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Sample records for early detection programs

  1. Results of an early hearing detection program.

    PubMed

    Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia A; Falcón González, Juan C; Bueno Yanes, Jorge; Pérez Bermúdez, José L; López Cano, Zoraida; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is a public health problem that meets the requirements for submission to universal screening. Our objective was to analyse the results of the early hearing detection and intervention program implemented at our centre between January 2007 and December 2010. We studied 26,717 newborns during the period mentioned, using transient otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs) for the screening. The diagnostic phase was carried out at the hearing loss department. In our area, there were 27,935 births between January 2007 and December 2010. The screening was performed on 26,717 children. Of these, 24,173 had positive TOAEs, 1,040 had no TOAEs and 1,504 presented TOAEs in 1 ear with absence of TOAEs in the contralateral ear. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were found in 4,674 infants. In a second phase of the program, TOAEs were given to 5,156 children, of whom 4,626 had positive otoacoustic emissions in both ears, 323 had no TOAEs in 1 ear and 207 failed this second phase. Of all children studied, 3.8% were referred to auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and 26 children entered the cochlear implant program. The program reached coverage of 95.64%. The early hearing detection and intervention program at our hospital is suitable for our environment, reaching 95.64% of coverage. We consider the relationship between effectiveness and efficiency to be positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Health economics evaluation of a gastric cancer early detection and treatment program in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Li-Ping; Fang, Xue; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. RESULTS from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. RESULTS from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.

  3. National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jurišić, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitrečić, Drago; Cvitković, Ante

    2014-09-01

    Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Federal privacy regulations and the provision of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Houston, K Todd; Behl, Diane D; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene

    2010-08-01

    To be successful, Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs require individually identifiable information about children to be shared among people who are responsible for screening, diagnosis, early intervention, family support, and medical home services. Pediatricians and other stakeholders in the EHDI process often point to federal laws that were passed to ensure privacy and confidentiality in health care and educational programs as major obstacles to achieving efficient and effective EHDI programs. In this article we summarize the provisions of 3 federal laws (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act [FERPA], and Part C privacy regulations of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]) that most directly affect information-sharing in EHDI programs. We suggest strategies for sharing the information needed to operate successful EHDI programs while remaining in compliance with these laws, including obtaining signed parental consent to share information between providers, including an option on the individual family services plan for parents to permit sharing of the plan with pediatricians and other providers, and giving copies of all relevant test results to parents to share with providers as they wish.

  5. Implementation of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy C.; Wong, Faye L.; Jamison, Patricia M.; Jones, Sandra F.; Galaska, Louise; Brady, Kevin T.; Wethers, Barbara; Stokes-Townsend, George-Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 1990, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act because of increases in the number of low-income and uninsured women being diagnosed with breast cancer. This act authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to establish the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to provide high-quality and timely breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income, uninsured women. The program started in 1991, and, in 1993, Congress amended the act to allow the CDC to fund American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and tribal organizations. By 1996, the program was providing cancer screening across the United States. To ensure appropriate delivery and monitoring of services, the program adopted detailed policies on program management, evidence-based guidelines for clinical services, a systematized clinical data system to track service quality, and key partnerships that expand the program’s reach. The NBCCEDP currently funds 67 programs, including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, 5 US territories, and 11 tribes or tribal organizations. PMID:25099896

  6. Cost of Services Provided by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Subramanian, Sujha; Trogdon, Justin G.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Royalty, Janet E.; Li, Chunyu; Guy, Gery P.; Crouse, Wesley; Thompson, Hope; Gardner, James G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP. METHODS We developed a standardized web-based cost-assessment tool to collect annual activity-based cost data on screening for breast and cervical cancer in the NBCCEDP. Data were collected from 63 of the 66 programs that received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2006/2007 fiscal year. We used these data to calculate costs of delivering preventive public health services in the program. RESULTS We estimated the total cost of all NBCCEDP services to be $296 (standard deviation [SD], $123) per woman served (including the estimated value of in-kind donations, which constituted approximately 15% of this total estimated cost). The estimated cost of screening and diagnostic services was $145 (SD, $38) per women served, which represented 57.7% of the total cost excluding the value of in-kind donations. Including the value of in-kind donations, the weighted mean cost of screening a woman for breast cancer was $110 with an office visit and $88 without, the weighted mean cost of a diagnostic procedure was $401, and the weighted mean cost per breast cancer detected was $35,480. For cervical cancer, the corresponding cost estimates were $61, $21, $415, and $18,995, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These NBCCEDP cost estimates may help policy makers in planning and implementing future costs for various potential changes to the program. PMID:25099904

  7. Cost of services provided by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    PubMed

    Ekwueme, Donatus U; Subramanian, Sujha; Trogdon, Justin G; Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet E; Li, Chunyu; Guy, Gery P; Crouse, Wesley; Thompson, Hope; Gardner, James G

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP. We developed a standardized web-based cost-assessment tool to collect annual activity-based cost data on screening for breast and cervical cancer in the NBCCEDP. Data were collected from 63 of the 66 programs that received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2006/2007 fiscal year. We used these data to calculate costs of delivering preventive public health services in the program. We estimated the total cost of all NBCCEDP services to be $296 (standard deviation [SD], $123) per woman served (including the estimated value of in-kind donations, which constituted approximately 15% of this total estimated cost). The estimated cost of screening and diagnostic services was $145 (SD, $38) per women served, which represented 57.7% of the total cost excluding the value of in-kind donations. Including the value of in-kind donations, the weighted mean cost of screening a woman for breast cancer was $110 with an office visit and $88 without, the weighted mean cost of a diagnostic procedure was $401, and the weighted mean cost per breast cancer detected was $35,480. For cervical cancer, the corresponding cost estimates were $61, $21, $415, and $18,995, respectively. These NBCCEDP cost estimates may help policy makers in planning and implementing future costs for various potential changes to the program. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Measures of follow-up in early hearing detection and intervention programs: a need for standardization.

    PubMed

    Mason, Craig A; Gaffney, Marcus; Green, Denise R; Grosse, Scott D

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the need for standardized data definitions and reporting for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs collecting information on newborn hearing screening and follow-up, and types of information best collected in a standardized manner. A hypothetical birth cohort was used to show the potential effects of nonstandardized definitions and data classifications on rates of hearing screening, audiologic follow-up, and hearing loss. The true screening rate in this cohort was 92.4%. The calculated rate was between 90.0% and 96.5%, depending on the measure used. Among children documented as screened and referred for follow-up, 61.0% received this testing. Only 49.0% were documented to have been tested. Despite a true prevalence of 3.7 per 1,000 births, only 1.5 per 1,000 children were documented with a hearing loss. Ensuring that children receive recommended follow-up is challenging. Without complete reporting by audiologists to EHDI programs, accurate calculation of performance measures is impossible. Lack of documentation can lead to the overstatement of "loss to follow-up." Also, standardization of measures is essential for programs to evaluate how many children receive recommended services and assess progress toward national goals. A new survey has been implemented to collect more detailed and standardized information about recommended services.

  9. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  10. Cancer Screening Practices Among Physicians in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona S.; Soman, Ashwini; Roland, Katherine B.; Yabroff, K. Robin; Miller, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides low-income, uninsured women with screening and diagnostic services for breast and cervical cancer. Our study was conducted to describe the demographic and practice characteristics of participating and nonparticipating physicians, as well as their beliefs, adoption of new screening technologies, and recommendations for breast and cervical cancer screening. Methods From a 2006–2007 nationally representative survey, we identified 1,111 practicing primary care physicians who provide breast and cervical cancer screenings and assessed their recommendations using clinical vignettes related to screening initiation, frequency, and cessation. Responses of physicians participating in the NBCCEDP were compared with those from nonparticipating physicians. Results Of the physicians surveyed, 15% reported participation in the NBCCEDP, 65% were not participants, and 20% were not sure or did not respond to this question. Program physicians were significantly more likely to practice in multispecialty settings, in a rural location, and in a hospital or clinic setting and had more patients who were female and insured by Medicaid or uninsured compared with nonprogram physicians. Beliefs about the effectiveness of screening tools or procedures in reducing breast or cervical cancer mortality were similar by program participation. Adoption of new technologies, including digital mammography and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and making guideline-consistent recommendations for screening initiation, frequency, and cessation did not differ significantly by program participation. Conclusions Although there may be differences in physician characteristics and practice settings, the beliefs and screening practices for both breast and cervical cancer are similar between program and nonprogram providers. PMID:21774673

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systemsmore » (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.« less

  13. [Early detection of mental health disorders at school: The Fil Harmonie pilot program].

    PubMed

    Oppetit, A; Brébant, C; Monchablon, D; Bourgin, J; Gaillard, R; Olié, J-P; Krebs, M-O; Morvan, Y

    2018-06-01

    Most psychiatric disorders arise during adolescence, a period of life during which school takes an important place. School in France has an official mission of health education and prevention, and early detection of mental disorders is part of these goals. The aim of this study is to describe an innovative service operating in Paris that helps educational staff to deal with students having psychological or psychiatric symptoms. The Fil Harmonie program was launched in 2011. It consists of a telephone line available to all educational staff working for high schools in Paris. When in need of assistance, a member of the educational staff can call the dedicated hotline and expose the situation of their student to a trained psychologist. Over the course of the study, data concerning these phone calls were collected such as: socio-demographic characteristics of the student, the reason behind the call, the caller's professional role within the school, and care pathway information. All data collected during the phone calls were anonymized and computerized. We performed an observational descriptive study based on this data by using mixed methods: we integrated quantitative analysis and qualitative research in order to provide a better understanding of the Fil Harmonie program. Between 18 September 2013 and 12 May 2014, the Fil Harmonie program handled 68 calls from educational staff. Students concerned by the calls were aged between 11 and 22 and the average age was 17.3 years. Over half (52.5%) of the pupils concerned had never seen a mental health professional before the call. In more than 70% of cases, the caller was a school nurse while other professionals such as teachers or headmasters represented only a minority of the callers. Approximately two thirds (67.2%) of students were described by the caller as socially isolated and 48.2% were described as sad or anhedonic. One out of four (26.7%) had repeated a school year at least once, and 55.9% of young people for whom a

  14. NASA's Technology Transfer Program for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory; Frey, Mary Anne; Vernikos, Joan; Winfield, Daniel; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has led the development of advanced imaging sensors and image processing technologies for space science and Earth science missions. NASA considers the transfer and commercialization of such technologies a fundamental mission of the agency. Over the last two years, efforts have been focused on the application of aerospace imaging and computing to the field of diagnostic imaging, specifically to breast cancer imaging. These technology transfer efforts offer significant promise in helping in the national public health priority of the early detection of breast cancer.

  15. Neuropsychological Profile and Dementia Symptom Recognition in Help-Seekers in a Community Early-Detection Program in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer Y-M; Wong, Gloria H-Y; Ng, Carmen K-M; Kwok, Dorothy T-S; Lee, Maggie N-Y; Dai, David L-K; Lum, Terry Y-S

    2016-03-01

    To examine the neuropsychological and clinical profile of help-seekers in an early-detection community dementia program and to explore any relationship between profiles and time to seek help. Cross-sectional. Early-detection community dementia program. Help-seekers (N = 1,005) with subjective cognitive complaints or complaints from an informant. Neurocognitive testing, including the Cantonese Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, and Fuld Object Memory Evaluation and other clinical and functioning assessments, including the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and depressive symptoms. Time since the person or an informant reported that they first noticed symptoms. Eighty-six percent of help-seekers had at least very mild dementia (CDR score ≥0.5). Cognitive performance was moderately impaired (mean MMSE score 18.4 ± 6.1). They required some assistance with IADLs, had very mild ADL impairments, and had few depressive symptoms. Median time to seek assessment was 12 months (interquartile range 7-30 months) according to the person or the informant (an adult child in 75% of the sample). Using the median-split method, time to seek assessment was classified as early (0-12 months) and late (>12 months). Worse cognitive and IADL performance but not ADL performance or depressive symptoms were observed in late than in early help-seekers. Longer time intervals between symptom recognition and early assessment showed a trend of further impairments on all measures except ADLs. A time interval of more than 12 months between symptom recognition and early assessment appears to be associated with worse cognitive function upon presentation. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Public Education and Targeted Outreach to Underserved Women Through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Levano, Whitney; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Leonard, Banning; Bellick, Linda; Crane, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Stephenie K.; Haslage, Natalie M.; Hammond, Whitney; Tharpe, Felicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) was established to provide low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women access to cancer screening and diagnostic services with the goal of increasing the early detection and prevention of breast and cervical cancer. Although this is a valuable resource for women who might not have the means to get screened otherwise, providing services at no cost, by itself, does not guarantee uptake of screening services. Public education and targeted outreach facilitate the critical link between public service programs and the communities they serve. The purpose of public education and outreach in the NBCCEDP is to increase the number of women who use breast and cervical cancer screening services by raising awareness, providing education, addressing barriers, and motivating women to complete screening exams and follow-up. Effective strategies focus on helping to remove structural, physical, interpersonal, financial, and cultural barriers; educate women about the importance of screening and inform women about the services available to them. This article provides an overview of the importance of public education and targeted outreach activities for cancer screening through community-based programs including examples from NBCCEDP grantees that highlight successes, challenges, and solutions, encountered when conducting these types of interventions. PMID:25099902

  17. [Quality of the Early Cervical Cancer Detection Program in the State of Nuevo León].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, A M; Villarreal-Ríos, E; Garza-Elizondo, M E; Fraire-Gloria, J M; López-Franco, J J; Barboza-Quintana, O

    1997-01-01

    To determine the quality of the Early Cervical Cancer Detection Program in the state of Nuevo León. A random selection of 4791 cytologic reports were analyzed, emitted by the State Ministry of Health, the University Hospital and the Mexican Institute for Social Security early cervical cancer detection modules. Pap tests of women with hysterectomy, current pregnancy, menopause or positive result were excluded. Quality was measured with previously defined standards. Analysis included, besides univariate statistics, tests of significance for proportions and means. The quality of the program was fairly satisfactory at the level of the State. The quality of the sampling procedure was low; 39.9% of the tests contained endocervical cells. Quality of coverage was low; 15.6% were women 25+years with first time Pap test. Quality of opportunity was high; 8.5 +/- 7 weekdays between the date of the pap smear and the interpretation date. Strategies are needed to increase the impact of the state program, such as improving the sampling procedure and the coverage quality levels.

  18. A population-based screening program for early detection of common cancers among women in India - methodology and interim results.

    PubMed

    Mishra, G A; Dhivar, H D; Gupta, S D; Kulkarni, S V; Shastri, S S

    2015-01-01

    Cancers of the uterine cervix, breast, and oral cavity accounted for 134,420, 115,251, and 24,375 cases, respectively, and were responsible for 52.8% of the total cancers among women in India in 2008. The major objectives were to create awareness regarding common cancers among women, to detect pre-cancers of the uterine cervix and oral cavity, and early cancers of the breast, uterine cervix, and oral cavity, by conducting screening with simple, low-cost technology, within the community, and to facilitate confirmation of diagnosis among the screen positives and treatment and follow-up among the diagnosed cases. This is a community-based screening program for early detection of breast, uterine cervix, and oral cancers, being implemented among the socioeconomically disadvantaged women in Mumbai, India. The process involves selection of clusters, household surveys, health education, and screening the eligible women for breast, uterine cervix, and oral cancers, by primary healthcare workers, at a temporarily set-up clinic within the community. The program is planned to cover a 125,000 disadvantaged population in five years. Twenty-one thousand and fifteen people, with 4009 eligible women, have been covered to date. The compliance for screening for breast, cervix, and oral cavity has been 85, 70, and 88% and the screen positivity rates are 3.9, 14.9, and 3.9%, respectively. Twenty-seven oral pre-cancers, 25 cervix pre-cancers, one invasive cancer of the breast, two of the cervix, and one oral cavity cancer have been diagnosed among the screened women and all of them have complied with the treatment. The program is raising awareness about the common cancers and harms of tobacco among the disadvantaged women population in Mumbai. It is also helping in detecting pre-cancers and cancers among asymptomatic women and is assisting them in receiving treatment.

  19. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  1. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  2. [Programs of early detection of breast cancer and access of mammography in Spain].

    PubMed

    Luengo, S; Azcona, B; Lázaro, P; Madero, R

    1997-05-24

    We studied availability to mammography among Spanish women aged 40 to 70 years, variation in use of the mammography by autonomous community, and the situation and importance of breast cancer screening programs among other factors, in the access to mammography. A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in 1994 in a sample of 3,218 women. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the variable access (receipt of at least one mammogram in the last 2 years) as well as different access-related variables. Information on breast cancer screening programs was collected by contacting the responsible institutions. We considered that a program had total coverage if it included all the municipalities in the province and partial if it did not include all municipalities. Twenty-eight percent of women had performed a mammogram. This proportion varied among autonomous communities (AACC) from 11.5 to 73.8%. Breast cancer screening programs existed in 8 AACC. The multivariant analysis revealed an association between access to mammography and the existence of a screening program, especially when the later had total coverage (OR = 7.64; 95% CI = 5.24-11.10). An association was also found between access to mammography and physician-related factors, place of residence and attitudes of women toward mammography. Less than one third of women aged 40-70 have performed a mammography in the last 2 years, and this proportion varies among AACC. Gynecologist visits and the existence of breast cancer screening programs are fundamental factors in the access to mammography in Spain.

  3. Economies of scale in federally-funded state-organized public health programs: results from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Programs

    PubMed Central

    Trogdon, Justin G.; Subramanian, Sujha; Crouse, Wesley

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of economies of scale in the provision of breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services by state National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) grantees. A translog cost function is estimated as a system with input factor share equations. The estimated cost function is then used to determine output levels for which average costs are decreasing (i.e., economies of scale exist). Data were collected from all state NBCCEDP programs and District of Columbia for program years 2006–2007, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 (N =147). Costs included all programmatic and in-kind contributions from federal and non-federal sources, allocated to breast and cervical cancer screening activities. Output was measured by women served, women screened and cancers detected, separately by breast and cervical services for each measure. Inputs included labor, rent and utilities, clinical services, and quasi-fixed factors (e.g., percent of women eligible for screening by the NBCCEDP). 144 out of 147 program-years demonstrated significant economies of scale for women served and women screened; 136 out of 145 program-years displayed significant economies of scale for cancers detected. The cost data were self-reported by the NBCCEDP State programs. Quasi-fixed inputs were allowed to affect costs but not economies of scale or the share equations. The main analysis accounted for clustering of observations within State programs, but it did not make full use of the panel data. The average cost of providing breast and cervical cancer screening services decreases as the number of women screened and served increases. PMID:24326873

  4. Early detection of disease program: Evaluation of the cellular immune response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.; Knight, V.; Martin, R. R.; Kasel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The early cellular responses of specific components of the leukocyte and epithelial cell populations to foreign challenges of both an infectious and noninfectious character were evaluated. Procedures for screening potential flight crews were developed, documented, and tested on a control population. Methods for preparing suitable populations of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells were first established and evaluated. Epithelial cells from viral infected individuals were screened with a number of anti-viral antisera. This procedure showed the earliest indication of disease as well as providing a specific diagnosis to the physicians. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied from normal individuals, smokers, and patients with viral infections. Newer techniques enabling better definition of lymphocyte subpopulations were then developed, namely the E and EAC rosette procedures for recognition of T (thymus-derived) and B (bone-marrow-derived) lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte and lymphocyte subpopulation response to multiple mitogens have been evaluated.

  5. Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    PubMed

    DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W

    2016-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased

  6. Quality Assurance Through Quality Improvement and Professional Development in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Siegl, Elvira J.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Khan, Kris; Harris, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is the process of providing evidence that the outcome meets the established standards. Quality improvement (QI), by contrast, is the act of methodically developing ways to meet acceptable quality standards and evaluating current processes to improve overall performance. In the case of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the desired outcome is the delivery of quality health care services to program clients. The NBCCEDP provides professional development to ensure that participating providers have current knowledge of evidence-based clinical standards regarding breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnosis and are monitoring women with abnormal screening results for timely follow-up. To assess the quality of clinical care provided to NBCCEDP clients, performance data are collected by NBCCEDP grantees and compared against predetermined Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) benchmarks known as Data Quality Indicator Guides. In this article, the authors describe 1) the development and use of indicators for QI in the NBCCEDP and 2) the professional development activities implemented to improve clinical outcomes. QA identifies problems, whereas QI systematically corrects them. The quality of service delivery and improved patient outcomes among NBCCEDP grantees has enhanced significantly because of continuous monitoring of performance and professional development. By using QA, NBCCEDP grantees can maximize the quality of patient screening, diagnostic services, and follow-up. Examples of grantee activities to maintain quality of care are also described in this report. PMID:25099901

  7. The Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, Medicaid, and breast cancer outcomes among Ohio's underserved women.

    PubMed

    Koroukian, Siran M; Bakaki, Paul M; Htoo, Phyo Than; Han, Xiaozhen; Schluchter, Mark; Owusu, Cynthia; Cooper, Gregory S; Rose, Johnie; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-08-15

    As an organized screening program, the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) was launched in the early 1990s to improve breast cancer outcomes among underserved women. To analyze the impact of the BCCEDP on breast cancer outcomes in Ohio, this study compared cancer stages and mortality across BCCEDP participants, Medicaid beneficiaries, and "all others." This study linked data across the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicaid, the BCCEDP database, death certificates, and the US Census and identified 26,426 women aged 40 to 64 years who had been diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during the years 2002-2008 (deaths through 2010). The study groups were as follows: BCCEDP participants (1-time or repeat users), Medicaid beneficiaries (women enrolled in Medicaid before their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/prediagnosis] or around the time of their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/peridiagnosis]), and all others (women identified as neither BCCEDP participants nor Medicaid beneficiaries). The outcomes included advanced-stage cancer at diagnosis and mortality. A multivariable logistic and survival analysis was conducted to examine the independent association between the BCCEDP and Medicaid status and the outcomes. The percentage of women presenting with advanced-stage disease was highest among women in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group (63.4%) and lowest among BCCEDP repeat users (38.6%). With adjustments for potential confounders and even in comparison with Medicaid/prediagnosis beneficiaries, those in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group were twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.66). Medicaid/peridiagnosis women are at particularly high risk to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Efforts to reduce breast cancer disparities must target this group of women before they present to Medicaid. Cancer 2017;123:3097-106. © 2017 American Cancer Society

  8. Prostate cancer disparities in South Carolina: early detection, special programs, and descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Drake, Bettina F; Keane, Thomas E; Mosley, Catishia M; Adams, Swann Arp; Elder, Keith T; Modayil, Mary V; Ureda, John R; Hebert, James R

    2006-08-01

    Available evidence suggests that there may be qualitative differences in the natural history of PrCA by race. If this is true then additional etiologic research is needed to identify places in the causal chain where we can intervene to lower PrCA rates in AA men. South Carolina may prove to be a useful context in which to study prostate cancer etiology, because of the presence of unique environmental exposures. For example, soil selenium and cadmium concentrations unique to South Carolina might have a differential affect in the rural areas of the state where ground water use is more common and where AAs are more likely to live. These metals are important in terms of prostate metabolism and cancer. The possible interaction of geological factors with underlying biological factors such as metal transporter gene expression by race needs to be explored in South Carolina. Diet and exercise are consistently seen as possible primary prevention strategies for prostate and other cancers, as noted above. There may be very good reasons to intervene on diet and physical activity, but if the intention is to make a health claim with real, specific meaning for PrCA prevention and control then studies must be designed to test the effect of these modalities in rigorous ways at specific points in the natural history of prostate carcinogenesis. Nutrition and exercise programs need to be developed in South Carolina that are seen as acceptable by people at risk of PrCA; and they will need to focus on effective ways to prevent the development of PrCA, other cancers, and other health outcomes. Implementing diet and nutrition programs in rural parts of the state, possibly through schools or churches, offer benefit to both youth and adults alike. So, it would be possible, indeed it would be desirable, to create programs that may be used for research in one part of the population (e.g., men with PrCA), but are equally beneficial for others (e.g., their spouses and children). Organizing

  9. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  10. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  11. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  12. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  13. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  14. Automated Corrosion Detection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    More detailed explanations of the methodology development can be found in Hidden Corrosion Detection Technology Assessment, a paper presented at...Detection Program, a paper presented at the Fourth Joint DoD/FAA/NASA Conference on Aging Aircraft, 2000. AS&M PULSE. The PULSE system, developed...selection can be found in The Evaluation of Hidden Corrosion Detection Technologies on the Automated Corrosion Detection Program, a paper presented

  15. Is breast compression associated with breast cancer detection and other early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program?

    PubMed

    Moshina, Nataliia; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program stratified by compression force and pressure at the time of mammographic screening examination. Early performance measures included recall rate, rates of screen-detected and interval breast cancers, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected and interval breast cancers. Information on 261,641 mammographic examinations from 93,444 subsequently screened women was used for analyses. The study period was 2007-2015. Compression force and pressure were categorized using tertiles as low, medium, or high. χ 2 test, t tests, and test for trend were used to examine differences between early performance measures across categories of compression force and pressure. We applied generalized estimating equations to identify the odds ratios (OR) of screen-detected or interval breast cancer associated with compression force and pressure, adjusting for fibroglandular and/or breast volume and age. The recall rate decreased, while PPV and specificity increased with increasing compression force (p for trend <0.05 for all). The recall rate increased, while rate of screen-detected cancer, PPV, sensitivity, and specificity decreased with increasing compression pressure (p for trend <0.05 for all). High compression pressure was associated with higher odds of interval breast cancer compared with low compression pressure (1.89; 95% CI 1.43-2.48). High compression force and low compression pressure were associated with more favorable early performance measures in the screening program.

  16. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  17. Early Detection and Mass Screening For Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author reviews the evidence for the efficacy of early detection and mass screening programs in reducing morbidity and mortality from cancer. In cancer of the cervix, although screening reduces morbidity, we still do not have evidence for reduction in mortality. In cancer of the breast, one study suggests a reduction in mortality in the 50-59 year age group following screening by clinical examination and mammography. In other sites, especially lung, there is no evidence at present to support the adoption of mass screening programs. It is important that such programs should be carefully evaluated in the population, preferably in controlled studies. PMID:20468806

  18. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept illustrates the use of the Space Shuttle, Nuclear Shuttle, and Space Tug in NASA's Integrated Program. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  19. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing

  20. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the Module Nova concept - Solid C-3 Basis. From 1960 to 1962, the Marshall Space Flight Center considered the Nova launch vehicle as a means to achieve a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined. The latest configuration was a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was canceled after NASA planners selected the lunar/orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine would eventually be used in the Apollo Program to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle.

  1. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-11-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the Module Nova concept - Solid C-3 Basis. From 1960 to 1962, the Marshall Space Flight Center considered the Nova launch vehicle as a means to achieve a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined. The latest configuration was a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was canceled after NASA planners selected the lunar/orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine would eventually be used in the Apollo Program to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle.

  2. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  3. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  4. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    In this artist's concept from 1970, propulsion concepts such as the Nuclear Shuttle and Space Tug are shown in conjunction with other proposed spacecraft. As a result of the recommendations from President Nixon's Space Task Group for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  5. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  6. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  7. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed the use of a Nuclear Shuttle in conjunction with a space station module, illustrated in this 1970 artist's concept, as the basis for a Mars excursion module.

  8. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-04-01

    In this 1962 artist's concept , a proposed Nova rocket, shown at right, is compared to a Saturn C-1, left, and a Saturn C-5, center. The Marshall Space Flight Center directed studies of Nova configuration from 1960 to 1962 as a means of achieving a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined, the largest being a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was effectively cancelled in 1962 when NASA planners selected the lunar-orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine was eventually used to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle in the Apollo Program.

  9. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    As a result of the recommendations from President Nixon's Space Task Group, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied various ways to enhance commonality and integration in the American space program. This artist's concept from 1969 shows a possible spacecraft configuration for a marned Mars mission. In this mode, two planetary vehicles, each powered by a Nuclear Shuttle, are joined together during the flight and rotated to provide artificial gravity for crew members.

  10. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  11. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. The Tug could dock with the Space Shuttle to receive propellants and cargo, as visualized in this 1970 artist's concept. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  12. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept illustrates a Space Tug with an attached landing configuration kit as it prepares for a lunar application. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  13. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 illustration depicts the primary modules of the Space Tug system along with some of the supplementary kits: lunar landing legs, extendable support arms, astrionics, and the satellite probe. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  14. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept represents a typical configuration required to conduct operations and tasks in Earth orbit. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  15. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept illustrates a Space Tug Concept, crew module attached, in conjunction with other space vehicles. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  16. Early Program Development

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1971 image shows the basic Propulsion Module and attached elements in their functional configurations. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  17. The psychosocial effects of the Li-Fraumeni Education and Early Detection (LEAD) program on individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica; Bojadzieva, Jasmina; Peterson, Susan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Yzquierdo, Rebecca; Askins, Martha; Strong, Louise

    2017-09-01

    In the past 5 years, new screening protocols have been developed that provide improved cancer screening options for individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Very little has been published on the psychosocial impact of these screening protocols. The goals of this study were to determine how participation in screening impacts individuals psychosocially, to examine the benefits and drawbacks of screening, and to evaluate possible barriers to continued screening. We performed a qualitative study consisting of semistructured phone interviews conducted from December 2015 to February 2016 with 20 individuals attending the LFS screening program at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Data analysis showed that benefits of screening include early detection, peace of mind, centralized screening, knowledge providing power, and screening making LFS seem more livable. Perceived drawbacks included logistical issues, difficulty navigating the system, screening being draining, and significant negative emotional reactions such as anxiety, fear, and skepticism. Regardless of the emotions that were present, 100% of participants planned on continuing screening in the program. Our data indicate that the perceived benefits of screening outweigh the drawbacks of screening. Individuals in this screening program appeared to have improved psychosocial well-being because of their access to the screening program.Genet Med advance online publication 16 March 2017.

  18. Improving knowledge and behaviours related to the cause, transmission and prevention of Tuberculosis and early case detection: a descriptive study of community led Tuberculosis program in Flores, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Christa; Barclay, Lesley; Passey, Megan; Wilson, Shawn

    2016-08-08

    The community's awareness of Tuberculosis (TB) and delays in health care seeking remain important issues in Indonesia despite the extensive efforts of community-based TB programs delivered by a non-government organisation (NGO). This study explored the knowledge and behaviours in relation to TB and early diagnosis before and after an asset-based intervention designed to improve these issues. Six villages in Flores, Indonesia were purposively selected to participate in this study. Three villages served as intervention villages and the other three villages provided a comparison group. Data collection included interviews, group discussions, observations, field notes and audit of records. In total, 50 participants across six villages were interviewed and three group discussions were conducted in the intervention villages supplemented by 1 - 5 h of observation during monthly visits. Overall, participants in all villages had limited knowledge regarding the cause and transmission of TB before the intervention. The delay in health seeking behaviour was mainly influenced by ignorance of TB symptoms. Health care providers also contributed to delayed diagnosis by ignoring the symptoms of TB suspects at the first visit and failing to examine TB suspects with sputum tests. Stigmatisation of TB patients by the community was reported, although this did not seem to be common. Early case detection was less than 50 % in four of the six villages before the asset-based intervention. Knowledge of TB improved after the intervention in the intervention villages alongside improved education activities. Early case detection also increased in the intervention villages following this intervention. The behaviour changes related to prevention of TB were also obvious in the intervention villages but not the comparison group. This small project demonstrated that an asset-based intervention can result in positive changes in community's knowledge and behaviour in relation to TB and early case

  19. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shearman, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting problems and to try to prevent all types of abuse, physical, mental and sexual. PMID:21267341

  20. Early detection of congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Rani, Bs Kavya; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K

    2014-01-01

    Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson's teeth.

  1. [Autism, neurodevelopment and early detection].

    PubMed

    Martos-Pérez, J

    2006-02-13

    Autistic disorder is briefly explained and defined in the light of recent research. From the perspective offered by ontogenesis and the acquisitions that take place during normal development, we present an updated vision of the genesis of autistic disorder and also review the most significant data provided by the different studies that have been conducted on the subject. Detection of the disorder is clearly a difficult task before the age of one year and, in any case, the earliest symptoms are clearly linked to the social and communicative interaction that characteristically takes place at the end of the infant's first year of life. Early detection of the disorder is made possible precisely because of alterations in social and communicative development and, in general, the appearance of psychological functions that play a significant role in the process of humanisation. The article concludes by pointing out the need for further studies that focus on the possible alteration of earlier socio-emotional and affective manifestations.

  2. Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Senkomago, Virginia; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Benard, Vicki B; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC. We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed. A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done. This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A selective screening program for the early detection of mucopolysaccharidosis: Results of the FIND project - a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Colón, Cristóbal; Alvarez, J Victor; Castaño, Cristina; Gutierrez-Solana, Luís G; Marquez, Ana M; O'Callaghan, María; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Yeste, Carmen; Couce, María-Luz

    2017-05-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are underdiagnosed but they are evaluated in few newborn screening programs, probably due to the many challenges remaining, such as the identification of late-onset phenotypes. Systematic screening at the onset of clinical symptoms could help to early identify patients who may benefit from specific treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to assess a novel selective screening program, the FIND project, targeting patients aged 0 to 16 years with clinical manifestations of MPS. The project was designed to increase awareness of these diseases among pediatricians and allow early diagnosis.From July 2014 to June 2016, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels normalized to creatinine levels were determined in urine-impregnated analytical paper submitted by pediatricians who had patients with clinical signs and/or symptoms compatible with MPS. When high GAG concentrations were detected, a new liquid urine sample was requested to confirm and identify the GAG present. When a specific form of MPS was suspected, enzyme activity was analyzed using blood-impregnated paper to determine MPS type (I, IIIB, IIIC, IVA, IVB, VI, or VII). Age-specific reference values for GAG were previously established using 145 urine samples from healthy children.GAG levels were normal in 147 (81.7%) of the 180 initial samples received. A liquid sample was requested for the other 33 cases (18.3%); GAG levels were normal in 13 of these and slightly elevated in 12, although the electrophoresis study showed no evidence of MPS. Elevated levels with corresponding low enzymatic activity were confirmed in 8 cases. The mean time from onset of clinical symptoms to detection of MPS was 22 months, and just 2 cases were detected at the beginning of the project were detected with 35 and 71 months of evolution of clinical symptoms. Our screening strategy for MPS had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 85%, and a positive predictive value of 24%.The FIND project is a useful and

  4. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  5. Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Safi, Hamid; Safi, Sare; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2018-04-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes. Vascular abnormalities such as changes in the retinal vessels caliber, architectural indices, and blood flow have been investigated to evaluate the early stages of DR. The results of OCT angiography, retinal vessel oxygen saturation patterns, and elevated levels of circulating blood markers and cytokines have been suggested as early signs of DR. Light-based molecular imaging in rodents has been developed to demonstrate changes in protein expressions in the retinal microvessels as diagnostic biomarkers. Future clinical studies will examine the safety and efficacy of this approach in humans. We summarize all studies related to subclinical DR biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early detection of materials degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  7. [Opinion and Participation in the Regional Early Breast Cancer Detection Program in 2007 on the part of family physicians from a health district in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain].

    PubMed

    Garrido Elustondo, Sofía; Sánchez Padilla, Elisabeth; Ramírez Alesón, Victoria; González Hernández, Ma José; González Navarro, Andrés; López Gómez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Mammogram screening is the most effective method for the early detection of breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of knowledge, the opinion and the participation in the early breast cancer detection program on the part of the family physicians of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The population studied was comprised of family physicians from Madrid Health District Seven. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire comprised of 30 questions grouped into physicians characteristics and opinion concerning the early breast cancer detection programs. A total of 46% of the physicians replied. A total of 94% of the physicians believed that it is their duty to inform their patients concerning preventive activities, including breast cancer screening, and 95% believed their advice to be useful for convincing women to have a mammogram. A total of 72% believed information to be lacking on this program. During the time when mammograms are being taken at their centres, 24% of the physicians surveyed always or almost always ask the women if they have any doubts or would like further information, 43% having set up appointments for them and 95% advising them to have a mammogram taken. The family physicians have a good opinion of the early breast cancer detection program and feel their advice to be effective for improving the participation in the program. They report lack of information and inform women about the program to only a small degree.

  8. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"171","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","field_deltas":{"1":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early

  9. Transition from film to digital mammography: impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program.

    PubMed

    van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; van Lier, Lisanne; Schechter, Clyde B; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Near, Aimee M; Cronin, Kathleen A; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-05-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of replacing film with digital mammography on health effects (deaths averted, life-years gained [LYG]); costs (for screening and diagnostics); and number of women reached. NBCCEDP 2010 data and data representative of the program's target population were used in two established microsimulation models. Models simulated observed screening behavior including different screening intervals (annual, biennial, irregular) and starting ages (40, 50 years) for white, black, and Hispanic women. Model runs were performed in 2012. The models predicted 8.0-8.3 LYG per 1,000 film screens for black women, 5.9-7.5 for white women, and 4.0-4.5 for Hispanic women. For all race/ethnicity groups, digital mammography had more LYG than film mammography (2%-4%), but had higher costs (34%-35%). Assuming a fixed budget, 25%-26% fewer women could be served, resulting in 22%-24% fewer LYG if all mammograms were converted to digital. The loss in LYG could be reversed to an 8%-13% increase by only including biennial screening. Digital could result in slightly more LYG than film mammography. However, with a fixed budget, fewer women may be served with fewer LYG. Changes in the program, such as only including biennial screening, will increase LYG/screen and could offset the potential decrease in LYG when shifting to digital mammography. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast Cancer Stage, Surgery, and Survival Statistics for Idaho’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Population, 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Robert; Moran, Patti; Cariou, Charlene; Bordeaux, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women’s Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whether disparities existed in cause-specific survival (a net survival measure representing survival of a specified cause of death in the absence of other causes of death) between women screened by WHC and outside WHC and to determine how type of surgery or survival varies with stage at diagnosis. Methods WHC data were linked to Idaho’s central cancer registry to compare stage distribution, type of surgery, and cause-specific survival between women with WHC-linked breast cancer and a comparison group of women whose records did not link to the WHC database (nonlinked breast cancer). Results WHC-linked breast cancer was significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage of disease than nonlinked breast cancer. Because of differences in stage distribution between WHC-linked and nonlinked breast cancers, overall age-standardized, cause-specific breast cancer survival proportions diverged over time, with a 5.1 percentage-point deficit in survival among WHC-linked cases at 5 years of follow-up (83.9% vs 89.0%). Differences in type of surgery and cause-specific survival were attenuated when controlling for stage. Conclusion This study suggests that disparities may exist for Idaho WHC enrollees in the timely diagnosis of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to publish comparisons of cause-specific breast cancer survival between NBCCEDP-linked and nonlinked cases. PMID:25789497

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  12. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  13. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  14. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell -Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...tumor cells from mouse blood by depleting the sample of white blood cells (WBCs). Furthermore, the RNA profile of these cells can be assessed by

  15. Early detection and intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Koerting, Johanna; Smith, Elizabeth; McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret

    2011-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a high-cost/high-burden disorder. Early detection and intervention may prevent or ameliorate the development of the disorder and reduce its long-term impact. In this article, we set out a rationale for an early detection and intervention program. First, we highlight the costs of the condition and second, we discuss the limitations of the current treatments. We then outline the potential value of an early detection and intervention program. We review evidence on predictors of poor outcomes for early ADHD signs and discuss how these might allow us to target early intervention more cost-effectively. We then examine potential barriers to engagement with at-risk samples. This leads to a discussion of possible intervention approaches and how these could be improved. Finally, we describe the Program for Early Detection and Intervention for ADHD (PEDIA), a 5-year program of research supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research and conducted at the University of Southampton (Southampton, UK), which aims to develop and evaluate a strategy for early intervention.

  16. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a SmartPhone/Tablet-Based Bidirectional Telemedicine Disease Management Program Facilitates Early Detection and Treatment of COPD Exacerbation Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heidi S.; Criner, Andrew J.; Fehrle, Dolores; Grabianowski, Carla L.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Early treatment of worsening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms speeds recovery, improves quality of life, and reduces the need for hospitalization. Patients may fail to recognize worsening symptoms leading to delays in treatment. A telemedicine application could facilitate detection and treatment of worsening symptoms. To work, such an application requires consistent use by patients and quick responses from healthcare providers. We conducted a quality assurance assessment of our system to see if we were meeting these goals. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were provided a smartphone application for daily COPD symptom reporting. Reports between November 2012 and September 2013 were reviewed. Symptoms reports and interventions were time-stamped by the application. Adherence reporting was calculated as the number of reports made divided by the number of days enrolled in the program for each patient. Time to intervention was calculated as the time a report was submitted to the time a treatment recommendation was sent to the patient. Results: There were 4,434 symptom reports made over 5,178 patient-days of observation for an average reporting compliance of 85.6%. Median reporting compliance was 90.7% (interquartile range, 83.8–98%). Four hundred seventy-five symptom reports resulted in an alert. The average response time for all alerts was 6.64 h, with a median response time of 5.75 h. Conclusions: From this quality assessment we were able to conclude that patient adherence to the reporting system exceeded 90% for over half of the participants. Furthermore, over 50% of worsening COPD symptom reports were responded to in less than 6 h with patient-specific treatment recommendations. PMID:26451903

  18. Use of a SmartPhone/Tablet-Based Bidirectional Telemedicine Disease Management Program Facilitates Early Detection and Treatment of COPD Exacerbation Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heidi S; Criner, Andrew J; Fehrle, Dolores; Grabianowski, Carla L; Jacobs, Michael R; Criner, Gerard J

    2016-05-01

    Early treatment of worsening chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms speeds recovery, improves quality of life, and reduces the need for hospitalization. Patients may fail to recognize worsening symptoms leading to delays in treatment. A telemedicine application could facilitate detection and treatment of worsening symptoms. To work, such an application requires consistent use by patients and quick responses from healthcare providers. We conducted a quality assurance assessment of our system to see if we were meeting these goals. Thirty patients were provided a smartphone application for daily COPD symptom reporting. Reports between November 2012 and September 2013 were reviewed. Symptoms reports and interventions were time-stamped by the application. Adherence reporting was calculated as the number of reports made divided by the number of days enrolled in the program for each patient. Time to intervention was calculated as the time a report was submitted to the time a treatment recommendation was sent to the patient. There were 4,434 symptom reports made over 5,178 patient-days of observation for an average reporting compliance of 85.6%. Median reporting compliance was 90.7% (interquartile range, 83.8-98%). Four hundred seventy-five symptom reports resulted in an alert. The average response time for all alerts was 6.64 h, with a median response time of 5.75 h. From this quality assessment we were able to conclude that patient adherence to the reporting system exceeded 90% for over half of the participants. Furthermore, over 50% of worsening COPD symptom reports were responded to in less than 6 h with patient-specific treatment recommendations.

  19. Cervical cancer screening of underserved women in the United States: results from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Tangka, Florence K L; Howard, David H; Royalty, Janet; Dalzell, Lucinda P; Miller, Jacqueline; O'Hara, Brett J; Sabatino, Susan A; Joseph, Kristy; Kenney, Kristy; Guy, Gery P; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-05-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screens to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women. We describe the number and proportion of women eligible for cervical cancer screening services and the proportion of eligible women screened over the period 1997-2012. Low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women aged 18-64 years who have not had a hysterectomy are eligible for cervical cancer screening through the NBCCEDP. We estimated the number of low-income, uninsured women using data from the US Census Bureau. We adjusted our estimates for hysterectomy status using the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used data from the NBCCEDP to describe the number of women receiving NBCCEDP-funded screening and calculated the proportion of eligible women who received screening through the NBCCEDP at the national level (by age group, race/ethnicity) and at the state level by age group. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to estimate the proportion of NBCCEDP-eligible women who were screened outside the NBCCEDP and the proportion that are not screened. We estimate that in 2010-2012, 705,970 women aged 18-64 years, 6.5 % (705,970 of 9.8 million) of the eligible population, received NBCCEDP-funded Pap tests. We estimate that 60.2 % of eligible women aged 18-64 years were screened outside the NBCCEDP and 33.3 % were not screened. The NBCCEDP provided 623,603 screens to women aged 40-64 years, an estimated 16.5 % of the eligible population, and 83,660 screens to women aged 18-39 years, representing an estimated 1.2 % of the eligible population. The estimated proportions of eligible women screened in each state ranged from 1.5 to 32.7 % and 5 % to 73.2 % among the 18-64 and 40-64 years age groups, respectively. Changes in the proportion of eligible women screened over the study period were nonsignificant. Although the program provided cervical

  20. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  1. 77 FR 16551 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes a timeframe by which plan sponsors participating in the Early... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) which provides reimbursement to eligible sponsors of employment...

  2. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  3. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  4. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P [Lafayette, CA; Estacio, Pedro [Mission San Jose, CA; Chang, John [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  5. Gastrointestinal Cancers: Screening and Early Detection.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Sobel, Joyce P

    2017-05-01

    To present an overview of current practices in the screening and early detection of gastrointestinal cancers. Literature reviews. Screening for gastrointestinal cancers is less than desirable, particularly in underserved populations. There are inadequate methods of screening for early detection of esophageal and gastric cancers. Education of patients is needed to reinforce the importance of screening for gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data

  7. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  8. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  9. Early detection: the impact of genomics.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, M C J; Bosch, L J W; de Wit, M; Carvalho, B; Meijer, G A

    2017-08-01

    The field of genomics has shifted our view on disease development by providing insights in the molecular and functional processes encoded in the genome. In the case of cancer, many alterations in the DNA accumulate that enable tumor growth or even metastatic dissemination. Identification of molecular signatures that define different stages of progression towards cancer can enable early tumor detection. In this review, the impact of genomics will be addressed using early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example. Increased understanding of the adenoma-to-carcinoma progression has led to the discovery of several diagnostic biomarkers. This combined with technical advancements, has facilitated the development of molecular tests for non-invasive early CRC detection in stool and blood samples. Even though several tests have already made it to clinical practice, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of precancerous lesions still need improvement. Besides the diagnostic qualities, also the accuracy of the intermediate endpoint is an important issue on how the effectiveness of a novel test is perceived. Here, progression biomarkers may provide a more precise measure than the currently used morphologically based features. Similar developments in biomarker use for early detection have taken place in other cancer types.

  10. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  11. 76 FR 77537 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP), is exercising its authority under the ERRP regulations at 45... for ERRP as of May 6, 2011. II. Provisions of This Notice CMS is exercising our authority under 45 CFR...

  12. Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on cervical cancer mortality among uninsured low-income women in the U.S., 1991-2007.

    PubMed

    Ekwueme, Donatus U; Uzunangelov, Vladislav J; Hoerger, Thomas J; Miller, Jacqueline W; Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B; Hall, Ingrid J; Royalty, Janet; Li, Chunyu; Myers, Evan R

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) on cervical cancer screening for participating uninsured low-income women have never been measured. To estimate the benefits in life-years (LYs) gained; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained; and deaths averted. A cervical cancer simulation model was constructed based on an existing cohort model. The model was applied to NBCCEDP participants aged 18-64 years. Screening habits for uninsured low-income women were estimated using National Health Interview Survey data from 1990 to 2005 and NBCCEDP data from 1991 to 2007. The study was conducted during 2011-2012 and covered all 68 NBCCEDP grantees in 50 states, the District of Columbia, five U.S. territories, and 12 tribal organizations. Separate simulations were performed for the following three scenarios: (1) women who received NBCCEDP (Program) screening; (2) women who received screening without the program (No Program); and (3) women who received no screening (No Screening). Among 1.8 million women screened in 1991-2007, the Program added 10,369 LYs gained compared to No Program, and 101,509 LYs gained compared to No Screening. The Program prevented 325 women from dying of cervical cancer relative to No Program, and 3,829 relative to No Screening. During this time period, the Program accounted for 15,589 QALYs gained when compared with No Program, and 121,529 QALYs gained when compared with No Screening. These estimates suggest that NBCCEDP cervical cancer screening has reduced mortality among medically underserved low-income women who participated in the program. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. LLNL electro-optical mine detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.; Aimonetti, W.; Barth, M.

    1994-09-30

    Under funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the US Marine Corps (USMC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has directed a program aimed at improving detection capabilities against buried mines and munitions. The program has provided a national test facility for buried mines in arid environments, compiled and distributed an extensive data base of infrared (IR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and other measurements made at that site, served as a host for other organizations wishing to make measurements, made considerable progress in the use of ground penetrating radar for mine detection, and worked on the difficult problem ofmore » sensor fusion as applied to buried mine detection. While the majority of our effort has been concentrated on the buried mine problem, LLNL has worked with the U.S.M.C. on surface mine problems as well, providing data and analysis to support the COBRA (Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis) program. The original aim of the experimental aspect of the program was the utilization of multiband infrared approaches for the detection of buried mines. Later the work was extended to a multisensor investigation, including sensors other than infrared imagers. After an early series of measurements, it was determined that further progress would require a larger test facility in a natural environment, so the Buried Object Test Facility (BOTF) was constructed at the Nevada Test Site. After extensive testing, with sensors spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from the near ultraviolet to radio frequencies, possible paths for improvement were: improved spatial resolution providing better ground texture discrimination; analysis which involves more complicated spatial queueing and filtering; additional IR bands using imaging spectroscopy; the use of additional sensors other than IR and the use of data fusion techniques with multi-sensor data; and utilizing time dependent observables like temperature.« less

  14. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  15. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  16. Programming by early nutrition: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A

    1998-02-01

    That events during critical or sensitive periods of development may "program" long-term or life-time structure or function of the organism is well recognized. Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or postnatal nutritional manipulations may program adult size, metabolism, blood lipids, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, atherosclerosis, learning, behavior and life span. Human epidemiological data link potential markers of early nutrition (size at birth or in infancy) to cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. However, these retrospective data cannot prove nutritional cause or underpin health policies. After 16 y, however, of ethical, randomized intervention studies of early nutrition in humans with long-term follow-up to test experimentally the nutritional programming hypothesis, we find that humans, like other species, have sensitive windows for nutrition in terms of later outcomes; for instance, perinatal diet influences neurodevelopment and bone mineralization into mid-childhood. Possible biological mechanisms for storing throughout life the "memory" of early nutritional experience and its expression in adulthood include adaptive changes in gene expression, preferential clonal selection of adapted cells in programmed tissues and programmed differential proliferation of tissue cell types. Animal and human evidence supporting nutritional programming has major potential biological and medical significance.

  17. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive inmore » one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.« less

  18. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  19. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  20. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  1. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  2. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available

  3. Suffolk Community College Early Childhood Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Darlene; Kaplan, Paul

    The Early Childhood Program (ECP) at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) was established to train students in the instruction of young children by providing them with theoretical knowledge, skills training, and practical experience. This report provides information on the philosophy, structure, and outcomes of the ECP. The first section…

  4. Practitioner Inquiry with Early Program Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reports on the use of practitioner inquiry (PI) with early program teacher candidates in conjunction with elementary science and math methods courses using cognitive load theory as a theoretical framework. The findings suggest that the teacher candidates enhanced their knowledge of practice within practice across 5 dimensions of…

  5. 76 FR 18766 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-9996-N] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that CMS is exercising its authority under section 1102(f) of the...

  6. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  7. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Alessia; D’Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications. PMID:29780635

  8. Liquid biopsy for lung cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Liguori, Alessia; D'Aveni, Alessandro; Karachaliou, Niki; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Daffinà, Maria Grazia; Lazzari, Chiara; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Rosell, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors have markedly improved the therapeutic management of advanced lung cancer. However, it still remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with disease stage at diagnosis representing the main prognostic factor. Detection of lung cancer at an earlier stage of disease, potentially susceptible of curative resection, can be critical to improve patients survival. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of high-risk patients has been demonstrated to reduce mortality from lung cancer, but can be also associated with high false-positive rate, thus often resulting in unnecessary interventions for patients. Novel sensitive and specific biomarkers for identification of high-risk subjects and early detection that can be used alternatively and/or complement current routine diagnostic procedures are needed. Liquid biopsy has recently demonstrated its clinical usefulness in advanced NSCLC as a surrogate of tissue biopsy for noninvasive assessment of specific genomic alterations, thereby providing prognostic and predictive information. Different biosources from liquid biopsy, including cell free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes and tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), have also been widely investigated for their potential role in lung cancer diagnosis. This review will provide an overview on the circulating biomarkers being evaluated for lung cancer detection, mainly focusing on results from most recent studies, the techniques developed to perform their assessment in blood and other biologic fluids and challenges in their clinical applications.

  9. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  10. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  11. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Katie A; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection.

  12. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection. PMID:28603546

  13. Life expectancy and the value of early detection.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the benefits and costs of early detection of asymptomatic disease as they vary by age. The benefits of early detection tend toward zero as the risk of death from competing causes increases. Costs per detected case also decline with age, assuming that disease incidence rises with age, but are always strictly positive. On balance, there is always an age limit beyond which the costs associated with early detection outweigh the benefits. Application of the model to prostate cancer screening suggests that early detection above age 70 or so is not cost-effective.

  14. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  15. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  16. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  17. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  18. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  19. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  20. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (p<0.001) and the detection of possible airflow limitation evaluated by the handheld spirometric device (p<0.01). An ROC curve analysis demonstrated that 5 points was the best COPD-PS cut-off value for the diagnosis of COPD. The combination of both tools showed 40.7% of sensitivity and 96.4% of specificity. Conclusion The use of the COPD-PS plus a handheld spirometric device could facilitate the early detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  1. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  2. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  3. Clear air turbulence radiometric detection program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-07-01

    The report presents a review of accomplishments for the Clear Air Turbulence Detection Program. The objectives, instrumentation, supporting hardware and interfaces leading up to and including the test flights for the reporting period are given. The u...

  4. Evaluating Fluorscence-Based Metrics for Early Detection of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary: This paper discusses the results of an ongoing Water Research Foundation project on developing a fluorescence sensor system for early detection of distribution system nitrification Summary: This paper discusses the results of an ongoing Water Research Foundation project on developing a fluorescence sensor system for early detection of distribution system nitrification

  5. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  6. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease , with three Specific Aims: #1 Develop and optimize an x-ray PCCT to explore the

  7. The NIE Home-Based Early Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruskin, Susan

    The initial plans for the National Institute of Education (NIE) program in early childhood education are described. The first part of the document contains a discussion of the relationship between planned NIE programs and existing early childhood federal programs. In both planned and existing programs, disadvantaged children are the primary…

  8. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  9. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  10. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  11. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  12. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  13. Nanomedicine for Early Disease Detection and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0442 TITLE: Nanomedicine for early disease ...been developed to report and cure diseases . ESNM is prepared with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes, sequentially assembled on an inert gold...molecular characteristics of the patient and his/her specific diseased tissues with the treatment. In order to maximize therapeutic effects and

  14. Early bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis detected by surveillance CT.

    PubMed

    Pillarisetti, Naveen; Linnane, Barry; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2010-08-01

    There is emerging evidence that cystic fibrosis lung disease begins early in infancy. Newborn screening allows early detection and surveillance of pulmonary disease and the possibility of early intervention in this life-shortening condition. We report two children with cystic fibrosis who underwent a comprehensive assessment from diagnosis that included measurement of lung function, limited-slice high-resolution CT and BAL performed annually. Early aggressive surveillance enabled significant lung disease and bronchiectasis to be detected during the first few years of life and led to a change in management, highlighting a clinical role for CT scanning during the preschool years in children with cystic fibrosis.

  15. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…

  16. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC.

  17. Assessment of a lecture on cancer prevention and the early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Banner, William P; Booroojian, Stefani; Hernandez, Lori; Lopez, Brad; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2002-01-01

    Cancer prevention and the early detection can affect morbidity and mortality. Through educational programs, recommendations for beneficial lifestyle changes and cancer screening may be introduced to the public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a videotaped lecture concerning cancer prevention and early detection is of educational value. College students in a health science class participated in the study. The students' comprehension of the subject matter was assessed immediately before and a week after they viewed the lecture. The students' scores on the second test were significantly better as measured by a paired-difference experiment. This videotaped lecture has merit as an educational program.

  18. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  19. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  20. [Early detection of autism in children. Review of literature].

    PubMed

    Pisula, E

    1997-01-01

    The difficulties with early detection of autistic disorder in children are discussed. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are presented. Usefulness of clinical interview and clinical experiment in diagnosing autistic disorder are analyzed.

  1. The Early Impact Program: An Early Intervention and Prevention Program for Children and Families At-Risk of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry

    2007-01-01

    The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…

  2. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  3. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers].

    PubMed

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2018-04-25

    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  4. A synthetic genetic edge detection program.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Jeffrey J; Salis, Howard M; Simpson, Zachary Booth; Chevalier, Aaron A; Levskaya, Anselm; Marcotte, Edward M; Voigt, Christopher A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2009-06-26

    Edge detection is a signal processing algorithm common in artificial intelligence and image recognition programs. We have constructed a genetically encoded edge detection algorithm that programs an isogenic community of E. coli to sense an image of light, communicate to identify the light-dark edges, and visually present the result of the computation. The algorithm is implemented using multiple genetic circuits. An engineered light sensor enables cells to distinguish between light and dark regions. In the dark, cells produce a diffusible chemical signal that diffuses into light regions. Genetic logic gates are used so that only cells that sense light and the diffusible signal produce a positive output. A mathematical model constructed from first principles and parameterized with experimental measurements of the component circuits predicts the performance of the complete program. Quantitatively accurate models will facilitate the engineering of more complex biological behaviors and inform bottom-up studies of natural genetic regulatory networks.

  5. A Synthetic Genetic Edge Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Jeffrey J.; Salis, Howard; Simpson, Zachary B.; Chevalier, Aaron A.; Levskaya, Anselm; Marcotte, Edward M.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Edge detection is a signal processing algorithm common in artificial intelligence and image recognition programs. We have constructed a genetically encoded edge detection algorithm that programs an isogenic community of E.coli to sense an image of light, communicate to identify the light-dark edges, and visually present the result of the computation. The algorithm is implemented using multiple genetic circuits. An engineered light sensor enables cells to distinguish between light and dark regions. In the dark, cells produce a diffusible chemical signal that diffuses into light regions. Genetic logic gates are used so that only cells that sense light and the diffusible signal produce a positive output. A mathematical model constructed from first principles and parameterized with experimental measurements of the component circuits predicts the performance of the complete program. Quantitatively accurate models will facilitate the engineering of more complex biological behaviors and inform bottom-up studies of natural genetic regulatory networks. PMID:19563759

  6. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  7. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  8. Urine test could become early detection device.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Researchers at the Clinical Reference Laboratory in Kansas have detected HIV antibodies in the urine of 24 low-risk people who tested negative for HIV in blood tests. These people are presumed to have been exposed to the virus, but it is not known yet if they actually carry the infection. It is possible for the virus and its antibodies to appear in the urogenital tract before spreading to the bloodstream. If this is correct, the urine test could become a way to screen high-risk individuals, who as a result may be able to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before the infection becomes systemic. Study results will be presented at the American Association of Clinical Chemists meeting.

  9. Suffolk County Community College: Early Childhood Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Darlene; Cummings, Kathleen; Elek-Fisk, Elvira; Jefferson, Marcia; Means, Robin; Weber, Alan

    This report reviews Suffolk County Community College's (New York) Early Childhood Program. The document begins with an overview of the program's goals, intentions, student requirements, recent student outcomes, and recommendations for future goals and focuses of the program. The program's intent is to prepare individuals for working with young…

  10. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  11. Early Head Start Relationships: Association with Program Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…

  12. Who Drops out of Early Head Start Home Visiting Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, "dropping out" was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family…

  13. PM Program Prevents Early AM Repairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, David

    1974-01-01

    Discusses how to initiate a preventive maintenance (PM) program: (1) make inventory of equipment that needs a PM program; (2) gather data about each piece of equipment; and (3) set maintenance goals. (Author/PG)

  14. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  15. Advances in pancreatic cancer research: moving towards early detection.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang-Yi; Yuan, Yao-Zong

    2014-08-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer, and advances in patient management have been significant. However, most patients (nearly 80%) who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease have an extremely poor prognosis. Survival is better for those with malignant disease localized to the pancreas, because surgical resection at present offers the only chance of cure. Therefore, the early detection of pancreatic cancer may benefit patients with PDAC. However, its low rate of incidence and the limitations of current screening strategies make early detection difficult. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PDAC suggest that it is possible to detect PDAC in early stages and even identify precursor lesions. The presence of new-onset diabetes mellitus in the early phase of pancreatic cancer may provide clues for its early diagnosis. Advances in the identification of novel circulating biomarkers including serological signatures, autoantibodies, epigenetic markers, circulating tumor cells and microRNAs suggest that they can be used as potential tools for the screening of precursors and early stage PDAC in the future. However, proper screening strategies based on effective screening methodologies need to be tested for clinical application.

  16. Five-Star Schools: Defining Quality in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…

  17. 101 Ways To Build Enrollment in Your Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton

    Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)…

  18. Financing Early Childhood Education Programs: State, Federal, and Local Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…

  19. First Chance Outreach. Del Rio First Chance Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.

    In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…

  20. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  1. Early Outcomes of the GEAR UP Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…

  2. Unified Early Childhood Personnel Preparation Programs: Perceptions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMontagne, M. J.; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Stayton, Vicki; Carr, Victoria; Bauer, Anne M.; Carpenter, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of unified early childhood personnel preparation programs by 28 faculty members in such programs and by graduates (n=42) of unified, dual, or separate exceptional child education or exceptional child special education programs. Faculty stressed the importance of commitment and collaborative problem solving. The…

  3. Visions for Children: African American Early Childhood Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale-Benson, Janice

    The features of an early childhood education demonstration program, Visions for Children, are delineated in this paper. The program was designed to facilitate the intellectual development, boost the academic achievement, and enhance the self-concepts of African-American preschool children. The program implements a curriculum that focuses on…

  4. The Minnesota Experience with Family-Centered Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lois

    1988-01-01

    The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)

  5. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  6. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  7. 78 FR 23936 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Reinsurance Program (ERRP) in preparation for the January 1, 2014 program sunset date. These operational... submission of reimbursement requests; the reporting and correction of data inaccuracies; and the request for... previously submitted data inaccuracies, as well as elective activities, such as requesting a reopening of a...

  8. Early rehabilitation programs after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: Evidence and criticism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Heung-Kwon; In, Myung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    During the past several decades, early rehabilitation programs for the care of patients with colorectal surgery have gained popularity. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the implementation of these evidence-based detailed perioperative care protocols is useful for early recovery of patients after colorectal resection. Patients cared for based on these protocols had a rapid recovery of bowel movement, shortened length of hospital stay, and fewer complications compared with traditional care programs. However, most of the previous evidence was obtained from studies of early rehabilitation programs adapted to open colonic resection. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effects of early rehabilitation after laparoscopic rectal resection, although this procedure seems to be associated with a higher morbidity than that reported with traditional care. In this article, we review previous studies and guidelines on early rehabilitation programs in patients undergoing rectal surgery. We investigated the status of early rehabilitation programs in rectal surgery and analyzed the limitations of these studies. We also summarized indications and detailed protocol components of current early rehabilitation programs after rectal surgery, focusing on laparoscopic resection. PMID:24379571

  9. Liquid biopsy for early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins. However, none of these biomarkers have yet been adopted in routine clinical practice and studies are ongoing to confirm or not the usefulness and practical interest in routine early diagnosis and screening for lung cancers. Several potential circulating biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer exist. When coupled to thoracic imaging, these biomarkers must give diagnosis of a totally resectable lung cancer and potentially provide new recommendations for surveillance by imagery of high-risk populations without a detectable nodule. Optimization of the specificity and sensitivity of the detection methods as well as standardization of the techniques is essential before considering for daily practice a liquid biopsy as an early diagnostic tool, or possibly as a predictive test, of lung cancer.

  10. Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. PMID:29194420

  11. Strategies for early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and generally has a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for pancreatic carcinoma. To improve the prognosis of this disease, it is essential to detect tumors at early stages, when they are resectable. The optimal approach to screening for early pancreatic neoplasia has not been established. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium has recently finalized several recommendations regarding the management of patients who are at an increased risk of familial pancreatic cancer. In addition, there have been notable advances in research on serum markers, tissue markers, gene signatures, and genomic targets of pancreatic cancer. To date, however, no biomarkers have been established in the clinical setting. Advancements in imaging modalities touch all aspects of the clinical management of pancreatic diseases, including the early detection of pancreatic masses, their characterization, and evaluations of tumor resectability. This article reviews strategies for screening high-risk groups, biomarkers, and current advances in imaging modalities for the early detection of resectable pancreatic cancer. PMID:25170207

  12. Sweet-spot training for early esophageal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, the imaging tools for endoscopists have improved drastically. This has enabled physicians to visually inspect the intestinal tissue for early signs of malignant lesions. Besides this, recent studies show the feasibility of supportive image analysis for endoscopists, but the analysis problem is typically approached as a segmentation task where binary ground truth is employed. In this study, we show that the detection of early cancerous tissue in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be approached as a binary segmentation problem and it is crucial and clinically relevant to involve multiple experts for annotating early lesions. By employing the so-called sweet spot for training purposes as a metric, a much better detection performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a multi-expert-based ground truth, i.e. a golden standard, enables an improved validation of the resulting delineations. For this purpose, besides the sweet spot we also propose another novel metric, the Jaccard Golden Standard (JIGS) that can handle multiple ground-truth annotations. Our experiments involving these new metrics and based on the golden standard show that the performance of a detection algorithm of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus can be increased significantly, demonstrating a 10 percent point increase in the resulting F1 detection score.

  13. EARLY DETECTION MONITORING OF INVASIVE SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES HARBORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) has asked for a presentation on designing harbor monitoring. Our research/development project on early detection provides some examples and lessons for GSI to consider in evaluating effectiveness of ballast water treatments; the presentation allo...

  14. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  15. New Directions in Tribal Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of tribal communities building more coordinated and effective early childhood systems by taking advantage of federal funding opportunities and partnerships. Given a new level of understanding and response from federal agencies regarding the unique nature of tribal communities, efforts are being made to acknowledge…

  16. Challenges Facing Early Childhood Programs Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…

  17. Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar

    2017-08-01

    The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth decay is opportune diagnosis of decay and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth decay and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of decay below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth decay without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.

  18. Early to College, Likely to Rise? Benefits and Challenges of Early College Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Students who appear young on college campuses may be in an "Early College" program. Several factors have increased the popularity of these programs, though a proactive push from higher education to expand them has not been a primary one. The impetus for the growth of such programs has come from legislators as well as from high school…

  19. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  20. The Director's Discretionary Early Release Science Program for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson, Nancy A.; Sembach, Kenneth

    2018-06-01

    We will introduce the Director's Discretionary Early Release Science (DD-ERS) Program for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These programs will educate and inform the community about JWST's instruments and capabilities, providing open access to early observations, and science-enabling products that the DD-ERS teams produce. During this session, we will provide updates on JWST status, and the 13 selected teams will give an overview of their planned observations and future work.

  1. Early Head Start Participants, Program, Families and Staff in 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  2. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  3. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…

  4. Collaboration and Subsidized Early Care and Education Programs in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Zanoni, Wladimir; Barisik, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As a result of policy changes following welfare reform in 1996 and the costs associated with providing high-quality early care and education for children of low-income working families, agency collaboration in the state of Illinois has become an increasingly salient feature of subsidized early care and education programs (SECE). The authors…

  5. Department of Energy - Office of Science Early Career Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, James

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/

  6. Spatial cluster detection using dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Sverchkov, Yuriy; Jiang, Xia; Cooper, Gregory F

    2012-03-25

    The task of spatial cluster detection involves finding spatial regions where some property deviates from the norm or the expected value. In a probabilistic setting this task can be expressed as finding a region where some event is significantly more likely than usual. Spatial cluster detection is of interest in fields such as biosurveillance, mining of astronomical data, military surveillance, and analysis of fMRI images. In almost all such applications we are interested both in the question of whether a cluster exists in the data, and if it exists, we are interested in finding the most accurate characterization of the cluster. We present a general dynamic programming algorithm for grid-based spatial cluster detection. The algorithm can be used for both Bayesian maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimation of the most likely spatial distribution of clusters and Bayesian model averaging over a large space of spatial cluster distributions to compute the posterior probability of an unusual spatial clustering. The algorithm is explained and evaluated in the context of a biosurveillance application, specifically the detection and identification of Influenza outbreaks based on emergency department visits. A relatively simple underlying model is constructed for the purpose of evaluating the algorithm, and the algorithm is evaluated using the model and semi-synthetic test data. When compared to baseline methods, tests indicate that the new algorithm can improve MAP estimates under certain conditions: the greedy algorithm we compared our method to was found to be more sensitive to smaller outbreaks, while as the size of the outbreaks increases, in terms of area affected and proportion of individuals affected, our method overtakes the greedy algorithm in spatial precision and recall. The new algorithm performs on-par with baseline methods in the task of Bayesian model averaging. We conclude that the dynamic programming algorithm performs on-par with other available methods for

  7. Spatial cluster detection using dynamic programming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The task of spatial cluster detection involves finding spatial regions where some property deviates from the norm or the expected value. In a probabilistic setting this task can be expressed as finding a region where some event is significantly more likely than usual. Spatial cluster detection is of interest in fields such as biosurveillance, mining of astronomical data, military surveillance, and analysis of fMRI images. In almost all such applications we are interested both in the question of whether a cluster exists in the data, and if it exists, we are interested in finding the most accurate characterization of the cluster. Methods We present a general dynamic programming algorithm for grid-based spatial cluster detection. The algorithm can be used for both Bayesian maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimation of the most likely spatial distribution of clusters and Bayesian model averaging over a large space of spatial cluster distributions to compute the posterior probability of an unusual spatial clustering. The algorithm is explained and evaluated in the context of a biosurveillance application, specifically the detection and identification of Influenza outbreaks based on emergency department visits. A relatively simple underlying model is constructed for the purpose of evaluating the algorithm, and the algorithm is evaluated using the model and semi-synthetic test data. Results When compared to baseline methods, tests indicate that the new algorithm can improve MAP estimates under certain conditions: the greedy algorithm we compared our method to was found to be more sensitive to smaller outbreaks, while as the size of the outbreaks increases, in terms of area affected and proportion of individuals affected, our method overtakes the greedy algorithm in spatial precision and recall. The new algorithm performs on-par with baseline methods in the task of Bayesian model averaging. Conclusions We conclude that the dynamic programming algorithm performs on

  8. Early Risers Benefit from Scholars Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Maria L.; Russell, Ernest L.

    1987-01-01

    The 7 O'Clock Scholars Program for gifted and talented students at Pontiac (Michigan) Central Senior High School brings speakers from a nearby university to speak to interested high school students during 50-minute sessions before regular classes begin. (PGD)

  9. 75 FR 24450 - Early Retiree Reinsurance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... option'' in the regulation when discussing the fact that there is only one cost threshold and cost limit... amounts, and to apply the cost threshold and cost limit, to periods of time that are 12 months in duration... program provides reimbursement to participating employment-based plans for a portion of the cost of health...

  10. CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAVATELLI, C.B.

    PRESENT PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE OF 3 KINDS--(1) AN INVENTORY TYPE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY DEFICITS WHICH WILL AFFECT SCHOOL LEARNING AND TO OVERCOME THESE THROUGH EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, (2) A PLAN BASED ON A RECAPITULATION THEORY WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DESCRIBE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND TO COMPENSATE FOR THOSE WHICH A…

  11. A Hospital Clinic Early Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simser, Judith I.; Steacie, Pamela

    1993-01-01

    The Aural Habilitation Program of Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Canada) provides weekly, individualized aural habilitation sessions for parents of young children with hearing impairments and offers guidance in creating a listening, learning environment in the home. Strategies for developing parents' skills and confidence are described.…

  12. Using Renyi entropy to detect early cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cornforth, David J; Tarvainen, Mika P; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to abnormal control of heart rate. CAN affects the correct operation of the heart and in turn leads to associated arrhythmias and heart attack. An open question is to what extent this condition is detectable by the measurement of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). An even more desirable option is to detect CAN in its early, preclinical stage, to improve treatment and outcomes. In previous work we have shown a difference in the Renyi spectrum between participants identified with well-defined CAN and controls. In this work we applied the multi-scale Renyi entropy for identification of early CAN in diabetes patients. Results suggest that Renyi entropy derived from a 20 minute, Lead-II ECG recording, forms a useful contribution to the detection of CAN even in the early stages of the disease. The positive α parameters (1 ≤ α ≤ 5) associated with the Renyi distribution indicated a significant difference (p < 0.00004) between controls and early CAN as well as definite CAN. This is a significant achievement given the simple nature of the information collected, and raises prospects of a simple screening test and improved outcomes of patients.

  13. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  14. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  15. Sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Acharya, B C; Jihong, L

    2009-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important independent prognostic factor in early stage cervical cancer. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node detection have been increasingly evaluated in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors, particularly breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of these procedures in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for early cervical cancer. A total of 30 patients with histologically diagnosed FIGO stage IA to IIA cervical cancer were enrolled to this study. They were scheduled to undergo radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy after injecting patent blue dye in cervix. A total of 60 SLNs (mean 2.5) were detected in 24 patients with detection rate of 80%. Bilateral SLNs were detected in 70.1% of cases. SLNs were identified in obturator and external iliac areas in 50% and 31.7%, respectively; no SLNs were discovered in the common iliac region. Seven patients (23.3%) had lymph node metastases; one of these had false negative SLN.The false negative rate and negative predictive value were 14.3% and 94.4%, respectively. SLN detection procedure with blue dye technique is a feasible procedure in cervical cancer. Patent blue dye is cheap, safe and effective tracer to detect sentinel node in carcinoma of cervix.

  16. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen Johnston CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Jul2015 - 30Jun2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Simple System for the Early...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-14-1-0231 Abstract: We invented the immunosignature technology (IMS) as a simple , universal

  17. Signature-forecasting and early outbreak detection system

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Elena N.; MacNeill, Ian B.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Daily disease monitoring via a public health surveillance system provides valuable information on population risks. Efficient statistical tools for early detection of rapid changes in the disease incidence are a must for modern surveillance. The need for statistical tools for early detection of outbreaks that are not based on historical information is apparent. A system is discussed for monitoring cases of infections with a view to early detection of outbreaks and to forecasting the extent of detected outbreaks. We propose a set of adaptive algorithms for early outbreak detection that does not rely on extensive historical recording. We also include knowledge of infection disease epidemiology into forecasts. To demonstrate this system we use data from the largest water-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993. Historical data are smoothed using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of a new datum, the smoothing is updated and estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smooth curve, and these are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and the near-term forecasts are used to compute a color-coded warning index, which quantify the level of concern. The algorithms for computing the warning index have been designed to balance Type I errors (false prediction of an epidemic) and Type II errors (failure to correctly predict an epidemic). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, then a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak is made. This longer term forecast is made by fitting a ‘signature’ curve to the available data. The effectiveness of the forecast depends upon the extent to which the signature curve captures the shape of outbreaks of the infection under consideration. PMID:18716671

  18. Early Childhood Mentoring Programs: A Survey of Community Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan

    Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…

  19. Early Childhood Programs for Language Minority Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissani, Helen

    Early childhood programs should be designed to serve the whole child's development within the context of the family and community. This is especially important for children who speak a language other than English at home. Programs must employ developmentally and culturally appropriate practices that respect individual differences and choices and…

  20. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  1. New technology for early detection of health threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern, Šárka O.; Lilienthal, Gerald W.

    2008-04-01

    Governmental agencies charged with protecting the health of the population and agriculture have several main strategic objectives including the detection of harmful agents, the identification of vulnerable biological targets, the prediction of health outcomes and the development of countermeasures. New technologies are urgently needed in several critical areas of bio-chemical defense: economical and minimally invasive biosensors for field use in humans and other species important for agriculture and infrastructure, universal analytical platforms for broad-based, early warnings of threats and technologies guiding the development of countermeasures. A new technology called Stress Response Profiling (SRP) was recently developed by the Gaia Medical Institute. SRP provides a universal analytical platform for monitoring health status based on measurements of physiological stress. The platform is implemented through handheld devices that can be used for noninvasive detection of early-stage health problems. This paper summarizes SRP features, advantages and potential benefits for critical areas of homeland defense.

  2. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Treesearch

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  3. Curricular Ethics in Early Childhood Education Programming: A Challenge to the Ontario Kindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydon, Rachel M.; Wang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Through a case study of a key Canadian early childhood education program, The Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1998a), we explore the relationship between curricular paradigms and early childhood education (ECE) models, and the opportunities that each creates for enacting ethical teaching and learning…

  4. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Recurrent Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment is the early detection of disease recurrence. In this review, we emphasize the multidisciplinary approach to this continuity of care from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology. Challenges within each setting are briefly addressed as a means of discussion for the future directions of an effective and efficient surveillance plan of post-treatment breast cancer care. PMID:24790657

  5. Mortality in children with early detected congenital central hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Naafs, Jolanda C; Verkerk, Paul H; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2018-06-07

    Approximately 60-80% of patients with congenital central hypothyroidism (CH-C) have multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD), making CH-C a potentially life-threatening disease. Data on mortality in CH-C patients, however, are lacking. To study mortality rate in early detected and treated pediatric CH-C patients in the Netherlands and to investigate whether causes of death were related to pituitary hormone deficiencies. Overall mortality rate, infant mortality rate and under-5 mortality rate were calculated in all children with CH-C detected by neonatal screening between 1-1-1995 and 1-1-2013. Medical charts were reviewed to establish causes of death. 139 children with CH-C were identified, of which 138 could be traced (82 MPHD/56 isolated CHC). Total observation time was 1414 years with a median follow up duration of 10.2 years. The overall mortality rate was 10.9% (15/138). Infant mortality rate (IMR) and under-5 mortality rate were 65.2/1000 (9/138) and 101.4/1000 (14/138), respectively, compared to an IMR of 4.7/1000 and under-5 mortality of 5.4/1000 live born children in the Netherlands during the same time period (p<0.0001). Main causes of death were severe congenital malformations in six patients, asphyxia in two patients, and congenital or early neonatal infection in two patients. Pituitary hormone deficiency was noted as cause of death in only one infant. We report an increased mortality rate in early detected CH-C patients which does not seem to be related to endocrine disease. This suggests that mortality due to pituitary insufficiency is low in an early detected and treated CH-C population.

  6. Early Detection of Progressive Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Wafa; Vergari, Claudio; Ebermeyer, Eric; Courtois, Isabelle; Drevelle, Xavier; Kohler, Remi; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Dubousset, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Early detection of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was assessed based on 3D quantification of the deformity. Based on 3D quantitative description of scoliosis curves, the aim is to assess a specific phenotype that could be an early detectable severity index for progressive AIS. Early detection of progressive scoliosis is important for adapted treatment to limit progression. However, progression risk assessment is mainly based on the follow up, waiting for signs of rapid progression that generally occur during the growth peak. Sixty-five mild scoliosis (16 boys, 49 girls, Cobb Angle between 10 and 20°) with a Risser between 0 and 2 were followed from their first examination until a decision was made by the clinician, either considering the spine as stable at the end of growth (26 patients) or planning to brace because of progression (39 patients). Calibrated biplanar x-rays were performed and 3D reconstructions of the spine allowed calculating six local parameters related to main curve deformity. For progressive curve 3D phenotype assessment, data were compared with those previously assessed for 30 severe scoliosis (Cobb Angle > 35°), 17 scoliosis before brace (Cobb Angle > 29°) and 53 spines of nonscoliosis subjects. A predictive discriminant analysis was performed to assess similarity of mild scoliosis curves either to those of scoliosis or nonscoliosis spines, yielding a severity index (S-index). S-index value at first examination was compared with clinical outcome. At the first exam, 53 out of 65 predictions (82%) were in agreement with actual clinical outcome. Approximately, 89% of the curves that were predicted as progressive proved accurate. Although still requiring large scale validation, results are promising for early detection of progressive curves. 2.

  7. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    PubMed

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  8. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    PubMed

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  10. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  11. Barriers to early detection of cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Castro, R; Allen, B; Nájera, P; Alonso de Ruíz, P A; Hernández-Avila, M

    1999-04-01

    In Mexico, a woman dies of cervical-uterine cancer every 2 hours, indicating a low impact by the national program for early detection of this cancer, principally because of problems related to quality and coverage. Through a qualitative study, we identified the principal barriers to use of the detection program from the point of view of actual and potential program users. Four focus groups were organized in standard conditions in Mexico City (urban, developed) and in the southern state of Oaxaca (rural, economically disadvantaged area). Participants were either women with at least one previous Papanicolaou (Pap) test or women who had never had the test. Barriers to Pap test use included (1) lack of knowledge about cervical-uterine cancer etiology, (2) not knowing that the Pap test exists, (3) the conception that cancer is an inevitably fatal disease, (4) problems in doctor/medical institution-patient relationships, (5) giving priority to unmet needs related to extreme poverty, (6) opposition by the male sexual partner, (7) rejection of the pelvic examination, (8) long waits for sample collection and receiving results, and (9) perceived high costs for care. To increase coverage of the early detection program for cervical-uterine cancer in Mexico, the needs, perceptions, and beliefs of women and their partners must be taken into account when developing policy and planning, given the role these factors play in the decision-making process that leads to their participation or nonparticipation in this program.

  12. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  13. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates finding new invaders before they are common. Here we outline our research (2005 present) approach and findings, including strategies to increase detection efficiency by optimizing specimen collection and identification methods. Initial surveys were designed to over-sample to amass data as the basis for numerical experiments to investigate to the effort required for a given detection probability. Later surveys tested the outcome of implementing these strategies, examined the potential benefits of sampling larval fish instead of adults and explored the prospect of using advanced DNA based methods as an alternative to traditional taxonomy. To date we have identified several previously undetected invertebrate invaders, developed survey design and gear recommendations and have refined the search strategy for systems beyond the SLRE. In addition, because we’ve accumulated such a large body of data we now have the basis to show spatial-temporal trends for native and non-native species in the SLRE. not applicable

  14. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Perceived Benefit of Early Cancer Detection: Community-Partnered Research with African American Women in South Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Lucas-Wright, Anna; Jones, Loretta; Vargas, Roberto; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Evers-Manly, Shirley; Maxwell, Annette E

    2015-09-01

    African American women have lower 5-year cancer survival rates than non-Latino White women. Differences in perceived benefits of early cancer detection among racial/ethnic groups may affect cancer-screening behaviors. This study assessed correlates of perceived benefits of early breast, cervical and colorectal cancer detection among 513 African American women. Using a community-partnered participatory research approach, we conducted a survey on cancer screening, risk behaviors, and related knowledge and attitudes among African American parishioners at 11 churches in South Los Angeles, a neighborhood that experiences one of the highest cancer mortality rates in California. African American women who participated in this study were more likely to believe that chances for survival are very good or good after early detection of breast cancer (74%) than after early detection of colorectal (51%) and cervical cancer (52%). Multivariate analyses show that perceived benefit of early cancer detection is associated with higher cancer knowledge and having discussed one's cancer risk with a doctor. Given that 5-year survival rates for early stage breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer range from 84% to 93%, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of African American women in South Los Angeles are not aware of the benefits of early detection, particularly of colorectal and cervical cancers. Programs that increase cancer knowledge and encourage a discussion of individual's cancer risk with a doctor may be able to increase perceived benefit of early detection, a construct that has been shown to be associated with cancer screening in some studies.

  16. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection

    PubMed Central

    Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. Material and methods A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A – 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B – 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge – test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B – 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. Results We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p <0.0001) and it increased after 5 years in group D (p <0.0001) in comparison to group C. Patients aged >40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p<0.01) as much as patients aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69. In men >70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest

  17. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewcz, Sławomir; Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A - 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B - 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge - test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B - 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p <0.0001) and it increased after 5 years in group D (p <0.0001) in comparison to group C. Patients aged >40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p<0.01) as much as patients aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69. In men >70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was

  18. The Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Program for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie Marie; Bean, Jacob; Stevenson, Kevin; Sing, David; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Desert, Jean-Michel; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Crouzet, Nicolas; Moses, Julianne; Benneke, Björn; Kempton, Eliza; Berta-Thompson, Zach; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Parmentier, Vivien; Gibson, Neale; Schlawin, Everett; Fraine, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Transiting Exoplanet ERS Team

    2018-01-01

    A community working group was formed in October 2016 to consider early release science with the James Webb Space Telescope that broadly benefits the transiting exoplanet community. Over 100 exoplanet scientists worked collaboratively to identify targets that are observable at the initiation of science operations, yield high SNR with a single event, have substantial scientific merit, and have known spectroscopic features identified by prior observations. The working group developed a program that yields representative datasets for primary transit, secondary eclipse, and phase curve observations using the most promising instrument modes for high-precision spectroscopic timeseries (NIRISS-SOSS, NIRCam, NIRSPec, and MIRI-LRS). The centerpiece of the program is an open data challenge that promotes community engagement and leads to a deeper understanding of the JWST instruments as early as possible in the mission. The program is managed under the premise of open science in order to maximize the value of the early release science observations for the transiting exoplanet community.

  19. Video comparator system for early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Brian L.

    1992-05-01

    The recognized incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in the United States is now rising faster than any other cancer, increasing by 83% from 1980 to 1987. Recent revelations that depletion of the earth's ozone layer is accelerating at a more rapid rate than previously believed can only exacerbate current projections for the increased incidence of this deadly disease. Because there is no good treatment for metastatic melanoma even small cancers often prove fatal if not detected early. Melanoma allowed to invade the subcutaneous tissue is associated with a five-year survival rate of only 44%. Ironically, few cancers provide a greater opportunity for early discovery and cure. Cutaneous melanoma is not only located where it is readily observed, but typically undergoes a `radial growth' phase prior to metastasis. During this phase the net growth is superficial and circumferential, gradually increasing the area of the lesion and changing its coloration. Screening measures for the early detection of melanoma must concentrate on two primary tasks: (1) detection of lesion changes indicative of the radial growth stage of malignancy and (2) alerting the patient and physician to the existence of a new or changed lesion on the skin. To accomplish these goals we have experimented with the applicability of a microcomputer based video imaging system which stores an image archive of historical reference images for each patient. With the acquisition of new images of the patient, easily registered with the archival images through a technique we have developed we are able to perform a blink comparison of the image pairs. This technique appears to be far more effective than currently used techniques for detecting changed lesions on a comprehensive basis.

  20. PaDe - The particle detection program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Drolshagen, E.; Koschny, D.; Poppe, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the Particle Detection program PaDe. Its aim is to analyze dust particles in the coma of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko which were recorded by the two OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras onboard the ESA spacecraft Rosetta, see e.g. Keller et al. (2007). In addition to working with the Rosetta data, the code was modified to work with images from meteors. It was tested with data recorded by the ICCs (Intensified CCD Cameras) of the CILBO-System (Canary Island Long-Baseline Observatory) on the Canary Islands; compare Koschny et al. (2013). This paper presents a new method for the position determination of the observed meteors. The PaDe program was written in Python 3.4. Its original intent is to find the trails of dust particles in space from the OSIRIS images. For that it determines the positions where the trail starts and ends. They were found using a fit following the so-called error function (Andrews, 1998) for the two edges of the profiles. The positions where the intensities fall to the half maximum were found to be the beginning and end of the particle. In the case of meteors, this method can be applied to find the leading edge of the meteor. The proposed method has the potential to increase the accuracy of the position determination of meteors dramatically. Other than the standard method of finding the photometric center, our method is not influenced by any trails or wakes behind the meteor. This paper presents first results of this ongoing work.

  1. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  2. Role of EEG as biomarker in the early detection and classification of dementia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin Md; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.

  3. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Talathi, S. S.

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizuremore » detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.« less

  4. Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

    2012-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.

  5. Health responsibility and workplace health promotion among women: early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    The importance of health responsibility as one aspect of a health-promoting lifestyle has been emphasized repeatedly. Yet there are only a few empirical studies of its role in preventive behavior. We examined the relationship between health responsibility and early-detection practices for breast and cervical cancer. A group of 253 women employees of a large industrial company participated in a cancer screening program subsidized by the employer. They completed questionnaires assessing health responsibility and reported early-detection practices: frequency of breast self-examination and physician breast examinations, frequency of Pap tests, and time lapsed since last Pap test and breast examinations. Health responsibility was a significant independent predictor of breast examination indicators but not of Pap tests. Education level was an important predictor for Pap tests, and age predicted most early-detection practices. The findings lend some support to the role of health responsibility in initiating breast examinations. Better prediction of early-detection practices could be achieved by adding cognitive and emotional components to the existing responsibility scale and by distinguishing between retrospective and prospective responsibility.

  6. Early Intervention Preservice Preparation: Program Evaluation and Reflections. Master's Personnel Prep Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Squires, Jane

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the early intervention interdisciplinary preservice program at the University of Oregon. This master's degree program used both "measurement of" and "reflection about" preservice efforts to address important questions regarding program effectiveness and identify…

  7. Development of Mechanochemically Active Polymers for Early Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin

    Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

  8. Early optical detection of cerebral edema in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gill, Amandip S; Rajneesh, Kiran F; Owen, Christopher M; Yeh, James; Hsu, Mike; Binder, Devin K

    2011-02-01

    Cerebral edema is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in diverse disease states. Currently, the means to detect progressive cerebral edema in vivo includes the use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors and/or serial radiological studies. However, ICP measurements exhibit a high degree of variability, and ICP monitors detect edema only after it becomes sufficient to significantly raise ICP. The authors report the development of 2 distinct minimally invasive fiberoptic near-infrared (NIR) techniques able to directly detect early cerebral edema. Cytotoxic brain edema was induced in adult CD1 mice via water intoxication by intraperitoneal water administration (30% body weight intraperitoneally). An implantable dual-fiberoptic probe was stereotactically placed into the cerebral cortex and connected to optical source and detector hardware. Optical sources consisted of either broadband halogen illumination or a single-wavelength NIR laser diode, and the detector was a sensitive NIR spectrometer or optical power meter. In one subset of animals, a left-sided craniectomy was performed to obtain cortical biopsies for water-content determination to verify cerebral edema. In another subset of animals, an ICP transducer was placed on the contralateral cortex, which was synchronized to a computer and time stamped. Using either broadband illumination with NIR spectroscopy or single-wavelength laser diode illumination with optical power meter detection, the authors detected a reduction in NIR optical reflectance during early cerebral edema. The time intervals between water injection (Time Point 0), optical trigger (defined as a 2-SD change in optical reflectance from baseline), and defined threshold ICP values of 10, 15 and 20 mm Hg were calculated. Reduction in NIR reflectance occurred significantly earlier than any of the ICP thresholds (p < 0.001). Saline-injected control mice exhibited a steady baseline optical signal. There was a significant correlation between

  9. Early warning signals detect critical impacts of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Lauren; McCann, Kevin; Tunney, Tyler; Gellner, Gabriel; Fryxell, John M

    2016-09-01

    Earth's surface temperatures are projected to increase by ~1-4°C over the next century, threatening the future of global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this has fueled major progress in the field of physiological trait responses to warming, it is currently unclear whether routine population monitoring data can be used to predict temperature-induced population collapse. Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events. We find that a model parameterized by experimental growth rates exhibits critical slowing down in the vicinity of an experimentally tested critical threshold, suggesting that dynamical early warning signals may be useful in detecting the potentially precipitous onset of population collapse due to global climate change.

  10. Multifocal visual evoked potentials for early glaucoma detection.

    PubMed

    Weizer, Jennifer S; Musch, David C; Niziol, Leslie M; Khan, Naheed W

    2012-07-01

    To compare multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) with other detection methods in early open-angle glaucoma. Ten patients with suspected glaucoma and 5 with early open-angle glaucoma underwent mfVEP, standard automated perimetry (SAP), short-wave automated perimetry, frequency-doubling technology perimetry, and nerve fiber layer optical coherence tomography. Nineteen healthy control subjects underwent mfVEP and SAP for comparison. Comparisons between groups involving continuous variables were made using independent t tests; for categorical variables, Fisher's exact test was used. Monocular mfVEP cluster defects were associated with an increased SAP pattern standard deviation (P = .0195). Visual fields that showed interocular mfVEP cluster defects were more likely to also show superior quadrant nerve fiber layer thinning by OCT (P = .0152). Multifocal visual evoked potential cluster defects are associated with a functional and an anatomic measure that both relate to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  12. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    PubMed

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening.

  13. On the Design of a Bioacoustic Sensor for the Early Detection of the Red Palm Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Rach, Miguel Martínez; Gomis, Héctor Migallón; Granado, Otoniel López; Malumbres, Manuel Perez; Campoy, Antonio Martí; Martín, Juan José Serrano

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%. PMID:23364196

  14. On the design of a bioacoustic sensor for the early detection of the red palm weevil.

    PubMed

    Martínez Rach, Miguel; Migallón Gomis, Héctor; López Granado, Otoniel; Perez Malumbres, Manuel; Martí Campoy, Antonio; Serrano Martín, Juan José

    2013-01-30

    During the last two decades Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rynchophorus Ferrugineus) has become one of the most dangerous threats to palm trees in many parts of the World. Its early detection is difficult, since palm trees do not show visual evidence of infection until it is too late for them to recover. For this reason the development of efficient early detection mechanisms is a critical element of RPW pest management systems. One of the early detection mechanisms proposed in the literature is based on acoustic monitoring, as the activity of RPW larvae inside the palm trunk is audible for human operators under acceptable environmental noise levels (rural areas, night periods, etc.). In this work we propose the design of an autonomous bioacoustic sensor that can be installed in every palm tree under study and is able to analyze the captured audio signal during large periods of time. The results of the audio analysis would be reported wirelessly to a control station, to be subsequently processed and conveniently stored. That control station is to be accessible via the Internet. It is programmed to send warning messages when predefined alarm thresholds are reached, thereby allowing supervisors to check on-line the status and evolution of the palm tree orchards. We have developed a bioacoustic sensor prototype and performed an extensive set of experiments to measure its detection capability, achieving average detection rates over 90%.

  15. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-21

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  16. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  17. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  18. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  19. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

  20. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  1. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  2. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOEpatents

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  3. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  4. Early School Admissions Program: Staff Handbook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mabel; And Others

    The descriptions and procedures in this handbook were developed and compiled at the request of staff members of the Early School Admissions Program. It was felt that specific information relating to the suggested use of classroom materials and equipment would assist in upgrading teaching techniques, planning cognitively based learning experiences,…

  5. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  6. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  7. Early Childhood Program Evaluations: A Decision-Maker's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for evidence-based early childhood services and the need by policymakers to know whether a program is effective or whether it warrants a significant investment of public and/or private funds--coupled with the often-politicized debate around these topics--make it imperative for policymakers and civic leaders to have independent…

  8. Early Childhood and Parenting Research Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotts, E. E.

    This final report reviews and evaluates the work completed by the Early Childhood and Parenting Research Program between June 1, 1978 and November 30, 1979. The first project described is the Home Oriented Preschool Education (HOPE) Follow-Up Study. The HOPE Follow-Up Study was designed to examine the effects of HOPE treatments on children and…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Early Learning Programs in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber; Brunette, Tracy; Bulat, Jennae; Carrol, Bidemi; Henny, Catherine; Macon, Wykia; Nderu, Evangeline; Sitabkhan, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    We present results from early learning programs in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. In partnership with ministries of education, RTI International has worked within government systems to support the design and deployment of locally contextualized materials, training, and assessment tools, with the goal…

  10. A Description of the Hawthorn Center Early Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie

    An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…

  11. What's in a Label? Careers in Integrated Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorelick, Molly C.

    The paper, given by the director of a project to train teachers for early childhood education programs which integrate handicapped and normal children, focuses on the effects of labeling on teacher-child interaction. The author recounts her own experience with teaching handicapped children and the historical tendency to label and segregate various…

  12. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  13. Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Linda M.

    To determine effective strategies for connecting Hispanic parents and their children's early childhood programs, educators need to develop a greater understanding of the features of the Hispanic culture that influence parents' childrearing practices and orientation toward formal education. Educators should be aware of Hispanics' diversity in terms…

  14. Issues of Implementation of Early Childhood Education and Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Bert

    This document comprises three papers related to the implementation of early childhood education, health care, and support programs. The first paper is a brief reflection on the nature of implementation, based on the contributions of Boudewijn Bekkers. The second is a proceedings chapter by Marian Hanrahan titled "Community Based Innovative…

  15. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  16. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Avery S.; Johnson, Eric K.; Maykel, Justin A.; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J.; Steele, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence. PMID:24790655

  17. Comparison of Laser Scanning Diagnostic Devices for Early Glaucoma Detection.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas; Lamparter, Julia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Berisha, Fatmire; Schmidtmann, Irene; Hoffmann, Esther M

    2015-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and to evaluate the correlation of optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values between Fourier-Domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO), and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) for early glaucoma detection. Ninety-three patients with early open-angle glaucoma, 58 patients with ocular hypertension, and 60 healthy control subjects were included in this observational, cross-sectional study. All study participants underwent FD-OCT (RTVue-100), CSLO (HRT3), and SLP (GDx VCC) imaging of the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. The parameters with the highest diagnostic accuracy were found for FD-OCT cup-to-disc ratio (AUROC=0.841), for SLP NFI (AUROC=0.835), and for CSLO cup-to-disc ratio (AUROC=0.789). Diagnostic accuracy of the best CSLO and SLP parameter was similar (P=0.259). There was a small statistically significant difference between the best CSLO and FD-OCT parameters for differentiating between glaucoma and healthy eyes (P=0.047). FD-OCT and SLP have a similarly good diagnostic ability to distinguish between early glaucoma and healthy subjects. The diagnostic accuracy of CSLO was comparable with SLP and marginally lower compared with FD-OCT.

  18. Big data analytics for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Desislava

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the concept and the modern advances in personalized medicine that rely on technology and review the existing tools for early detection of breast cancer. The breast cancer types and distribution worldwide is discussed. It is spent time to explain the importance of identifying the normality and to specify the main classes in breast cancer, benign or malignant. The main purpose of the paper is to propose a conceptual model for early detection of breast cancer based on machine learning for processing and analysis of medical big dataand further knowledge discovery for personalized treatment. The proposed conceptual model is realized by using Naive Bayes classifier. The software is written in python programming language and for the experiments the Wisconsin breast cancer database is used. Finally, the experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  20. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenbuhler, Chelsea; Kelly, John R.; Martinson, John; Okum, Sara; Pilgrim, Erik

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput DNA metabarcoding has gained recognition as a potentially powerful tool for biomonitoring, including early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). DNA based techniques are advancing, but our understanding of the limits to detection for metabarcoding complex samples is inadequate. For detecting AIS at an early stage of invasion when the species is rare, accuracy at low detection limits is key. To evaluate the utility of metabarcoding in future fish community monitoring programs, we conducted several experiments to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of routine metabarcoding methods. Experimental mixes used larval fish tissue from multiple “common” species spiked with varying proportions of tissue from an additional “rare” species. Pyrosequencing of genetic marker, COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and subsequent sequence data analysis provided experimental evidence of low-level detection of the target “rare” species at biomass percentages as low as 0.02% of total sample biomass. Limits to detection varied interspecifically and were susceptible to amplification bias. Moreover, results showed some data processing methods can skew sequence-based biodiversity measurements from corresponding relative biomass abundances and increase false absences. We suggest caution in interpreting presence/absence and relative abundance in larval fish assemblages until metabarcoding methods are optimized for accuracy and precision.

  1. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  2. [CODEPEH 2014 recommendations for the early detection of delayed hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, José

    2016-10-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as key element to define the educational prognosis and inclusion of the deaf child, as advantage can be taken in the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between those deaf persons who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or inappropriate intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge of all childcare professionals. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planned in order to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the Committee for the Early Detection of Deafness (CODEPEH) would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring on the hearing health of children. And, for this reason, CODEPEH drafts the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Retinopathy predicts progression of fasting plasma glucose: An Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yash R.; Kirkman, M. Sue; Considine, Robert V; Hannon, Tamara S; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is increasingly recognized in prediabetic populations, and may herald increased risk of metabolic worsening. The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) evaluated worsening of glycemia in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, following participants for up to 5 years. Here we have evaluated whether the presence of retinopathy at the time of detection of diabetes was associated with accelerated progression of glycemia. Methods We prospectively studied 194 participants from EDIP with available baseline retinal photographs. Retinopathy was determined at baseline using 7-field fundus photography and defined as an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study Scale grading score of ≥20. Results At baseline, 12% of participants had classical retinal lesions indicating retinopathy. In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of retinopathy at baseline was associated with a doubled risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose (HR 2.02; 95% CI 1.05–3.89). The retinopathy effect was robust to individual adjustment for age and glucose, the most potent determinants of progression in EDIP. Conclusion Retinopathy was associated with increased risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose among adults with screen-detected, early diabetes. Early detection of retinopathy may help individualize more aggressive therapy to prevent progressive metabolic worsening in early diabetes. PMID:28003103

  4. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Ortega, Angel; Estrela, Jose Maria

    2004-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique as it provides fundamental information about vibrational modes of a system. Eigenvalues of these modes are very sensitive to the strength of the chemical bonds and perturbations caused by the environment, particularly charge distribution and alterations in the dipole strength of the system. All these parameters are profoundly modified during the tumor formation process nad hence Raman technique could be a unique and also a direct approach for evaluating tumor genesis at early stages. for this pupose the present investigation was carried out. We used cultured wild type and c-ras transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblast. The samples were treated with methyl alcohol solution ina conventional manner and then Raman spectra nad images were obtained by a specially developed confocal Raman microscope. The present results reveal differences between both cell types in the spectral details as well as in the morphology. Raman images are able to detect the exact site where cancer-related changes have taken place. These results clearly indicate the superiority of the present technique over conventional methods such as images obtained by X-rays or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Moreover, unlike other approaches, Raman images detect alterations at the submicron level rather than in the centimeter or millimeter range. Being an optical method it can be applied in vivo as a non-invasive technique potentially useful to early detection of cancer (particularly easy accessible cancers such as those of the skin and the digestive tract). The obtained resulsts suggest the great potential of Raman imaging in premature clinical diagnostic approaches.

  5. A situational analysis of breast cancer early detection services in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Badal, Kimberly; Rampersad, Fidel; Warner, Wayne A; Toriola, Adetunji T; Mohammed, Hamish; Scheffel, Harold-Alexis; Ali, Rehanna; Moosoodeen, Murrie; Konduru, Siva; Russel, Adaila; Haraksingh, Rajini

    2018-01-01

    A situational analysis of breast cancer (BC) early detection services was carried out to investigate whether Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) has the framework for successful organized national screening. An online survey was designed to assess the availability, accessibility, quality control and assurance (QC&A), and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mechanisms for public and private BC early detection. A focus group with local radiologists (n = 3) was held to identify unaddressed challenges and make recommendations for improvement. Major public hospitals offer free detection services with wait times of 1-6 months for an appointment. Private institutions offer mammograms for TTD$240 (USD$37) at minimum with same day service. Both sectors report a lack of trained staff. Using 1.2 mammograms per 10,000 women ≥40 years as sufficient, the public sector's rate of 0.19 mammograms per 10,000 women ≥40 years for screening and diagnosis is inadequate. Program M&E mechanisms, QC&A guidelines for machinery use, delays in receipt of pathology reports, and unreliable drug access are further unaddressed challenges. T&T must first strengthen its human and physical resources, implement M&E and QC&A measures, strengthen cancer care, and address other impediments to BC early detection before investing in nationally organized BC screening.

  6. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  7. Measuring the implementation of early childhood development programs.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Prado, Elizabeth L

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we describe ways to measure variables of interest when evaluating the implementation of a program to improve early childhood development (ECD). The variables apply to programs delivered to parents in group sessions and home or clinic visits, as well as in early group care for children. Measurements for four categories of variables are included: training and assessment of delivery agents and supervisors; program features such as quality of delivery, reach, and dosage; recipients' acceptance and enactment; and stakeholders' engagement. Quantitative and qualitative methods are described, along with when measures might be taken throughout the processes of planning, preparing, and implementing. A few standard measures are available, along with others that researchers can select and modify according to their goals. Descriptions of measures include who might collect the information, from whom, and when, along with how information might be analyzed and findings used. By converging on a set of common methods to measure implementation variables, investigators can work toward improving programs, identifying gaps that impede the scalability and sustainability of programs, and, over time, ascertain program features that lead to successful outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    PubMed

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range <20->80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were <10 cells ml(-1) for both "large" and "small" model grazers, Euplotes vannus (80 × 45 μm) and an unidentified holotrichous ciliate (~18 × 8 μm) respectively. Furthermore, the system can distinguish the presence of ciliates in N. oculata cultures with biotechnologically relevant cell densities; i.e. >1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  10. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  11. [Effectiveness of an early discharge program after normal childbirth].

    PubMed

    Teulón González, M; Martínez Pillado, M; Cuadrado Martín, M M; Rivero Martín, M J; Cerezuela Requena, J F

    To implement a program of early hospital discharge after an uncomplicated birth, in order to improve the effectiveness, as well as ensuring clinical safety and patient acceptability. Descriptive study of the effectiveness of an early discharge program after uncomplicated delivery between February 2012 and September 2013. The populations are post-partum women and newborns admitted to the University Hospital of Fuenlabrada, with a duration of less than 24h after uncomplicated delivery that met the defined inclusion criteria. Satisfaction was assessed using a Likert scale. The effectiveness of the program was monitored by safety indicators, productivity, adaptation, and continuity of care. A total of 20% of cases capable of early discharge from Fuenlabrada University Hospital completed the program. Almost all (94%) were normal deliveries. The 188 cases included were from 911 patients with uncomplicated childbirth, accounting for 6.5% of the 2,857 total births. The mean stay of patients included showed a decrease of 50% (2.4 to 1.2 days). All patients received continuity of care after hospital discharge. The review consultation was reprogrammed for 4.8% of cases, with 2% of patients re-admitted within 96h. with no serious problems. Four newborns (2%) required attention in the emergency department (mother or newborn) before 96h. The assessment of patient satisfaction achieved a score of 4.5 out of 5. The program achieved a decrease in the average stay by 50%, favouring the autonomy of midwives. This acceptance level is in line with similar interventions. The deployment of the program may be useful for other changes in care processes. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Early detection of health and welfare compromises through automated detection of behavioural changes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen G; Miller, Amy L; Clapp, James; Plötz, Thomas; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-11-01

    Early detection of health and welfare compromises in commercial piggeries is essential for timely intervention to enhance treatment success, reduce impact on welfare, and promote sustainable pig production. Behavioural changes that precede or accompany subclinical and clinical signs may have diagnostic value. Often referred to as sickness behaviour, this encompasses changes in feeding, drinking, and elimination behaviours, social behaviours, and locomotion and posture. Such subtle changes in behaviour are not easy to quantify and require lengthy observation input by staff, which is impractical on a commercial scale. Automated early-warning systems may provide an alternative by objectively measuring behaviour with sensors to automatically monitor and detect behavioural changes. This paper aims to: (1) review the quantifiable changes in behaviours with potential diagnostic value; (2) subsequently identify available sensors for measuring behaviours; and (3) describe the progress towards automating monitoring and detection, which may allow such behavioural changes to be captured, measured, and interpreted and thus lead to automation in commercial, housed piggeries. Multiple sensor modalities are available for automatic measurement and monitoring of behaviour, which require humans to actively identify behavioural changes. This has been demonstrated for the detection of small deviations in diurnal drinking, deviations in feeding behaviour, monitoring coughs and vocalisation, and monitoring thermal comfort, but not social behaviour. However, current progress is in the early stages of developing fully automated detection systems that do not require humans to identify behavioural changes; e.g., through automated alerts sent to mobile phones. Challenges for achieving automation are multifaceted and trade-offs are considered between health, welfare, and costs, between analysis of individuals and groups, and between generic and compromise-specific behaviours. Copyright © 2016

  13. Cancer screening and early detection in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Data Sources Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (U SPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, evidence-based summaries Conclusion Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in the cancer screening over time. Implications for Nursing Practice Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21st Century through their practice, research, educational efforts and advocacy. PMID:28343835

  14. Early detection of psychosis: finding those at clinical high risk.

    PubMed

    Addington, Jean; Epstein, Irvin; Reynolds, Andrea; Furimsky, Ivana; Rudy, Laura; Mancini, Barbara; McMillan, Simone; Kirsopp, Diane; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-08-01

    In early detection work, recruiting individuals who meet the prodromal criteria is difficult. The aim of this paper was to describe the development of a research clinic for individuals who appear to be at risk of developing a psychosis and the process for educating the community and obtaining referrals. The outcome of all referrals to the clinic over a 4-year period was examined. Following an ongoing education campaign that was over inclusive in order to aid recruitment, approximately 27% of all referrals met the criteria for being at clinical high risk of psychosis. We are seeing only a small proportion of those in the community who eventually go on to develop a psychotic illness. This raises two important issues, namely how to remedy the situation, and second, the impact of this on current research in terms of sampling bias and generalizability of research findings. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Evaluation and early detection of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Braña Tobío, Teresa; Varela Mallou, Jesús; Barreiro Couto, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use in adolescents has become an issue of concern for a growing number of researchers and institutions over the past years. Behavioural problems, social isolation, school failure and family problems are some of the consequences of psychological and behavioural impact on teenagers. Taking into account the interest that this issue has generated at many levels, the aim of this paper is to develop a screening tool for early detection of problematic Internet use in teenagers. A survey of Compulsory Secondary School students from Galicia involving a total of 2,339 individuals was carried out. The results obtained allow (1) gauging the magnitude of the problem, establishing the risk levels among the adolescents, and (2) presenting a new, simple and short screening instrument. The present scale has sufficient theoretical and empirical support, including good psychometric properties (a = .83; specificity = .81; sensitivity = .80; ROC curve = .90), making it an interesting applied tool.

  16. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  17. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  18. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  19. Rest and exercise echocardiography for early detection of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment for this progressive disease. Rest and exercise echocardiography has been used to screen patients in an attempt to identify early stage PH. However, current PH guidelines recommend against exercise tests because of the lack of evidence. We reviewed previous studies to discuss the current standpoint concerning rest and exercise echocardiography in PH. Around 20 exercise echocardiography studies were included to assess the cutoff value for exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH). Approximately 40 exercise echocardiography studies were also included to evaluate the pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationship as assessed by the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output (ΔmPAP/ΔQ). There were several EIPH and ΔmPAP/ΔQ reference values in individuals with pulmonary vascular disease. We believed that assessing the ΔmPAP/ΔQ makes sense from a physiological standpoint, and the clinical value should be confirmed in future studies. Exercise echocardiography is an appealing alternative in PH. Further studies are needed to assess the prognostic value of the pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationship in high-risk subjects.

  20. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  1. David Weston – DOE Early Career Research Program Award Winner

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David

    Plant biologist David Weston is one of this year's U.S. Department of Energy Early Career Research Program award recipients. With this award, he will identify the genes and metabolic functions involved in the exchange of nutrients between certain plants and microbes and study their response to environmental changes in both laboratory and field settings. Deeper fundamental understanding of the symbiotic plant-microbe relationship could reveal pathways to improve bioenergy crop production in nutrient-limiting environments.

  2. Detection of the Early Warning Signs of Cancer by Community Pharmacists: An Evaluation of Training on Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benfield, William R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In a study of 702 pharmacists in 211 communities, an effort was made to determine the effect of a unit of education on the community pharmacist's ability and/or tendency to detect the early warning signs of cancer when manifested by patrons. The success of such a program is shown. (LBH)

  3. Utility of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma in a High-risk Population — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    A prospective study to evaluate the utility of various biomarkers in the context of an MM Early Detection Program. The study cohort will be composed of workers at a company with known asbestos exposure. Historically, a considerable number of workers at this company have developed MM.

  4. [National Laboratory on Early Childhood Education Program; Program Plans and Budget Request, Fiscal 1970 - Program Project Resumes 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This volume explains the purposes and programs of the National Laboratory on Early Childhood Education. Its overriding objective is to broaden the base of knowledge concerning educational intervention and to develop comprehensive early childhood educational models. A brief discussion deals with the problems, strategies, and capacities of the…

  5. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  6. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  7. Vessel and oil spill early detection using COSMO satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revollo, Natalia V.; Delrieux, Claudio A.

    2017-10-01

    Oil spillage is one of the most common sources of environmental damage in places where coastal wild life is found in natural reservoirs. This is especially the case in the Patagonian coast, with a littoral more than 5000 km long and a surface above a million and half square km. In addition, furtive fishery activities in Argentine waters are depleting the food supplies of several species, altering the ecological equilibrium. For this reason, early oil spills and vessel detection is an imperative surveillance task for environmental and governmental authorities. However, given the huge geographical extension, human assisted monitoring is unfeasible, and therefore real time remote sensing technologies are the only operative and economically feasible solution. In this work we describe the theoretical foundations and implementation details of a system specifically designed to take advantage of the SAR imagery delivered by two satellite constellations (the SAOCOM mission, developed by the Argentine Space Agency, and the COSMO mission, developed by the Italian Space Agency), to provide real-time detection of vessels and oil spills. The core of the system is based on pattern recognition over a statistical characterization of the texture patterns arising in the positive and negative conditions (i.e., vessel, oil, or plain sea surfaces). Training patterns were collected from a large number of previously reported contacts tagged by experts in the National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The resulting system performs well above the sensitivity and specificity of other avalilable systems.

  8. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  9. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  10. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  11. Red-breasted nuthatches detect early increases in spruce budworm populations

    Treesearch

    Hewlette S. Crawford; Daniel T. Jennings; Timothy L. Stone

    1990-01-01

    Early suppression .of increasing spruce budworm populations is essential to prevent epidemics; however, early changes in budworm numbers are difficult to detect. An effective and inexpensive method to detect early increases is needed. Red-breasted nuthatches eat more spruce budworm larvae and pupae as the insect increases in number. We estimated the number of large...

  12. [The social representation that adolescents from Jalisco, Mexico have of early detection of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Tapia Curiel, Amparo; Villaseñor Farías, Martha; Lidia Nuño Gutiérrez, Bertha; Rodríguez Carlos, Aída Araceli; Salas González, Efraín; López López, José Luis

    2014-10-01

    To describe the social representation that adolescents from Jalisco, Mexico, have of early detection of breast cancer. Qualitative cross, analytical interpretative and based on the theory of social representations. Non-probability sampling. Contact schools in basic education level of 7municipalities of the State of Jalisco, Mexico, through various government and educational institutions. A hundred thirty five schooled adolescents, men and women. Interview with 12 focus group 8-12participants and 1 with 18participants. The interviews were transcribed in Atlas Ti program version 4.1 for a semiotic analysis to identify components of social representation. The precocious detection linked itself to the decrease of deaths for cancer of breast, long treatments and mastectomy, but little coverage was perceived to the mammary health of the teenager. They refer as limiter elements of the precocious detection the aspects of kind, psychological and of access to the information and services of health; since facilitators there was mentioned the transition of the limiter elements to facilitators. A favorable panorama appears on the level of awareness of the teenagers on his mammary health, identifying as a sector highly sensitive to the information about cancer of breast and with disposition to effect actions of early detection; there are identified as important challenge the generation of campaigns, educational materials and spaces of health focused on the teenager. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Tost, Brian; Rose, Kelly; Aminzadeh, Fred

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filteredmore » out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.« less

  14. A new version of the helicopter aural detection program, ICHIN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.; Smith, C. D.; Shepherd, K. P.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center personnel have conducted an evaluation of the helicopter aural detection program I Can Hear It Now (ICHIN version-5). This was accomplished using flight noise data of five helicopters, obtained from a joint NASA and U.S. Army acoustics measurement program. The evaluation consisted of presenting the noise data to a jury of 20 subjects and to the ICHIN-5 program. A comparative study was then made of the detection distances determined by the jury and predicted by ICHIN-5. This report presents the changes made in the ICHIN-5 program as a result of this comparative study. The changes represent current psychoacoustics and propagation knowledge.

  15. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    measurements. These studies demonstrate the ability to use two quantitative microscopic imaging techniques, microCT and microMRI, to detect microscopic changes in collagen and GAG from healthy, biochemically degraded, and early OA cartilage. The capability for microscopic imaging to detect alterations at the earliest stages of OA will ultimately improve the understanding of degradation and may help aid in the detection for the prevention of disease and repair of damaged cartilage.

  16. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  17. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection ofmore » contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases with animal morbidity and mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Ssebide, Benard J; Marra, Peter P

    2015-03-01

    Diseases transmitted between animals and people have made up more than 50% of emerging infectious diseases in humans over the last 60 years and have continued to arise in recent months. Yet, public health and animal disease surveillance programs continue to operate independently. Here, we assessed whether recent emerging zoonotic pathogens (n = 143) are known to cause morbidity or mortality in their animal host and if so, whether they were first detected with an animal morbidity/mortality event. We show that although sick or dead animals are often associated with these pathogens (52%), only 9% were first detected from an animal morbidity or mortality event prior to or concurrent with signs of illness in humans. We propose that an animal morbidity and mortality reporting program will improve detection and should be an essential component of early warning systems for zoonotic diseases. With the use of widespread low-cost technology, such a program could engage both the public and professionals and be easily tested and further incorporated as part of surveillance efforts by public health officials.

  19. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  20. Disk Detective Follow-Up Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    As new data on exoplanets and young stellar associations arrive, we will want to know: which of these planetary systems and young stars have circumstellar disks? The vast allsky database of 747 million infrared sources from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission can supply answers. WISE is a discovery tool intended to find targets for JWST, sensitive enough to detect circumstellar disks as far away as 3000 light years. The vast WISE archive already serves us as a roadmap to guide exoplanet searches, provide information on disk properties as new planets are discovered, and teach us about the many hotly debated connections between disks and exoplanets. However, because of the challenges of utilizing the WISE data, this resource remains underutilized as a tool for disk and planet hunters. Attempts to use WISE to find disks around Kepler planet hosts were nearly scuttled by confusion noise. Moreover, since most of the stars with WISE infrared excesses were too red for Hipparcos photometry, most of the disks sensed by WISE remain obscure, orbiting stars unlisted in the usual star databases. To remedy the confusion noise problem, we have begun a massive project to scour the WISE data archive for new circumstellar disks. The Disk Detective project (Kuchner et al. 2016) engages layperson volunteers to examine images from WISE, NASA's Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and optical surveys to search for new circumstellar disk candidates via the citizen science website DiskDetective.org. Fueled by the efforts of > 28,000 citizen scientists, Disk Detective is the largest survey for debris disks with WISE. It has already uncovered 4000 disk candidates worthy of follow-up. However, most host stars of the new Disk Detective disk candidates have no known spectral type or distance, especially those with red colors: K and M stars and Young Stellar Objects. Others require further observations to check for false positives. The Disk Detective project is supported by

  1. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  2. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. It is known that individuals near the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner during the course of an outbreak, on average, than those at the periphery. Unfortunately, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals who might be monitored for infection is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, simply monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students who were either members of a group of randomly chosen individuals or a group of their friends. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 13.9 days (95% C.I. 9.9–16.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significant lead time (p<0.05) on day 16 of the epidemic, a full 46 days before the peak in daily incidence in the population as a whole. This sensor method could provide significant additional time to react to epidemics in small or large populations under surveillance. The amount of lead time will depend on features of the outbreak and the network at hand. The method could in principle be generalized to other biological, psychological, informational, or behavioral contagions that spread in networks. PMID:20856792

  3. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  4. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  5. Early detection strategy and mortality reduction in severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Feijó, Janaína; Andrade, Patrícia Silva de; Trindade, Louise; Suchard, Cezar; Monteiro, Márcio Andrei Gil; Martins, Sheila Fonseca; Nunes, Fernanda; Caldeira Filho, Milton

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of implementing an institutional policy for detection of severe sepsis and septic shock. Study before (stage I), after (stage II) with prospective data collection in a 195 bed public hospital.. Stage I: Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were included consecutively over 15 months and treated according to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Stage II: In the 10 subsequent months, patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were enrolled based on an active search for signs suggesting infection (SSI) in hospitalized patients. The two stages were compared for demographic variables, time needed for recognition of at least two signs suggesting infection (SSI-Δt), compliance to the bundles of 6 and 24 hours and mortality. We identified 124 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, 68 in stage I and 56 in stage II. The demographic variables were similar in both stages. The Δt-SSI was 34 ± 54 hours in stage I and 7 ± 8.4 hours in stage II (p <0.001). There was no difference in compliance to the bundles. In parallel there was significant reduction of mortality rates at 28 days (54.4% versus 30%, p <0.02) and hospital (67.6% versus 41%, p <0.003). The strategy used helped to identify early risk of sepsis and resulted in decreased mortality associated with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  6. Early detection and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Gerry Coghlan, J; Khanna, Dinesh

    2012-12-01

    The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains poor, despite advances in treatment options that have been made in the past few decades. Recent evidence suggests that World Health Organization functional class I or II patients have significantly better long-term survival rates than patients in higher functional classes, thus providing a rationale for earlier diagnosis and treatment of PAH. However, early diagnosis is challenging and there is frequently a delay between symptom onset and diagnosis. Screening programmes play an important role in PAH detection and expert opinion favours echocardiographic screening of asymptomatic patients who may be predisposed to the development of PAH (i.e. those with systemic sclerosis or sickle cell disease), although current guidelines only recommend annual echocardiographic screening in symptomatic patients. This article reviews the currently available screening programmes, including their limitations, and describes alternative screening approaches that may identify more effectively those patients who require right heart catheterisation for a definitive PAH diagnosis.

  7. mga genosensor for early detection of human rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-05-01

    The 5' amino-labeled DNA probe complementary to mga gene of Streptococcus pyogenes was immobilized on carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes electrode and hybridized with 0.1-100 ng/6 μl single-stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swab of suspected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients. Electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance (EI). The sensitivity of the sensor was 106.03 (μA/cm(2))/ng and limit of detection (LOD) was found 0.014 ng/6 μl with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.921 using DPV. The genosensor was characterized by FTIR and SEM, and electrode was found stable for 6 months on storage at 4 °C with 5-6 % loss in initial DPV current. mga genosensor is the first report on RHD sensor which can save life of several suspected patients by early diagnosis in 30 min.

  8. What Does Attending Early Childhood Program Mean for Child Health in India?

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Dipanwita; Sarkar, Jayanta

    2017-11-01

    The health impact of attending early childhood development programs in developing countries remains largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the health consequences of attending preschool programs in India. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, we allow for heterogeneity in the impact of preschool across the distribution of health outcomes while controlling for time-invariant unobservables. We detect unique temporal variation in the effect of preschool attendance - growth of preschool attendees is slower than non-attendees in various parts of the distributions of several anthropometric measures when evaluated in the early years between ages 1 and 5. This effect is likely to reverse in the longer term at age 8. The early years' adverse effect can be explained in part by over-attendance in the form of long daily hours, excessive attendance days, and early entry. The findings are insensitive to nutritional incentives like free meals provided in public schools. The growth-retarding effect remains robust for weight-for-age z-scores, implying that the impact of preschool attendance is not only heterogeneous, but differs across dimensions of health status. Our study highlights the need for strengthening the delivery of childhood programs in developing countries in order to prevent adverse health effects in the critical years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  10. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  11. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early…

  12. Model Development and Trial of Early Detection Manual for the Special Needs Children at Early Age Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Zainul; Ingarianti, Tri Muji; Suryaningrum, Cahyaning

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed to produce the manual for early detection for ABK at the level of early age education (PAUD = "Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini"). Research was "action research" with stages as proposed by Buunk and Van Vugt. Metodology of research these stages were called as PATH ("Problem-Analysis-Test…

  13. Early nutrition programming of long-term health.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith; Demmelmair, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence from the EU Project EARNEST and many other investigators demonstrates that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and the risk of common non-communicable diseases (known as 'developmental programming'). Because of the increasing public health importance and the transgenerational nature of the problem, obesity and associated disorders are the focus of the new EU funded project 'EarlyNutrition'. Currently, three key hypotheses have been defined: the fuel mediated 'in utero' hypothesis suggests that intrauterine exposure to an excess of fuels, most notably glucose, causes permanent changes of the fetus that lead to obesity in postnatal life; the accelerated postnatal weight gain hypothesis proposes an association between rapid weight gain in infancy and an increased risk of later obesity and adverse outcomes; and the mismatch hypothesis suggests that experiencing a developmental 'mismatch' between a sub-optimal perinatal and an obesogenic childhood environment is related to a particular predisposition to obesity and corresponding co-morbidities. Using existing cohort studies, ongoing and novel intervention studies and a basic science programme to investigate those key hypotheses, project EarlyNutrition will provide the scientific foundations for evidence-based recommendations for optimal nutrition considering long-term health outcomes, with a focus on obesity and related disorders. Scientific and technical expertise in placental biology, epigenetics and metabolomics will provide understanding at the cellular and molecular level of the relationships between early life nutritional status and the risk of later adiposity. This will help refine strategies for intervention in early life to prevent obesity.

  14. California's Early Assessment Program: Its Effectiveness and the Obstacles to Successful Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    The Early Assessment Program (EAP) has emerged as a national model for states seeking to design policies that increase the number of students who leave high school ready for college and careers. In addition, the two national consortia designing new assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards have recognized the EAP as a model for the…

  15. Does Attendance in Early Education Predict Attendance in Elementary School? An Analysis of DCPS's Early Education Program. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubay, Lisa; Holla, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. The Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has identified…

  16. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  17. Multiple-modality program for standoff detection of roadside hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn; Middleton, Seth; Close, Ryan; Luke, Robert H.; Suri, Rajiv

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is executing a program to assess the performance of a variety of sensor modalities for standoff detection of roadside explosive hazards. The program objective is to identify an optimal sensor or combination of fused sensors to incorporate with autonomous detection algorithms into a system of systems for use in future route clearance operations. This paper provides an overview of the program, including a description of the sensors under consideration, sensor test events, and ongoing data analysis.

  18. Estimation for aerial detection effectiveness with cooperation efficiency factors of early-warning aircraft in early-warning detection SoS under BSC framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Hu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Rui; Li, Kaiming; Yang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    In the military field, the performance evaluation of early-warning aircraft deployment or construction is always an important problem needing to be explored. As an effective approach of enterprise management and performance evaluation, Balanced Score Card (BSC) attracts more and more attentions and is studied more and more widely all over the world. It can also bring feasible ideas and technical approaches for studying the issue of the performance evaluation of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft which is the important component in early-warning detection system of systems (SoS). Therefore, the deep explored researches are carried out based on the previously research works. On the basis of the characteristics of space exploration and aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS and the cardinal principle of BSC are analyzed simply, and the performance evaluation framework of the deployment or construction of early-warning aircraft is given, under this framework, aimed at the evaluation issue of aerial detection effectiveness of early-warning detection SoS with the cooperation efficiency factors of the early-warning aircraft and other land based radars, the evaluation indexes are further designed and the relative evaluation model is further established, especially the evaluation radar chart being also drawn to obtain the evaluation results from a direct sight angle. Finally, some practical computer simulations are launched to prove the validity and feasibility of the research thinking and technologic approaches which are proposed in the paper.

  19. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identification of many...

  20. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors for Earthquake Detection and Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrenbach, M. H.; Cole, S.

    2016-12-01

    Fiber optic cables placed along pipelines, roads or other infrastructure provide dense sampling of passing seismic wavefields. Laser interrogation units illuminate the fiber over its entire length, and strain at desired points along the fiber can be determined from the reflected signal. Single-mode optical fibers up to 50 km in length can provide a distributed acoustic sensing system (DAS) where the acoustic bandwidth of each channel is limited only by the round-trip time over the length of the cable (0.0005 s for a 50 km cable). Using a 10 m spatial resolution results in 4000 channels sampled at 2.5 kHz spanning a 40 km-long fiber deployed along a pipeline. The inline strain field is averaged along the fiber over a 10 m section of the cable at each desired spatial sample, creating a virtual sensor location. Typically, a dynamic strain sensitivity of sub-nanometers within each gauge along the entire length of the fiber can be achieved. This sensitivity corresponds to a particle displacement figure of approximately -90 dB ms-2Hz-½. Such a fiber optic sensor is not as sensitive as long-period seismometers used in earthquake networks, but given the large number of channels, small to medium-sized earthquakes can be detected, depending on distance from the array, and can be located with precision through arrival time inversions. We show several examples of earthquake recordings using distributed fiber optic arrays that were deployed originally for other purposes. A 480 km long section of a pipeline in Turkey was actively monitored with a DAS fiber optic system for activities in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline. The densely spaced sensor array along the pipeline detected earthquakes of 3.6 - 7.2 magnitude range, centered near Van, Turkey. Secondly, a fiber optic system located along a rail line near the Salton Sea in California was used to create a smaller scale fiber optic sensor array, on which earthquakes with magnitudes 2.2 - 2.7 were recorded from epicenters

  1. The Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Program for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Sing, David K.; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Line, Michael R.; Kreidberg, Laura; Desert, Jean-Michel; Wakeford, Hannah; Crouzet, Nicolas; Moses, Julianne I.; Benneke, Björn; Kempton, Eliza; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Parmentier, Vivien; Gibson, Neale; Schlawin, Everett; Fraine, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Transiting Exoplanet Community ERS Team

    2018-06-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope offers astronomers the opportunity to observe the composition, structure, and dynamics of transiting exoplanet atmospheres with unprecedented detail. However, such observations require very precise time-series spectroscopic monitoring of bright stars and present unique technical challenges. The Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Program for JWST aims to help the community understand and overcome these technical challenges as early in the mission as possible, and to enable exciting scientific discoveries through the creation of public exoplanet atmosphere datasets. With observations of three hot Jupiters spanning a range of host star brightnesses, this program will exercise time-series modes with all four JWST instruments and cover a full suite of transiting planet characterization geometries (transits, eclipses, and phase curves). We designed the observational strategy through an open and transparent community effort, with contributions from an international collaboration of over 100 experts in exoplanet observations, theory, and instrumentation. Community engagement with the project will be centered around open Data Challenge activities using both simulated and real ERS data, for exoplanet scientists to cross-validate and improve their analysis tools and theoretical models. Recognizing that the scientific utility of JWST will be determined not only by its hardware and software but also by the community of people who use it, we take an intentional approach toward crafting an inclusive collaboration and encourage new participants to join our efforts.

  2. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TAmore » are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.« less

  3. Early detection of Candida albicans biofilms at porous electrodes.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Robert B; Feldberg, Alexander S; Ben-Yakar, Natalie; McGee, Dennis; Ober, Christopher; Sammakia, Bahgat; Sadik, Omowunmi A

    2013-02-15

    We describe the development of an electrochemical sensor for early detection of biofilm using Candida albicans. The electrochemical sensor used the ability of biofilms to accept electrons from redox mediators relative to the number of metabolically active cells present. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques were used to monitor the redox reaction of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) at porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) (238.7 cm(2)) working electrodes versus Ag/AgCl reference. A shift in the peak potential occurred after 12 h of film growth, which is attributed to the presence of C. albicans. Moreover, the intensity of the ferricyanide reduction peak first increased as C. albicans deposited onto the porous electrodes at various growth times. The peak current subsequently decreased at extended periods of growth of 48 h. The reduction in peak current was attributed to the biofilm reaching its maximum growth thickness, which correlated with the maximum number of metabolically active cells. The observed diffusion coefficients for the bare RVC and biofilm-coated electrodes were 2.2 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively. The increase in diffusivity from the bare electrode to the biofilm-coated electrode indicated some enhancement of electron transfer mediated by the biofilm to the porous electrode. Verification of the growth of biofilm was achieved using scanning electron microcopy and laser scanning confocal imaging microscopy. Validation with conventional plating techniques confirmed that the correlation (R(2) = 0.9392) could be achieved between the electrochemical sensors data and colony-forming units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  5. Continuity and Change From Full-Inclusion Early Childhood Programs Through the Early Elementary Period

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Neville, Brian; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    A large and well-characterized group of children with mild developmental delays initially enrolled in full-inclusion preschool or kindergarten programs was followed for 3 years. Changes in the type of inclusive placements as children transitioned to first and second grades were monitored, and associations between placement type and child and family characteristics were examined. Results revealed a high level of continuity in that most children remained in partial or full inclusion settings over time. However, a substantial reduction in full-inclusion placements occurred between the 2nd and 3rd year when children were completing the transition to first and second grades. Placements in less inclusive settings were associated with children’s levels of cognitive and language development but not their adaptive, social, or behavioral characteristics. A hypothesis was put forward that placement in full-inclusion programs during the early childhood years creates a momentum to continue maximum participation in inclusive settings over time. PMID:20890373

  6. Monitoring programs need to take into account imperfect species detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Schmid, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Biodiversiry monitoring is important to identify biological units in need of conservation and to check the effectiveness of conservation actions. Programs generally monitor species richness and its changes (trend). Usually, no correction is made for imperfect species detectability. Instead, it is assumed that each species present has the same probability of being recorded and that there is no difference in this detectability across space and time, e.g. among observers and habitats. Consequently, species richness is determined by enumeration as the sum of species recorded. In Switzerland, the federal government has recently launched a comprehensive program that aims at detecting changes in biodiversity at all levels of biological integration. Birds are an important part of that program. Since 1999, 23 visits per breeding season are made to each of >250 1 km2 squares to map the territories of all detected breeding bird species. Here, we analyse data from three squares to illustrate the use of capture-recapture models in monitoring to obtain detectability-corrected estimates of species richness and trend. Species detectability averaged only 85%. Hence an estimated 15% of species present remained overlooked even after three visits. Within a square, changes in detectability for different years were of the same magnitude when surveys were conducted by the same observer as when they were by different observers. Estimates of trend were usually biased and community turnover was overestimated when based on enumeration. Here we use bird data as an illustration of methods. However, species detectability for any taxon is unlikely ever to be perfect or even constant across categories to be compared. Therefore, monitoring programs should correct for species detectability.

  7. Early detection monitoring of Phytophthora ramorum in high-risk forests of California

    Treesearch

    Ross Meentemeyer; Elizabeth Lotz; David M. Rizzo; Kelly Buja; Walter Mark

    2006-01-01

    Early detection monitoring is essential for successful control of invasive organisms. Detection of invasions at an early stage of establishment when a population is small and isolated makes eradication more feasible and less costly. Sudden oak death, caused by the recently described pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, is an emerging forest disease that...

  8. Progress towards an AIS early detection monitoring network for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the lower St. Louis River system (SLR) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates f...

  9. Advancing Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Applying an Integrated Two-Stage Screening Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris J.; Wensing, Michel; Swinkels, Sophie H.; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Visser, Janne C.; Woudenberg, Tim; Minderaa, Ruud; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Few field trials exist on the impact of implementing guidelines for the early detection of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of the present study were to develop and evaluate a clinically relevant integrated early detection programme based on the two-stage screening approach of Filipek et al. (1999), and to expand the evidence…

  10. [Colorimetric card use for early detection visual biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Cerecedo, Alicia; Flores-Calderón, Judith; Villasis-Keever, Miguel Á; Chávez-Barrera, José A; Delgado-González, Elba E

    2018-01-01

    Bile duct atresia (BVA) is a condition that causes obstruction to biliary flow, not corrected surgically, causes cirrhosis and death before 2 years of age. In Mexico from 2013 the visual colorimetric card (VVC) was incorporated for the timely detection of BVA to the National Health Card (NHC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VCT for the detection of BVA before and after the use of NHC incorporation. Ambispective, analytical observational study. We included patients with AVB treated in two pediatric hospitals of third level care. We compared the age of reference, diagnosis and surgery before and after incorporation of the TCV. In addition, a questionnaire was made to the parents to know their perception about the TCV. In 59 children, there were no differences in age at diagnosis (75 vs 70 days) and age at surgery (84 vs 90 days) between the pre and post-implementation period of the VVC. The questionnaire showed that 10 (30%) of the parents received information about the use of the VVC and 13 (38%) identified the abnormal evacuations. This study did not show changes in time for the timely detection of BVA by using VVC. Therefore, it is necessary to reinforce the program in the three levels of care in our country. La atresia de vías biliares (AVB) es una condición que provoca obstrucción al flujo biliar, y de no corregirse quirúrgicamente, provoca cirrosis y la muerte antes de los 2 años de edad. En México, a partir del año 2013 se incorporó la tarjeta colorimétrica visual (TCV) para la detección oportuna de la AVB a la Cartilla Nacional de Salud (CNS). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la TCV para la detección de AVB antes y después de su incorporación a la CNS. Estudio ambispectivo, observacional y analítico. Se incluyeron pacientes con AVB atendidos en dos hospitales pediátricos de tercer nivel de atención. Se compararon la edad de referencia, el diagnóstico y la cirugía antes y después de la incorporaci

  11. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  12. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. How can clinicians detect and treat autism early? Methodological trends of technology use in research

    PubMed Central

    Bölte, S; Bartl-Pokorny, KD; Jonsson, U; Berggren, S; Zhang, D; Kostrzewa, E; Falck-Ytter, T; Einspieler, C; Pokorny, FB; Jones, EJH; Roeyers, H; Charman, T; Marschik, PB

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed original research papers that used quantifiable technology to detect early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified 376 studies from 34 countries from 1965-2013. Publications have increased significantly since 2000, with most coming from the USA. Electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking were the most frequently used technologies. Conclusion The use of quantifiable technology to detect early ASD has increased in recent decades, but has had limited impact on early detection and treatment. Further scientific developments are anticipated and we hope that they will increasingly be used in clinical practice for early ASD screening, diagnosis and intervention. PMID:26479859

  14. Surgical Training and the Early Specialization Program: Analysis of a National Program.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Mary E; Potts, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Eberlein, Timothy J; Rhodes, Robert S; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Hunter, John G; Stain, Steven C

    2016-04-01

    The Early Specialization Program (ESP) in surgery was designed by the American Board of Surgery, the American Board of Thoracic Surgery, and the Residency Review Committees for Surgery and Thoracic Surgery to allow surgical trainees dual certification in general surgery (GS) and either vascular surgery (VS) or cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) after 6 to 7 years of training. After more than 10 years' experience, this analysis was undertaken to evaluate efficacy. American Board of Surgery and American Board of Thoracic Surgery records of VS and CTS ESP trainees were queried to evaluate qualifying exam and certifying exam performance. Case logs were examined and compared with contemporaneous non-ESP trainees. Opinions of programs directors of GS, VS, and CTS and ESP participants were solicited via survey. Twenty-six CTS ESP residents have completed training at 10 programs and 16 VS ESP at 6 programs. First-time pass rates on American Board of Surgery qualifying and certifying exams were superior to time-matched peers; greater success in specialty specific examinations was also found. Trainees met required case minimums for GS despite shortened time in GS. By survey, 85% of programs directors endorsed satisfaction with ESP, and 90% endorsed graduate readiness for independent practice. Early Specialization Program participants report increased mentorship and independence, greater competence for practice, and overall satisfaction with ESP. Individuals in ESP programs in VS and CTS were successful in passing GS and specialty exams and achieving required operative cases, despite an accelerated training track. Programs directors and participants report satisfaction with the training and confidence that ESP graduates are prepared for independent practice. This documented success supports ESP training in any surgical subspecialty, including comprehensive GS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    PubMed

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  16. Accelerating Science with the NERSC Burst Buffer Early User Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bhimji, Wahid; Bard, Debbie; Romanus, Melissa

    NVRAM-based Burst Buffers are an important part of the emerging HPC storage landscape. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory recently installed one of the first Burst Buffer systems as part of its new Cori supercomputer, collaborating with Cray on the development of the DataWarp software. NERSC has a diverse user base comprised of over 6500 users in 700 different projects spanning a wide variety of scientific computing applications. The use-cases of the Burst Buffer at NERSC are therefore also considerable and diverse. We describe here performance measurements and lessons learned from the Burstmore » Buffer Early User Program at NERSC, which selected a number of research projects to gain early access to the Burst Buffer and exercise its capability to enable new scientific advancements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a Burst Buffer has been stressed at scale by diverse, real user workloads and therefore these lessons will be of considerable benefit to shaping the developing use of Burst Buffers at HPC centers.« less

  17. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  18. Early Detection of Dyslexia in Children Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Jackson-Lee, Sheila [D-TX-18

    2009-01-06

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  20. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...] Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications; Termination of... acceptance of nominations for the Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications... technologies to participate in a pilot program for early feasibility study IDE applications. FDA is also...

  1. 76 FR 12978 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Administration for Children and Families Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation. Date and... and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation will meet for its first session on Wednesday...

  2. 78 FR 53150 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home... Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIECHVE). Authority: Section 10(a)(2... meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program...

  3. "Let's Count": Evaluation of a Pilot Early Mathematics Program in Low Socioeconomic Locations in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bob; Gervasoni, Ann; Dockett, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The "Let's Count" pilot early mathematics program was implemented in five early childhood educational contexts across Australia during 2011. The program used specifically formulated materials and workshops to enlist the assistance of early childhood educators to work with parents and other family members of children in their settings to…

  4. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  5. The Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie; Bean, Jacob; Stevenson, Kevin; Alam, M.; Batalha, N.; Benneke, B.; Berta-Thompson, Z.; Blecic, J.; Bruno, G.; Carter, A.; Chapman, J.; Crossfield, I.; Crouzet, N.; Decin, L.; Demory, B.; Desert, J.; Dragomir, D.; Evans, T.; Fortney, J.; Fraine, J.; Gao, P.; Garcia Munoz, A.; Gibson, N.; Goyal, J.; Harrington, J.; Heng, K.; Hu, R.; Kempton, E.; Kendrew, S.; Kilpatrick, B.; Knutson, H.; Kreidberg, L.; Krick, J.; Lagage, P.; Lendl, M.; Line, M.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Louden, T.; Madhusudhan, N.; Mandell, A.; Mansfield, M.; May, E.; Morello, G.; Morley, C.; Moses, J.; Nikolov, N.; Parmentier, V.; Redfield, S.; Roberts, J.; Schlawin, E.; Showman, A.; Sing, D.; Spake, J.; Swain, M.; Todorov, K.; Tsiaras, A.; Venot, O.; Waalkes, W.; Wakeford, H.; Wheatley, P.; Zellem, R.

    2017-11-01

    JWST presents the opportunity to transform our understanding of planets and the origins of life by revealing the atmospheric compositions, structures, and dynamics of transiting exoplanets in unprecedented detail. However, the high-precision, time-series observations required for such investigations have unique technical challenges, and our prior experience with HST, Spitzer, and Kepler indicates that there will be a steep learning curve when JWST becomes operational. We propose an ERS program to accelerate the acquisition and diffusion of technical expertise for transiting exoplanet observations with JWST. This program will also provide a compelling set of representative datasets, which will enable immediate scientific breakthroughs. We will exercise the time-series modes of all four instruments that have been identified as the consensus highest priority by the community, observe the full suite of transiting planet characterization geometries (transits, eclipses, and phase curves), and target planets with host stars that span an illustrative range of brightnesses. The proposed observations were defined through an inclusive and transparent process that had participation from JWST instrument experts and international leaders in transiting exoplanet studies. The targets have been vetted with previous measurements, will be observable early in the mission, and have exceptional scientific merit. We will engage the community with a two-phase Data Challenge that culminates with the delivery of planetary spectra, time series instrument performance reports, and open-source data analysis toolkits.

  6. The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline; Weisz, Daniel; Resolved Stellar Populations ERS Program Team

    2018-06-01

    The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program (PI D. Weisz) will observe Local Group targets covering a range of stellar density and star formation histories, including a globular cluster, and ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, and a star-forming dwarf galaxy. Using observations of these diverse targets we will explore a broad science program: we will measure star formation histories, the sub-solar stellar initial mass function, and proper motions, perform studies of evolved stars, and map extinction in the target fields. Our observations will be of high archival value for other science such as calibrating stellar evolution models, studying variable stars, and searching for metal-poor stars. We will determine optimal observational setups and develop data reduction techniques that will be common to JWST studies of resolved stellar populations. We will also design, test, and release point spread function (PSF) fitting software specific to NIRCam and NIRISS, required for the crowded stellar regime. Prior to the Cycle 2 Call for Proposals, we will release PSF fitting software, matched HST and JWST catalogs, and clear documentation and step-by-step tutorials (such as Jupyter notebooks) for reducing crowded stellar field data and producing resolved stellar photometry catalogs, as well as for specific resolved stellar photometry science applications.

  7. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  8. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence for Early Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  9. Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    HÄFNER, HEINZ; MAURER, KURT

    2006-01-01

    Research into the early course of schizophrenia has identified a prepsychotic prodromal stage (mean duration: 4.8 years) and a psychotic prephase (mean duration: 1.3 years). Comparisons of individually matched samples have demonstrated prodromal symptoms common to schizophrenia and moderate to severe depression. It is not until positive symptoms emerge that psychosis and mood disorders become distinguishable from each other. In both disorders the prodromal stage early produces functional impairment and related social consequences. Hence, early intervention is of great public health relevance. This intervention is targeted at manifest symptoms and not at the underlying, still unknown disease process. Cognitive-behavioural therapy at the prepsychotic prodromal stage seems to favourably influence the short-term illness course. In the psychotic prephase, a combination with low-dose antipsychotics seems to have some efficacy. The aim of early recognition by the instruments discussed in this paper is to permit the identification of the largest possible proportion of at-risk persons as early as possible and their referral to appropriate treatment. PMID:17139339

  10. Helicopter main-rotor speed effects: A comparison of predicted ranges of detection from the aural detection program ICHIN and the electronic detection program ARCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.

    1991-01-01

    NASA LaRC personnel have conducted a strudy of the predicted acoustic detection ranges associated with reduced helicopter main rotor speeds. This was accomplished by providing identical input information to both the aural detection program ICHIN 6, (I Can Hear It Now, version 6) and the electronic acoustic detection program ARCAS (Assessment of Rotorcraft Detection by Acoustics Sensing). In this study, it was concluded that reducing the main rotor speed of the helicopter by 27 percent reduced both the predicted aural and electronic detection ranges by approximately 50 percent. Additionally, ARCAS was observed to function better with narrowband spectral input than with one-third octave band spectral inputs and the predicted electronic range of acoustic detection is greater than the predicted aural detection range.

  11. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cancellation for service in an early childhood... Cancellation § 674.58 Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1) An institution... addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social...

  12. Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten Program Team: Perspectives from the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbazi, Sara; Salinitri, Geri

    2016-01-01

    The Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten (FDK) Program has expanded the role of the principal and has altered the teaching dynamics of the classroom with the introduction of an early years team. The early years team consists of a certified teacher with the Ontario College of Teachers and a registered early childhood educator from the College of…

  13. 34 CFR 674.58 - Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addresses the children's cognitive (including language, early literacy, and early mathematics), social... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cancellation for service in an early childhood... Cancellation § 674.58 Cancellation for service in an early childhood education program. (a)(1) An institution...

  14. Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…

  15. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.24 Detection monitoring program. (a... unit; (ii) The mobility, stability, and persistence of waste constituents or their reaction products in... constituents, and reaction products in the ground water; and (iv) The concentration or values and coefficients...

  16. Improvements in diagnostic tools for early detection of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2016-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.

  17. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  18. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  19. Detection limit used for early warning in public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kobari, Tsuyoshi; Iwaki, Kazuo; Nagashima, Tomomi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi; Hayashi, Yuzuru; Yajima, Takehiko

    2009-06-01

    A theory of detection limit, developed in analytical chemistry, is applied to public health surveillance to detect an outbreak of national emergencies such as natural disaster and bioterrorism. In this investigation, the influenza epidemic around the Tokyo area from 2003 to 2006 is taken as a model of normal and large-scale epidemics. The detection limit of the normal epidemic is used as a threshold with a specified level of significance to identify a sign of the abnormal epidemic among the daily variation in anti-influenza drug sales at community pharmacies. While auto-correlation of data is often an obstacle to an unbiased estimator of standard deviation involved in the detection limit, the analytical theory (FUMI) can successfully treat the auto-correlation of the drug sales in the same way as the auto-correlation appearing as 1/f noise in many analytical instruments.

  20. Early Detection of NSCLC Using Stromal Markers in Peripheral Blood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    transcriptionally altered and the alteration is tumor dependent . The specific transcriptomic signature of circulating myeloid cells may provide us unique...signature, which may be useful for early lung cancer diagnosis. The specific aims are: Aim 1. To identify a NSCLC- dependent transcriptomic signature in...circulating myeloid cells are transcriptionally altered and the alteration is tumor dependent . The specific transcriptomic signature of circulating

  1. Effect of eccentric exercise program for early tibialis posterior tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Kornelia; Lederhaus, Eric S; Reischl, Steve; Arya, Shruti; Bashford, Greg

    2009-09-01

    Morphology and vascularization of painful tibialis posterior (TP) tendons before and after an intervention targeting the degenerated tendon were examined. Functional status and pain level were also assessed. A10-week twice daily, progressive eccentric tendon loading, calf stretching program with orthoses was implemented with ten, early stage TP tendinopathy subjects. TP tendons were imaged by grayscale and Doppler ultrasound at INITIAL and POST evaluations to assess the tendon's morphology and signs of neovascularization. The Foot Functional Index (FFI), Physical Activity Scale (PAS), 5-Minute Walk Test, and single heel raise (SHR) test were completed at INITIAL and POST evaluations. The Global Rating Scale (GRS) was completed at 6 months followup. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the FFI at INITIAL, POST, and 6-MONTH time points. Paired t-tests were used to compare means between the remaining variables. The level of significance was p = 0.05. There was a significant difference in FFI total, pain, and disability at the three time-points. Post-hoc paired t-tests revealed that the FFI scores were lower for the total score and pain and disability subcategories when comparing from INITIAL to POST and INITIAL to 6-MONTH evaluations (p < 0.05 for all). The number of SHR increased significantly on the involved side from INITIAL to POST evaluation (p = 0.041). The GRS demonstrated minimum clinically important differences for improvements in symptoms at 6-MONTH. Tendon morphology and vascularization remained abnormal following the intervention. A 10-week tendon specific eccentric program resulted in improvements in symptoms and function without changes in tendon morphology or neovascularization.

  2. Call for research: detecting early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This study delineated the extent to which a broad set of risk factors in youth, a period well suited to primary prevention strategies, influences the likelihood and timing of first lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations. Logistic regression was used to delineate early risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization among Americans in a nationally representative survey (NCS-R, Part II, 2001-2003: N = 5,692). Results suggest that inpatient stay is more common and happens at earlier ages among Americans who report growing up with versus without: (1) depressed parents or caregivers, (2) family members who victimized them, or (3) one of three child mental illnesses (conduct, oppositional defiant, or separation anxiety disorder). In order to prevent inpatient stay, findings call for longitudinal research on early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization among families with: (1) depressed parents of children or adolescents, (2) violence against children, and (3) children that have externalizing or separation anxiety disorders.

  3. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  4. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  5. Strategies for early melanoma detection: approaches to the patient with nevi

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa G.; Grossman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Although there are no non-invasive techniques for definitive diagnosis of melanoma, and the “gold standard” remains biopsy with histologic examination, a variety of modalities may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi. This article reviews general clinical principles of early melanoma detection, and various modalities that are currently available or on the horizon, providing the clinician with an up-to-date understanding of management strategies for their patients with numerous or atypical nevi. Learning objectives At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should: 1) understand the clinical importance of early melanoma detection; 2) appreciate the challenges of early melanoma diagnosis and which patients are at highest risk; 3) know general principles of early melanoma detection; 4) be familiar with current and emerging modalities that may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi; 5) know the advantages and limitations of each modality; and 6) be able to practice a combined approach to the patient with numerous or clinically atypical nevi. PMID:19389517

  6. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, Marijke R

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. However, early referral frequently makes it a challenge to recognize this heterogeneous disease in its initial stages. Signs and symptoms might be misleading or absent, while the most prominent skin marks might be in discrepancy with the position of the fascial necrosis. Gram staining and especially fresh frozen section histology might be a useful adjunct. Retrospective analysis of 3 year period. Non-transferred patients who presented with suspected necrotizing fasciitis are included. ASA classification was determined. Mortality was documented. In total, 21 patients are included. Most patients suffered from severe comorbidities. In 11 patients, diagnoses was confirmed based on intra-operative macroscopic findings. Histology and/or microbiotic findings resulted in 6/10 remaining patients in a change in treatment strategy. In total, 17 patients proved to suffer necrotizing fasciitis. In the cohort series 2 patients died due to necrotizing fasciitis. In the early phases of necrotizing fasciitis, clinical presentation can be ambivalent. In the present cohort, triple diagnostics consisting of an incisional biopsy with macroscopic, histologic and microbiotic findings was helpful in timely identification of necrotizing fasciitis.

  7. [Assessment of results in the early diagnosis of breast cancer program in Asturias Community].

    PubMed

    Natal, Carmen; Suárez, María Teresa; Serrano, Susana; Díaz, Concepción; González, Cristina; Menéndez, Primitiva; Castañón, Rubén; García, María Luisa; Blázquez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and disseminate the intermediate results of a breast cancer early detection program in the Asturias Community. We report the results of screening examinations performed between 2005 and 2009, using the indicators proposed in the European Guidelines on Quality Assurance in Mammography Screening. The information sources for breast cancer cases diagnosed were the pathology information system and the information on the characteristics of the tumour from the pathology report. The classification of the diagnostic features of the program was from its own information system. A total of 1,384 breast cancers were diagnosed in the program target population during the study period, of which 49% were diagnosed in the program, 13% were interval cancers, 17% were diagnosed in women who chose not to participate in the program, and 22% in women who for various reasons had not been invited to participate. The most advanced diagnoses were made in the group of interval cancers and the earliest diagnoses were made in the uninvited population. When the healthcare system is directed towards the asymptomatic population to provide a measure of prevention, it must ensure that there is a favourable balance. The results of this evaluation are consistent with accepted standards and with those found in other assessments. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  9. Animal Crackers, Milk, and a Good Book: Creating a Successful Early Childhood Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)

  10. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  11. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  12. Potential Landslide Early Detection Near Wenchuan by a Qualitatively Multi-Baseline Dinsar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, K.; Chen, G.; Xu, Q.; Li, Z.; Qu, T.; Hu, L.; Lu, H.

    2018-04-01

    Early detection of landslides is important for disaster prevention, which was still very hard work with traditional surveying methods. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology provided us the ability to monitor displacements along the slope with wide coverage and high accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a qualitatively multi-baseline DInSAR method to early detect and map the potential landslides. Two sections of China National Highway 317 and 213 were selected as study area. With this method 10 potential landslide areas were early detected and mapped in a quick and effective way. One of them (i.e. Shidaguan landslide) collapsed on August 2017, which was coincident with our results, suggesting that this method could become an effective way to acquire the landslide early detection map to assist the future disaster prevention work.

  13. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  14. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  15. Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa E.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Liesinger, Amanda M.; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although 1H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the 1H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-β, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-β burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. 1H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-β or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-β plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

  16. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    1 AD _________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate...DATES COVERED 15 Jul 2015 - 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer...the expression level of deregulated miRNAs in mouse and human PCa tissues as well as serum samples using an advanced nanotechnology -based sensing

  17. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  18. Detecting early functional damage in glaucoma suspect and ocular hypertensive patients with the multifocal VEP technique.

    PubMed

    Thienprasiddhi, Phamornsak; Greenstein, Vivienne C; Chu, David H; Xu, Li; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) technique can detect early functional damage in ocular hypertensive (OHT) and glaucoma suspect (GS) patients with normal standard achromatic automated perimetry (SAP) results. Twenty-five GS patients (25 eyes), 25 patients with OHT (25 eyes), and 50 normal controls (50 eyes) were enrolled in this study. All GS, OHT and normal control eyes had normal SAP as defined by a pattern standard deviation and mean deviation within the 95% confidence interval and a glaucoma hemifield test within normal limits on the Humphrey visual field 24-2 program. Eyes with GS had optic disc changes consistent with glaucoma with or without raised intraocular pressure (IOP), and eyes with OHT showed no evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and IOPs >or=22 mm Hg. Monocular mfVEPs were obtained from both eyes of each subject using a pattern-reversal dartboard array with 60 sectors. The entire display had a radius of 22.3 degrees. The mfVEPs, for each eye, were defined as abnormal when either the monocular or interocular probability plot had a cluster of 3 or more contiguous points with P<0.05 and at least 2 of these points with P<0.01. The mfVEP results were abnormal in 4% of the eyes from normal subjects. Abnormal mfVEPs were detected in 20% of the eyes of GS patients and 16% of the eyes of OHT patients. Significantly more mfVEP abnormalities were detected in GS patients than in normal controls. However, there was no significant difference in mfVEP results between OHT patients and normal controls. The mfVEP technique can detect visual field deficits in a minority of eyes with glaucomatous optic disks and normal SAP results.

  19. The role of early detection and treatment in malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Thu, Aung Myint; Carrara, Verena I; Lwin, Khin Maung; Bonnington, Craig A; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Delmas, Gilles; Nosten, François H

    2016-07-15

    Falciparum malaria persists in hard-to-reach areas or demographic groups that are missed by conventional healthcare systems but could be reached by trained community members in a malaria post (MP). The main focus of a MP is to provide uninterrupted and rapid access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) too all inhabitants of a village. RDTs allow trained community members to perform malaria diagnosis accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment, reducing as much as possible any delay between the onset of fever and treatment. Early treatment with ACT and with a low-dose of primaquine prevents further transmission from human to mosquito. A functioning MP represents an essential component of any malaria elimination strategy. Implementing large-scale, high-coverage, community-based early diagnosis and treatment through MPs requires few technological innovations but relies on a very well structured organization able to train, supervise and supply MPs, to monitor activity and to perform strict malaria surveillance.

  20. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  1. Gram-positive Rod Surveillance for Early Anthrax Detection

    PubMed Central

    Begier, Elizabeth M.; Barrett, Nancy L.; Mshar, Patricia A.; Johnson, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Connecticut established telephone-based gram-positive rod (GPR) reporting primarily to detect inhalational anthrax cases more quickly. From March to December 2003, annualized incidence of blood isolates was 21.3/100,000 persons; reports included 293 Corynebacterium spp., 193 Bacillus spp., 73 Clostridium spp., 26 Lactobacillus spp., and 49 other genera. Around-the-clock GPR reporting has described GPR epidemiology and enhanced rapid communication with clinical laboratories. PMID:16229790

  2. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    a molecular beacon (MB)-based approach for direct examination of gene expression in viable and fixed cells (2, 3). This objective of proposed study ...can be distinguished from normal cells (dark) (Figure 1) (2, 3, 8). Recently, a class of new fluorescent emitting nanoparticles, semiconductor ...morphological classification. This method may offer a simple and fast procedure to detect biomarker gene expression in clinical samples. Our study results

  3. [Colonoscopy for early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron

    2010-08-01

    Colonoscopy has a limited success in the prevention of colorectal cancer of the right colon. Thus, there is place for improvement. The potential reasons for colonoscopy failure are the different biology of polyps on the right side of the colon or procedure quality. Preparation, withdrawal time, detection of all polyps and their removal using the best technique will overcome this problem. Furthermore, the implementation of a computerized database and report that includes quality assurance fields, will improve colonoscopy success rates.

  4. The Importance of Distinguishing "Propensity" versus "Ability" to Imitate in ASD Research and Early Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Imitation abnormalities are often documented in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however the relevance of imitation to early development and early detection of ASD remains unclear. Recent studies that investigated whether imitation at 12 months distinguishes children who will subsequently receive an ASD diagnosis from other…

  5. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    approach. 4. Poroelastic model for tissue deformation: We have implemented the model of Netti et al. in a finite element program in order to simulate...changes would not be expected. 44Interstitial Fluid Flow 5. Conclusions A poroelastic model that includes the effects of fluid flow and the possibility of...images to produce a displacement field. Using this displacement field, and an assumed linear elastic model for the tissue, an inverse problem is solved

  6. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers. PMID:24371830

  7. Multiple biomarker panels for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve) in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  8. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...] Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications; Extending the... 13343), FDA terminated the acceptance of applications into the program and extended the pilot program for the nine accepted sponsors until May 8, 2013. The pilot program will be further extended for the...

  9. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  10. Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants. Instruction Manual [and] Early Interventionist's Workbook [and] Parent/Caregiver Workbook. William Beaumont Hospital Speech and Language Pathology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Altagracia A.; Bottino, Patti M.

    This early intervention kit includes a Comprehensive Early Stimulation Program for Infants (CESPI) instruction manual, an early interventionist workbook, and ten parent/caregiver workbooks. The CESPI early intervention program is designed to provide therapists, teachers, other health professionals, and parents with a common-sense, practical guide…

  11. Innovative Diagnostic Methods for Early Prostate Cancer Detection through Urine Analysis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bax, Carmen; Taverna, Gianluigi; Eusebio, Lidia; Sironi, Selena; Grizzi, Fabio; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Capelli, Laura

    2018-04-18

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death among men. It is an asymptomatic and slow growing tumour, which starts occurring in young men, but can be detected only around the age of 40–50. Although its long latency period and potential curability make prostate cancer a perfect candidate for screening programs, the current procedure lacks in specificity. Researchers are rising to the challenge of developing innovative tools able of detecting the disease during its early stage that is the most curable. In recent years, the interest in characterisation of biological fluids aimed at the identification of tumour-specific compounds has increased significantly, since cell neoplastic transformation causes metabolic alterations leading to volatile organic compounds release. In the scientific literature, different approaches have been proposed. Many studies focus on the identification of a cancer-characteristic “odour fingerprint” emanated from biological samples through the application of sensorial or senso-instrumental analyses, others suggest a chemical characterisation of biological fluids with the aim of identifying prostate cancer (PCa)-specific biomarkers. This paper focuses on the review of literary studies in the field of prostate cancer diagnosis, in order to provide an overview of innovative methods based on the analysis of urine, thereby comparing them with the traditional diagnostic procedures.

  12. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of early detection of breast cancer in Catalonia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) causes more deaths than any other cancer among women in Catalonia. Early detection has contributed to the observed decline in BC mortality. However, there is debate on the optimal screening strategy. We performed an economic evaluation of 20 screening strategies taking into account the cost over time of screening and subsequent medical costs, including diagnostic confirmation, initial treatment, follow-up and advanced care. Methods We used a probabilistic model to estimate the effect and costs over time of each scenario. The effect was measured as years of life (YL), quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and lives extended (LE). Costs of screening and treatment were obtained from the Early Detection Program and hospital databases of the IMAS-Hospital del Mar in Barcelona. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to compare the relative costs and outcomes of different scenarios. Results Strategies that start at ages 40 or 45 and end at 69 predominate when the effect is measured as YL or QALYs. Biennial strategies 50-69, 45-69 or annual 45-69, 40-69 and 40-74 were selected as cost-effective for both effect measures (YL or QALYs). The ICER increases considerably when moving from biennial to annual scenarios. Moving from no screening to biennial 50-69 years represented an ICER of 4,469€ per QALY. Conclusions A reduced number of screening strategies have been selected for consideration by researchers, decision makers and policy planners. Mathematical models are useful to assess the impact and costs of BC screening in a specific geographical area. PMID:21605383

  14. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  15. Neonatal and early infancy management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Swords, Kelly A; Peters, Craig A

    2015-09-01

    Hydronephrosis discovered during prenatal ultrasound will often resolve spontaneously; however, it should be evaluated in the postnatal period in a manner commensurate with its risk of renal injury. Early intervention is appropriate in cases of bladder outlet obstruction or the severely obstructed solitary kidney. In most other cases, it is both safe and reasonable to allow the possibility of spontaneous improvement with the intensity of follow-up based on the severity of the hydronephrosis. Clinical decision making should be a shared process between families and caregivers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Detection of occupational lead nephropathy using early renal markers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B D; Krishnaswamy, K

    1995-01-01

    Automotive use of leaded gasoline continues to be an important source of occupational exposure to lead in India and other countries. The present study assessed the renal function and markers of early renal damage of 22 mechanics at three automobile garages. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity and beta-2-microglobulin levels were significantly increased in auto garage mechanics with blood leads of 30-69 micrograms/dL. A significant correlation was observed between blood lead levels and urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity but not with urine beta-2-microglobulin levels. A marginal impairment in creatinine clearance was not statistically significant. Urinary N-acetyl-3-D-glucosaminidase activity offers a sensitive monitor of blood lead and renal tubular injury.

  17. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  18. [Usefullness of transesophageal echocardiography in early detection of coronary spasm].

    PubMed

    Sagara, M; Haraguchi, M; Hamu, Y; Isowaki, S; Yoshimura, N

    1996-04-01

    Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed on a 62-year-old man who underwent abdominal aortic replacement for abdominal aortic aneurysm under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. Coronary artery spasm occurred after unexpected massive hemorrhage, and TEE showed hypokinesis in the posterior-inferior left ventricular wall. The changes in TEE preceded the ST elevation in the ECG. Bolus infusion of isosorbide dinitrate and continuous infusion of nitroglycerin alleviated these changes. TEE enabled us to detect and evaluate coronary spasm before the appearance of ST changes in ECG.

  19. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  20. Influence of primary care professionals on early detection of breast cancer: different perception between family physicians and nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Aerny-Perreten, Nicole; García-Riolobos, Carmen; López Rubio, Aranzazu; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of self-perceived influence on early detection of breast cancer among nurses and family physicians (FP) working in primary care and to identify the factors associated with a lower perception in each group. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, an online questionnaire on cancer prevention was sent to a random sample of primary care professionals (3586 FP and nurses). The data included sex, age, profession, years in primary care, specific postgraduate training, and opinions and attitudes toward cancer prevention. A descriptive analysis was carried out. Factors associated with a low/null self-perceived influence on early detection of breast cancer were analyzed separately for FP and nurses with multivariate logistic regression models. In all, 76.4% of the participants considered that their influence on the early detection of breast cancer was enough/high. FP attributed to themselves a higher influence than nurses (enough/high: 86.0 vs. 64.6%, P<0.01), and a lower perception was associated with a low/null perceived utility of their individual intervention [odds ratio (OR): 6.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.77-14.85]. Among nurses, also associated with this low/null perceived utility [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.81, 95% CI 1.37-5.77] were the absence of postgraduate training in the matter (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.05-6.25), and a low/null perception of feasibility of prevention programs in their centers (aOR: 1.93, 95% CI 1.25-2.98). Primary care professionals perceive their activity in the early detection of breast cancer as relevant, especially FP. To increase knowledge of the utility of individual interventions, specific training and improvement of the feasibility of these programs could enhance this perception.

  1. Breast Cancer Knowledge, Behaviors, and Preferences in Malawi: Implications for Early Detection Interventions From a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Gopal, Satish; Lee, Clara N; Weiner, Bryan J; Reeve, Bryce B; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa and leading cause of death resulting from cancer; however, many countries lack early detection services. In Malawi, women are frequently diagnosed with large tumors after long symptomatic periods. Little is known about local cancer knowledge. We administered a cross-sectional survey with a discrete choice experiment to a random sample in urban and rural areas of Lilongwe district. Bivariable and multivariable analyses determined factors associated with knowledge. Preference utilities for early detection interventions were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian model in Sawtooth software. Of 213 women recruited, fewer than half were aware of breast cancer. In multivariable analysis, electricity at home and knowing someone with cancer increased the odds of awareness. Women were more knowledgeable about symptoms than treatment or risk factors; more than 60% erroneously believed local misconceptions. Seventeen percent were aware of breast self-examination, and 20% were aware of clinical breast examination (CBE); few reported either behavior. Common barriers included not knowing where to access CBE and transportation difficulties. Discrete choice experiment results indicated the detection strategy (breast health awareness, CBE, or both) was the most important attribute of an intervention, followed by the encounter setting and travel time. Addressing misconceptions in health messages and engaging survivors to promote early detection may help improve breast cancer knowledge in Malawi. Program designs accounting for women's preferences should provide breast health education and CBEs in convenient settings to address transportation barriers, particularly for women with low socioeconomic position.

  2. A Parent-Focused Early Intervention Program for Autism: Who Gets Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkin, Christina; Anderson, Angelika; Seymour, Fred; Moore, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The EarlyBird program is a psycho-educational early intervention program for parents of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). It aims to provide parents with skills to increase their child's communication and manage challenging behaviour using behavioural techniques. Method: Two interlinked studies examined access to the…

  3. Vermont Core Standards and Self-Assessment Tool for Center-Based Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Agency of Human Services, Waterbury.

    In response to the desire to create for child development services a unified system which shares common standards for quality and respects the diversity and uniqueness of individuals and of programs, a committee of the Early Childhood Work Group collected and compared all the different standards now in force for the early childhood programs in the…

  4. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  5. Evaluation of the Waterford Early Reading Program in Kindergarten, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; Price-Johnson, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), a technology-based program for early elementary grades, was provided through Arizona all day kindergarten funds to kindergarten students in 15 Title I elementary schools in the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) in the 2005-06 school year. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the…

  6. The Culture of Family: How a Model Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Program Navigates a Limited Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an extraordinarily successful early childhood education teacher preparation program at an urban 2-year college struggling with retention. The Early Childhood Education Program in this case study is able to maintain a graduation rate that is over four times greater than that of the college average and has a reputation for…

  7. Do Early Childhood Programs Have Lasting Effects on Children? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Early Intervention in Low Birthweight Premature Infants: Results at 18 Years of Age for the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP)" (M.C. McCormick, J.…

  8. Child Nutrition: A Focus on Preschool. Guidance for Early Care and Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    Because the development of healthy eating and physical activity habits during early childhood can prevent disease and support a lifetime of good health, nutrition services are a critical component of early childhood programs. This publication provides guidance to preschool programs to help them meet the Connecticut state goal of practicing…

  9. Activities in an S-STEM Program to Catalyze Early Entry into Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Raigoza, Annette F.; Fazal, M. Abul; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2017-01-01

    A cohort program to increase retention of under-represented groups in chemistry was developed at the College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University. In particular, this program chose to emphasize early career mentoring and early access to research. This goal was chosen because research has been repeatedly shown to increase scientific identity…

  10. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  11. Early Intervention Programs: Opening the Door to Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.

    This digest summarizes a larger document of the same title which examines early intervention programs providing services and resources to encourage low-income/minority youth to finish high school and enter college. It notes provisions of federal law which encourage such programs and the unifying mission of the National Early Intervention…

  12. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

  13. The Influence of an Early Childhood Program on Parental Involvement: Perceptions of Former Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    A key component of effective early childhood programs is collaborative relationships between schools, families, and the community (Fiese, Eckert, & Spagnola, 2005). One of these early childhood programs, Head Start, stands out among the others in its efforts to work with children, families, and communities to promote parental involvement. Some…

  14. Paths to School Readiness: An In-Depth Look at Three Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA.

    This report provides practitioners in the field of child and family services with important guidelines on early childhood education and family support programs including program design, community collaboration, funding, and staff management. The book presents the five main components of establishing an early childhood education and family support…

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Children Lost to Care in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…

  16. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  17. A Relationship with a Purpose: Accreditation Facilitation Projects and Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flis, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Describes use of accreditation facilitation projects (AFP) begun in the 1990s to provide varying levels and types of support to early childhood programs engaged in the self-study process for accreditation with the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Presents insights about the early childhood program/AFP relationship related…

  18. A Case Study of the Development of an Early Retirement Program for University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Trainer, Aileen

    1985-01-01

    To offset declining enrollments, financial constraints, younger faculties, and high tenure ratios, some institutions are considering early retirement programs to facilitate faculty turnover. A University of Virginia faculty committee reviewed several early retirement options and selected a cost-effective bridging program with ample incentives and…

  19. Validation of Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma (GLNE 010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We propose a Phase 2 (large cross-sectional) PRoBE-compliant validation trial of stool-based and serum-based tests for the detection of colorectal neoplasia (1). The trial is powered to detect early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma or high grade dysplasia. This is the most stringent, conservative approach to the early diagnosis of colonic neoplasia and addresses the most important endpoint of identifying individuals with curable, early stage cancer and those with very high risk non-invasive neoplasia (high grade dysplasia).

  20. Supporting Our Youngest Children: Early Head Start Programs in 2010. Brief No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Stephanie; Ewen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Since 1965, Head Start has provided high quality early education and comprehensive support services to the nation's poorest children from ages 3 through school age. In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of poor children under age 3 and pregnant women. Head Start and Early Head Start's…

  1. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  2. 76 FR 71979 - Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... and Services Administration Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...: Name: Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Evaluation..., DC 20005. (202) 289-7600. The Advisory Committee on the Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home...

  3. An Evaluation of the Savannah Early College Program: An Action Oriented Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearse, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah Early College Program (SECP) opened its doors in August 2007 to make a difference in the lives of all students who enrolled. Its primary mission was to combine academic rigor and support to help students enter college early and graduate from high school with up to 2 years of college credit. Since SECP joined the Early College High…

  4. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  5. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  6. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  7. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  8. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  9. [Research on early fire detection with CO-CO2 FTIR-spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ren-cheng; Huang, Xiang-ying; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2007-05-01

    A new fire detection method is put forward based on the theory of FTIR spectroscopy through analyzing all kinds of detection methods, in which CO and CO2 are chosen as early fire detection objects, and an early fire experiment system has been set up. The concentration characters of CO and CO2 were obtained through early fire experiments including real alarm sources and nuisance alarm sources. In real alarm sources there are abundant CO and CO2 which change regularly. In nuisance alarm sources there is almost no CO. So it's feasible to reduce the false alarms and increase the sensitivity of early fire detectors through analyzing the concentration characters of CO and CO2.

  10. PHI in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Radka; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Hora, Milan; Dolejsova, Olga; Pecen, Ladislav; Kasik, Petr; Novak, Jaroslav; Casova, Miroslava; Smejkal, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in the serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), %free PSA and -2proPSA biomarkers, and prostate health index (PHI) in the diagnostic algorithm of early prostate cancer. The Immunoanalytical Laboratory of the University Hospital in Pilsen examined sera from 263 patients being treated at the Hospital's Urology Department with suspected prostate cancer who had undergone biopsies and were divided into a benign and malignant group. The monitored biomarkers were measured using chemiluminescence. All statistical analyses were calculated using the SAS software. We found statistically significantly increased levels of -2proPSA, PHI and PSA and decreased levels of %freePSA in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy vs. patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (median values: -2proPSA: 16 vs. 21 ng/l, PHI: 35 vs. 62, total PSA: 7.2 vs. 7.7 μg/l and %free PSA: 16.7 vs. 11.7%). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed the best performance for PHI compared to other markers. The assessment of -2proPSA and the calculation of PHI appear to be of great benefit for a more accurate differential diagnosis of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Usher syndrome type 1: early detection of electroretinographic changes.

    PubMed

    Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Renault, Francis; Loundon, Natalie; Marlin, Sandrine; Pelosse, Béatrice; Momtchilova, Martha; Auzoux-Chevé, Monique; Vermersch, Anne Isabelle; Richard, Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 needs to be diagnosed at early age in order to timely manage speech therapy, cochlear implantation, and genetic counseling. Few data are available regarding electroretinographic testing before the age of six years. To describe electroretinographic changes in young children with Usher syndrome type 1. Retrospective study of fourteen patients. Age at first neurophysiologic testing was between 17 months and 5 years 4 months. Electroretinogram was performed using flash stimulation in mesopic conditions in the conscious child. Analysis was focused on the amplitudes and latencies of a- and b-waves. Whatever the age, an abnormal fundus was always confirmed with an absent electroretinogram. The youngest patient with absent electroretinogram was 17 month-old. When recorded on and after the 29th month of age, electroretinogram was absent in all cases, including 6 patients with normal fundus. In three patients a low-amplitude electroretinogram was present at first recording within the 26th and 27th months. Electroretinogram showed retinopathy in young children with Usher syndrome type 1, even in the absence of fundoscopic signs of retinal degeneration.

  12. Progress and prospects of early detection in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blandin Knight, Sean; Crosbie, Phil A.; Balata, Haval; Chudziak, Jakub; Hussell, Tracy; Dive, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. It is broadly divided into small cell (SCLC, approx. 15% cases) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, approx. 85% cases). The main histological subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, with the presence of specific DNA mutations allowing further molecular stratification. If identified at an early stage, surgical resection of NSCLC offers a favourable prognosis, with published case series reporting 5-year survival rates of up to 70% for small, localized tumours (stage I). However, most patients (approx. 75%) have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis (stage III/IV) and despite significant developments in the oncological management of late stage lung cancer over recent years, survival remains poor. In 2014, the UK Office for National Statistics reported that patients diagnosed with distant metastatic disease (stage IV) had a 1-year survival rate of just 15–19% compared with 81–85% for stage I. PMID:28878044

  13. [Assessment tools in early detection of osteoporosis in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Knezović Zlatarić, Dubravka; Pandurić, Josip; Korsić, Mirko; Dodig, Damir

    2007-03-01

    Osteoporosis, one of the major skeletal diseases in older age, is characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a resulting increase in bone fragility and hence susceptibility to fracture. In this review we analyse the systemic and local factors associated with oral bone mass loss. Systemic factors most often correlated with the oral bone mass loss include osteoporosis, renal diseases, hormonal disorders, diet and the impact of different drugs on the bony structure. Chronic periodontal disease, early loss of teeth or the effect of inadequate prosthodontic appliance on the residual ridge are the local factors associated with mandibular bone loss. Different assessment tools for the assessment of mandibular oral bone loss have been proposed, such as DXA absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, intraoral microdensitometry, SCORE index and the assessment of the thickness and quality of the mandibular inferior cortical border. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mandibular bony structure is of great importance in all fields of dentistry - from periodontology to endodontics and prosthodontics, especially in dental implantology. It is important to make the correct indication prior to dental implant therapy, and taking into account the systemic and local factors mentioned above, assess both the actual quality and quantity of the mandible.

  14. Consumer preferences for teledermoscopy screening to detect melanoma early.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Janda, Monika; Soyer, H Peter; Whitty, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    'Store and forward' teledermoscopy is a technology with potential advantages for melanoma screening. Any large-scale implementation of this technology is dependent on consumer acceptance. To investigate preferences for melanoma screening options compared with skin self-examination in adults considered to be at increased risk of developing skin cancer. A discrete choice experiment was completed by 35 consumers, all of whom had prior experience with the use of teledermoscopy, in Queensland, Australia. Participants made 12 choices between screening alternatives described by seven attributes including monetary cost. A mixed logit model was used to estimate the relative weights that consumers place on different aspects of screening, along with the marginal willingness to pay for teledermoscopy as opposed to screening at a clinic. Overall, participants preferred screening/diagnosis by a health professional rather than skin self-examination. Key drivers of screening choice were for results to be reviewed by a dermatologist; a higher detection rate; fewer non-cancerous moles being removed in relation to every skin cancer detected; and less time spent away from usual activities. On average, participants were willing to pay AUD110 to have teledermoscopy with dermatologist review available to them as a screening option. Consumers preferentially value aspects of care that are more feasible with a teledermoscopy screening model, as compared with other skin cancer screening and diagnosis options. This study adds to previous literature in the area which has relied on the use of consumer satisfaction scales to assess the acceptability of teledermoscopy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-21

    changes, we can identify some underlying drivers and rule out others. Development and Early Production Differences BBP-era drops are driven by dropping...Annual Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production Dan Davis and Philip S...Growth of Contract Costs for Major Programs in Development and Early Production Dan Davis and Philip S. Antón March 21, 2016 SUMMARY Cost is

  16. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts: a multiple method evaluation for management application.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change.

  17. Early Detection of Ecosystem Regime Shifts: A Multiple Method Evaluation for Management Application

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P.; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A.; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change. PMID:22808007

  18. Getting Men Involved: Strategies for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, James A.; And Others

    Designed as a guide for early childhood professionals, this book outlines specific success strategies for getting men--fathers or any significant male in a child's life--involved in early childhood education and child care, moving away from the traditional view of these fields as women's domains. The first section of the guide focuses on…

  19. Building Global Awareness in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Sigur, Raynice; Bell, Douglas; Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    Many early learning settings are more culturally diverse than ever before. Due to widespread migration, early learning classrooms now include students from a rich variety of racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. One classroom may contain students from a dozen countries and even more cultural experiences. To produce conscientious and creative global…

  20. The Littlest Historians: Early Years Programming in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…

  1. [Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Campero, Lourdes; Atienzo, Erika E; Marín, Eréndira; de la Vara-Salazar, Elvia; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; González, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few practice health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  2. Point/Counterpoint: early detection of prostate cancer: do the benefits outweigh the consequences?

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Vickers, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Few clinical issues have polarized the oncology community as much as screening for prostate cancer, with advocates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing vocal on one side and skeptics just as vocal on the other. At the NCCN 19th Annual Conference, Dr. Peter R. Carroll and Dr. Andrew J. Vickers tackled the controversy surrounding early detection of prostate cancer, focusing attention on the randomized trial results at the heart of the matter; over-detection (the Achilles' heel of screening); and the rationale behind the new, streamlined 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection, which emphasize selective early detection and treatment and are tightly aligned with the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  3. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  4. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  5. The Impact of Federal Early Childhood Programs on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz, Thomas W.

    This paper reviews research findings concerning the effects on young children of major Federal programs in education and child care. It offers a summary rather than a detailed view of research on the impact of programs, and is based primarily on major program evaluation reports and research reviews. In addition, it draws upon a small number of…

  6. Currency arbitrage detection using a binary integer programming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this work, students can learn to link several types of basic optimization models, namely linear programming, integer programming and network models, and apply the well-known sensitivity analysis procedure to accommodate realistic changes in the exchange rates. Beginning with a BIP model, we discuss how it can be reduced to an equivalent but considerably simpler model, where an efficient algorithm can be applied to find the arbitrages and incorporate the sensitivity analysis procedure. A simple comparison is then made with a different arbitrage detection model. This exercise helps students learn to apply basic Operations Research concepts to a practical real-life example, and provides insights into the processes involved in Operations Research model formulations.

  7. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life. PMID:28773048

  8. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-06-22

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  9. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  10. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses showed that intensive gastroscopy for high risk patients of gastric cancer enhanced the detection rate of EGC in cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  11. Early Detection of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area using HIMAWARI-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Kadosaki, G.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many disasters have been occured by influence of meteorological change in Japan. So, it becomes more important to inform rapid weather change caused by cumulus which brings concentrated heavy rain/hail, wind gust, lightning in a short period. These severe events should inclease in the future by global warming. Therefore we are developping the alert system for Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area (RDCA) detection using Japanese new satellite. At July 2015, Japan Meteorological Agency started operation of new geostationary meteorological satellite "Himawari-8". This satellite has optical imager named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). It can observe Japan area every 2.5 minutes. The frequently infrared image with high resolution (2km) is the key of our alert system. We took some special functions in the algorithm of this system. One of the points is cloud location which shifts to north from true location around Japan by viewing angle from the satellite above the equator. We moved clouds to the correct position using geometric correction method according to its height and latitude. This algorithm also follows a movement of cloud every 2.5 minutes during several observations. It derives the information about degree of the development of cumulus. The prototype system gives the alert before 30 to 60 minutes in advance to the first lightning in typical cumulus case. However, we understand that there are some difficult cases to alert. For example, winter low cloud over the Japan Sea which brings a winter lightning, and tornado (although it is not cumulus). Now, we are adjusting some parameters of the algorithm. In the near future, our algorithm will be used in weather information delivery service to the customer.

  12. A combination of circulating miRNAs for the early detection of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Akira; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Mitsuya; Ikeda, Shun-ichi; Kato, Tomoyasu; Niimi, Kaoru; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality, due to the difficulty of early detection. Current screening methods lack sufficient accuracy, and it is still challenging to propose a new early detection method that improves patient outcomes with less-invasiveness. Although many studies have suggested the utility of circulating microRNAs in cancer detection, their potential for early detection remains elusive. Here, we develop novel predictive models using a combination of 8 circulating serum miRNAs. This method was able to successfully distinguish ovarian cancer patients from healthy controls (area under the curve, 0.97; sensitivity, 0.92; and specificity, 0.91) and early-stage ovarian cancer from patients with benign tumors (0.91, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively). This method also enables subtype classification in 4 types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Furthermore, it is found that most of the 8 miRNAs were packaged in extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, derived from ovarian cancer cells, and they were circulating in murine blood stream. The circulating miRNAs described in this study may serve as biomarkers for ovarian cancer patients. Early detection and subtype determination prior to surgery are crucial for clinicians to design an effective treatment strategy for each patient, as is the goal of precision medicine. PMID:29163790

  13. Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Kuhrik, Marilee; Seckman, Christy; Kuhrik, Nancy; Ahearn, Tina; Ercole, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, with about 1,000,000 people developing the disease each year. The incidence of melanoma has rapidly increased in young white women between the ages of 15-34 over the last three decades. While melanoma accounts for approximately 3% of skin cancers, it causes more than 75% of skin cancer deaths. Thorough skin assessments and awareness of new or changing appearance of skin lesions are critical to early detection and treatment of skin cancer, as well as teaching sun-protective behaviors. Educators created a novel approach to "bring to life" skin cancer assessment skills to promote awareness of prevention and early detection of skin cancer using moulage in a human patient simulation lab. Through the use of moulage-like lesions, simulated patients were evaluated and taught skin cancer prevention and early detection principles by baccalaureate nursing students. The average age of study participants (n = 104) was 26.50 years. The majority of responders were female. At the end of the lab, students' average responses to an evaluation based on program goals were very positive. Anecdotal comments affirmed positive student perceptions of their simulation experience. Data analyses indicated item means were consistently higher for upper-division students. The age and gender of students who participated in this study align with the NCI statistics on age and gender of the population with increased incidence of melanoma.

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), BTH (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  15. Assessment and Program Accountability in Early Childhood Education: Lessons Learned in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Mary; Zorn, Debbie; Austin, James T.

    2005-01-01

    Ensuring that children, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, start school ready to learn is an important goal. This paper presents lessons learned from the state of Ohio's multi-year program to develop a standards-based assessment system for programs delivering state-funded early childhood education (ECE) through programs receiving…

  16. Evaluating an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Multi-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aswegen, Christa; Pendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of one topic in an enrichment program designed for children in their early years of learning. The program is responsive to an increased understanding of the benefits for very young children of programs that not only take advantage of the sensitive periods for learning but that also assist parents to a take a…

  17. Programs for Children with Special Needs in Iran: The Importance of Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekpour, Mokhtar

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss programs that serve children with special needs in Iran, as well as early intervention. These programs are provided through two separate governmental organizations: the Well-Fare Department, and Special Education Organization. These programs include different types of habilitation services such as (a)…

  18. Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Lavin, Claire

    This report evaluates the Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program in New York City Public Schools. The program was designed to promote the development of preschool handicapped students in a variety of areas. The program objective proposed that the target students would show statistically significant improvement at the .05 level in…

  19. Reflections on the Development and Implementation of an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Metaphorical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Prendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The profile of gifted education is being raised in Queensland (Australia) schools in recognition of the potential benefits to students of engaging in such programs. Little is known, however, about what types of programs are being delivered, especially in the early years. Since many programs are created by individuals, it is important to understand…

  20. How Does Early Feedback in an Online Programming Course Change Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    How does early feedback change the programming problem solving in an online environment and help students choose correct approaches? This study was conducted in a sample of students learning programming in an online course entitled Introduction to C++ and OOP (Object Oriented Programming) using the ANGEL learning management system platform. My…

  1. An Early Childhood Program Matrix: Pulling the Pieces Together for Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneke, Sallee; Ruther, Gina; Fowler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The early childhood program matrix in this article delineates the various requirements of nine publicly funded programs in Illinois that provide services to young children and families. The first section of the matrix addresses the design of each program and logistics, such as funding, payment, eligibility, and amount of services. The second…

  2. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Training and Personnel in Early Childhood Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    Four papers discuss training and personnel in early childhood education. The concepts developed by the Division of Training Programs in seeking to award a grant for planning inservice training programs are described by J. Gerald Minskoff as is the role of a training coordinator. An evaluation of a pilot program to train teacher aides is presented…

  3. Early exposure to geriatric nursing through an externship program.

    PubMed

    Souder, Elaine; Beverly, Claudia J; Kitch, Stephanie; Lubin, Sandie A

    2012-01-01

    The Summer Geriatric Extern Program was developed in 2004 to provide nursing students between the junior and senior year an opportunity to learn more about careers in geriatric nursing.This full-time, eight-week commitment provides students with a stipend and a faculty mentor in their area of interest. Of the 24 externs since the inception of the program, seven have enrolled in graduate programs. The findings suggest that the summer geriatric externship program is effective in developing interest in a geriatric nursing career and providing exposure to nursing research and other aspects of the faculty role.

  4. Home Visiting Family Support Programs: Benefits of the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Home Visiting Campaign, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The federally funded, locally administered Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program sponsors family support programs that are often called "home visiting" because they take place in the homes of at-risk families. These families often lack support, experience, and knowledge of basic parenting skills. Because children…

  5. FOSPA Program Description. Parent-Child Programs: District 742 Community Education's Early Childhood Family Education Project [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoodecheck, Jeanne; Kearns, Ellen

    The Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity (FOSPA) program, an Early Childhood/Family Education program for parents and their 4-year-old children, is described. FOSPA is a nationally validated Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act demonstration project in the St. Cloud Community Schools district of Minnesota. Based on research…

  6. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  7. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  8. Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, opinions and practices regarding dental caries prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.

  9. Preclinical Evaluation of a Decision Support Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Potential Hemodynamic Decompensation During Blood Loss in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Hemodynamic Decompensation During Blood Loss in Humans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael J. Joyner, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Mayo Clinic...Medical Monitoring System for Early Detection of Potential Hemodynamic Decompensation During Blood Loss in Humans 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...loss and hemorrhage in humans. The aim Is to be able to detect subtle changes in hemodynamic variables that provide prodromal clues to Impending

  10. The Current State of Early Childhood Education Programs: How Early Childhood Center Directors Manage Their Human Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Research in the field of early childhood education (ECE) demonstrated the association between skilled directors and high quality programs. Still, most state licensing requirements do not delineate the requisite knowledge or experience necessary to be an effective director. Many ECE directors advance to their position directly from the…

  11. Evaluation of an Early Childhood Preschool Program in Rural Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E.

    2006-01-01

    A preschool program in rural Bangladesh was evaluated in terms of cognitive and social outcomes of children. The preschools provided a half-day program, 6 days a week, with free play, stories, and instruction in literacy and math. Four hundred children between 4.5 and 6.5 years were assessed, half in preschools and half in villages where there…

  12. A Look at Early Childhood Programming in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Based on data from an exploratory, online survey, this article reveals that a surprisingly high number of art and history museums currently offer programs for very young children. The author describes the kinds of challenges that survey respondents faced when planning and conducting programs, and calls for more research and more collective action.…

  13. The Community Options Program: An Evaluation of Early Implementation Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Madison.

    This document contains a preliminary report on the implementation of Wisconsin's Community Options Program (COP), a program designed both to divert persons from entering nursing homes and to deinstitutionalize current nursing home residents who can be effectively served by community-based alternatives. The introduction of this report provides a…

  14. Early Survey Results from the Minnesota Medical Cannabis Program.

    PubMed

    McGriff, Deepa; Anderson, Susan; Arneson, Tom

    2016-06-01

    As part of its legislative mandate, the Minnesota Department of Health's Office of Medical Cannabis (OMC) is required to study and report on the state's medical cannabis program. This article describes preliminary findings from the OMC's research about who is using the program and whether patients and their certifying health care practitioners are noticing benefits and harms.

  15. Mathematical models for the early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harper, P R; Jones, S K

    2005-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death for men and women in the Western world. When the cancer is detected through an awareness of the symptoms by a patient, typically it is at an advanced stage. It is possible to detect cancer at an early stage through screening and the marked differences in survival for early and late stages provide the incentive for the primary prevention or early detection of colorectal cancer. This paper considers mathematical models for colorectal cancer screening together with models for the treatment of patients. Illustrative results demonstrate that detailed attention to the processes involved in diseases, interventions and treatment enable us to combine data and expert knowledge from various sources. Thus a detailed operational model is a very useful tool in helping to make decisions about screening at national and local levels.

  16. DROP: Detecting Return-Oriented Programming Malicious Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Hai; Shen, Xiaobin; Yin, Xinchun; Mao, Bing; Xie, Li

    Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is a new technique that helps the attacker construct malicious code mounted on x86/SPARC executables without any function call at all. Such technique makes the ROP malicious code contain no instruction, which is different from existing attacks. Moreover, it hides the malicious code in benign code. Thus, it circumvents the approaches that prevent control flow diversion outside legitimate regions (such as W ⊕ X ) and most malicious code scanning techniques (such as anti-virus scanners). However, ROP has its own intrinsic feature which is different from normal program design: (1) uses short instruction sequence ending in "ret", which is called gadget, and (2) executes the gadgets contiguously in specific memory space, such as standard GNU libc. Based on the features of the ROP malicious code, in this paper, we present a tool DROP, which is focused on dynamically detecting ROP malicious code. Preliminary experimental results show that DROP can efficiently detect ROP malicious code, and have no false positives and negatives.

  17. Attitude and Practice Regarding Breast Cancer Early Detection among Iranian Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Mahin; Balouchi, Abbas; Taheri, Safiyeh; Bouya, Salehoddin; Ahmadidarehsima, Sudabeh; Aminifard, Mohammadnaem

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To determining attitudes and practice regarding breast cancer early detection techniques (breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography) among Iranian woman. Methods: International (PubMed, ISI, and Google Scholar) and national (SID and Magiran) databases were reviewed up to September 2017 to identify articles related to the attitudes and practices of Iranian women concerning breast cancer screening behavior with reference to BSE , CBE and mammography. The screening steps, analysis of quality of the studies and extraction of the papers were performed by two reviewers. Results: Of the 532 studies included initially, 21 performed on 10,521 people were considered eligible. Subjects with a positive attitude toward BSE in various studies were 13.5% to 94.0% with an average of 47.6%. Positive attitudes to CBE and mammography were found in 21.0% and 26.4%, respectively. Participant performance of BSE ranged from 2.6% to 84.7%, with an average of 21.9%. The respective figures for CBE and mammography were 15.8% and 16.7%. Conclusion: Considering the poor performance and low rates for positive attitudes, it is suggested that educational programs should be conducted across the country. PMID:29373873

  18. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. P.; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B. G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer. PMID:26628933

  19. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Nano-Nose - A Review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M P; Venkatesh, S; Sudarshan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the malignancies causing deaths worldwide. The yet to be developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques, are a challenge for early detection of cancer before it progresses to its later stages. The currently available diagnostic methods are expensive or invasive, and are not fit for general screening purposes. Early identification not only helps in detecting primary cancer, but also in treating its secondaries; which creates a need for easily applicable tests to screen individuals at risk. A detailed review of the various screening methods, including the latest trend of breath analysis using gold nanoparticles, to identify cancer at its early stage, are studied here. The VOC based breath biomarkers are used to analyze the exhaled breath of the patients. These biomarkers are utilized by Chemiresistors coated with gold nanoparticles, which are found to be the most suited technique for early detection of lung cancer. This technique is highly accurate and is relatively easy to operate and was tested on smokers and non-smokers. This review also gives as an outline of the fabrication and working of the device Na-Nose. The Chemiresistors coated with Gold nanoparticles, show a great potential in being an non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic technique for early detection of lung cancer.

  20. Accuracy of early detection of colorectal tumours by stool methylation markers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hu; Qi, Jian; Wu, Ya-Qiong; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Qi-Xian; Zhu, You-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of methylation of genes in stool samples for diagnosing colorectal tumours. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Journals Full-Text Database and Wanfang Journals Full-Text Database were searched to find relevant original articles about methylated genes to be used in diagnosing colorectal tumours. A quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (QADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included articles, and the Meta-disc 1.4 and SPSS 13.0 software programs were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria, and 4484 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) were 73% (95%CI: 71%-75%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. For adenoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 51% (95%CI: 47%-54%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. Pooled diagnostic performance of SFRP2 methylation for CRC provided the following results: the sensitivity was 79% (95%CI: 75%-82%), the specificity was 93% (95%CI: 90%-96%), the diagnostic OR was 47.57 (95%CI: 20.08-112.72), the area under the curve was 0.9565. Additionally, the results of accuracy of SFRP2 methylation for detecting colorectal adenomas were as follows: sensitivity was 43% (95%CI: 38%-49%), specificity was 94% (95%CI: 91%-97%), the diagnostic OR was 11.06 (95%CI: 5.77-21.18), and the area under the curve was 0.9563. CONCLUSION: Stool-based DNA testing may be useful for noninvasively diagnosing colorectal tumours and SFRP2 methylation is a promising marker that has great potential in early CRC diagnosis. PMID:25320544

  1. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    PubMed

    Zimolzak, Andrew J; Spettell, Claire M; Fernandes, Joaquim; Fusaro, Vincent A; Palmer, Nathan P; Saria, Suchi; Kohane, Isaac S; Jonikas, Magdalena A; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold. This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction. Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5) for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value. To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection.

  2. Urinary Glucose Screening for Early Detection of Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes in Jeonbuk Province Korean Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Dae Yeol

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of glucosuria and the characteristics of diabetes in schoolchildren as detected by a school urine glucose screening program implemented from 2010 to 2013 in the Jeonbuk province area of Korea. A total of 110 children without known diabetes were analyzed. They were checked with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with other laboratory tests and their clinical data were collected. A total of 707,238 schoolchildren from a school population of 1,064,999 were screened for glucosuria. In total, over a 4-year period, 545 schoolchildren (0.077%) were positive for glucosuria on the second urine test. The prevalence of glucosuria was more common among middle and high schoolchildren than among elementary schoolchildren. Among 110 students who completed the OGTT to confirm diabetes, 40 were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM); 39 children, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 1 child, slowly progressive insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). The mean annual incidence of diabetes was 5.6 per 100,000 schoolchildren and adolescents. The subjects with diabetes diagnosed through the urine screening test showed minimal or no symptoms of diabetes. The students with diabetes were more likely to be woman and obese, and they have a higher body mass index, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, C-peptide, and fasting glucosuria values than the students with normal glucose tolerance. We identified 40 new cases of diabetes in the Korean schoolchildren with asymptomatic glucosuria on urine glucose screening. This finding shows that school urine glucose screening is a feasible and simple method for early detection of asymptomatic T2DM. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  3. Urinary Glucose Screening for Early Detection of Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes in Jeonbuk Province Korean Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of glucosuria and the characteristics of diabetes in schoolchildren as detected by a school urine glucose screening program implemented from 2010 to 2013 in the Jeonbuk province area of Korea. A total of 110 children without known diabetes were analyzed. They were checked with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with other laboratory tests and their clinical data were collected. A total of 707,238 schoolchildren from a school population of 1,064,999 were screened for glucosuria. In total, over a 4-year period, 545 schoolchildren (0.077%) were positive for glucosuria on the second urine test. The prevalence of glucosuria was more common among middle and high schoolchildren than among elementary schoolchildren. Among 110 students who completed the OGTT to confirm diabetes, 40 were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM); 39 children, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 1 child, slowly progressive insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). The mean annual incidence of diabetes was 5.6 per 100,000 schoolchildren and adolescents. The subjects with diabetes diagnosed through the urine screening test showed minimal or no symptoms of diabetes. The students with diabetes were more likely to be woman and obese, and they have a higher body mass index, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, C-peptide, and fasting glucosuria values than the students with normal glucose tolerance. We identified 40 new cases of diabetes in the Korean schoolchildren with asymptomatic glucosuria on urine glucose screening. This finding shows that school urine glucose screening is a feasible and simple method for early detection of asymptomatic T2DM. PMID:28480657

  4. Accuracy of early detection of colorectal tumours by stool methylation markers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Qi, Jian; Wu, Ya-Qiong; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Qi-Xian; Zhu, You-Qing

    2014-10-14

    To evaluate the accuracy of methylation of genes in stool samples for diagnosing colorectal tumours. Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Journals Full-Text Database and Wanfang Journals Full-Text Database were searched to find relevant original articles about methylated genes to be used in diagnosing colorectal tumours. A quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (QADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included articles, and the Meta-disc 1.4 and SPSS 13.0 software programs were used for data analysis. Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria, and 4484 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) were 73% (95%CI: 71%-75%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. For adenoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 51% (95%CI: 47%-54%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. Pooled diagnostic performance of SFRP2 methylation for CRC provided the following results: the sensitivity was 79% (95%CI: 75%-82%), the specificity was 93% (95%CI: 90%-96%), the diagnostic OR was 47.57 (95%CI: 20.08-112.72), the area under the curve was 0.9565. Additionally, the results of accuracy of SFRP2 methylation for detecting colorectal adenomas were as follows: sensitivity was 43% (95%CI: 38%-49%), specificity was 94% (95%CI: 91%-97%), the diagnostic OR was 11.06 (95%CI: 5.77-21.18), and the area under the curve was 0.9563. Stool-based DNA testing may be useful for noninvasively diagnosing colorectal tumours and SFRP2 methylation is a promising marker that has great potential in early CRC diagnosis.

  5. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  6. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Alina

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  7. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Rencheng; Yang, Jianhong; Liu, Canhua; Chen, Shouhong; Zhang, Fujiang

    2016-01-01

    Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD) is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires. PMID:27070618

  8. Parents' detection of early signs in their children having an autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sivberg, Bengt

    2003-12-01

    The study aimed to describe parents' views of their early perception and detection that something was wrong with their child and to give a comprehensive description of early signs to help primary health care nurses to focus on relevant symptoms. Participants were 66 parents from a total of 37 families, a population-based sample from a Swedish county. Interview data were analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results indicated a few critical periods: around the birth, early speech development, and school start. The diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders was delayed. The parents' reports were congruent with earlier observation studies.

  9. Nanostructured materials with plasmonic nanobiosensors for early cancer detection: A past and future prospect.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Schreurs, Dominique

    2018-02-15

    Early cancer detection and treatment is an emerging and fascinating field of plasmonic nanobiosensor research. It paves to enrich a life without affecting living cells leading to a possible survival of the patient. This review describes a past and future prospect of an integrated research field on nanostructured metamaterials, microwave transmission, surface plasmonic resonance, nanoantennas, and their manifested versatile properties with nano-biosensors towards early cancer detection to preserve human health. Interestingly, (i) microwave transmission shows more advantages than other electromagnetic radiation in reacting with biological tissues, (ii) nanostructured metamaterial (Au) with special properties like size and shape can stimulate plasmonic effects, (iii) plasmonic based nanobiosensors are to explore the efficacy for early cancer tumour detection or single molecular detection and (iv) nanoantenna wireless communication by using microwave inverse scattering nanomesh (MISN) technique instead of conventional techniques can be adopted to characterize the microwave scattered signals from the biomarkers. It reveals that the nanostructured material with plasmonic nanobiosensor paves a fascinating platform towards early detection of cancer tumour and is anticipated to be exploited as a magnificent field in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  11. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kenner, Barbara J; Go, Vay Liang W; Chari, Suresh T; Goldberg, Ann E; Rothschild, Laura J

    A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating owing to its poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 9%. Currently, most individuals are diagnosed at a late stage when treatment options are limited. Early detection of pancreatic cancer provides the greatest hope for making substantial improvements in survival. The Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association has sponsored a series of fora to stimulate discussion and collaboration on early detection of pancreatic cancer. At the first forum in 2014, "Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference," a strategic plan was set forth by an international group of interdisciplinary scientific representatives and subsequently The Strategic Map for Innovation was generated. The current conference report is the third forum in the series, "Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Industry in the Development of Biomarkers," which was held in Boston, Massachusetts, on October 27, 2016. This report provides an overview of examples of innovative initiatives by industry and confirms the critical need for collaboration among industry, government, research institutions, and advocacy groups in order to make pancreatic cancer more easily detectable in its earlier stages, when it is more treatable.

  12. Formal Education, Credential, or Both: Early Childhood Program Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…

  13. The Importance of Father Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancell, Katherine S.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Active family involvement in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) is regarded as a beneficial factor in young children's learning and development. One definition of family involvement is the active role parents take in their child's development and the knowledge and participation they share with professionals who are part of the child's daily…

  14. Sensitive Situations. The DLM Early Childhood Program Professional Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    Teachers know how to educate young children, but many feel ill-prepared when faced with students' emotional issues in the classroom. This book is intended as a resource for early childhood teachers who find themselves in the middle of such "sensitive situations." The information is presented by using a fictional, but typical, scenario…

  15. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  16. Should Rewards Have a Place in Early Childhood Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Virginia M.; O'Flynn, Janet C.; Reineke, June; Sonsteng, Kathleen; Gartrell, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Does the use of rewards to motivate children to learn or to follow classroom rules run counter to fostering a true desire for mastery? This column, which consists of two separate articles, provides the opposing opinions of the authors regarding the appropriateness of giving rewards in an early childhood classroom. In "Using Rewards in the Early…

  17. Developing Integrated Programs: A Transdisciplinary Approach for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coling, Marcia Cain

    This book presents an amalgam of early intervention ideas from the fields of education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy for children with developmental delays. An introductory chapter describes the approach's three theoretical bases: neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), sensory integration, and Piagetian theory. Chapter 1 considers…

  18. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST): 5 y of successful multidisciplinary collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans

    2011-12-01

    Differences in nutritional experiences during sensitive periods in early life, both before and after birth, can program a person's future development, metabolism, and health. A better scientific understanding of early nutrition programming holds enormous potential for implementing preventive strategies to enhance individuals' long-term health, well-being, and performance. This understanding could reduce costs of health care and social services and may enhance the wealth of societies. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) brought together a multidisciplinary team of international scientists and leaders in key areas of the early nutrition programming field from 40 major research centers across 16 European countries. The project had a total budget of 16.5 million Euros and was funded by the European Communities under the Sixth Framework Program for Research and Technical Development and coordinated by the Children's Hospital at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The integrated program of work combined experimental studies in humans, prospective observational studies, and mechanistic animal work, including physiologic studies, cell culture models, and molecular biology techniques. The project lasted from April 2005 to October 2010. After the end of the project, the Early Nutrition Academy (http://www.early-nutrition.org) continues to serve as a platform for the exchange of information, scientific collaboration, and training activities in the area of programming. This article highlights some of the scientific results, achievements, and efforts of EARNEST.

  19. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  20. Effects of a Computer-Based Early Reading Program on the Early Reading and Oral Language Skills of At-Risk Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetter, Mary; King, James R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Schneider, Jenifer J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) on the oral language and early reading skills of at-risk preschool children. In a pretest-posttest control group design, 62 children were randomly assigned to receive supplemental instruction with Headsprout Early Reading (experimental group) or…