation. Subsequent co-axial fold superposition is seen as a consequence of the persistent accretional west-vergent thrusting in the foreland of the magmatic arc. The central section of the Cascades Range, exposed in western Washington, forms part of the Cretaceous accretional/magmatic arc extending over 4,000 km along western North America from Baja California to British Columbia (Fig. 1a) (e.g. Misch, 1966; Brown, 1987; Tabor et al., 1989). Two models exist for the evolution of the Cascades crystalline core with one invoking magmatic loading (e.g. Brown and Walker, 1993) as the major cause for rapid loading, consequent regional metamorphism and vertical uplift (Evans and Berti, 1986). Conversely, other workers favor a model that suggests loading as a consequence of tectonic, thrust-related thickening, followed by rapid exhumation of the exposed crustal section of 10 to 40 km paleodepth (e.g. Matzel, 2004; Patterson et al., 2004; Stowell et al., 2007). In this

  13. Magmatism at different crustal levels in the ancient North Cascades magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, E. K.; Bowring, S. A.; Miller, R. B.; Miller, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of magma ascent and emplacement inferred from study of intrusive complexes have long been the subject of intense debate. Current models favor incremental construction based on integration of field, geochemical, geochronologic, and modeling studies. Much of this work has been focused on a single crustal level. However, study of magmatism throughout the crust is critical for understanding how magma ascends through and intrudes surrounding crustal material. Here, we present new geochronologic and geochemical work from intrusive complexes emplaced at a range of crustal depths in the Cretaceous North Cascades magmatic arc. These complexes were intruded between 92 and 87 Ma at depths of at ≤5 -10 km, ~20 km, and ~25 km during this time. U-Pb CA-TIMS geochronology in zircon can resolve <0.1% differences in zircon dates and when combined with detailed field relationships allow new insights into how magmatic systems are assembled. We can demonstrate highly variable rates of intrusion at different crustal levels: the shallow-crustal (5-10 km) Black Peak intrusive complex was assembled semi-continuously over ~5 My, while the deep-crustal (25-30 km) Tenpeak intrusive complex was assembled in brief, high-flux events over ~2.6 My. Between these bodies is the Seven-Fingered Jack-Entiat intrusive complex, a highly elongate amalgamation of intrusions recording two episodes of magmatism between~92-88 Ma and ~80-77 Ma. Each of these complexes provides a window into crustal processes that occur at different depths. Our data suggest assembly of the Black Peak intrusive complex occurred via a series of small (0.5-2 km2) magmatic increments from ~92 Ma to ~87 Ma. Field relations and zircon trace element geochemistry indicate each of these increments were emplaced and crystallized as closed systems-we find no evidence for mixing between magmas in the complex. However, zircon inheritance becomes more common in younger intrusions, indicating assimilation of older plutonic

  14. New Australian sauropods shed light on Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Stephen F; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Hocknull, Scott A; Kear, Benjamin P; Kundrát, Martin; Tischler, Travis R; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, Judy A; Elliott, David A

    2016-10-20

    Australian dinosaurs have played a rare but controversial role in the debate surrounding the effect of Gondwanan break-up on Cretaceous dinosaur distribution. Major spatiotemporal gaps in the Gondwanan Cretaceous fossil record, coupled with taxon incompleteness, have hindered research on this effect, especially in Australia. Here we report on two new sauropod specimens from the early Late Cretaceous of Queensland, Australia, that have important implications for Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography. Savannasaurus elliottorum gen. et sp. nov. comprises one of the most complete Cretaceous sauropod skeletons ever found in Australia, whereas a new specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae includes the first ever cranial remains of an Australian sauropod. The results of a new phylogenetic analysis, in which both Savannasaurus and Diamantinasaurus are recovered within Titanosauria, were used as the basis for a quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis of macronarian sauropods. Titanosaurs achieved a worldwide distribution by at least 125 million years ago, suggesting that mid-Cretaceous Australian sauropods represent remnants of clades which were widespread during the Early Cretaceous. These lineages would have entered Australasia via dispersal from South America, presumably across Antarctica. High latitude sauropod dispersal might have been facilitated by Albian-Turonian warming that lifted a palaeoclimatic dispersal barrier between Antarctica and South America.

  15. New Australian sauropods shed light on Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Poropat, Stephen F.; Mannion, Philip D.; Upchurch, Paul; Hocknull, Scott A.; Kear, Benjamin P.; Kundrát, Martin; Tischler, Travis R.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, Judy A.; Elliott, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Australian dinosaurs have played a rare but controversial role in the debate surrounding the effect of Gondwanan break-up on Cretaceous dinosaur distribution. Major spatiotemporal gaps in the Gondwanan Cretaceous fossil record, coupled with taxon incompleteness, have hindered research on this effect, especially in Australia. Here we report on two new sauropod specimens from the early Late Cretaceous of Queensland, Australia, that have important implications for Cretaceous dinosaur palaeobiogeography. Savannasaurus elliottorum gen. et sp. nov. comprises one of the most complete Cretaceous sauropod skeletons ever found in Australia, whereas a new specimen of Diamantinasaurus matildae includes the first ever cranial remains of an Australian sauropod. The results of a new phylogenetic analysis, in which both Savannasaurus and Diamantinasaurus are recovered within Titanosauria, were used as the basis for a quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis of macronarian sauropods. Titanosaurs achieved a worldwide distribution by at least 125 million years ago, suggesting that mid-Cretaceous Australian sauropods represent remnants of clades which were widespread during the Early Cretaceous. These lineages would have entered Australasia via dispersal from South America, presumably across Antarctica. High latitude sauropod dispersal might have been facilitated by Albian–Turonian warming that lifted a palaeoclimatic dispersal barrier between Antarctica and South America. PMID:27763598

  16. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution.

    PubMed

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2011-05-17

    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.

  17. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic intraplate magmatism in Central Asia and its relation with mantle diapirism: Evidence from the South Khangai volcanic region, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, Vladimir V.; Kudryashova, Ekaterina A.; Kozlovsky, Alexander M.; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Savatenkov, Valery M.

    2015-11-01

    The South Khangai volcanic region (SKVR) comprises fields of Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic rocks scattered over southern and central Mongolia. Evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cenozoic includes 13 successive igneous episodes that are more or less evenly distributed in time. Major patterns in the distribution of different-aged volcanic complexes were controlled by a systematic temporal migration of volcanic centers over the region. The total length of their trajectory exceeds 1600 km. Principle characteristics of local magmatism are determined. The composition of igneous rocks varies from basanites to rhyolites (predominantly, high-K rocks), with geochemistry close to that of OIB. The rock composition, however, underwent transformations in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Rejuvenation of mafic rocks is accompanied by decrease in the contents of HREE and increase of Nb and Ta. According to isotope data, the SKVR magmatic melts were derived from three isotope sources that differed in the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions and successively alternated in time. In the Early Cretaceous, the predominant source composition was controlled by interaction of the EMII- and PREMA-type mantle materials. The PREMA-type mantle material dominated quantitatively in the Late Cretaceous and initial Early Cenozoic. From the latest Early Cenozoic to Late Cenozoic, the magma source also contained the EMI-type material along with the PREMA-type. The structural fabric, rock composition, major evolutionary pattern, and inner structure of SKVR generally comply with the criteria used to distinguish the mantle plume-related regions. Analogous features can be seen in other regions of recent volcanism in Central Asia (South Baikal, Udokan, Vitim, and Tok Stanovik). The structural autonomy of these regions suggests that distribution of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanism in Central Asia was controlled by a group of relatively small hot finger-type mantle plumes associated with

  18. Early post-collisional Brasiliano magmatism in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil: Evidence from petrology, geochemistry, isotope geology and geochronology of the diabase and lamprophyre dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks de Campos, Roberto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Chemale, Farid

    2012-08-01

    The post-collisional magmatism related to Brasiliano orogeny represented the final stage of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southern Brazil, presenting high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and alkaline chemical signatures. Magmatic episodes related to this early period were found in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina state, represented by diabase and lamprophyre (spessartite-type) dikes intrusive in metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Brusque Metamorphic Complex (CMB). These dikes have massive structure and igneous textures ranging from very fine equigranular to porphyritic, and the latter is characterized by the presence of phenocrysts of plagioclase and hornblende. The dikes have northeast direction and sharp contacts with the metamorphic rocks, indicating that its position was after the main orogenic regional metamorphism that affected the CMB, interpreted as of collisional nature. The diabase has a basic composition, whereas spessartite lamprophyres are intermediate, with geochemical affinities to the tholeiitic series, with a significant enrichment in light rare-earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Cs, Rb, Ba, K and Sr, and negative anomalies for high-field-strength elements (HFS) such as Nb, Ta, U and T. The concentration of standard trace elements and the Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios indicate that these magmas were derived from an enriched mantle source and were strongly contaminated by crust. Except for higher values of K, these features are similar to those found in basaltic volcanic rocks associated with the post-collisional period in south Brazil. The widely dispersed values of ɛND (618), ranging between -13.74 and +5.52, highlights the heterogeneity of the source and reinforces the importance of a crustal component in the generation of these rocks. The extremely low value of ɛNd (618), of -21.67 obtained for spessartite lamprophyres supports the importance of the involvement of crust in

  19. U-Pb Dating and Lu-Hf Isotopes of Detrital Zircons From the Southern Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt, Russian Far East: Tectonic Implications for the Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Northwest Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jinjiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Shiran; Guo, Feng; Kasatkin, Sergey A.; Golozoubov, Vladimir V.; Ge, Maohui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jiamin

    2017-11-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt in Russian Far East is comprised of several N-S trending belts, including the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms and turbidite basin which are now separated by thrusts and strike-slip faults. The origin and collage of the belts have been studied for decades. However, the provenance of the belts remains unclear. Six sandstone samples were collected along a 200 km long east-west traverse across the major belts in the southern Sikhote-Alin for U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis to constrain the provenance and evaluate the evolution of the northwest Pacific margin at this time. The result reveals that the sediments from the main Samarka belt was mainly from the adjacent Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block (BJKB); the eastern Samarka belt and the Zhuravlevka turbidite basin were supplied by detritus from both the North China Craton (NCC) and the BJKB; the Taukha belt was mainly fed by sediments from the NCC; whereas the data from the Sergeevka nappes are insufficient to resolve their provenance. In the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, collision and subduction was important in the initial collage of most belts in Sikhote-Alin. However, merely E-W trending collage cannot explain the increasing importance of the NCC provenance from west to east. It is proposed that the main Samarka belt was located adjacent to the BJKB when deposited, whereas the other belts were farther south to accept the materials from the NCC. Sinistral strike-slip faulting transported the eastern belts northward after their initial collage by thrusting.

  20. Tectonostratigraphic reconstruction Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary in the northwestern Andes: from extensional tectonics to arc accretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, S.; Patino, A. M.; Cardona, A.; Mejia, D.; Leon, S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Valencia, V.; Parra, M.; Hincapie, S.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margins characterized by continuous convergence experienced overimposed tectonic configurations that allowed the formation of volcanic arcs, back arc basins, transtensional divergent tectonics or the accretion of exotic volcanic terranes. Such record, particularly the extensional phases, can be partially destroyed and obscure by multiple deformational events, the accretion of exotic terranes and strike slip fragmentation along the margin. The tectonic evolution of the northern Andes during the Mesozoic is the result of post Pangea extension followed by the installation of a long-lived Jurassic volcanic arc (209 - 136 ma) that apparently stops between 136 Ma and 110 Ma. The Quebradagrande Complex has been define as a single Lower Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary unit exposed in the western flank of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes that growth after the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous magmatic hiatus. The origin of this unit have been related either to an oceanic volcanic arc or a marginal basin environment. The existence of such contrasting models reflect the regional perspective followed in published studies and the paucity of detail analysis of the volcano-sedimentary sequences.We integrate multiple approaches including structural mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry, U-Pb provenance and geochronology to improve the understanding of this unit and track the earlier phases of accumulation that are mask on the overimposed tectonic history. Our preliminary results suggest the existence of different volcano-sedimentary units that accumulated between 100 Ma and 82 Ma.The older Lower Cretaceous sequences was deposited over Triassic metamorphic continental crust and include a upward basin deepening record characterized by thick fan delta conglomerates, followed by distal turbidites and a syn-sedimentary volcanic record at 100 ma. The other sequence include a 85 - 82 Ma fringing arc that was also formed close to the continental margin or

  1. Cretaceous polar climates

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, A.M.; Horrell, M.A.; Lottes, A.L.

    1988-02-01

    The Cretaceous, like most Phanerozoic periods, was characterized by ice-free poles. Some still argue that the glaciers and sea ice were there, and that the tillites, etc, have been eroded or remain undiscovered. However, diverse floras, dense forests, and coal-forming cypress swamps, and dinosaurs, crocodilians, and lungfish are known from areas that were certainly at 75/degree/-80/degree/ north and south paleolatitude in the Cretaceous, implying that the coastal basins did not experience hard freezes. No deep marine connections to the North Pole existed in the Cretaceous, so oceanic polar heat transport can be discounted. However, the five north-south trending epeiric ormore » rift-related seaways that connected or nearly connected the Tethys to the Arctic would have dampened the seasonal temperature cycle, bring maritime climates deep into the North American and Eurasian continents and, more importantly, would have served as an energy source and channel for winter storms, much as the Gulf Stream does today. Cyclones have a natural tendency to move poleward, because of the increase in the Coriolis Parameter, and they transport both sensible and latent heat. The coastal regions of the relatively warm polar ocean in the Cretaceous would have received continuous precipitation during the winter because cyclones would be entering from as many as five directions. Coastal rainfall would also have been abundant in the summer but for a different reason; the land-sea temperature profile would reverse, with the warm land surface drawing in moisture, while clear ice-free conditions over the ocean would allow for solar warming.« less

  2. Cretaceous polar climates

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, A.M.; Horrell, M.A.; Lottes, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous, like most Phanerozooic periods, was characterized by ice-free poles. Some still argue that the glacier and sea ice were there, and that the tillites, etc, have been eroded or remain undiscovered. However, diverse floras, dense forests, coal-forming cypress swamps, and dinosaurs, crocodilians, and lungfish are known from areas that were certainly at 75/sup 0/-80/sup 0/ north and south paleolatitude in the Cretaceous, implying that the coastal basins did not experience hard freezes. No deep marine connections to the North Pole existed in the Cretaceous, so oceanic polar heat transport can be discounted. However, the five north-south trending epeiricmore » or rift-related seaways that connected or nearly connected the Tethys to the Arctic would have dampened the seasonal temperature cycle, bringing maritime climates deep into the North American and Eurasian continents and, more importantly, would have served as an energy source and channel for winter storms, much as the Gulf Stream does today. Cyclones have a natural tendency to move poleward, because of the increase in the Coriolis Paramteter, and they transport both sensible and latent heat. The coastal regions of the relatively warm polar ocean in the Cretaceous would have received continuous precipitation during the winter because cyclones would be entering from as many as five directions. Coastal rainfall would also have been abundant in the summer but for a different reason; the land-sea temperature profile would reverse, with the warm land surface drawing in moisture, while clear ice-free conditions over the ocean would allow for solar warming.« less

  3. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts from the Franz Josef Land Archipelago: tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashev, Victor; Mikhaltsov, Nikolay; Vernikovsky, Valery

    2015-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data were obtained from a total of 158 oriented samples collected from the Jurassic magmatic complexes exposed on the Franz Joseph Land Archipelago (FJL). The field work was conducted during 2011 field season. Present study was focused on the tholeiitic basaltic lava flows that crop out on the Hooker Island. The samples were subjected to a detailed step-wise thermal demagnetization in temperatures up to 600 deg C or alternating field demagnetization with maximum filed up to 140 mT. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) was measured with a 2G cryogenic magnetometer or a JR-6A spin-magnetometer housed in a magnetically shielded room at the Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. The main NRM carriers in the FJL samples are titanomagnetites with varying Ti-content. Magnetic remanence was unblocked in temperatures of 350-400 deg C. Some samples are characterized by unblocking temperatures of 560 deg C. The new paleomagnetic data were combined with those previously obtained from the early Cretaceous volcanics exposed on the FJL. A new mean paleomagnetic direction for the Jurassic rocks was calculated as D=78.3 deg, I=74.7 deg, a95=3.1 deg, k=194.3, N=13. A corresponding paleomagnetic pole is now located at Plat=62.1 deg; Plon=136.5 deg, A95=5.5 deg, K=63.6. New results suggest that the JFL occupied a significantly different position from that of the present day. However, in early Cretaceous the JFL was already located close to its present day position. We propose a rifting event between the North Barentz terrane (FJL and possibly Svalbard) and the counterpart of European tectonic domain. The rifting occurred during Early-Middle Jurassic. This event was accompanied by a significant shift of the FJL to the north-east for approximately 500 km. New results are in good agreement with a hypothesis that the FJL was passing over the Icelandic-Siberian hot spot during the Jurassic-Cretaceous time

  4. Tibetan Magmatism Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Kapp, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A database containing previously published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data on Mesozoic to Quaternary igneous rocks in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system are presented. The database is intended to serve as a repository for new and existing igneous rock data and is publicly accessible through a web-based platform that includes an interactive map and data table interface with search, filtering, and download options. To illustrate the utility of the database, the age, location, and ɛHft composition of magmatism from the central Gangdese batholith in the southern Lhasa terrane are compared. The data identify three high-flux events, which peak at 93, 50, and 15 Ma. They are characterized by inboard arc migration and a temporal and spatial shift to more evolved isotopic compositions.

  5. Climate change and carbon-cycling during the latest Cretaceous-Early Paleogene; a new 13.5 million year-long, orbital-resolution, stable isotope record from the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, J.; Littler, K.; Kroon, D.; Leng, M. J.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The "greenhouse" world of the latest Cretaceous-Early Paleogene ( 70-34 Ma) was characterised by multi-million year variability in climate and the carbon-cycle. Throughout this interval the pervasive imprint of orbital-cyclicity, particularly eccentricity and precession, is visible in elemental and stable isotope data obtained from multiple deep-sea sites. Periodic "hyperthermal" events, occurring largely in-step with these orbital cycles, have proved particularly enigmatic, and may be the closest, albeit imperfect, analogues for anthropogenic climate change. This project utilises CaCO3-rich marine sediments recovered from ODP Site 1262 at a paleo-depth of 3600 m on the Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic, of late Maastrichtian-mid Paleocene age ( 67-60 Ma). We have derived high-resolution (2.5-4 kyr) carbon and oxygen isotope data from the epifaunal benthic foraminifera species Nuttallides truempyi. Combining the new record with the existing Late Paleocene-Early Eocene record generated from the same site by Littler et al. (2014), yields a single-site reference curve detailing 13.5 million years of orbital cyclicity in paleoclimate and carbon cycle from the latest Cretaceous to near the peak warmth of the Early Paleogene greenhouse. Spectral analysis of this new combined dataset allows us to identify long (405-kyr) eccentricity, short (100-kyr) eccentricity, and precession (19-23-kyr) as the principle forcing mechanisms governing pacing of the background climate and carbon-cycle during this time period, with a comparatively weak obliquity (41-kyr) signal. Cross-spectral analysis suggests that changes in climate lead the carbon cycle throughout most of the record, emphasising the role of the release of temperature-sensitive carbon stores as a positive feedback to an initial warming induced by changes in orbital configuration. The expression of comparatively understudied Early Paleocene events, including the Dan-C2 Event, Latest Danian Event, and Danian/Selandian Transition

  6. Tracking the multiple-stage exhumation history and magmatic-hydrothermal events of the West Junggar region, NW China: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Tao, Ni; Liu, Li-Ping; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min

    2018-06-01

    To decipher cooling events in the West Junggar region, biotite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar, and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He isotopic analyses of intrusive rocks were carried out. Previous U-Pb data showed that intrusive bodies in the Baogutu area were emplaced at 315-310 Ma. U-Pb and zircon (U-Th)/He dating results (313-241 Ma) suggest that a magmatic-hydrothermal event lasted for 72 Ma in the Baogutu area of the West Junggar region. Early-stage high temperature alteration (900-300 °C) lasted for 6-2 Ma and was followed by prolonged phyllic and argillic alteration lasting 67-63 Ma between 350 and 200 °C. Finally, slower cooling occurred between 200 and 70 °C, accompanied by post-mineralization uplift and erosion. In this study, three main episodes of relatively rapid cooling were distinguished in the West Junggar region, i.e. late Carboniferous-early Permian (307-277 Ma), middle Triassic (241-232 Ma) and early Cretaceous (145-120 Ma). The first rapid cooling during the late Carboniferous-early Permian was possibly associated with the release of magmatic heat. The middle Triassic and early Cretaceous cooling and exhumation are interpreted as a response to collision(s) between the Qiangtang and Kunlun-Qaidam or Lhasa blocks. The Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision, however, may have had little or no effect on modern tectonic reactivation of the West Junggar region.

  7. Hints of the Early Jehol Biota: Important Dinosaur Footprint Assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G.; Burns, Michael E.; Kümmell, Susanna B.; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks. PMID:25901363

  8. Venus magmatic and tectonic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Hansen, V. L.

    1993-01-01

    Two years beyond the initial mapping by the Magellan spacecraft, hypotheses for the magmatic and tectonic evolution of Venus have become refined and focused. We present our view of these processes, attempting to synthesize aspects of a model for the tectonic and magmatic behavior of the planet. The ideas presented should be taken collectively as an hypothesis subject to further testing. The quintessence of our model is that shear and buoyancy forces in the upper boundary layer of mantle convection give rise to a spatially and temporally complex pattern of strain in a one-plate Venusian lithosphere and modulate the timing and occurrence of magmatism on a global basis.

  9. Mediterranean Magmatism: Bimodal Melting Patterns Inferred By Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Melt production by the decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle occurs in the course of the lithospheric foundering process. The magmatic imprints of such foundering process are often described as anorogenic magmatism and this is usually followed by the orogenic magmatism, related to the subduction events in the Mediterranean region. Here, by using numerical geodynamic experiments we explore various styles of magmatism, their interaction with each other and the amount of magma production in the ocean subduction to slab peel away/delamination configuration. Model results show that the early stage of the ocean subduction under the continental lithosphere is associated with the short pulse of wet melting-orogenic magmatism and then the melting process is mostly dominated by dry melting-anorogenic magmatism, until the slab break-off occurs. While the melt types mixes/alternates during the evolution of the model, the wet melting facilitates the production of dry melting because of its uprising and emplacement under the crust where dry melting is present. The melt production pattern and the amount does not change significantly with different depths of the slab break-off (160-200 km). Model results can explain the transition from the calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanism in the western Mediterranean (Alboran domain) where ocean subduction to delamination has been interpreted.

  10. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.

    1981-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  11. Anomalous K-Pg-aged seafloor attributed to impact-induced mid-ocean ridge magmatism.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Joseph S; Karlstrom, Leif

    2018-02-01

    Eruptive phenomena at all scales, from hydrothermal geysers to flood basalts, can potentially be initiated or modulated by external mechanical perturbations. We present evidence for the triggering of magmatism on a global scale by the Chicxulub meteorite impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, recorded by transiently increased crustal production at mid-ocean ridges. Concentrated positive free-air gravity and coincident seafloor topographic anomalies, associated with seafloor created at fast-spreading rates, suggest volumes of excess magmatism in the range of ~10 5 to 10 6 km 3 . Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation can explain the volume and distribution of the anomalous crust. This massive but short-lived pulse of marine magmatism should be considered alongside the Chicxulub impact and Deccan Traps as a contributor to geochemical anomalies and environmental changes at K-Pg time.

  12. Anomalous K-Pg–aged seafloor attributed to impact-induced mid-ocean ridge magmatism

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Joseph S.; Karlstrom, Leif

    2018-01-01

    Eruptive phenomena at all scales, from hydrothermal geysers to flood basalts, can potentially be initiated or modulated by external mechanical perturbations. We present evidence for the triggering of magmatism on a global scale by the Chicxulub meteorite impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, recorded by transiently increased crustal production at mid-ocean ridges. Concentrated positive free-air gravity and coincident seafloor topographic anomalies, associated with seafloor created at fast-spreading rates, suggest volumes of excess magmatism in the range of ~105 to 106 km3. Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation can explain the volume and distribution of the anomalous crust. This massive but short-lived pulse of marine magmatism should be considered alongside the Chicxulub impact and Deccan Traps as a contributor to geochemical anomalies and environmental changes at K-Pg time. PMID:29441360

  13. Seismic tomographic constraints on plate-tectonic reconstructions of Nazca subduction under South America since late Cretaceous (˜80 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Wu, J.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global seismic tomography has provided new and increasingly higher resolution constraints on subducted lithospheric remnants in terms of their position, depth, and volumes. In this study we aim to link tomographic slab anomalies in the mantle under South America to Andean geology using methods to unfold (i.e. structurally restore) slabs back to earth surface and input them to globally consistent plate reconstructions (Wu et al., 2016). The Andean margin of South America has long been interpreted as a classic example of a continuous subduction system since early Jurassic or later. However, significant gaps in Andean plate tectonic reconstructions exist due to missing or incomplete geology from extensive Nazca-South America plate convergence (i.e. >5000 km since 80 Ma). We mapped and unfolded the Nazca slab from global seismic tomography to produce a quantitative plate reconstruction of the Andes back to the late Cretaceous 80 Ma. Our plate model predicts the latest phase of Nazca subduction began in the late Cretaceous subduction after a 100 to 80 Ma plate reorganization, which is supported by Andean geology that indicates a margin-wide compressional event at the mid-late Cretaceous (Tunik et al., 2010). Our Andean plate tectonic reconstructions predict the Andean margin experienced periods of strike-slip/transtensional and even divergent plate tectonics between 80 to 55 Ma. This prediction is roughly consistent with the arc magmatism from northern Chile between 20 to 36°S that resumed at 80 Ma after a magmatic gap. Our model indicates the Andean margin only became fully convergent after 55 Ma. We provide additional constraints on pre-subduction Nazca plate paleogeography by extracting P-wave velocity perturbations within our mapped slab surfaces following Wu et al. (2016). We identified localized slow anomalies within our mapped Nazca slab that apparently show the size and position of the subducted Nazca ridge, Carnegie ridge and the hypothesized Inca plateau

  14. Two-types of Early Cretaceous adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane, eastern North China Block: Melting of subducted Paleo-Pacific slab and delaminated newly underplated lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Xu, Zhaowen; Lu, Xiancai; Fu, Bin; Lu, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaonan; Zhao, Zengxia

    2016-01-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous adakitic rocks from the Luxi terrane in the eastern North China Block (NCB) remain debated. To resolve this issue, we determined whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages, and in situ Hf-O isotopes of the Mengyin and Liujing adakitic porphyries from the Luxi terrane. Zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that both the Mengyin and Liujing plutons were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous, with weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 130 ± 1 Ma (2σ) and 131 ± 2 Ma (2σ), respectively. In addition, abundant Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon cores are identified in the Mengyin adakitic porphyry with 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 2.53 to 2.42 Ga. Rocks of both plutons are silicic (SiO2 = 65.4-70.2 wt.%), metaluminous, and alkaline in composition, comprising mainly quartz syenite porphyries. Samples from both plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Ba), and light rare earth elements (LREEs), depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), and have either positive or no Eu anomalies. In addition, both adakitic porphyries have high Mg# values (51-64), high Sr and La contents, low Y and Yb contents, and high Sr/Y (Mengyin = 149-264; Liujing = 58-110) and (La/Yb)N (Mengyin = 32.4-45.3; Liujing = 43.8-53.1) ratios, similar to adakitic rocks worldwide. The Mengyin adakitic porphyry has higher whole-rock εNd(t) values (-5.8 to - 4.1), more radiogenic Pb [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.35-18.39, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.55-15.56, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.23], higher zircon rim εHf(t) values (+ 3.3 to + 8.8) and δ18O values (+ 6.5‰ to + 7.9‰), and lower (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7049-0.7050) than the Liujing adakitic porphyry [εNd(t) = - 12.4 to - 12.2, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.63-17.72, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.56-15.58, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.76-37.94, εHf(t) = - 14.8 to - 11.2, δ18O = + 5.9‰ to + 7.1‰, (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7090-0.7091]. The

  15. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  16. Lutetian arc-type magmatism along the southern Eurasian margin: New U-Pb LA-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemical data from Marmara Island, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, P. Ayda; Ustaömer, Timur; Collins, Alan S.; Reischpeitsch, Jörg

    2009-07-01

    The rocks of Turkey, Greece and Syria preserve evidence for the destruction of Tethys, the construction of much of the continental crust of the region and the formation of the Tauride orogenic belt. These events occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Miocene, but the detailed evolution of the southern Eurasian margin during this period of progressive continental accretion is largely unknown. Marmara Island is a basement high lying at a key location in the Cenozoic Turkish tectonic collage, with a Palaeogene suture zone to the south and a deep Eocene sedimentary basin to the north. North-dipping metamorphic thrust sheets make up the island and are interlayered with a major metagranitoid intrusion. We have dated the intrusion by Laser Ablation ICP-MS analysis of U and Pb isotopes on zircon separates to 47.6 ± 2 Ma. We also performed major- and trace-elemental geochemical analysis of 16 samples of the intrusion that revealed that the intrusion is a calc-alkaline, metaluminous granitoid, marked by Nb depletion relative to LREE and LIL-element enrichment when compared to ocean ridge granite (ORG). We interpret the metagranitoid sill as a member of a mid-Eocene magmatic arc, forming a 30 km wide and more than 200 km long arcuate belt in NW Turkey that post-dates suturing along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture zone. The arc magmatism was emplaced at the early stages of mountain building, related to collision of Eurasia with the Menderes-Taurus Platform in early Eocene times. Orogenesis and magmatism loaded the crust to the north creating coeval upward-deepening marine basins partially filled by volcanoclastic sediments.

  17. Magmatic record of Late Devonian arc-continent collision in the northern Qiangtang, Tibet: Implications for the early evolution of East Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiu-Zheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Jun; Ou, Quan; Hao, Lu-Lu; Qi, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Recognizing the early-developed intra-oceanic arc is important in revealing the early evolution of East Paleo-Tethys Ocean. In this study, new SIMS zircon U-Pb dating, O-Hf isotopes, and whole-rock geochemical data are reported for the newly-discovered Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous arc in Qiangtang, central Tibet. New dating results reveal that the eastern Riwanchaka volcanic rocks were formed at 370-365 Ma and were intruded by the 360 Ma Gangma Co alkali feldspar granites. The volcanic rocks consist of basalts, andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites, whose geochemistry is similar to that typical of subduction-related volcanism. The basalts and andesites were generated by partial melting of the fluid and sediment-melt metasomatized mantle, respectively. The rhyodacites and dacites were probably derived from the fractional crystallization of andesites and from partial melting of the juvenile underplated mafic rocks, respectively. The Gangma Co alkali feldspar granites are A-type granites, and were possibly derived by partial melting of juvenile underplated mafic rocks in a post-collisional setting. The 370-365 Ma volcanic arc was characterized by basalts with oceanic arc-like Ce/Yb ratios and by rhyodacites with mantle-like or slightly higher zircon δ18O values, and it was associated with the contemporary ophiolites. Thus, we propose that it is the earliest intra-oceanic arc in the East Paleo-Tethys Ocean, and was accreted to the Northern Qiangtang Terrane during 365-360 Ma.

  18. Geology, age, and tectonic setting of the Cretaceous Sliderock Mountain Volcano, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Harlan, Stephen S.

    1998-01-01

    The Sliderock Mountain stratovolcano, part of the Upper Cretaceous continental magmatic arc in southwestern Montana, consists of volcaniclastic strata and basaltic andesite lava flows. An intrusive complex represents the volcano's solidified magma chamber. Compositional diversity within components of the volcano appears to reflect evolution via about 50 percent fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and plagioclase. 40Ar/39Ar indicate that the volcano was active about 78?1 Ma.

  19. Late Permian to Early Oligocene granitic magmatism of the Phan Si Pan uplift area, NW Vietnam: their relationship to Phanerozoic crustal evolution of Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, T. T.; Shellnutt, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Phan Si Pan uplift area of NW Vietnam is a part of the Archean to Paleoproterozoic Yangtze Block, Southwest China. This area is of particular interest because it experienced a number of Phanerozoic crustal building events including the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, the India-Eurasia collision and Ailaoshan - Red River Fault displacement. In the Phan Si Pan uplift area, there are at least three different geochronological complexes, including: (1) Late Permian, (2) Eocene and (3) Early Oligocene. (1) The Late Permian silicic rocks are alkali ferroan A1-type granitic rocks with U/Pb ages of 251 ± 3 to 254 ± 3 Ma. The Late Permian silicic rocks of Phan Si Pan uplift area intrude the upper to middle crust and are considered to be part of the ELIP that was displaced during the India-Eurasian collision along the Ailaoshan-Red River Fault shear zone and adjacent structures (i.e. Song Da zone). Previous studies suggest the Late Permian granitic rocks were derived by fractional crystallization of high - Ti basaltic magma. (2) The Eocene rocks are alkali ferroan A1-type granites (U/Pb ages 49 ± 0.9 Ma) and are spatially associated with the Late Permian granitic rocks. The trace element ratios of this granite are similar to the Late Permian rocks (Th/Nb=0.2, Th/Ta = 2.5, Nb/U = 24, Nb/La =1.2, Sr/Y=1). The origin of the Eocene granite is uncertain but it is possible that it formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic magma during a period of extension within the Yangtze Block around the time of the India-Eurasia collision. (3) The Early Oligocene granite is characterized as a peraluminous within-plate granite with U/Pb ages of 31.3 ± 0.4 to 34 ± 1 Ma. The Early Oligocene granite has trace element ratios (Th/Nb = 2.1, Th/Ta = 22.6, Nb/U = 4.4, Nb/La = 0.4, Sr/Y = 60.4) similar to crust melts. The high Sr/Y ratio (Sr/Y = 20 - 205) indicates a lower crust source that was garnet-bearing. The Phan Si Pan uplift was neither a subduction zone nor an arc environment

  20. Global research on the Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Robert N.

    Cretaceous Resources, Events and Rhythms, a new international research effort on the global aspects of Cretaceous sedimentary geology, is underway. This Global Sedimentary Geology Project (GSGP) is organized by the Commission on Global Sedimentary Geology of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The GSGP secretariat is at the University of Miami, Florida (Fisher Island, Miami Beach, FL 33139, tel. 305-672-1840, RNGINSBURG/KOSMOS).Cretaceous time was selected for this pilot research project because Cretaceous sea levels and climates can provide a vision of Earth in its “greenhouse state,” because there is an established geochronology for the era's wide-spread deposits, and because there are extensive resources of hydrocarbons, coal, bauxite and other minerals in Cretaceous rocks.

  1. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments are well known to form a major element of the northernmost tectonic units of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Lower Austria). The Penninic Ocean was a side tract of the Central Atlantic Oceanic System intercalated between the European and the Austroalpine plates. Its opening started during the Mid Jurrasic, as rifting of the of the oceanic crust between the European and the Austroalpine plates. The turnover of the deposition on the European shelf (Helvetic Zone) from deep-water siliciclastics into pelagic carbonates is correlated with the deepening of this newly arising ocean. Within the Gresten Klippenbelt Unit, this transition is reflected by the lithostratigraphic boundary between the Tithonian marl-limestone succession and the Berriasian limestones of the Blassenstein Formation. This boundary is well exposed in a newly discovered site at Nutzhof, in the heart of Lower Austria (Kroh and Lukeneder 2009, Lukeneder 2009, Pruner, Schnabl, and Lukeneder 2009, Reháková, Halásová and Lukeneder 2009). Biostratigraphy. According to microfossil (calcareous dinoflagellates, calpionellids) and palaeomagnetic data, the association indicates that the cephalopod-bearing beds of the Nutzhof section belong to the Carpistomiosphaera tithonica-Zone of the Early Tithonian up to the Calpionella Zone of the Middle Berriasian. This interval corresponds to the ammonoid zones from the Early Tithonian Hybonoticeras hybonotum-Zone up to the Middle Berriasian Subthurmannia occitanica-Zone. Ammonoids. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ammonoids were collected at the Nutzhof locality in the eastern part of the Gresten Klippenbelt in Lower Austria. The cephalopod fauna from the Blassenstein Formation, correlated with micro- and nannofossil data from the marly unit and the limestone unit, indicates Early Tithonian to Middle Berriasian age (Hybonoticeras hybonotum Zone up to the Subthurmannia occitanica Zone). According to the correlation of the fossil

  2. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    suggest that evolved calc-alkaline arc magmatism may extend to the late Eocene, at least 10 million years earlier than previously estimated. The crystallisation ages for intrusive rocks associated with mineralisation at Cobre Panama imply that the deposit formed in the early Oligocene, between a period of late Cretaceous to Eocene magmatism (ca. 66-42 Ma; Chagres-Bayano arc) and Cordilleran arc magmatism (22-7 Ma). Similarities in the timing of intrusive suite emplacement and the fingerprinting of magmatic fractionation processes between the Cobre Panama porphyry deposit and the Cerro Colorado porphyry deposit in western Panama (ca. 5.3 Ma) suggest that these features provide favourable geodynamic and geochemical prerequisites for the formation of porphyry deposits along the Panamanian magmatic arc during the Cenozoic.

  3. A- and I-type metagranites from the North Shahrekord Metamorphic Complex, Iran: Evidence for Early Paleozoic post-collisional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Afsaneh; Davoudian, Ali Reza; Shabanian, Nahid; Azizi, Hossein; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Neubauer, Franz; Dong, Yunpeng; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2018-02-01

    The North Shahrekord Metamorphic Complex (NSMC) of the central Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) consists of metagranitoid bodies, which were metamorphosed within high pressure-low temperature conditions. Whole rock chemistry shows relatively high amounts of SiO2 (65-77 wt%) and Al2O3 (12-15 wt%), low amounts of Nb, P, Sr, Ti, a high ratio of Ga/Al (4-9) and a negative Eu anomaly. The chemical compositions of metagranites are reasonably similar to A- and I-type granites. U-Pb zircon ages of three samples of metagranites indicate that crystallization of the granites occurred at 521.6 ± 9.1 to 513.5 ± 8.5 Ma, Middle Cambrian. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of samples vary from 0.7057-0.7239 and 0.511801-0.511890, respectively. High initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low εNd(t) values (- 3.39 to - 1.07) associated with high ratios of 206Pb/204Pb(t) = 17.8557-18.8045, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.6721-15.7220, and 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 37.7490-38.4468 infer a significant contribution of continental crust in generating the source magma of the metagranite bodies. The results reveal that the metagranites were mainly produced through mixing of basaltic melts with components similar to metasedimentary sources. The new results show that crystallization of the metagranites occurred in Early Paleozoic times and much earlier than break-up and drifting of the SaSZ from the Arabian plate, suggesting that the metagranites were mainly produced in the western Iran after the closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. This model is consistent with the previously suggested models for formation of an Early Paleozoic granitoid belt along the northern rim of Gondwana.

  4. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma along the Solonker-Xar Moron suture zone. The linear or belt distribution of end-Permian magmatism is interpreted to have taken place in a setting of final orogenic contraction and weak crustal thickening, probably as a result of slab break-off. Crustal anatexis slightly post-dated the early phase of collision, producing adakite-like granitoids with some S-type granites during the Early-Middle Triassic (ca. 251–245 Ma). Between 235 and 220 Ma, the local tectonic regime switched from compression to extension, most likely caused by regional lithospheric extension and orogenic collapse. Collision-related magmatism from the southern CAOB is thus a prime example of the minor, yet tell-tale linking of magmatism with orogenic contraction and collision in an archipelago-type accretionary orogen. PMID:27167207

  5. One hundred million year old ergot: psychotropic compounds in the Cretaceous?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fungal sclerotium similar to sclerotia of the genus Claviceps, commonly known as ergot, was found infecting a grass kernel in Early Cretaceous Myanmar amber. This represents the first fossil record of ergot dating as far back as the Cretaceous period. The fungus, described as Palaeoclaviceps para...

  6. Effusive silicic volcanism in the Paraná Magmatic Province, South Brazil: Evidence for locally-fed lava flows and domes from detailed field work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, L. A.; Janasi, V. A.; Giordano, D.; Lima, E. F.; Cañon-Tapia, E.; Roverato, M.

    2018-04-01

    Lava flows and dome complexes of silicic composition were identified in the Lower Cretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) at Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Detailed mapping and image analysis reveals significant volumes of effusive deposits aligned according to main lineaments, likely representing the fissural systems that fed the three Palmas-type silicic units. Different structures indicative of effusive emplacement (lava domes, lobated flows, sheet flows and autobreccias) are very common in the study area, and are probably also more abundant than previously thought in whole PMP silicic magmatism. In fact, effusive deposits seem predominant in the three distinct silicic units identified in the area, since no remnants of pyroclastic components have been identified. The vitreous dacites that make up the upper flows of the basaltic andesite to dacite Barros Cassal sequence are clearly effusive, as indicated by their occurrence as thin sheet flows. The much thicker early Caxias do Sul dacites occur mostly as lava flow lobes and pancake-like, of low to moderate viscosity, and lava domes. The younger, high SiO2 Santa Maria rhyolite unit shows unequivocal examples of effusive deposits at its lower portion, as lobated flows formed by vesicle-rich obsidian. In spite of higher viscosities relative to the previous units ( 106 Pa·s), it is probable that the very low H2O contents 1 wt% of these rhyolite melts, associated with high discharge rates, resulted in an effusive nature in most to this unit.

  7. Sabzevar Ophiolite, NE Iran: Progress from embryonic oceanic lithosphere into magmatic arc constrained by new isotopic and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Corfu, Fernando; Chiaradia, Massimo; Stern, Robert J.; Ghorbani, Ghasem

    2014-12-01

    The poorly known Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolite belt (STOB) covers a large region in NE Iran, over 400 km E-W and almost 200 km N-S. The Sabzevar mantle sequence includes harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite and chromitite. Spinel Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) in harzburgites and lherzolites ranges from 44 to 47 and 24 to 26 respectively. The crustal sequence of the Sabzevar ophiolite is dominated by supra-subduction zone (SSZ)-type volcanic as well as plutonic rocks with minor Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB)-like pillowed and massive lavas. The ophiolite is covered by Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian (~ 75-68 Ma) pelagic sediments and four plagiogranites yield zircon U-Pb ages of 99.9, 98.4, 90.2 and 77.8 Ma, indicating that the sequence evolved over a considerable period of time. Most Sabzevar ophiolitic magmatic rocks are enriched in Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) and depleted in High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs), similar to SSZ-type magmatic rocks. They (except OIB-type lavas) have higher Th/Yb and plot far away from mantle array and are similar to arc-related rocks. Subordinate OIB-type lavas show Nb-Ta enrichment with high Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)/Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) ratio, suggesting a plume or subcontinental lithosphere signature in their source. The ophiolitic rocks have positive εNd (t) values (+ 5.4 to + 8.3) and most have high 207Pb/204Pb, indicating a significant contribution of subducted sediments to their mantle source. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope characteristics suggest that the Sabzevar magmatic rocks originated from a Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB)-type mantle source metasomatized by fluids or melts from subducted sediments, implying an SSZ environment. We suggest that the Sabzevar ophiolites formed in an embryonic oceanic arc basin between the Lut Block to the south and east and the Binalud mountains (Turan block) to the north, and that this small oceanic arc basin existed from at least mid-Cretaceous times

  8. Cretaceous and Eocene Adakites in the Sikhote-Alin area (Russian Far East) and their correlation with adakitic rocks in the East Asia continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. J.; Jahn, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Adakitic rocks of the Sikhote-Alin area were emplaced during two main periods: the Cretaceous (132-98 Ma) and Eocene (46-39 Ma). These rocks primarily occur in the Khanka Block and, less commonly, in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt. The adakitic rocks record the following chemical compositions: SiO2 = 57-74%, Al2O3 = 15-18%, Na2O = 3.5-6.1%, K2O = 0.7-3.2%, Na2O/K2O = 1.1-3.9, Sr/Y = 33-145, and (La/Yb)N = 11-53. The HREE and HFSE in these rocks are remarkably depleted. The Early Cretaceous adakites record ɛNd(T) = -1.0 to +3.2 and ISr = 0.7040-0.7090, and the Eocene adakitic rocks record Nd(T) = -2.0 to +2.2 and ISr = 0.7042-0.7058. Adakitic features suggest different modes of magma generation; a comparison of the Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and geochemical data on Harker diagrams between the two periods of adakitic rocks reveals differences in their petrogenesis. The Cretaceous adakites may have been generated by the partial melting of meta-basic rocks in a subduction zone, accompanied by the emplacement of volcanic arc granitoids. Therefore, the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Sikhote-Alin was probably initiated during this time. The Eocene rocks, which record increasing adakitic features with increasing silica content, are most likely the product of andesite that underwent fractionation of mineral assemblage including clinopyoxene, orthopyroxene, garnet and amphibole. These rocks and associated basalts and rhyolite were formed after Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area and were most likely generated by rollback of the subducting Pacific Plate after the Eocene. Abundant adakitic granitoids of Early Cretaceous and Eocene age occur in the Kitakami and Abukuma Mountains of NE Japan. Consequently, it is highly probable that a geological correlation existed between Sikhote-Alin and North Japan, particularly before the opening of the Japan Sea.

  9. Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the

  10. Upper Cretaceous and lower Eocene conglomerates of Western Transverse Ranges: evidence for tectonic rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.E.; Krause, R.G.F.

    1989-04-01

    Stratigraphic and paleomagnetic studies have suggested that the western Transverse Ranges (WTR) microplate is allochthonous, and may have experienced translational and rotational motions. Present paleocurrent directions from the Upper Cretaceous Jalama Formation of the Santa Ynez Mountains are north-directed; these forearc sediments (Great Valley sequence) contain magmatic arc-derived conglomerate clasts from the Peninsular Ranges in southern California. Paleocurrents in the lower Eocene Juncal and Cozy Dell Formations are south-directed. This juxtaposition is best explained by 90/degrees/ or more of clockwise rotation of the WTR microplate, so that Upper Cretaceous forearc sediments sourced from the Peninsular Ranges magmatic arc were depositedmore » by west-directed currents. Eocene sediments were derived from an uplifted portion of the western basin margin and deposited by east-directed currents. Franciscan olistoliths in the Upper Cretaceous sediments indicate deposition adjacent to an accretionary wedge; conglomeratic clasts recycled from the Upper Cretaceous sequence, and radiolarian cherts and ophiolitic boulders in the Eocene strata indicate derivation from an outer accretionary ridge.« less

  11. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  12. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarian age constraints from the sedimentary cover of the Amasia ophiolite (NW Armenia), at the junction between the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan and Sevan-Hakari suture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, T.; Asatryan, G.; Galoyan, Gh.; Sahakyan, L.; Stepanyan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Amasia ophiolite, situated at the northernmost corner of Armenia, is part of the Sevan-Hakari suture zone which links with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan suture zone in northern Turkey. Three new radiolarian assemblages have been extracted from siliceous sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the Amasia ophiolite in an oceanic setting. Two of these assemblages were extracted from red-brownish bedded cherts overlying basaltic lavas; one of these is likely to be middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian in age, while the second correlates with the Berriasian. Similar time-equivalent lava-chert sequences have been dated recently using radiolarians from the Stepanavan, Vedi and Sevan ophiolite units, where they are considered to relate to submarine volcanic activity in the back-arc marginal basin in which the Armenian ophiolites were formed. The third radiolarian assemblage, of late Barremian age, was extracted from a more than 15-m-thick volcaniclastic-chert sequence. The related volcanic activity is likely to have been subaerial and probably relates to the formation of an oceanic volcanic plateau; no Cretaceous subaerial volcanism has been previously recorded in the Lesser Caucasus area.

  13. The Cenozoic magmatism of East-Africa: Part I - Flood basalts and pulsed magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Tyrone O.

    2017-08-01

    Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa results from the interplay between lithospheric extension and material upwelling from the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP). The modern focusing of East African magmatism into oceanic spreading centers and continental rifts highlights the modern control of lithospheric thinning in magma generation processes, however the widespread, and volumetrically significant flood basalt events of the Eocene to Early Miocene suggest a significant role for material upwelling from the African LLSVP. The slow relative motion of the African plate during the Cenozoic has resulted in significant spatial overlap in lavas derived from different magmatic events. This complexity is being resolved with enhanced geochronological precision and a focus on the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic products. It is now apparent that there are three distinct pulses of basaltic volcanism, followed by either bimodal lavas or silicic volcanic products during this period: (A) Eocene Initial Phase from 45 to 34 Ma. This is a period of dominantly basaltic volcanism focused in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya (Turkana). (B) Oligocene Traps phase from 33.9 to 27 Ma. This period coincides with a significant increase in the aerial extent of volcanism with broadly age equivalent 1 to 2 km thick sequences of dominantly basalt centered on the NW Ethiopian Plateau and Yemen, (C) Early Miocene resurgence phase from 26.9 to 22 Ma. This resurgence in basaltic volcanism is seen throughout the region at ca. 24-23 Ma, but is less volumetrically significant than the prior two basaltic pulses. With our developing understanding of the persistence of LLSVP anomalies within the mantle, I propose that the three basaltic pulses are ostensibly manifestations of the same plume-lithosphere interaction, requiring revision to the duration, magmatic extent, and magma volume of the African-Arabian Large Igneous Province.

  14. Magmatism on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  15. The petrogenesis of the Early Permian Variscan granites of the Cornubian Batholith: Lower plate post-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B.; Shail, Robin K.; Andersen, Jens C. Ø.

    2016-09-01

    The Early Permian Cornubian Batholith was generated during an extensional regime following Variscan convergence within the Rhenohercynian Zone of SW England. Its component granites can be classified, using mineralogical, textural and geochemical criteria, into five main types, all of which are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1): G1 (two-mica), G2 (muscovite), G3 (biotite), G4 (tourmaline) and G5 (topaz). G1 granites formed through up to 20% muscovite and minor biotite dehydration melting of a metagreywacke source at moderate temperatures and pressures (731-806 °C, > 5 kbar). Younger G3 granites formed through higher temperature, lower pressure (768-847 °C, < 4 kbar) biotite-dominated melting of a similar source. Partial melting was strongly influenced by the progressive lower-mid crustal emplacement of mafic igneous rocks during post-Variscan extension and a minor (< 5%-10%) mantle-derived component in the granites is possible. Two distinct fractionation series, G1-G2 and G3-G4, are defined using whole-rock geochemical and mineral chemical data. Variations in the major elements, Ba, Sr and Rb indicate that G1 and G3 granites underwent 15%-30% fractionation of an assemblage dominated by plagioclase, alkali feldspar and biotite to form more evolved G2 and G4 granites, respectively. Decreasing whole-rock abundances of Zr, Th and REE support the fractionation of zircon, monazite, apatite and allanite. Subsolidus alteration in G2 and G4 granites is indicated by non-primary muscovite and tourmaline and modification of major and trace element trends for G3-G4 granites, particularly for P2O5 and Rb. Topaz (G5) granites show low Zr, REE and extreme enrichment in Rb (up to 1530 ppm) and Nb (79 ppm) that cannot be related in a straightforward manner to continued differentiation of the G1-G2 or G3-G4 series. Instead, they are considered to represent partial melting, mediated by granulite facies fluids, of a biotite-rich restite following extraction of G1 and/or G3 magmas; they do

  16. Contrasted crustal sources as defined by whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of neoproterozoic early post-collisional granitic magmatism within the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, Camboriú, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; Stoll Nardi, Lauro Valentim; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The early phase of post-collisional granitic magmatism in the Camboriú region, south Brazil, is represented by the porphyritic biotite ± hornblende Rio Pequeno Granite (RPG; 630-620 Ma) and the younger (˜610 Ma), equigranular, biotite ± muscovite Serra dos Macacos Granite (SMG). The two granite types share some geochemical characteristics, but the more felsic SMG constitutes a distinctive group not related to RPG by simple fractionation processes, as indicated by its lower FeOt, TiO2, K2O/Na2O and higher Zr Al2O3, Na2O, Ba and Sr when compared to RPG of similar SiO2 range. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes require different sources. The SMG derives from old crustal sources, possibly related to the Paleoproterozoic protoliths of the Camboriú Complex, as indicated by strongly negative ɛNdt (-23 to -24) and unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 16.0-16.3; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.3-15.4) and confirmed by previous LA-MC-ICPMS data showing dominant zircon inheritance of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age. In contrast, the RPG shows less negative ɛNdt (-12 to -15) and a distinctive zircon inheritance pattern with no traces of post-1.6 Ga sources. This is indicative of younger sources whose significance in the regional context is still unclear; some contribution of mantle-derived magmas is indicated by coeval mafic dykes and may account for some of the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the least differentiated varieties of the RPG. The transcurrent tectonics seems to have played an essential role in the generation of mantle-derived magmas despite their emplacement within a low-strain zone. It may have facilitated their interaction with crustal melts which seem to be to a large extent the products of reworking of Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Camboriú Complex.

  17. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  18. The McDermitt Caldera, NV-OR, USA: Geologic mapping, volcanology, mineralization, and high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of early Yellowstone hotspot magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. D.; Castor, S. B.; Starkel, W. A.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J. A.; Heizler, M. T.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The irregularly keyhole-shaped, 40x30 to 22 km, McDermitt caldera formed at 16.35±0.03 Ma (n=4; Fish Canyon sanidine = 28.201 Ma) during eruption of a zoned, aphyric, mildly peralkaline rhyolite to abundantly anorthoclase-phyric, metaluminous dacite (McDermitt Tuff, MDT). Intracaldera MDT is locally strongly rheomorphic and, where MDT and caldera floor are well-exposed along the western margin, contains abundant megabreccia but is a maximum of ~450 m thick. If this thickness is representative of the caldera, intracaldera MDT has a volume of ~400 km3. Outflow MDT is currently known up to 13 km south of the caldera but only 3 km north of the caldera. Maximum outflow thickness is ~100 m, and outflow volume is probably no more than about 10% that of intracaldera MDT. The thickness and volume relations indicate collapse began very early during eruption, and most tuff ponded within the caldera. Outflow is strongly rheomorphic where draped over paleotopography. Late, undated icelandite lavas and domes are probably residual magma from the caldera chamber. Resurgence is expressed as both a broad, symmetrical dome in the north part and a fault-bound uplift in the south part of the caldera. Mineralization associated with the caldera includes Zr-rich U deposits that are indistinguishable in age with the McDermitt Tuff, Hg, Au, Ga, and Li-rich intracaldera tuffaceous sediments. Although formed during probable regional extension, the caldera is flat-lying and cut only at its west and east margins by much younger, high-angle normal faults. The caldera formed in an area of highly diverse Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The oldest are 39 and 46 Ma metaluminous dacite lavas along the northwest margin. Coarsely plagioclase-phyric to aphyric Steens Basalt lavas crop out around the west, northwest, and northeast margin. An anorthoclase-phyric, low-Si rhyolite lava (16.69±0.02 Ma) that is interbedded with probable Steens lavas northeast of the caldera and a biotite rhyolite lava dome (16.62

  19. Provenance of Cretaceous-Pliocene Clastic Sediments in the Tachira Saddle, Western Venezuela, and Implications for Sediment Dispersal Patterns in the Northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Ali Ricardo

    Northwestern South America is highly deformed due to the transpressive plate boundary associated with complex interactions between the Caribbean plate, the South American plate, the Nazca plate and the Panama arc. Previous studies suggest that the Cenozoic uplift of the Merida Andes and Eastern Cordillera of Colombia affected sediment dispersal patterns in the region, shifting from a Paleocene foreland basin configuration to the modern isolated basins. Well-exposed Cretaceous to Pliocene strata in the Tachira Saddle provides a unique opportunity to test proposed sediment dispersal patterns in the region. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology and supplementary XRD heavy mineral data are used together to document the provenance of the Tachira Saddle sediments and refine the sediment dispersal patterns in the region. Results from the U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology show that there are six age groups recorded in these samples. Two groups are related to the Precambrian Guyana shield terranes and Putumayo basement in the Eastern Cordillera, and four groups are related to different magmatic episodes occurring during the Andean orogenic process. The transition between the Cretaceous passive margin and the Paleocene foreland basin and the initial uplift of the Eastern Cordillera and the uplift of the Merida Andes by the Early Miocene were also recorded in the Tachira saddle detrital zircon signature.

  20. Various-scale controls of complex subduction dynamics on magmatic-hydrothermal processes in eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Ducoux, Maxime; Augier, Romain; Rabillard, Aurélien; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    In subduction environment, magmatic-hydrothermal processes, responsible for the emplacement of magmatic bodies and related mineralization, are strongly controlled by slab dynamics. This 3D dynamics is often complex, resulting notably in spatial evolution through time of mineralization and magmatism types and in fast kinematic changes at the surface. Study at different scales of the distribution of these magmatic and hydrothermal products is useful to better constrain subduction dynamics. This work is focused on the eastern Mediterranean, where the complex dynamics of the Tethyan active margin since the upper Cretaceous is still largely debated. We propose new kinematic reconstructions of the region also showing the distribution of magmatic products and mineralization in space and time. Three main periods have thus been identified with a general southward migration of magmatic and ore bodies. (1) From late Cretaceous to lower Paleocene, calc-alkaline magmatism and porphyry Cu deposits emplaced notably in the Balkans, along a long linear cordillera. (2) From late Paleocene to Eocene, a barren period occurred while the Pelagonian microcontinent was buried within the subduction zone. (3) Since the Oligocene, Au-rich deposits and related K-rich magmatism emplaced in the Rhodopes, the Aegean and western Anatolian extensional domains in response to fast slab retreat and related mantle flow inducing the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle or the base of the upper crust where Au was previously stored. The emplacement at shallow level of this mineralization was largely controlled by large-scale structures that drained the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. In the Cyclades for instance, field studies show that Au-rich but also base metal-rich ore deposits are syn-extensional and spatially related to large-scale detachment systems (e.g. on Tinos, Mykonos, Serifos islands), which are recognized as subduction-related structures. These results highlight the importance at

  1. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous carbonatites from Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Castorina, F.; Censi, P.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Gomes, C. B.

    1999-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous (138-130 Ma) carbonatites and associated alkaline rocks of Angola belong to the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province and occur as ring complexes and other central-type intrusions along northeast trending tectonic lineaments, parallel to the trend of coeval Namibian alkaline complexes. Most of the Angolan carbonatite-alkaline bodies are located along the apical part of the Moçamedes Arch, a structure representing the African counterpart of the Ponta Grossa Arch in southern Brazil, where several alkaline-carbonatite complexes were also emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. Geochemical and isotopic (C, 0, Sr and Nd) characteristics determined for five carbonatitic occurrences indicate that: (1) the overall geochemical composition, including the OC isotopes, is within the range of the Early and Late Cretaceous Brazilian occurrences from the Paraná Basin; (2) the La versus {La}/{Yb} relationships are consistent with the exsolution of CO i2-rich melts from trachyphonolitic magmas; and (3) the {143Nd}/{144Nd} and {87Sr}/{86Sr} initial ratios are similar to the initial isotopic ratios (129 Ma) of alkaline complexes in northwest Namibia. In contrast, the Lupongola carbonatites have a distinctly different {143Nd}/{144Nd} initial ratio, suggesting a different source. The Angolan carbonatites have SrNd isotopic compositions ranging from bulk earth to time-integrated depleted sources. Since those from eastern Paraguay (at the western fringe of the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province) and Brazil appear to be related to mantle-derived melts with time-integrated enriched or B.E. isotopic characteristics, it is concluded that the carbonatites of the Paraná-Angola-Etendeka Province have compositionally distinct mantle sources. Such mantle heterogeneity is attributed to 'metasomatic processes', which would have occurred at ca 0.6-0.7 Ga (Angola, northwest Namibia and Brazil) and ca 1.8 Ga (eastern Paraguay), as suggested by Nd-model ages.

  2. Resolving the crustal composition paradox by 3.8 billion years of slab failure magmatism and collisional recycling of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, Robert S.; Whalen, Joseph B.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2018-06-01

    In the standard paradigm, continental crust is formed mainly by arc magmatism, but because the compositions of magma rising from the mantle are basaltic and continental crust is estimated to contain about 60% SiO2 and much less MgO than basalt, the two do not match. To resolve this paradox, most researchers argue that large amounts of magmatic fractionation produce residual cumulates at the base of the crust, which because arcs are inferred to have magmatically thickened crust, form eclogites that ultimately founder and sink into the mantle. Not only are there problems with the contrasting bulk compositions, but the standard model also fails because prior to collision most modern arcs do not have thick crust, as documented by their eruption close to sea level, and in cases of ancient arc sequences, their intercalation with marine sedimentary rocks. Our study of Cretaceous batholiths in the North American Cordillera resolves the crustal composition paradox because we find that most are not arc-derived as commonly believed; but instead formed during the waning stages of collision and consequent slab failure. Because the batholiths typically have silica contents >60% and are derived directly from the mantle, we argue that they are the missing link in the formation of continental crust. Slab failure magmas worldwide are compositionally similar to tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suites as old as 3.8 Ga, which points to their collective formation by slab failure and long-lived plate tectonics. Our model also provides (1) an alternative solution to interpret compiled detrital zircon arrays, because episodic peaks that coincide with periods of supercontinent amalgamation are easily interpreted to represent collisions with formation of new crust by slab failure; and (2) that models of early whole-earth differentiation are more reasonable than those invoking progressive growth of continental crust.

  3. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle–late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old) of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids) suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous. PMID:25494182

  4. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  5. Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

    PubMed Central

    Arkhangelsky, Maxim S.; Stenshin, Ilya M.; Uspensky, Gleb N.; Zverkov, Nikolay G.

    2015-01-01

    During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid from the Late Hauterivian (Early Cretaceous) of Russia. Phylogenetic analyses using reduced consensus methods recover it as the basalmost brachauchenine. This pliosaurid is smaller than other derived pliosaurids, has tooth alveoli clustered in pairs and possesses trihedral teeth with complex serrated carinae. Maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstruction suggests early brachauchenines retained trihedral teeth from their ancestors, but modified this feature in a unique way, convergent with macrophagous archosaurs or sphenacodontoids. Our findings indicate that Early Cretaceous marine reptile teeth with serrated carinae cannot be unequivocally assigned to metriorhynchoid crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, they extend the known diversity of dental adaptations seen in Sauropterygia, the longest lived clade of marine tetrapods. PMID:27019740

  6. Cosmic Genes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, M. K.

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that genes coding for Aib-polypeptides arose early on in the K/T transition, presumed from the Earth's accretion of interplanetary (comet) dust. Aib-fungi flourished because of the evolutionary advantage of novel antibiotics. The stress on Cretaceous biology led directly and indirectly to mass species extinctions, including many dinosaur species, in the epoch preceding the Chicxulub impact.

  7. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  8. Finding of two new radiolarian associations calibrated with ammonoids in the Vaca Muerta Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Verónica V.; Pujana, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    An association of ammonoids and radiolarians retrieved from a sedimentary section of the Vaca Muerta Formation at Vega de Escalone, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, was analized under a strict stratigraphic control. Nine ammonoid assemblage biozones were identified, indicating an age span from Early Tithonian to Late Berriasian/earlymost Valanginian for the Vaca Muerta Formation at the studied section. In connection to the ammonoid record, two radiolarian faunas were identified and named J3A1 and J3B1. Fauna J3A1, corresponding to the Virgatosphinctes andesensis Biozone, is dominated by nasellarian genera and represents the first Lower Tithonian radiolarian fauna described from the Neuquén Basin. Fauna J3B1, linked to the interval assigned to the Substeueroceras koeneni Biozone (Late Tithonian-Early Berriasian), yields abundant representatives of the Pantanellid Family. The presence of Complexapora kozuri (Kiessling and Zeiss) and Loopus primitivus (Matsuoka and Yao), two important radiolarian primary markers of the Late Jurassic in North America, supports a Late Tithonian age for at least part of the S. koeneni Biozone in the studied area. Nor certain Berriasian radiolarian faunas nor elements of the Vallupinae Family were identified so far at the Vega de Escalone section.

  9. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  10. Mid-Mesozoic (Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) evolution of the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf: Sedimentology of the Conoco 145-1 well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Stanton, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Conoco 145-1 exploratory well, located in the southeastern portion of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4303 m below the sea floor. The oldest sedimentary rocks sampled are of Middle Jurassic age (Late Bathonian-Callovian). A dolomite-limestone-evaporite sequence dominates the section below 3917 m; limestone is the predominant lithology in the intervals of 3271-3774 m, 2274-3158 m, and 1548-1981 m. Siliciclastics dominate the remainder of the drilled section. Calcite tightly cements most of the rocks below 1548 m; dolomite, silica, siderite, and diagenetic clay cements are locally important. Restricted inner marine environments, representing lagoonal and tidal flat conditions, prevailed at the wellsite during much of the deposition recorded by the Callovian-Bathonian age Iroquois Formation. These environments gave way to a carbonate platform, which formed part of the > 5,000 km long Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform that lasted through the end of the Late Jurassic (encompassing the uppermost portion of the Iroquois Formation and the Scatarie Limestone and Bacarro Limestone Members of the Abenaki Formation). The absence of a skeletal-reef association and the dominance of muddy limestone fabrics are evidence that the 145-1 wellsite was located on the platform interior. Major periods of siticiclastic deposition interrupted carbonate deposition, and they are recorded by stratigraphic equivalents of the Mohican Formation, Misaine Shale Member of the Abenaki Formation, and the Mohawk and Mic Mac Formations. A series of sustained prograding delta systems, the earliest of which is preserved as the Missisauga Formation, buried the carbonate platform following its drowning in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian). The sparser, primarily allochthonous lignite content and better-sorted, glauconite-bearing sands of the Missisauga strata at the 145-1 wellsite suggest that shallow marine or barrier-bar environments were more prevalent than the low

  11. Origin of limestone-marlstone cycles: Astronomic forcing of organic-rich sedimentary rocks from the Cenomanian to early Coniacian of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldrett, James S.; Ma, Chao; Bergman, Steven C.; Ozkan, Aysen; Minisini, Daniel; Lutz, Brendan; Jackett, Sarah-Jane; Macaulay, Calum; Kelly, Amy E.

    2015-08-01

    We present an integrated multidisciplinary study of limestone-marlstone couplets from a continuously cored section including parts of the upper Buda Limestone, the entire Eagle Ford Group (Boquillas Formation) and lower Austin Chalk from the Shell Iona-1 research borehole (Texas, USA), which provides a >8 million year (myr) distal, clastic sediment-starved, intrashelf basin record of the early Cenomanian to the earliest Coniacian Stages. Results show that despite variable yet minimal diagenetic overprints, several unambiguous primary environmental signals are preserved and support greater water-mass ventilation and current activity promoting increased silica/carbonate productivity during the deposition of limestone beds compared to deposition of marlstone beds which reflect greater organic matter productivity and preservation. Furthermore, our astronomical analyses demonstrate that the limestone-marlstone couplets in the Iona-1 core reflect climatic forcing driven by solar insolation resulting from integrated Milankovitch periodicities. In particular, we propose that obliquity and precession forcing on the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation may have been responsible for the observed lithological and environmental variations through the Cenomanian, Turonian and Coniacian in this mid-latitude epicontinental sea setting. Our data also suggests that rhythmic lithological alternations deposited in Greenhouse periods, in general, may simply reflect climate-driven cycles related to Earth-Sun dynamics without the need to invoke significant sea-level variations.

  12. Relative sea level changes during the Cretaceous in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Flexer, A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lipson-Benitah, S.

    1986-11-01

    Detailed lithologic, microfaunal, and biometric investigations, using relative abundances, diversity indexes, and duration charts of ostracods and foraminifera, allowed the recognition of sea level changes during the Cretaceous of Israel. Three major transgressive-regressive sedimentation cycles occur on the northwest margins of the Arabian craton. These cycles are the Neocomian-Aptian, which is mostly terrigenous sediments; the Albian-Turonian, which is basin marls and platform carbonates; and the Senonian, which is uniform marly chalks. The cycles are separated by two major regional unconformities, the Aptian-Albian and Turonian-Coniacian boundaries. The sedimentary cycles are related to regional tectonic and volcanic events and eustatic changes. Themore » paleodepth curve illustrates the gradual sea level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous, with conspicuous advances during the late Aptian, late Albian-Cenomanian, early Turonian, early Santonian, and early Campanian. Major lowstands occur at the Aptian-Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian, Turonian-Coniacian, and Campanian-Maastrichtian boundaries. This model for Israel agrees well with other regional and global sea level fluctuations. Four anoxic events (black shales) accompanying transgressions correspond to the Cretaceous oceanic record. They hypothesize the presence of mature oil shales in the present-day eastern Mediterranean basin close to allochthonous reef blocks detached from the Cretaceous platform. 11 figures.« less

  13. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, S.; Heimhofer, U.; Immenhauser, A.; Weissert, H.

    2013-05-01

    Carbonate platforms are highly sensitive ecological systems that typically show rapid and characteristic response modes to environmental and climatic changes acting both on a regional scale and global scale. A widely accepted hypothesis proposes that the Late Barremian stepwise establishment of the Urgonian carbonate platform on the Northern Tethyan shelf was related to a gradual change from predominantly humid towards more arid greenhouse conditions. This climate change resulted in the reorganisation of the carbonate platform ecosystem from heterozoan towards photozoan-dominated assemblages and a decrease of organic-matter burial in Tethyan and Boreal basins. In order to decipher the palaeoenvironmental and climatic boundary conditions of these major changes in neritic and pelagic settings, a precise chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution is needed. Here, we provide an integrated stratigraphic framework of Lower Barremian to Lower Aptian Urgonian carbonate platform sections (Cluses, Forclaz) located at the northern rim of the Tethys (Subalpine Chains, ESE France), with special focus on sedimentological analyses and high-resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy. A characteristic Barremian-Aptian carbon-isotope pattern permits precise platform-to-basin correlation with cyclostratigraphic and ammonite-dated pelagic and hemipelagic Tethyan sections in the Vocontian Trough (Angles/Combe-Lambert/Glaise) and Umbria Marche Basin (Gorgo a Cerbara). Similar to Helvetic shoal-water settings, the carbonate platform in the Subalpine Chains experienced a gradual transition from heterozoan- to photozoan-dominated ecosystems. This biogenic pattern points to a gradual change of the carbonate platform after the so-called "Early Barremian crisis" towards an oligotrophic rimmed platform system (Urgonian Limestone Formation). According to the chronostratigraphy of Urgonian carbonate platform evolution in the Subalpine Chains established here, the installation of a

  14. Constraining Slab Breakoff Induced Magmatism through Numerical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeburn, R.; Van Hunen, J.; Maunder, B. L.; Magni, V.; Bouilhol, P.

    2015-12-01

    Post-collisional magmatism is markedly different in nature and composition than pre-collisional magmas. This is widely interpreted to mark a change in the thermal structure of the system due to the loss of the oceanic slab (slab breakoff), allowing a different source to melt. Early modelling studies suggest that when breakoff takes place at depths shallower than the overriding lithosphere, magmatism occurs through both the decompression of upwelling asthenopshere into the slab window and the thermal perturbation of the overriding lithosphere (Davies & von Blanckenburg, 1995; van de Zedde & Wortel, 2001). Interpretations of geochemical data which invoke slab breakoff as a means of generating magmatism mostly assume these shallow depths. However more recent modelling results suggest that slab breakoff is likely to occur deeper (e.g. Andrews & Billen, 2009; Duretz et al., 2011; van Hunen & Allen, 2011). Here we test the extent to which slab breakoff is a viable mechanism for generating melting in post-collisional settings. Using 2-D numerical models we conduct a parametric study, producing models displaying a range of dynamics with breakoff depths ranging from 150 - 300 km. Key models are further analysed to assess the extent of melting. We consider the mantle wedge above the slab to be hydrated, and compute the melt fraction by using a simple parameterised solidus. Our models show that breakoff at shallow depths can generate a short-lived (< 3 Myr) pulse of mantle melting, through the hydration of hotter, undepleted asthenosphere flowing in from behind the detached slab. However, our results do not display the widespread, prolonged style of magmatism, observed in many post-collisional areas, suggesting that this magmatism may be generated via alternative mechanisms. This further implies that using magmatic observations to constrain slab breakoff is not straightforward.

  15. Late Cretaceous tectonothermal evolution of the southern Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Consequence of a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane

  16. Geochemical characteristics of Antarctic magmatism connected with Karoo-Maud and Kerguelen mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Krymsky, Robert; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Migdisova, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    Emplacement (130-115 m.y. ago) of dikes and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic composition within Jetty oasis (East Antarctica) is suggested as a later appearance of plume magmatism within the East-Antarctic Shield [Andronikov et al., 1993, 2001; Laiba et al., 1987]. This region is located opposite Kerguelen Islands and possibly could be properly connected with activity of the Kerguelen-plume [Foley et al., 2001, 2006]. Jurassic-Cretaceous dykes, stocks and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic rocks, relatively close to kimberlite-type, are exposed within Jetty oasis and on the southern shore of the Raddock Lake. This alkaline-ultrabasic magmatism has appeared to be connected with the main Mesozoic stage of the evolution of the Lambert and Amery glaciers riftogenic structure [Kurinin et al., 1980, 1988]. The alkaline-ultrabasic dikes and sills within Jetty oasis cut the rocks of the Beaver complex, Permo-Triassic terrigeneous successions of the Amery complex, and late Paleozoic low-alkaline basic dikes as well. Dashed chain of 6 stock bodies spread out on 15 km along the eastern shore of the Beaver Lake, marked their allocation with submeridianal zone of the deep cracks, boarded of the eastern side of the Beaver Lake trough. At the same time, new data upon Quaternary magmatism of the mountain Gaussberg has confirmed the unique features of ultra-potassium alkaline magmatism (up to 14-17% K2O) formed under exclusively continental conditions [Murphy et al., 2002]. Volcanic cone is located at the continuation of Gaussberg rift zone which is possibly a part of Lambert fracture zone. Its formation is connected with the early stages of Gondwana development, perhaps, reactivated in different Precambrian events and according to numerous data is a single rift zone which is traced Indian inland (Indrani graben, [Golynsky, 2011]). The time of lamproitic magmas eruption is estimated at 56000±5000 yeas ago [Tingey et al., 1983]. Earlier it had been shown the Mesozoic (about 170 Ma) basaltic

  17. Exposure of a late cretaceous layered mafic-felsic magma system in the central Sierra Nevada batholith, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Glazner, A.F.; Miller, J.S.; Bradford, K.J.; Frost, T.P.; Joye, J.L.; Bachl, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon ages for the Lamarck Granodiorite, associated synplutonic gabbro and diorite plutons, and two large mafic intrusive complexes that underlie them in the Sierra Nevada batholith are 92??1 Ma. These ages establish the Late Cretaceous as a period of extensive mafic-felsic magmatism in the central part of the batholith, and confirm the significance of mafic magmatism in the evolution of the voluminous silicic plutions in the Sierran arc. The lack of significant zircon inheritance in any of the units analyzed supports isotopic evidence that the Lamarck and other Late Cretaceous Sierran plutons were derived predominantly from young crust. Recognition of an extensive mafic-felsic magma system in the Sierra Nevada batholith emphasizes the importance of basaltic liquids in the evolution of continental crust in arc settings. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Source and tectonic implications of tonalite-trondhjemite magmatism in the Klamath Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, C.G.; Petersen, S.W.; Kistler, R.W.; Murray, R.; Kays, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Klamath Mountains, voluminous tonalite-trondhjemite magmatism was characteristic of a short period of time from about 144 to 136 Ma (Early Cretaceous). It occurred about 5 to l0 m.y. after the ??? 165 to 159 Ma Josephine ophiolite was thrust beneath older parts of the province during the Nevadan orogeny (thrusting from ??? 155 to 148 Ma). The magmatism also corresponds to a period of slow or no subduction. Most of the plutons crop out in the south-central Klamath Mountains in California, but one occurs in Oregon at the northern end of the province. Compositionally extended members of the suite consist of precursor gabbroic to dioritic rocks followed by later, more voluminous tonalitic and trondhjemitic intrusions. Most plutons consist almost entirely of tonalite and trondhjemite. Poorlydefined concentric zoning is common. Tonalitic rocks are typically of the Iow-Al type but trondhjemites are generally of the high-Al type, even those that occur in the same pluton as low-Al tonalite??. The suite is characterized by low abundances of K2O, Rb, Zr, and heavy rare earth elements. Sr contents are generally moderate ( ???450 ppm) by comparison with Sr-rich arc lavas interpreted to be slab melts (up to 2000 ppm). Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr, ??18O, and ??Nd are typical of mantle-derived magmas or of crustally-derived magmas with a metabasic source. Compositional variation within plutons can be modeled by variable degrees of partial melting of a heterogeneous metabasaltic source (transitional mid-ocean ridge to island arc basalt), but not by fractional crystallyzation of a basaltic parent. Melting models require a residual assemblage of clinopyroxene+garnet??plagioclase??amphibole; residual plagioclase suggests a deep crustal origin rather than melting of a subducted slab. Such models are consistent with the metabasic part of the Josephine ophiolite as the source. Because the Josephine ophiolite was at low T during Nevadan thrusting, an external heat source was probably

  19. Alkaline magmatism in the Amambay area, NE Paraguay: The Cerro Sarambí complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, C. B.; Velázquez, V. F.; Azzone, R. G.; Paula, G. S.

    2011-07-01

    The Early Cretaceous alkaline magmatism in the northeastern region of Paraguay (Amambay Province) is represented by stocks, plugs, dikes, and dike swarms emplaced into Carboniferous to Triassic-Jurassic sediments and Precambrian rocks. This magmatism is tectonically related to the Ponta Porã Arch, a NE-trending structural feature, and has the Cerro Sarambí and Cerro Chiriguelo carbonatite complexes as its most significant expressions. Other alkaline occurrences found in the area are the Cerro Guazú and the small bodies of Cerro Apuá, Arroyo Gasory, Cerro Jhú, Cerro Tayay, and Cerro Teyú. The alkaline rocks comprise ultramafic-mafic, syenitic, and carbonatitic petrographic associations in addition to lithologies of variable composition and texture occurring as dikes; fenites are described in both carbonatite complexes. Alkali feldspar and clinopyroxene, ranging from diopside to aegirine, are the most abundant minerals, with feldspathoids (nepheline, analcime), biotite, and subordinate Ti-rich garnet; minor constituents are Fe-Ti oxides and cancrinite as the main alteration product from nepheline. Chemically, the Amambay silicate rocks are potassic to highly potassic and have miaskitic affinity, with the non-cumulate intrusive types concentrated mainly in the saturated to undersaturated areas in silica syenitic fields. Fine-grained rocks are also of syenitic affiliation or represent more mafic varieties. The carbonatitic rocks consist dominantly of calciocarbonatites. Variation diagrams plotting major and trace elements vs. SiO 2 concentration for the Cerro Sarambí rocks show positive correlations for Al 2O 3, K 2O, and Rb, and negative ones for TiO 2, MgO, Fe 2O 3, CaO, P 2O 5, and Sr, indicating that fractional crystallization played an important role in the formation of the complex. Incompatible elements normalized to primitive mantle display positive spikes for Rb, La, Pb, Sr, and Sm, and negative for Nb-Ta, P, and Ti, as these negative anomalies are

  20. Jurassic to Miocene magmatism and metamorphism in the Mogok metamorphic belt and the India-Eurasia collision in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barley, M. E.; Pickard, A. L.; Zaw, Khin; Rak, P.; Doyle, M. G.

    2003-06-01

    Situated south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at the western margin of the Shan-Thai terrane the high-grade Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB) in Myanmar occupies a key position in the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The first sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb in zircon geochronology for the MMB shows that strongly deformed granitic orthogneisses near Mandalay contain Jurassic (˜170 Ma) zircons that have partly recrystallized during ˜43 Ma high-grade metamorphism. A hornblende syenite from Mandalay Hill also contains Jurassic zircons with evidence of Eocene metamorphic recrystallization rimmed by thin zones of 30.9 ± 0.7 Ma magmatic zircon. The relative abundance of Jurassic zircons in these rocks is consistent with suggestions that southern Eurasia had an Andean-type margin at that time. Mid-Cretaceous to earliest Eocene (120 to 50 Ma) I-type granitoids in the MMB, Myeik Archipelago, and Western Myanmar confirm that prior to the collision of India, an up to 200 km wide magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin from Pakistan to Sumatra. Metamorphic overgrowths to zircons in the orthogneiss near Mandalay date a period of Eocene (˜43 Ma) high-grade metamorphism possibly during crustal thickening related to the initial collision between India and Eurasia (at 65 to 55 Ma). This was followed by emplacement of syntectonic hornblende syenites and leucogranites between 35 and 23 Ma. Similar syntectonic syenites and leucogranites intruded the Ailao Shan-Red River shear belt in southern China and Vietnam during the Eocene-Oligocene to Miocene, and the Wang Chao and Three Pagodas faults in northern Thailand (that most likely link with the MMB) were also active at this time. The complex history of Eocene to early Miocene metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism in the MMB provides evidence that it may have played a key role in the network of deformation zones that accommodated strain during the northwards movement of India and resulting extrusion or

  1. Rainfall seasonality on the Indian subcontinent during the Cretaceous greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prosenjit; Prasanna, K; Banerjee, Yogaraj; Williams, Ian S; Gagan, Michael K; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Suwas, Satyam

    2018-05-31

    The Cretaceous greenhouse climate was accompanied by major changes in Earth's hydrological cycle, but seasonally resolved hydroclimatic reconstructions for this anomalously warm period are rare. We measured the δ 18 O and CO 2 clumped isotope Δ 47 of the seasonal growth bands in carbonate shells of the mollusc Villorita cyprinoides (Black Clam) growing in the Cochin estuary, in southern India. These tandem records accurately reconstruct seasonal changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater δ 18 O, allowing us to document freshwater discharge into the estuary, and make inferences about rainfall amount. The same analytical approach was applied to well-preserved fossil remains of the Cretaceous (Early Maastrichtian) mollusc Phygraea (Phygraea) vesicularis from the nearby Kallankuruchchi Formation in the Cauvery Basin of southern India. The palaeoenvironmental record shows that, unlike present-day India, where summer rainfall predominates, most rainfall in Cretaceous India occurred in winter. During the Early Maastrichtian, the Indian plate was positioned at ~30°S latitude, where present-day rainfall and storm activity is also concentrated in winter. The good match of the Cretaceous climate and present-day climate at ~30°S suggests that the large-scale atmospheric circulation and seasonal hydroclimate patterns were similar to, although probably more intense than, those at present.

  2. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  3. Cenozoic East African Magmatism and the African LLSVP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.

    2017-12-01

    The Ethiopian-Arabian Large Igneous Province preserves a 45 Ma record of mantle-lithosphere interaction, manifesting as flood basalts, shield volcanoes, silicic eruptions, and monogenetic magmatic events. During the Cenozoic, magmatism in in this region has resulted from the interplay between lithospheric extension and material upwelling from the African large low-velocity shear velocity province (LLSVP). Consequently, the study of magmatism in East Africa provides a complement to investigations of the Pacific LLSVP. The volumetrically significant flood basalt events of the Eocene to Early Miocene suggest a role for material upwelling from the African LLSVP, however the modern focusing of East African magmatism into oceanic spreading centers and continental rifts also highlights the control of lithospheric thinning in magma generation processes. The study of the mantle reservoirs derived from the African LLSVP is complicated by the slow relative motion of the African plate during the Cenozoic, resulting in significant spatial overlap in lavas derived from different magmatic events. This complexity is being resolved with enhanced geochronological precision and a focus on the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic products. It is now apparent that there are three distinct pulses of basaltic volcanism, followed by either by bimodal or silicic volcanism, totaling ca. 720,000 km3 of magmatism: (A) Eocene Initial Phase from 45-34 Ma, which is dominated by basaltic volcanism and focused on Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya (Turkana). (B) Oligocene Traps phase from 33.9-27 Ma, which coincides with a significant increase in the aerial extent of volcanism. Broadly age equivalent 1 to 2 km thick sequences of dominantly basalt are centered on the NW Ethiopian Plateau and Yemen, but also Turkana during this period. (C) Early Miocene resurgence phase from 26.9-22 Ma, where basaltic volcanism is seen throughout the region but is less volumetrically significant than the

  4. CRETACEOUS CLIMATE SENSITIVITY STUDY USING DINOSAUR & PLANT PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Main, D. J.; Noto, C. R.; Moore, T. L.; Scotese, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous was characterized by cool poles and moderate global temperatures (~16° C). During the mid and late Cretaceous, long-term global warming (~20° - 22° C) was driven by increasing levels of CO2, rising sea level (lowering albedo) and the continuing breakup of Pangea. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for four time intervals during the Cretaceous: Middle Campanian (80 Ma), Cenomanian/Turonian (90 Ma), Early Albian (110 Ma) and Barremian-Hauterivian (130Ma) are presented here. These paleoclimate simulations were prepared using the Fast Ocean and Atmosphere Model (FOAM). The simulated results show the pattern of the pole-to-Equator temperature gradients, rainfall, surface run-off, the location of major rivers and deltas. In order to investigate the effect of potential dispersal routes on paleobiogeographic patterns, a time-slice series of maps from Early - Late Cretaceous were produced showing plots of dinosaur and plant fossil distributions. These Maps were created utilizing: 1) plant fossil localities from the GEON and Paleobiology (PBDB) databases; and 2) dinosaur fossil localities from an updated version of the Dinosauria (Weishampel, 2004) database. These results are compared to two different types of datasets, 1) Paleotemperature database for the Cretaceous and 2) locality data obtained from GEON, PBDB and Dinosauria database. Global latitudinal mean temperatures from both the model and the paelotemperature database were plotted on a series of latitudinal graphs along with the distributions of fossil plants and dinosaurs. It was found that most dinosaur localities through the Cretaceous tend to cluster within specific climate belts, or envelopes. Also, these Cretaceous maps show variance in biogeographic zonation of both plants and dinosaurs that is commensurate with reconstructed climate patterns and geography. These data are particularly useful for understanding the response of late Mesozoic ecosystems to geographic and climatic conditions that

  5. Paleobotany of Livingston Island: The first report of a Cretaceous fossil flora from Hannah Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppe, M.; Michea, W.; Muñoz, C.; Palma-Heldt, S.; Fernandoy, F.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report of a fossil flora from Hannah Point, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The fossiliferous content of an outcrop, located between two igneous rock units of Cretaceous age are mainly composed of leaf imprints and some fossil trunks. The leaf assemblage consists of 18 taxa of Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and one angiosperm. The plant assemblage can be compared to other Early Cretaceous floras from the South Shetland Islands, but several taxa have an evidently Late Cretaceous affinity. A Coniacian-Santonian age is the most probable age for the outcrops, supported by previous K/Ar isotopic studies of the basalts over and underlying the fossiliferous sequence

  6. On the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Luis; Ramos, Victor; Pimentel, Marcio; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Calibrating the geologic time is of utmost importance to understanding geological and biological processes throughout Earth history. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary has proven to be one of the most problematic boundaries to calibrate in the geologic time. The present definition of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary still remains contentious mainly because of the dominant endemic nature of the flora and fauna in stratigraphic sections, which hinders an agreement on a GSSP. Consequently, an absolute and precise age for the boundary is yet to meet an agreement among the community. Additionally, integrating chemical, paleomagnetic or astronomical proxies to aid the definition of the boundary has also proven to be difficult because the boundary lacks any abrupt geochemical changes or recognizable geological events. However, the traditional Berriasella jacobi Subzone is disregarded as a primary marker and the use of calpionellids has been gaining momentum for defining the boundary. The Jurassic Cretaceous boundary in the Vaca Muerta Fm. in the Nuequen Basin of the Andes is a potential candidate for the boundary stratotype because of its high density of ammonites, nannofossils and interbedded datable horizons. Consequently, the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary is very well defined in the Vaca Muerta Fm. On the basis of both ammonites and nannofossils. Here we present new high-precision U-Pb age determinations from two volcanic ash beds that bracket the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary: 1) ash bed LLT_14_9, with a 206Pb/238U age of 139.7 Ma, which is 2 meters above Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary based on the Argetiniceras noduliferum (Early Berriasian ) and Substeueroceras Koeneni (Late Tithonian) ammonites zone; and 2) bed LLT_14_10, with an age of 140.1 Ma, located 3m below the J-K boundary based on last occurrence of the nannofossils N. kamptneri minor and N. steinmanni minor. Therefore, we propose that the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary should be close to 140

  7. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of the Triassic and Jurassic magmatic and volcanic rocks of southeastern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villares, Fabián; Eguez, Arturo; Yanez, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Formely, the subandean zone in the southeastern Ecuador involved large volcanic and magmatic rocks included in the Misahualli Formation and Zamora batholith, both as expression of the Jurassic cal-alcaline volcanic arc. The aim of the project carried out by the INIGEMM (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Geológico Minero Metalúrgico) was discriminate the volcanic products including a continuous set going from basalts to ryolithes and volcanoclastic rocks. Geochemical characterization was done using representative 16 whole - rock chemical analysis. The oldest rocks of the investigated area called Pachicutza Unit, include greenish to black, massive basalts and basaltic andesites, locally showing pillows structures. The texture is aphanitic to microporphyritic with slight crystal growth of plagioclase and pyroxenes. The Unit include also local pyroclastic breccias and tuffs showing variable skarnification related to the intrusion of the jurassic Zamora Batholith. Two samples of basalts show tholeiitic affinity, corresponding to an N- MORB, probably representing an early stage in opening of a regional Triassic rift reported since Colombia to Peru in the Andes. These geochemical characteristics are similar to the amphibolites of Monte Olivo Unit in the Real Cordillera. The Jurassic large volcanic assembly of the Misahualli Formation was also differenciated. Basal volcanics include green, subporphyritic andesites and volcanic breccias possibly generated at an early stage of the volcanic arc, caused by a change of extensive to compressive regime. Continental volcano sedimentary and sedimentary rock were discriminate as Nueva Esperanza and Suarez Units, respectively. The volcanosedimentary sequence include massive to laminate tuffs and tuffites of intermediate composition. The sediments of the Suarez Unit include dominant conglomerats and sandstones of fluvial domain. The regional volcanic sequence is completed by the Las Peñas Unit that includes aphanitic to

  8. Geological, geochemical and isotope diversity of 134 Ma dykes from the Florianópolis Dyke Swarm, Paraná Magmatic Province: Geodynamic controls on petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florisbal, L. M.; Janasi, V. A.; Bitencourt, M. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.; Marteleto, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The Florianópolis Dyke Swarm (FDS), one of the major dyke swarms belonging to the Early cretaceous (135-131 Ma) Paraná Magmatic Province, is largely dominated by high Sr-Ti-P basalts that are confirmed here as feeders of the unique Urubici (= Khumib) lavas of the Paraná and Edendeka lava piles on the basis of their age and geochemistry. Our study integrates field, petrographic, whole-rock geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of representative samples from three main areas of exposition (Santa Catarina Island, Garopaba and Pinheira beaches), thus encompassing the whole extension of the FDS. Compared to the Urubici lavas, the dykes have usually higher contents of LILE and LREE, more radiogenic Sr and Pb, and more unradiogenic Nd, features attributed to a more pronounced interaction with melts derived from the country rocks registered in the basic magmas that remained in the conduits. Some of these dykes show strongly interactive contacts that must be part of a wider zone of crustal melting, probably more developed at greater depths. Small volumes of intermediate to acidic rocks form the cores of some composite dykes, and correspond to products of fractional crystallization from Urubici basalts contaminated with high Rb/Sr, and U/Th crustal melts (probably derived from Neoproterozoic granites), as indicated by geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data. The chemical and isotope signatures of the less contaminated FDS basalts and related Urubici lavas do not show clear evidence of inputs from primitive mantle, and seem heavily influenced by enriched mantle. This suggests that the mantle wedge that was affected by subduction during the Neoproterozoic may have been frozen and coupled to the base of the lithospheric plate where the Early cretaceous magmatism occurred. A control of previous tectonic limits on the sources of the Urubici basalts seems evident, since they seem to be related to the younger lithosphere from the South Domain, related to the Florian

  9. State shift in Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, possibly induced by impact.

    PubMed

    Renne, Paul R; Sprain, Courtney J; Richards, Mark A; Self, Stephen; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Pande, Kanchan

    2015-10-02

    Bolide impact and flood volcanism compete as leading candidates for the cause of terminal-Cretaceous mass extinctions. High-precision (40)Ar/(39)Ar data indicate that these two mechanisms may be genetically related, and neither can be considered in isolation. The existing Deccan Traps magmatic system underwent a state shift approximately coincident with the Chicxulub impact and the terminal-Cretaceous mass extinctions, after which ~70% of the Traps' total volume was extruded in more massive and more episodic eruptions. Initiation of this new regime occurred within ~50,000 years of the impact, which is consistent with transient effects of impact-induced seismic energy. Postextinction recovery of marine ecosystems was probably suppressed until after the accelerated volcanism waned. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. State shift in Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, possibly induced by impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.; Richards, Mark A.; Self, Stephen; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Pande, Kanchan

    2015-10-01

    Bolide impact and flood volcanism compete as leading candidates for the cause of terminal-Cretaceous mass extinctions. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar data indicate that these two mechanisms may be genetically related, and neither can be considered in isolation. The existing Deccan Traps magmatic system underwent a state shift approximately coincident with the Chicxulub impact and the terminal-Cretaceous mass extinctions, after which ~70% of the Traps' total volume was extruded in more massive and more episodic eruptions. Initiation of this new regime occurred within ~50,000 years of the impact, which is consistent with transient effects of impact-induced seismic energy. Postextinction recovery of marine ecosystems was probably suppressed until after the accelerated volcanism waned.

  11. Re-evaluating Gondwana breakup: Magmatism, movement and microplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gondwana breakup is thought to have initiated in the Early- to Mid-Jurassic between South Africa and East Antarctica. The critical stages of continental extension and magmatism which preceded breakup remain controversial. It is agreed that extensive magmatism struck this region 180 Ma, and that significant extension occurred in the Weddell Sea Rift System (WSRS) and around the Falkland Plateau. However, the timing and volume of magmatism, extent and mechanism of continental extension, and the links with the wider plate circuit are poorly constrained. Jordan et al (Gondwana Research 2017) recently proposed a two-stage model for the formation of the WSRS: initial extension and movement of the Ellsworth Whitmore Mountains microplate along the margin of the East Antarctic continent on a sinistral strike slip fault zone, followed by transtensional extension closer to the continental margin. Here we identify some key questions raised by the two-stage model, and identify regions where these can be tested. Firstly, is the magmatism inferred to have facilitated extension in the WSRS directly linked to the onshore Dufek Intrusion? This question relates to both the uncertainty in the volume of magmatism and potentially the timing of extension, and requires improved resolution of aeromagnetic data in the eastern WSRS. Secondly, did extension in the WSRS terminate against a single strike slip fault zone or into a distributed fault system? By integrating new and existing aeromagnetic data along the margin of East Antarctica we evaluate the possibility of a distributed shear zone penetrating the East Antarctic continent, and identify critical remaining data gaps. Finally we question how extension within the WSRS could fit into the wider plate circuit. By integrating the two-stage model into Gplates reconstructions we identify regions of overlap and areas where tracers of past plate motion could be identified.

  12. Unravelling the stratigraphy and sedimentation history of the uppermost Cretaceous to Eocene sediments of the Kuching Zone in West Sarawak (Malaysia), Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Hall, Robert; Galin, Thomson; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2018-07-01

    The Kuching Zone in West Sarawak consists of two different sedimentary basins, the Kayan and Ketungau Basins. The sedimentary successions in the basins are part of the Kuching Supergroup that extends into Kalimantan. The uppermost Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Lower Eocene Kayan Group forms the sedimentary deposits directly above a major unconformity, the Pedawan Unconformity, which marks the cessation of subduction-related magmatism beneath SW Borneo and the Schwaner Mountains, due to termination of the Paleo-Pacific subduction. The successions consist of the Kayan and Penrissen Sandstones and are dominated by fluvial channels, alluvial fans and floodplain deposits with some deltaic to tidally-influenced sections in the Kayan Sandstone. In the late Early or early Middle Eocene, sedimentation in this basin ceased and a new basin, the Ketungau Basin, developed to the east. This change is marked by the Kayan Unconformity. Sedimentation resumed in the Middle Eocene (Lutetian) with the marginal marine, tidal to deltaic Ngili Sandstone and Silantek Formation. Upsequence, the Silantek Formation is dominated by floodplain and subsidiary fluvial deposits. The Bako-Mintu Sandstone, a potential lateral equivalent of the Silantek Formation, is formed of major fluvial channels. The top of the Ketungau Group in West Sarawak is formed by the fluvially-dominated Tutoop Sandstone. This shows a transition of the Ketungau Group in time towards terrestrial/fluvially-dominated deposits. Paleocurrent measurements show river systems were complex, but reveal a dominant southern source. This suggests uplift of southern Borneo initiated in the region of the present-day Schwaner Mountains from the latest Cretaceous onwards. Additional sources were local sources in the West Borneo province, Mesozoic melanges to the east and potentially the Malay Peninsula. The Ketungau Group also includes reworked deposits of the Kayan Group. The sediments of the Kuching Supergroup are predominantly

  13. Volcanic ash as a driver of enhanced organic carbon burial in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cin-Ty A; Jiang, Hehe; Ronay, Elli; Minisini, Daniel; Stiles, Jackson; Neal, Matthew

    2018-03-08

    On greater than million year timescales, carbon in the ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system is controlled by geologic inputs of CO 2 through volcanic and metamorphic degassing. High atmospheric CO 2 and warm climates in the Cretaceous have been attributed to enhanced volcanic emissions of CO 2 through more rapid spreading at mid-ocean ridges and, in particular, to a global flare-up in continental arc volcanism. Here, we show that global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism also enhance the global flux of nutrients into the ocean through production of windblown ash. We show that up to 75% of Si, Fe and P is leached from windblown ash during and shortly after deposition, with soluble Si, Fe and P inputs from ash alone in the Cretaceous being higher than the combined input of dust and rivers today. Ash-derived nutrient inputs may have increased the efficiency of biological productivity and organic carbon preservation in the Cretaceous, possibly explaining why the carbon isotopic signature of Cretaceous seawater was high. Variations in volcanic activity, particularly continental arcs, have the potential of profoundly altering carbon cycling at the Earth's surface by increasing inputs of CO 2 and ash-borne nutrients, which together enhance biological productivity and burial of organic carbon, generating an abundance of hydrocarbon source rocks.

  14. A new lineage of Cretaceous jewel wasps (Chalcidoidea: Diversinitidae).

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael; Burks, Roger A; Krogmann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Jewel wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are extremely species-rich today, but have a sparse fossil record from the Cretaceous, the period of their early diversification. Three genera and three species, Diversinitus attenboroughi gen. & sp. n. , Burminata caputaeria gen. & sp. n. and Glabiala barbata gen. & sp. n. are described in the family Diversinitidae fam. n., from Lower Cretaceous Burmese amber. Placement in Chalcidoidea is supported by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the antennal flagellum and a laterally exposed prepectus. The new taxa can be excluded from all extant family level chalcidoid lineages by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the first flagellomere in both sexes and lack of any synapomorphies. Accordingly, a new family is proposed for the fossils and its probable phylogenetic position within Chalcidoidea is discussed. Morphological cladistic analyses of the new fossils within the Heraty et al. (2013) dataset did not resolve the phylogenetic placement of Diversinitidae, but indicated its monophyly. Phylogenetically relevant morphological characters of the new fossils are discussed with reference to Cretaceous and extant chalcidoid taxa. Along with mymarid fossils and a few species of uncertain phylogenetic placement, the newly described members of Diversinitidae are among the earliest known chalcidoids and advance our knowledge of their Cretaceous diversity.

  15. Evidence from the lamarck granodiorite for rapid late cretaceous crust formation in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Frost, T.P.; Glazner, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopic data for rocks from the voluminous 90-million-year-old Lamarck intrusive suite in the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, show little variation across a compositional range from gabbro to granite. Data for three different gabbro intrusions within the suite are identical within analytical error and are consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle source. Recognition of local involvement of enriched mantle during generation of the Sierran batholith modifies estimates of crustal growth rates in the United States. These data indicate that parts of the Sierra Nevada batholith may consist almost entirely of juvenile crust added during Cretaceous magmatism.

  16. Shallow magnetic inclinations in the Cretaceous Valle Group, Baja California: remagnetization, compaction, or terrane translation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    1993-10-01

    Paleomagnetic data from Albian to Turonian sedimentary rocks on Cedros Island, Mexico (28.2° N, 115.2° W) support the interpretation that Cretaceous rocks of western Baja California have moved farther northward than the 3° of latitude assignable to Neogene oblique rifting in the Gulf of California. Averaged Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Cedros Island support 20 ± 10° of northward displacement and 14 ± 7° of clockwise rotation with respect to cratonic North America. Positive field stability tests from the Vizcaino terrane substantiate a mid-Cretaceous age for the high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization in mid-Cretaceous strata. Therefore coincidence of characteristic magnetization directions and the expected Quaternary axial dipole direction is not due to post mid-Cretaceous remagnetization. A slump test performed on internally coherent, intrabasinal slump blocks within a paleontologically dated olistostrome demonstrates a mid-Cretaceous age of magnetization in the Valle Group. The in situ high-temperature natural remanent magnetization directions markedly diverge from the expected Quaternary axial dipole, indicating that the characteristic, high-temperature magnetization was acquired prior to intrabasinal slumping. Early acquisition of the characteristic magnetization is also supported by a regional attitude test involving three localities in coherent mid-Cretaceous Valle Group strata. Paleomagnetic inclinations in mudstone are not different from those in sandstone, indicating that burial compaction did not bias the results toward shallow inclinations in the Vizcaino terrane.

  17. Detrital Zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope Constrains on Basement Ages, Granitic Magmatism, and Sediment Provenance in the Malay Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastjanova, Inga; Clements, Benjamin; Hall, Robert; Belousova, Elena; Pearson, Norman; Griffin, William

    2010-05-01

    The Malay Peninsula forms the western part of central Sundaland in SE Asia. Sundaland comprises Indochina, the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the shallow shelf between these landmasses. It is a composite region of continental crustal fragments that are separated by sutures that represent remnant ocean basins and volcanic arcs. The Malay Peninsula includes two of these fragments - East Malaya and Sibumasu - separated by the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone. The latter is a Palaeo-Tethyan ocean remnant. Granitoids of the Malay Peninsula are the major sources of detrital zircon in Sundaland. East Malaya is intruded by Permian-Triassic Eastern Province granitoids interpreted as products of Palaeozoic subduction of oceanic crust beneath the East Malaya Volcanic Arc. Sibumasu is intruded by Triassic Main Range Province granitoids interpreted as syn- to post-collisional magmatism following suturing to East Malaya. Locally, there are minor Late Cretaceous plutons. Basements of Sibumasu and East Malaya are not exposed and their ages are poorly constrained. The exact timing of the collision between these fragments is also contentious. In order to resolve these uncertainties, 752 U-Pb analyses from 9 samples were carried out on detrital zircons from modern rivers draining the Malay Peninsula and, of these, 243 grains from 6 samples were selected for Hf-isotope analyses. U-Pb zircon ages show that small numbers of Neoarchean-Proterozoic grains are consistently present in all samples, but do not form prominent populations. Permian-Triassic populations are dominant. Only one sample contains a small Jurassic population probably sourced from the area of Thailand and most likely recycled from fluvial-alluvial Mesozoic 'red-beds'. Late Cretaceous populations are locally abundant. Hf-isotope crustal model ages suggest that basement beneath the Malay Peninsula is heterogeneous. Some basement may be Neoarchean but there is no evidence for basement older than 2.8 Ga beneath

  18. Lower Cretaceous Puez key-section in the Dolomites - towards the mid-Cretaceous super-greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Rehákova, D.; Józsa, Š.; Soták, J.; Kroh, A.; Jovane, L.; Florindo, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Giorgioni, M.; Lukeneder, S.

    2012-04-01

    Investigations on different fossil groups in addition to isotopic, paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis are combined to extract the Early Cretaceous history of environmental changes, as displayed by the sea level and climate changes. Results on biostratigraphy are integrated with other dating methods as magnetostraigraphy, correlation and cyclostratigraphy. The main investigation topics of the submitted project within the above-described framework are the biostratigraphic (Lukeneder and Aspmair, 2006, 2012), palaeoecological (Lukeneder, 2008, 2012), palaeobiogeographic, lithostratigraphic (Lukeneder, 2010, 2011), cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic development of the Early Cretaceous in the Puez area. The main sections occur in expanded outcrops located on the southern margin of the Puez Plateau, within the area of the Puez-Geisler Natural Park, in the northern part of the Dolomites (South Tyrol, North Italy). The cephalopod, microfossil and nannofossil faunas and floras from the marly limestones to marls here indicates Hauterivian to Albian/Cenomanian age. Oxygen isotope values from the Lower Cretaceous Puez Formation show a decreasing trend throughout the log, from -1.5‰ in the Hauterivian to -4.5‰ in the Albian/Cenomanian. The decreasing values mirror an increasing trend in palaeotemperatures from ~ 15-18°C in the Hauterivian up to ~25-30 °C in the Albian/Cenomanian. The trend probably indicates the positive shift in temperature induced by the well known Mid Cretaceous Ocean warming (e.g., Super-Greenhouse). The cooperative project (FWF project P20018-N10; 22 international scientists): An integrative high resolution project. Macro- and microfossils, isotopes, litho-, cyclo-, magneto-and biostratigraphy as tools for investigating the Lower Cretaceous within the Dolomites (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) -The Puez area as a new key region of the Tethyan Realm), is on the way since 2008 by the Natural History Museum in Vienna and the 'Naturmuseum S

  19. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  20. Late Cretaceous sub-volcanic structure in the continental shelf off Portugal and its implications on tectonics and seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Terrinha, Pedro; Custódio, Susana; Noiva, João; Brito, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Long-lasting and widespread alkaline magmatism is recognized in the west Portuguese margin. Offshore, several volcanic seamounts punctuate the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Estremadura Spur, with known ages between 80 and 100 Ma. Onshore, the major events are the Monchique (69-73 Ma), Sines (75-77 Ma) and Sintra (75-82 Ma) plutons - whose location (aligned along 200 km) and age discrepancy inspired some geodynamic models for Iberia during the Cretaceous - and the Lisbon Volcanic Complex (90-100 Ma). Structural links between them have been proposed but no direct evidence was yet found for it. In this work we present new magnetic data from recent marine magnetic surveys (ROCHEL and MINEPLAT project) conducted off the west Portuguese coast on the continental shelf and slope. A total area of about 3000 km2 between Sintra and Sines was surveyed with line spacing of 1 mile. Very high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles were simultaneously acquired with the magnetics covering an area of 400 km2 off Sines. Two main primary outcomes arise from these data. On one hand, higher-resolution mapping in regions where magnetic anomalies were already known allows a better understanding of the buried sub-volcanic system. On the other hand, previously unknown NNW-SSE aligned magnetic anomalies were identified along the coast off Sines, possibly corresponding to buried Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatic intrusives. The presence of magmatic bodies was up to now unknown in this region, and these findings reignite the discussion about a structural link connecting the three main on land intrusive complexes, Sintra, Sines and Monchique. In addition to the structural control of the magmatic complexes, seismicity is also an issue as a cluster of seismicity coincident with the Monchique complex has long been known. Smaller clusters coincide with the magnetic anomalies mapped during the ROCHEL and MINEPLAT surveys, as well. We interpret these results in the light of the tectono-magmatism of

  1. The Colima volcano magmatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spica, Z.; Perton, M.; Legrand, D.

    2016-12-01

    We show how and where magmas are produced and stored at Colima volcano, Mexico, by performing an ambient noise tomography inverting jointly the Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for both phase and group velocities. We obtain shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy models. The shear wave velocity model shows a deep, large and well-delineated elliptic-shape magmatic reservoir below the Colima volcano complex at a depth of about 15 km. The radial anisotropy model shows an important negative feature rooting up to ≥35 km depth until the roof of the magma reservoir, suggesting the presence of vertical fractures where fluids migrate upward and accumulate in the magma reservoir. The convergence of both a low velocity zone and a negative anisotropy suggests that the magma is mainly stored in conduits or inter-fingered dykes as opposed to horizontally stratified magma reservoir.

  2. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Guillermo W; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Gaetano, Leandro C

    2011-11-02

    Dryolestoids are an extinct mammalian group belonging to the lineage leading to modern marsupials and placentals. Dryolestoids are known by teeth and jaws from the Jurassic period of North America and Europe, but they thrived in South America up to the end of the Mesozoic era and survived to the beginnings of the Cenozoic. Isolated teeth and jaws from the latest Cretaceous of South America provide mounting evidence that, at least in western Gondwana, dryolestoids developed into strongly endemic groups by the Late Cretaceous. However, the lack of pre-Late Cretaceous dryolestoid remains made study of their origin and early diversification intractable. Here we describe the first mammalian remains from the early Late Cretaceous of South America, including two partial skulls and jaws of a derived dryolestoid showing dental and cranial features unknown among any other group of Mesozoic mammals, such as single-rooted molars preceded by double-rooted premolars, combined with a very long muzzle, exceedingly long canines and evidence of highly specialized masticatory musculature. On one hand, the new mammal shares derived features of dryolestoids with forms from the Jurassic of Laurasia, whereas on the other hand, it is very specialized and highlights the endemic, diverse dryolestoid fauna from the Cretaceous of South America. Our specimens include only the second mammalian skull known for the Cretaceous of Gondwana, bridging a previous 60-million-year gap in the fossil record, and document the whole cranial morphology of a dryolestoid, revealing an unsuspected morphological and ecological diversity for non-tribosphenic mammals.

  3. North American nonmarine climates and vegetation during the Late Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.A.; Upchurch, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of physiognomy of Late Cretaceous leaf assemblages and of structural adaptations of Late Cretaceous dicotyledonous woods indicate that megathermal vegetation was an open-canopy, broad-leaved evergreen woodland that existed under low to moderate amounts of rainfall evenly distributed through the year, with a moderate increase at about 40-45??N. Many dicotyledons were probably large, massive trees, but the tallest trees were evergreen conifers. Megathermal climate extended up to paleolatitude 45-50??N. Mesothermal vegetation was at least partially an open, broad-leaved evergreen woodland (perhaps a mosaic of woodland and forest), but the evapotranspirational stress was less than in megathermal climate. Some dicotyledons were large trees, but most were shrubs or small trees; evergreen conifers were the major tree element. Some mild seasonality is evidenced in mesothermal woods; precipitational levels probably varied markedly from year to year. Northward of approximately paleolatitude 65??N, evergreen vegetation was replaced by predominantly deciduous vegetation. This replacement is presumably related primarily to seasonality of light. The southern part of the deciduous vegetation probably existed under mesothermal climate. Comparisons to leaf and wood assemblages from other continents are generally consistent with the vegetational-climatic patterns suggested from North American data. Limited data from equatorial regions suggest low rainfall. Late Cretaceous climates, except probably those of the Cenomanian, had only moderate change through time. Temperatures generally appear to have warmed into the Santonian, cooled slightly into the Campanian and more markedly into the Maastrichtian, and then returned to Santonian values by the late Maastrichtian. The early Eocene was probably warmer than any period of the Late Cretaceous. Latitudinal temperature gradients were lower than at present. For the Campanian and Maastrichtian, a gradient of about 0.3??C/1

  4. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  5. Diatom life cycles and ecology in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Jewson, David H; Harwood, David M

    2017-06-01

    The earliest known diatom fossils with well-preserved siliceous frustules are from Lower Cretaceous neritic marine deposits in Antarctica. In this study, we analyzed the cell wall structure to establish whether their cell and life cycles were similar to modern forms. At least two filamentous species (Basilicostephanus ornatus and Archepyrgus melosiroides) had girdle band structures that functioned during cell division in a similar way to present day Aulacoseira species. Also, size analyses of cell diameter indicated that the cyclic process of size decline and size restoration used to time modern diatom life cycles was present in five species from the Lower Cretaceous (B. ornatus, A. melosiroides, Gladius antiquus, Ancylopyrgus reticulatus, Kreagra forfex) as well as two species from Upper Cretaceous deposits (Trinacria anissimowii and Eunotogramma fueloepi) from the Southwest Pacific. The results indicate that the "Diatom Sex Clock" was present from an early evolutionary stage. Other ecological adaptations included changes in mantle height and coiling. Overall, the results suggest that at least some of the species in these early assemblages are on a direct ancestral line to modern forms. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  6. A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Valentin; Appleby, Robert M.; Naish, Darren; Liston, Jeff; Riding, James B.; Brindley, Stephen; Godefroit, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Cretaceous ichthyosaurs have typically been considered a small, homogeneous assemblage sharing a common Late Jurassic ancestor. Their low diversity and disparity have been interpreted as indicative of a decline leading to their Cenomanian extinction. We describe the first post-Triassic ichthyosaur from the Middle East, Malawania anachronus gen. et sp. nov. from the Early Cretaceous of Iraq, and re-evaluate the evolutionary history of parvipelvian ichthyosaurs via phylogenetic and cladogenesis rate analyses. Malawania represents a basal grade in thunnosaurian evolution that arose during a major Late Triassic radiation event and was previously thought to have gone extinct during the Early Jurassic. Its pectoral morphology appears surprisingly archaic, retaining a forefin architecture similar to that of its Early Jurassic relatives. After the initial latest Triassic radiation of early thunnosaurians, two subsequent large radiations produced lineages with Cretaceous representatives, but the radiation events themselves are pre-Cretaceous. Cretaceous ichthyosaurs therefore include distantly related lineages, with contrasting evolutionary histories, and appear more diverse and disparate than previously supposed. PMID:23676653

  7. Recent advances in the cretaceous stratigraphy of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ki-Hong; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Park, Sun-Ok; Ishida, Keisuke; Uno, Koji

    2003-06-01

    A subrounded, accidental, zircon grain from a rhyolite sample of the Oknyobong Formation has shown an U-Pb CHIME isochron age, 187 Ma, implying its derivation from a Jurassic felsic igneous rock. Such a lower limit of the geologic age of the Oknyobong Formation, combined with its pre-Kyongsang upper limit, constrains that the Oknyobong Formation belongs to the Jasong Synthem (Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous) typified in North Korea. The Jaeryonggang Movement terminated the deposition of the Jasong Synthem and caused a shift of the depocenter from North Korea to the Kyongsang Basin, Southeast Korea. The Cretaceous-Paleocene Kyongsang Supergroup of the Kyongsang Basin is the stratotype of the Kyongsang Synthem, an unconformity-bounded unit in the Korean Peninsula. The unconformity at the base of the Yuchon Volcanic Group is a local expression of the interregionally recognizable mid-Albian tectonism; it subdivides the Kyongsang Synthem into the Lower Kyongsang Subsynthem (Barremian-Early Albian) and the Upper Kyongsang Subsynthem (Late Albian-Paleocene). The latter is unconformably overlain by Eocene and younger strata. The Late Permian to Early Jurassic radiolarian fossils from the chert pebbles of the Kumidong and the Kisadong conglomerates of the Aptian-Early Albian Hayang Group of the Kyongsang Basin are equivalent with those of the cherts that constitute the Jurassic accretionary prisms in Japan, the provenance of the chert pebbles in the Kyongsang Basin. Bimodal volcanisms throughout the history of the Kyongsang Basin is exemplified by the felsic Kusandong Tuff erupted abruptly and briefly in the Late Aptian when semi-coeval volcanisms were of intermediate and mafic compositions. The mean paleomagnetic direction shown by the Kusandong Tuff is in good agreement with the Early Cretaceous directions known from North China, South China and Siberia Blocks.

  8. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  9. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon

    PubMed Central

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H2O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher. PMID:20547878

  10. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, Francis M; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J

    2010-06-22

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structura