Science.gov

Sample records for early development phase

  1. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  2. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  3. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  4. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  5. Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

  6. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  7. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Optimizing the early phase development of new analgesics by human pain biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Hoeck, Hans Christian

    2011-11-01

    Human pain biomarkers are based on standardized acute activation of pain pathways/mechanisms and quantitative assessment of the evoked responses. This approach can be applied to healthy volunteers, to pain patients, and before and after pharmacological interventions to help understanding and profile the mode of action (proof-of-concept) of new and existing analgesic compounds. Standardized stimuli of different modalities can be applied to different tissues (multimodal and multi-tissue) for profiling analgesic compounds with respect to modulation of pain transduction, transmission, specific mechanisms and processing. This approach substantiates which specific compounds may work in particular clinical pain conditions. Human pain biomarkers can be translational and may bridge animal findings in clinical pain conditions, which in turn can provide new possibilities for designing more successful clinical trials. Biomarker based proof-of-concept drug studies in either volunteers or selected patient populations provide inexpensive, fast and reliable mechanism-based information about dose-efficacy relationships. This is important information in the early drug development phase and for designing large expensive clinical trials.

  9. Contribution of economic evaluation to decision making in early phases of product development: a methodological and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Economic evaluation as an integral part of health technology assessment is today mostly applied to established technologies. Evaluating healthcare innovations in their early states of development has recently attracted attention. Although it offers several benefits, it also holds methodological challenges. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible contributions of economic evaluation to industry's decision making early in product development and to confront the results with the actual use of early data in economic assessments. We conducted a literature research to detect methodological contributions as well as economic evaluations that used data from early phases of product development. Economic analysis can be beneficially used in early phases of product development for various purposes including early market assessment, R&D portfolio management, and first estimations of pricing and reimbursement scenarios. Analytical tools available for these purposes have been identified. Numerous empirical works were detected, but most do not disclose any concrete decision context and could not be directly matched with the suggested applications. Industry can benefit from starting economic evaluation early in product development in several ways. Empirical evidence suggests that there is still potential left unused.

  10. Hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation in early brain development measured using fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hama; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Inoue, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-01-01

    A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). This phase difference was referred to as hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation (hPod) in the cerebral tissue of sleeping neonates and infants. We examined hPod in term, late preterm, and early preterm infants with no evidence of clinical issues and found that all groups of infants showed developmental changes in the values of hPod from an in-phase to an antiphase pattern. Comparison of hPod among the groups revealed that developmental changes in hPod in early preterm infants precede those in late preterm and term infants at term equivalent age but then, progress at a slower pace. This study suggests that hPod measured using fNIRS is sensitive to the developmental stage of the integration of circular, neurovascular, and metabolic functions in the brains of neonates and infants. PMID:28196885

  11. From Famine to Feast: Developing Early-Phase Combination Immunotherapy Trials Wisely.

    PubMed

    Day, Daphne; Monjazeb, Arta M; Sharon, Elad; Ivy, S Percy; Rubin, Eric H; Rosner, Gary L; Butler, Marcus O

    2017-09-01

    Not until the turn of this century has immunotherapy become a fundamental component of cancer treatment. While monotherapy with immune modulators, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, provides a subset of patients with durable clinical benefit and possible cure, combination therapy offers the potential for antitumor activity in a greater number of patients. The field of immunology has provided us with a plethora of potential molecules and pathways to target. This abundance makes it impractical to empirically test all possible combinations efficiently. We recommend that potential immunotherapy combinations be chosen based on sound rationale and available data to address the mechanisms of primary and acquired immune resistance. Novel trial designs may increase the proportion of patients receiving potentially efficacious treatments and, at the same time, better define the balance of clinical activity and safety. We believe that implementing a strategic approach in the early development of immunotherapy combinations will expedite the delivery of more effective therapies with improved safety and durable outcomes. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Extension of quality-by-design concept to the early development phase of pharmaceutical R&D processes.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Ildikó; Pallagi, Edina; Paál, Tamás L

    2018-03-27

    Here, we propose the extension of the quality-by-design (QbD) concept to also fit the early development phases of pharmaceuticals by adding elements that are currently widely applied, but not yet included in the QbD model in a structured way. These are the introduction of a 'zero' preformulation phase (i.e., selection of drug substance, possible dosage forms and administration routes based on the evaluated therapeutic need); building in stakeholders' (industry, patient, and regulatory) requirements into the quality target product profile (QTTP); and the use of modern quality management tools during the composition and process design phase [collecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) and selection of CPPs) for (still laboratory-scale) design space (DS) development. Moreover, during industrial scale-up, CQAs (as well as critical process parameters; CPPs) can be changed; however, we recommend that the existing QbD elements are reconsidered and updated after this phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  14. Phytochrome-mediated germination and early development in spores of Dryopteris filix-mas L.: phase-specific and non phase-specific inhibition by staurosporine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, C. J.; Scheuerlein, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The alkaloid staurosporine, currently known as the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC, was tested for its ability to inhibit phytochrome-mediated spore germination in Dryopteris filix-mas L., evaluated by the induction of chlorophyll synthesis. Approximately half-maximal inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 10(-5) M. This effect of staurosporine was phase-specific and was found during the same period in which the presence of extracellular calcium is necessary for realization of the light signal. Furthermore, the ability of staurosporine to prevent progression of a germinated spore into early gametophyte development, evaluated by the accumulation of chlorophyll, was examined. Again, staurosporine (10(-5) M) significantly diminished chlorophyll accumulation, determined quantitatively in vivo by single-cell measurements, in a non-phase specific way. The fact that the phase-specific inhibitory effect of staurosporine in preventing germination was coincident with the phase-specific requirement of Ca2+ suggests that both Ca2+ and staurosporine affect the same step in the signal-transduction chain. A phosphorylation event catalysed by PKC or any Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase is proposed as the target of staurosporine and Ca2+.

  15. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  16. Morphology and Dynamics of Jets of Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Early Phase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhong-Yi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin; Lee, Jui-Chi; Pajola, Maurizio; Lara, Luisa; Gutierrez, Pedro; Rodrigo, Rafael; Bodewits, Dennis; A'Hearn, Mike; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Agarwal, Jessica; Keller, Uwe; Mottola, Stefano; Bertini, Ivano; Lowry, Stephen; Rozek, Agata; Liao, Ying; Rosetta Osiris Coi Team

    2015-04-01

    The scientific camera, OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System), onboard the Rosetta spacecraft comprises a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) for nucleus surface and dust studies and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) for the wide field of dust and gas coma investigations. The dynamical behavior of jets in the dust coma continuously monitored by using dust filters from the arrival at the comet (August 2014) throughout the mapping phase (Oct. 2014) is described here. The analysis will cover the study of the time variability of jets, the source regions of these jets, the excess brightness of jets relative to the averaged coma brightness, and the brightness distribution of dust jets along the projected distance. The jets detected between August and September originated mostly from the neck region (Hapi). Morphological changes appeared over a time scale of several days in September. The brightness slope of the dust jets is much steeper than the background coma. This might be related to the sublimation or fragmentation of the emitted dust grains. Inter-comparison with results from other experiments will be necessary to understand the difference between the dust emitted from Hapi and those from the head and the body of the nucleus surface. The physical properties of the Hapi jets will be compared to dust jets (and their source regions) to emerge as comet 67P moves around the perihelion.

  17. Conceptual Design of Simulation Models in an Early Development Phase of Lunar Spacecraft Simulator Using SMP2 Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoon Hee; Koo, Cheol Hea; Moon, Sung Tae; Han, Sang Hyuck; Ju, Gwang Hyeok

    2013-08-01

    The conceptual study for Korean lunar orbiter/lander prototype has been performed in Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI). Across diverse space programs around European countries, a variety of simulation application has been developed using SMP2 (Simulation Modelling Platform) standard related to portability and reuse of simulation models by various model users. KARI has not only first-hand experience of a development of SMP compatible simulation environment but also an ongoing study to apply the SMP2 development process of simulation model to a simulator development project for lunar missions. KARI has tried to extend the coverage of the development domain based on SMP2 standard across the whole simulation model life-cycle from software design to its validation through a lunar exploration project. Figure. 1 shows a snapshot from a visualization tool for the simulation of lunar lander motion. In reality, a demonstrator prototype on the right-hand side of image was made and tested in 2012. In an early phase of simulator development prior to a kick-off start in the near future, targeted hardware to be modelled has been investigated and indentified at the end of 2012. The architectural breakdown of the lunar simulator at system level was performed and the architecture with a hierarchical tree of models from the system to parts at lower level has been established. Finally, SMP Documents such as Catalogue, Assembly, Schedule and so on were converted using a XML(eXtensible Mark-up Language) converter. To obtain benefits of the suggested approaches and design mechanisms in SMP2 standard as far as possible, the object-oriented and component-based design concepts were strictly chosen throughout a whole model development process.

  18. Constructing the 'Best' Reliability Data for the Job - Developing Generic Reliability Data from Alternative Sources Early in a Product's Development Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Graber, Robert R.; DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability practitioners advocate getting reliability involved early in a product development process. However, when assigned to estimate or assess the (potential) reliability of a product or system early in the design and development phase, they are faced with lack of reasonable models or methods for useful reliability estimation. Developing specific data is costly and time consuming. Instead, analysts rely on available data to assess reliability. Finding data relevant to the specific use and environment for any project is difficult, if not impossible. Instead, analysts attempt to develop the "best" or composite analog data to support the assessments. Industries, consortia and vendors across many areas have spent decades collecting, analyzing and tabulating fielded item and component reliability performance in terms of observed failures and operational use. This data resource provides a huge compendium of information for potential use, but can also be compartmented by industry, difficult to find out about, access, or manipulate. One method used incorporates processes for reviewing these existing data sources and identifying the available information based on similar equipment, then using that generic data to derive an analog composite. Dissimilarities in equipment descriptions, environment of intended use, quality and even failure modes impact the "best" data incorporated in an analog composite. Once developed, this composite analog data provides a "better" representation of the reliability of the equipment or component. It can be used to support early risk or reliability trade studies, or analytical models to establish the predicted reliability data points. It also establishes a baseline prior that may updated based on test data or observed operational constraints and failures, i.e., using Bayesian techniques. This tutorial presents a descriptive compilation of historical data sources across numerous industries and disciplines, along with examples of contents

  19. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  20. Economic evaluation of medical tests at the early phases of development: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Frempong, Samuel N; Sutton, Andrew J; Davenport, Clare; Barton, Pelham

    2018-02-01

    There is little specific guidance on the implementation of cost-effectiveness modelling at the early stage of test development. The aim of this study was to review the literature in this field to examine the methodologies and tools that have been employed to date. Areas Covered: A systematic review to identify relevant studies in established literature databases. Five studies were identified and included for narrative synthesis. These studies revealed that there is no consistent approach in this growing field. The perspective of patients and the potential for value of information (VOI) to provide information on the value of future research is often overlooked. Test accuracy is an essential consideration, with most studies having described and included all possible test results in their analysis, and conducted extensive sensitivity analyses on important parameters. Headroom analysis was considered in some instances but at the early development stage (not the concept stage). Expert commentary: The techniques available to modellers that can demonstrate the value of conducting further research and product development (i.e. VOI analysis, headroom analysis) should be better utilized. There is the need for concerted efforts to develop rigorous methodology in this growing field to maximize the value and quality of such analysis.

  1. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  2. Optimization of Primary Drying in Lyophilization during Early Phase Drug Development using a Definitive Screening Design with Formulation and Process Factors.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Johnathan M; More, Haresh T; Yee, Olga; Borgeson, Elizabeth; Remy, Brenda; Rowe, Jasmine; Sadineni, Vikram

    2018-06-08

    Development of optimal drug product lyophilization cycles is typically accomplished via multiple engineering runs to determine appropriate process parameters. These runs require significant time and product investments, which are especially costly during early phase development when the drug product formulation and lyophilization process are often defined simultaneously. Even small changes in the formulation may require a new set of engineering runs to define lyophilization process parameters. In order to overcome these development difficulties, an eight factor definitive screening design (DSD), including both formulation and process parameters, was executed on a fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug product. The DSD enables evaluation of several interdependent factors to define critical parameters that affect primary drying time and product temperature. From these parameters, a lyophilization development model is defined where near optimal process parameters can be derived for many different drug product formulations. This concept is demonstrated on a mAb drug product where statistically predicted cycle responses agree well with those measured experimentally. This design of experiments (DoE) approach for early phase lyophilization cycle development offers a workflow that significantly decreases the development time of clinically and potentially commercially viable lyophilization cycles for a platform formulation that still has variable range of compositions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  4. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  5. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  6. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  7. Best practices in early phase medical device development: Engineering, prototyping, and the beginnings of a quality management system.

    PubMed

    Fearis, Kristy; Petrie, Aidan

    2017-03-01

    Kristy Fearis is the founder and president of KPConsulting. She has held various positions in the medical device and research industry. She has led programs for medical industry leaders Medtronic, Edward Lifesciences, and Kimberly-Clark Healthcare to develop and commercialize Class II and III devices. Although a true quality management systems specialist at heart, Kristy has a passion for effectively and efficiently applying quality systems principles to early stage development to maximize benefit while minimizing impact on resources and time to market. Kristy works with both precommercial and commercial companies to build and implement quality systems that are "right sized" and support both an effective business model and high product quality. Aidan Petrie is the cofounder and chief innovation officer of Ximedica. Aidan drives innovation in Ximedica's core markets of medical device development and consumer healthcare. With a focus on human-centered design, usability, technical innovation and industrial design, Aidan has helped bring hundreds of products to market. Ranging from simple drug compliance aids to wearable therapeutics, home monitoring products, and complex surgical systems, Aidan challenges his teams to rethink the role design plays in the success of each product. Covering topics around usability, sensor and wearable technology, and current trends in medical design and development, Aidan is a sought-after industry speaker and widely published author. In addition to his role at Ximedica, Aidan advises multiple startups in the healthcare space and has interests in a number of related companies. He sits on the Board of MassArt and teaches and lectures at the Rhode Island School of Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Harvard iLab, and others. Aidan holds an undergraduate degree from Central St Martins in product design/engineering and a Masters in industrial design from the Rhode Island School of Design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant.

  9. Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Archive Home Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings share Posted on December 6, 2013 | Assessment and Early Restoration Restoration Area Title: Phase III Early on the draft plan for the third phase of Early Restoration, which proposes more than $625 million in

  10. The role of audition in early psychic development, with special reference to the use of the pull-toy in the separation-individuation phase.

    PubMed

    Shopper, M

    1978-01-01

    The role of audition as an important perceptual modality in early psychic development has been neglected. Some reasons for this neglect are suggested. In the development of psychoanalytic technique, the analyst has changed from a "tactile presence" to a "visual presence," then finally, with the analyst positioning himself behind the couch, to an "auditory presence." Several clinical examples from analytic patients as well as child development in normal and deaf children provide instances of each type of perceptual "presence." It is suggested that, in evaluating analyzability, analysis requires a specific ego ability, namely, tolerance for the analyst as an "auditory presence." It is emphasized that some patients, for reasons of development, constitution, and/or significant stress (separation), cannot work with the analyst as an "auditory presence," but regress to the analyst as a "visual" or "tactile" presence. The importance of audition in early mother/stranger differentiations, and in the peek-a-boo game, is a developmental precursor to the use of audition as a contact modality in the separation and individuation phase. Audition permits active locomotion and separation from tactile and visual contact modalities between toddler and mother, while at the same time maintaining contact via their respective "auditory presence" for each other. The utilization of the pull-toy in mastering the conflicts of the separation-individuation phase is demonstrated. The pull-toy is heir to the teddy bear and ancestor to the tricycle. Greater attentiveness to the auditory perceptual modality may help us understand developmental phenomenon, better evaluate the potential analysand, and clarify clinical problems of audition occurring in dreams and those areas of psychopathology having to do with auditory phenomena. The more refined tripartite conept of "presence" as it relates to the predominant perceptual modality--tactile, visual, auditory--is felt to be a useful conceptualization

  11. Building an automated problem list based on natural language processing: lessons learned in the early phase of development.

    PubMed

    Solti, Imre; Aaronson, Barry; Fletcher, Grant; Solti, Magdolna; Gennari, John H; Cooper, Melissa; Payne, Tom

    2008-11-06

    Detailed problem lists that comply with JCAHO requirements are important components of electronic health records. Besides improving continuity of care electronic problem lists could serve as foundation infrastructure for clinical trial recruitment, research, biosurveillance and billing informatics modules. However, physicians rarely maintain problem lists. Our team is building a system using MetaMap and UMLS to automatically populate the problem list. We report our early results evaluating the application. Three physicians generated gold standard problem lists for 100 cardiology ambulatory progress notes. Our application had 88% sensitivity and 66% precision using a non-modified UMLS dataset. The systemâs misses concentrated in the group of ambiguous problem list entries (Chi-square=27.12 p<0.0001). In addition to the explicit entries, the notes included 10% implicit entry candidates. MetaMap and UMLS are readily applicable to automate the problem list. Ambiguity in medical documents has consequences for performance evaluation of automated systems.

  12. Phase V of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment. The project will acquire land along Florida million. Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (pdf, 10 MB) Draft Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (Executive Summary) (2 MB) Phase V Fact Sheet (pdf, 2 MB) Gulf

  13. Phase III of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    information about this phase of Early Restoration, including fact sheets on each project. The final Phase III 44 projects are documented in a final Record of Decision. Information about Phase III of Early Archive Home Phase III of Early Restoration Phase III of Early Restoration Beach habitat would be restored

  14. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  15. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  16. MLViS: A Web Tool for Machine Learning-Based Virtual Screening in Early-Phase of Drug Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Selcuk; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Goksuluk, Dincer

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening is an important step in early-phase of drug discovery process. Since there are thousands of compounds, this step should be both fast and effective in order to distinguish drug-like and nondrug-like molecules. Statistical machine learning methods are widely used in drug discovery studies for classification purpose. Here, we aim to develop a new tool, which can classify molecules as drug-like and nondrug-like based on various machine learning methods, including discriminant, tree-based, kernel-based, ensemble and other algorithms. To construct this tool, first, performances of twenty-three different machine learning algorithms are compared by ten different measures, then, ten best performing algorithms have been selected based on principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis results. Besides classification, this application has also ability to create heat map and dendrogram for visual inspection of the molecules through hierarchical cluster analysis. Moreover, users can connect the PubChem database to download molecular information and to create two-dimensional structures of compounds. This application is freely available through www.biosoft.hacettepe.edu.tr/MLViS/. PMID:25928885

  17. Phase IV of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Trustees published the Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments. The plan habitats. Useful Links: Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments (pdf, 4.8 MB ) Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments Executive Summary (pdf, 729 KB

  18. Development in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews some of the major cognitive, social, and emotional achievements of young children and discusses some of their limitations. Divides description of development into intellectual, language, social, and emotional development. Notes that this division represents adult categories of thought and does not represent young children's actual modes of…

  19. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  20. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  2. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  3. Early Program Development

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  4. Early Program Development

    2004-04-15

    This artist's concept illustrates the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) engine's hot bleed cycle in which a small amount of hydrogen gas is diverted from the thrust nozzle, thus eliminating the need for a separate system to drive the turbine. The NERVA engine, based on KIWI nuclear reactor technology, would power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which the Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  5. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  6. Early Program Development

    1996-06-20

    Engineers at one of MSFC's vacuum chambers begin testing a microthruster model. The purpose of these tests are to collect sufficient data that will enabe NASA to develop microthrusters that will move the Space Shuttle, a future space station, or any other space related vehicle with the least amount of expended energy. When something is sent into outer space, the forces that try to pull it back to Earth (gravity) are very small so that it only requires a very small force to move very large objects. In space, a force equal to a paperclip can move an object as large as a car. Microthrusters are used to produce these small forces.

  7. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  8. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News Publications Press Releases Story programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  9. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Pensacola, FL (rescheduled) | NOAA

    Restoration Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  10. Prediction of early death among patients enrolled in phase I trials: development and validation of a new model based on platelet count and albumin.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, A; Olmos, D; Lacombe, D; A'Hern, R; Duhamel, A; Twelves, C; Marsoni, S; Morales-Barrera, R; Soria, J-C; Verweij, J; Voest, E E; Schöffski, P; Schellens, J H; Kramar, A; Kristeleit, R S; Arkenau, H-T; Kaye, S B; Penel, N

    2012-09-25

    Selecting patients with 'sufficient life expectancy' for Phase I oncology trials remains challenging. The Royal Marsden Hospital Score (RMS) previously identified high-risk patients as those with ≥ 2 of the following: albumin <35 g l(-1); LDH > upper limit of normal; >2 metastatic sites. This study developed an alternative prognostic model, and compared its performance with that of the RMS. The primary end point was the 90-day mortality rate. The new model was developed from the same database as RMS, but it used Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). The ROC characteristics of both methods were then validated in an independent database of 324 patients enrolled in European Organization on Research and Treatment of Cancer Phase I trials of cytotoxic agents between 2000 and 2009. The CHAID method identified high-risk patients as those with albumin <33 g l(-1) or ≥ 33 g l(-1), but platelet counts ≥ 400.000 mm(-3). In the validation data set, the rates of correctly classified patients were 0.79 vs 0.67 for the CHAID model and RMS, respectively. The negative predictive values (NPV) were similar for the CHAID model and RMS. The CHAID model and RMS provided a similarly high level of NPV, but the CHAID model gave a better accuracy in the validation set. Both CHAID model and RMS may improve the screening process in phase I trials.

  11. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  12. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  13. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    iron atoms produced by supernovas in the embedded galaxies must still be contained in and around the galaxies, perhaps in grains of dust not well mixed with the observed X-ray-emitting gas. Over time, as the cluster merges with the other clusters and the hot gas pressure increases, the dust grains will be driven from the galaxies, mixed with the hot gas, and destroyed, liberating the iron atoms. Building a massive galaxy cluster is a step-by-step enterprise that takes billions of years. Exactly how long it takes for such a cluster to form depends on many factors, such as the density of subclusters in the vicinity, the rate of the expansion of the universe, and the relative amounts of dark energy and dark matter. Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2125, Low Energy Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 2125, Low Energy Cluster formation also involves complex interactions between the galaxies and the hot gas that may determine how large the galaxies in the cluster can ultimately become. These interactions determine how the galaxies maintain their gas content, the fuel for star formation. The observations of Abell 2125 provide a rare glimpse into the early steps in this process. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  14. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  15. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  16. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS) Phase 1: A Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS), a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation Phase 1--Development project, was developed by the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University as an online instructional system. EC-TIIS' ultimate goal was to improve technology services…

  18. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  19. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  20. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  1. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  2. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  3. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  4. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Galveston, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  5. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease , with three Specific Aims: #1 Develop and optimize an x-ray PCCT to explore the

  6. Volunteering for early phase gene transfer research in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y H; Holloway, R G; Frank, S; Beck, C A; Zimmerman, C; Wilson, R; Kieburtz, K

    2006-04-11

    For early phase trials of novel interventions-such as gene transfer for Parkinson disease (PD)--whose focus is primarily on safety and tolerability, it is important that participants have a realistic understanding of the goals of such research. Recently, some have expressed concern that patients with PD may have unrealistic expectations. The authors examined why patients with PD might volunteer for invasive early phase research by interviewing 92 patients with PD and comparing those who would (n = 46) and those who would not (n = 46) participate in a hypothetical phase I gene-transfer study. The two groups' demographic, clinical, functional, and quality of life measures, as well as their understanding of the research protocol, were similar. The groups did not differ on their perception of potential for personal benefit nor on the level of likelihood of benefit they saw as a precondition for volunteering. However, those willing to participate tended to perceive lower probability of risk, were tolerant of greater probability of risk, and were more optimistic about the phase I study's potential benefits to society. They also appeared more decisive and action-oriented than the unwilling group. It is likely that the decision whether to participate in early phase PD gene transfer studies will depend mostly on patients' attitudes regarding risk, optimism about science, and an action orientation, rather than on their clinical, functional, or demographic characteristics.

  7. Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

  8. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  9. Early recovery following lower limb arthroplasty: Qualitative interviews with patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Initial phase in the development of a patient-reported outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Louise H; Kelly, Laura; Hamilton, Thomas W; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2017-09-27

    To explore the patients' perspective of surgery and early recovery when undergoing lower limb (hip or knee) arthroplasty. Lower limb arthroplasty is a commonly performed procedure for symptomatic arthritis, which has not responded to conservative medical treatment. Each patient's perspective of the surgical process and early recovery period impacts on their quality of life. Open, semistructured qualitative interviews were used to allow for a deeper understanding of the patient perspective when undergoing a hip or knee arthroplasty. Following ethical approval, 30 patients were interviewed between August and November 2016 during the perioperative period while undergoing an elective hip or knee arthroplasty (n = 30). The interviews were performed between the day of surgery and a nine-week postoperative clinic appointment. Data were analysed using an in-depth narrative thematic analysis method. NVivo qualitative data analysis software was used. Seven main themes evolved from the interviews: "improving function and mobility", "pain", "experiences of health care", "support from others", "involvement and understanding of care decisions", "behaviour and coping" and "fatigue and sleeping". The early postoperative recovery period is of vital importance to all surgical patients. This is no different for the orthopaedic patient. However, identifying key self-reported areas of importance from patients can guide clinical focus for healthcare professionals. To have specific patient-reported information regarding key areas of importance during the perioperative phase is invaluable when caring for the orthopaedic surgical patient. It gives insight and understanding in to this increasing population group. This study has also served as a starting point in the development of a questionnaire which could be used to assess interventions in the lower limb arthroplasty population. These results will influence both items and content of the questionnaire. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  11. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  12. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  13. Control of early seed development.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, A M; Koltunow, A; Payne, T; Luo, M; Tucker, M R; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-01-01

    Seed development requires coordinated expression of embryo and endosperm and has contributions from both sporophytic and male and female gametophytic genes. Genetic and molecular analyses in recent years have started to illuminate how products of these multiple genes interact to initiate seed development. Imprinting or differential expression of paternal and maternal genes seems to be involved in controlling seed development, presumably by controlling gene expression in developing endosperm. Epigenetic processes such as chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation affect imprinting of key seed-specific genes; however, the identity of many of these genes remains unknown. The discovery of FIS genes has illuminated control of autonomous endosperm development, a component of apomixis, which is an important developmental and agronomic trait. FIS genes are targets of imprinting, and the genes they control in developing endosperm are also regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling genes. These results define some exciting future areas of research in seed development.

  14. Two Phase Technology Development Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Three promising thermal technology development initiatives, vapor compression thermal control system, electronics cooling, and electrohydrodynamics applications are outlined herein. These technologies will provide thermal engineers with additional tools to meet the thermal challenges presented by increased power densities and reduced architectural options that will be available in future spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland are fabricating and testing a 'proto- flight' vapor compression based thermal control system for the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. The vapor compression system will be capable of transporting approximately 400 W of heat while providing a temperature lift of 60C. The system is constructed of 'commercial off-the-shelf' hardware that is modified to meet the unique environmental requirements of the ULDB. A demonstration flight is planned for 1999 or early 2000. Goddard Space Flight Center has embarked upon a multi-discipline effort to address a number of design issues regarding spacecraft electronics. The program addressed the high priority design issues concerning the total mass of standard spacecraft electronics enclosures and the impact of design changes on thermal performance. This presentation reviews the pertinent results of the Lightweight Electronics Enclosure Program. Electronics cooling is a growing challenge to thermal engineers due to increasing power densities and spacecraft architecture. The space-flight qualification program and preliminary results of thermal performance tests of copper-water heat pipes are presented. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is an emerging technology that uses the secondary forces that result from the application of an electric field to a flowing fluid to enhance heat transfer and manage fluid flow. A brief review of current EHD capabilities regarding heat transfer enhancement of commercial heat exchangers and capillary pumped loops is presented. Goddard Space Flight

  15. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

  16. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, p<0.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception. (Spearman r=−0.075, p=0.329). Dispositional optimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (p<0.0001) were independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  17. Single phase space laundry development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Putnam, David F.; Lunsford, Teddie D.; Streech, Neil D.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Reimers, Harold

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a newly designed, 2.7 Kg (6 pound) capacity, laundry machine called the Single Phase Laundry (SPSL). The machine was designed to wash and dry crew clothing in a micro-gravity environment. A prototype unit was fabricated for NASA-JSC under a Small Business Innovated Research (SBIR) contract extending from September 1990 to January 1993. The unit employs liquid jet agitation, microwave vacuum drying, and air jet tumbling, which was perfected by KC-135 zero-g flight testing. Operation is completely automated except for loading and unloading clothes. The unit uses about 20 percent less power than a conventional household appliance.

  18. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  19. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  20. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  1. Development and testing of responder : phase III.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-06-28

    This report documents the research project Development and Testing of Responder Phase III. Under previous research, a Responder system has been developed to provide relevant and timely information to first responders, allow responders to provid...

  2. Concentration-Response Modeling of ECG Data From Early-Phase Clinical Studies as an Alternative Clinical and Regulatory Approach to Assessing QT Risk - Experience From the Development Program of Lemborexant.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patricia J; Yasuda, Sanae; Nakai, Kenya; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Hall, Nancy; Zhou, Meijian; Aluri, Jagadeesh; Rege, Bhaskar; Moline, Margaret; Ferry, Jim; Darpo, Borje

    2017-01-01

    Lemborexant is a novel dual orexin receptor antagonist being developed to treat insomnia. Its potential to cause QT prolongation was evaluated using plasma concentration-response (CR) modeling applied to data from 2 multiple ascending-dose (MAD) studies. In the primary MAD study, placebo or lemborexant (2.5 to 75 mg) was administered for 14 consecutive nights. In another MAD study designed to "bridge" pharmacokinetic and safety data between Japanese and non-Japanese subjects (J-MAD), placebo or lemborexant (2.5, 10, or 25 mg) was administered for 14 consecutive nights. QT intervals were estimated using a high-precision measurement technique and evaluated using a linear mixed-effects CR model, for each study separately and for the pooled data set. When each study was analyzed separately, the slopes of the CR relationship were shallow and not statistically significant. In the pooled analysis, the slope of the CR relationship was -0.00002 milliseconds per ng/mL (90%CI, -0.01019 to 0.01014 milliseconds). The highest observed C max was 400 ng/mL, representing a margin 8-fold above exposures expected for the highest planned clinical dose. The model-predicted QTc effect at 400 ng/mL was 1.1 milliseconds (90%CI, -3.49 to 5.78 milliseconds). In neither the J-MAD study nor the pooled analysis was an effect of race identified. CR modeling of data from early-phase clinical studies, including plasma levels far exceeding those anticipated clinically, indicated that a QT effect >10 milliseconds could be excluded. Regulatory agreement with this methodology demonstrates the effectiveness of a CR modeling approach as an alternative to thorough QT studies. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis during early fruit development between three seedy citrus genotypes and their seedless mutants

    Identification of genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in seedless mutants may enhance understanding of seedless citrus development. Transcriptome analysis was conducted at three time points during early fruit development (Phase 1) of three seedy citrus genotypes: Fallglo [Bower citru...

  5. Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Bimal

    Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24 \\underline{} Abstract\\underline{} It is very important and interesting to understand the solar eruptions because it produces the geoeffectiveness in our Earth environment. In the rise phase of the solar cycle, geoeffective events are less frequent, thus this provide us better opportunity to study these events including the detection of their source regions. Keeping this in mind, we have analysed the data of rise phase of current solar cycle 24 ( 2009-2012). During above time period, we have selected 59 geoeffective events having Disturbance Storm Time (Dst) index < -50 nT. Based on the Dst index, we divided the events into two categories i.e. moderate (< -50 nT > -100 nT ) and intense ( <-100 nT). To locate the solar source regions of geoeffective and SEPs associated events, we have used available images, movies and Solar Geophysical data (SGD) list: for example movies from SOHO/EIT, images and movies from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). In this study, we will discuss and compare the different properties of associated CMEs, flares and their relation with geoeffectiveness.

  6. Simple uncertainty propagation for early design phase aircraft sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Annelise

    Many designers and systems analysts are aware of the uncertainty inherent in their aircraft sizing studies; however, few incorporate methods to address and quantify this uncertainty. Many aircraft design studies use semi-empirical predictors based on a historical database and contain uncertainty -- a portion of which can be measured and quantified. In cases where historical information is not available, surrogate models built from higher-fidelity analyses often provide predictors for design studies where the computational cost of directly using the high-fidelity analyses is prohibitive. These surrogate models contain uncertainty, some of which is quantifiable. However, rather than quantifying this uncertainty, many designers merely include a safety factor or design margin in the constraints to account for the variability between the predicted and actual results. This can become problematic if a designer does not estimate the amount of variability correctly, which then can result in either an "over-designed" or "under-designed" aircraft. "Under-designed" and some "over-designed" aircraft will likely require design changes late in the process and will ultimately require more time and money to create; other "over-designed" aircraft concepts may not require design changes, but could end up being more costly than necessary. Including and propagating uncertainty early in the design phase so designers can quantify some of the errors in the predictors could help mitigate the extent of this additional cost. The method proposed here seeks to provide a systematic approach for characterizing a portion of the uncertainties that designers are aware of and propagating it throughout the design process in a procedure that is easy to understand and implement. Using Monte Carlo simulations that sample from quantified distributions will allow a systems analyst to use a carpet plot-like approach to make statements like: "The aircraft is 'P'% likely to weigh 'X' lbs or less, given the

  7. Phased Development of Accident Tolerant Fue

    SciT

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Carmack, W. Jon

    2016-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has adopted a three-phase approach for the development and eventual commercialization of enhanced, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). Extending from 2012 to 2016, AFC is currently coming to the end of Phase 1 research that has entailed Feasibility Assessment and Prioritization for a large number of proposed fuel systems (fuel and cladding) that could provide improved performance under accident conditions. Phase 1 activities will culminate with a prioritization of concepts for both near-term and long-term development based on the available experimental data and modelingmore » predictions. This process will provide guidance to DOE on what concepts should be prioritized for investment in Phase 2 Development/Qualification activities based on technical performance improvements and probability of meeting the aggressive schedule to insert a lead fuel rod (LFR) in a commercial power reactor by 2022. While Phase 1 activities include small-scale fabrication work, materials characterization, and limited irradiation of samples, Phase 2 will require development teams to expand to industrial fabrication methods, conduct irradiation tests under more prototypic reactor conditions (i.e. in contact with reactor primary coolant at LWR conditions and in-pile transient testing), conduct additional characterization and post-irradiation examination, and develop a fuel performance code for the candidate ATF. Phase 2 will culminate in the insertion of an LFR (or lead fuel assembly) in a commercial power reactor. The Phase 3 Commercialization work will extend past 2022. Following post-irradiation examination of LFRs, partial-core reloads will be demonstrated. The commercialization phase will further entail the establishment of commercial fabrication capabilities and the transition of LWR cores to the new fuel. The three development phases described roughly correspond to the

  8. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  9. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the…

  10. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  11. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  12. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  13. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  14. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  15. Gene expression profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, L; Alter, T; Aho, T; Huehn, S

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is an aquatic bacterium capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis. In the environment or the food chain, V. parahaemolyticus cells are usually forced into the stationary phase, the common phase for bacterial survival in the environment. So far, little is known about whole genomic expression of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase compared with the exponential growth phase. We performed whole transcriptomic profiling of V. parahaemolyticus cells in both phases (exponential and early stationary phase). Our data showed in total that 172 genes were induced in early stationary phase, while 61 genes were repressed in early stationary phase compared with the exponential phase. Three functional categories showed stable gene expression in the early stationary phase. Eleven functional categories showed that up-regulation of genes was dominant over down-regulation in the early stationary phase. Although genes related to endogenous metabolism were repressed in the early stationary phase, massive regulation of gene expression occurred in the early stationary phase, indicating the expressed gene set of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase impacts environmental survival. Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is one of the main bacterial causes of foodborne intestinal infections. This bacterium usually is forced into stationary phase in the environment, which includes, e.g. seafood. When bacteria are in stationary phase, physiological changes can lead to a resistance to many stresses, including physical and chemical challenges during food processing. To the best of our knowledge, highlighting the whole genome expression changes in the early stationary phase compared with exponential phase, as well as the investigation of physiological changes of V. parahaemolyticus such as the survival mechanism in the stationary phase has been the very first study in this field. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  17. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata

    2014-03-01

    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Adaptive Systems at Early Stages of Children's Foreign Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Ana Belen Cumbreno; Garcia, Mercedes Rico; Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Gomez, Eva Ma Dominguez

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of hypermedia adaptive systems for foreign language learners at an early age. Our research project is concerned with exploring the relationship between language learning and information technology according to six different phases: a preliminary study of the plausible adaptive system; the development of lessons…

  19. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early childhood development: putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.

  1. QCD development in the early universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  2. History and early development of INCAP.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2010-02-01

    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  3. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  4. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Corpus Christi, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  5. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Lake Charles, LA | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 5:30pm Public

  6. Studies Toward Birth and Early Mammalian Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Successful reproduction is the hallmark of a species' ability to adapt to its environment and must be realized to sustain life beyond Earth. Before taking this immense step, we need to understand the effects of altered gravity on critical phases of mammalian reproduction, viz., those events surrounding pregnancy, birth and the early development of offspring. No mammal has yet undergone birth in space. however studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing insights into how birth and early postnatal development will proceed in space. In this presentation, I will report the results of behavioral studies of rat mothers and offspring exposed from mid- to late pregnancy to either hypogravity (0-g) or hypergravity (1.5 or 2-g).

  7. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  8. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC 2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  9. Early Intervention Services for Early-Phase Psychosis - Centre for integrative psychiatry in Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.

  10. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  11. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  12. Accumulation of unsaturated lipids in monocytes during early phase pyrogen tolerance.

    PubMed

    Szewczenko-Pawlikowski, M; Kozak, W

    2000-04-12

    This paper presents data that inspired a new explanation for the mechanism of early phase endotoxin tolerance. Rabbits injected intravenously with LPS from Salmonella abortus developed a two-phase fever (6 h) and monophasic hyperlipidemia of very low density lipoproteins (two consecutive days). If during these days rabbits were injected with the same dose of LPS at 24-h intervals, the second phase of fever disappeared, i.e. early phase pyrogenic tolerance was obtained. This was correlated with a decrease of lipoprotein hyperlipidemia (measured 1.5 h after LPS injection) and an accumulation of lipids rich in double bonds in monocytes (measured 3.5 h after LPS injection). Results showed that the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains (AC) in monocytes (AC/DB, DB=double bonds) is negatively correlated (r=-0.72) with fever response (fever index). The authors maintain that a gradual increase in monocyte membrane fluidity is an adaptation to repeated exposure of monocytes to lipid A and is responsible for the progressive desensitization of monocytes to endotoxin. It is suggested that disorders of this mechanism lead to an accumulation of abnormal quantities of saturated lipids and cholesterol within macrophages, which, as foam cells, are the starting point for atherosclerosis pathology.

  13. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  14. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  15. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  16. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  17. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  18. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  19. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  20. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  1. Space Fence PDR Concept Development Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, L.; Phu, P.

    2011-09-01

    The Space Fence, a major Air Force acquisition program, will become the dominant low-earth orbit uncued sensor in the space surveillance network (SSN). Its primary objective is to provide a 24/7 un-cued capability to find, fix, and track small objects in low earth orbit to include emerging and evolving threats, as well as the rapidly growing population of orbital debris. Composed of up to two geographically dispersed large-scale S-band phased array radars, this new system-of-systems concept will provide comprehensive Space Situational Awareness through net-centric operations and integrated decision support. Additionally, this program will facilitate cost saving force structure changes in the SSN, specifically including the decommissioning of very-high frequency VHF Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The Space Fence Program Office entered a Preliminary Design Review (PDR) concept development phase in January 2011 to achieve the delivery of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) expected in FY17. Two contractors were awarded to perform preliminary system design, conduct radar performance analyses and evaluations, and develop a functional PDR radar system prototype. The key objectives for the Phase A PDR effort are to reduce Space Fence total program technical, cost, schedule, and performance risk. The overall program objective is to achieve a preliminary design that demonstrates sufficient technical and manufacturing maturity and that represents a low risk, affordable approach to meet the Space Fence Technical Requirements Document (TRD) requirements for the final development and production phase to begin in 3QFY12. This paper provides an overview of the revised Space Fence program acquisition strategy for the Phase-A PDR phase to IOC, the overall program milestones and major technical efforts. In addition, the key system trade studies and modeling/simulation efforts undertaken during the System Design Requirement (SDR) phase to address and mitigate

  2. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Early Childhood Professional Development for Providers and Recipients in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.; Rembert, Kellye; Simpson, Amber; Ramey, M. Deanna

    2016-01-01

    This multi-phase mixed-methods study explores provider and recipient perceptions of the current state of early childhood professional development in a southeastern area of the United States. Professional development for the early childhood workforce has been shown to positively influence the quality of early childhood classrooms. This study…

  3. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    PubMed

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  4. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  5. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  6. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  7. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  8. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    SciT

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Xu, Ke

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus ofmore » the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used

  9. Advanced Stirling receiver development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurio, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical technology experiments were designed and developed to evaluate the Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver for a space solar power system. Theoretical criteria were applied to the design of a module for containing energy storage phase change material while avoiding thermal ratcheting. Zero-g drop tower tests, without phase change, were conducted to affirm that the bubble location required to avoid ratcheting could be achieved without the use of container materials that are wetted by the phase change material. A full scale module was fabricated, but not tested. A fabrication method was successfully developed for the sodium evaporator dome, with a sintered screen wick, to be used as the focal point for the receiver. Crushing of the screen during hydroforming was substantially reduced over the results of other researchers by using wax impregnation. Superheating of the sodium in the wick under average flux conditions is expected to be under 10K. A 2000K furnace which will simulate solar flux conditions for testing the evaporator dome was successfully built and tested.

  10. Temporal regulation of expression of immediate early and second phase transcripts by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Timothy E; Markou, Thomais; Fuller, Stephen J; Giraldo, Alejandro; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Alsafi, Ali; Ekere, Collins; Kemp, Timothy J; Dennis, Jayne L; Game, Laurence; Sugden, Peter H; Clerk, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with phenotypic/physiological changes developing from approximately 12 h. Hypertrophy is associated with changes in mRNA/protein expression, presumably consequent to protein kinase signaling, but the connections between early, transient signaling events and developed hypertrophy are unknown. Results Using microarrays, we defined the early transcriptional responses of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to endothelin-1 over 4 h, differentiating between immediate early gene (IEG) and second phase RNAs with cycloheximide. IEGs exhibited differential temporal and transient regulation, with expression of second phase RNAs within 1 h. Of transcripts upregulated at 30 minutes encoding established proteins, 28 were inhibited >50% by U0126 (which inhibits ERK1/2/5 signaling), with 9 inhibited 25-50%. Expression of only four transcripts was not inhibited. At 1 h, most RNAs (approximately 67%) were equally changed in total and polysomal RNA with approximately 17% of transcripts increased to a greater extent in polysomes. Thus, changes in expression of most protein-coding RNAs should be reflected in protein synthesis. However, approximately 16% of transcripts were essentially excluded from the polysomes, including some protein-coding mRNAs, presumably inefficiently translated. Conclusion The phasic, temporal regulation of early transcriptional responses induced by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes indicates that, even in terminally differentiated cells, signals are propagated beyond the primary signaling pathways through transcriptional networks leading to phenotypic changes (that is, hypertrophy). Furthermore, ERK1/2 signaling plays a major role in

  11. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  12. Studies toward birth and early mammalian development in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2003-10-01

    Sustaining life beyond Earth on either space stations or other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction and development. Pregnancy, parturition (birth) and the early development of offspring are complex processes essential for successful reproduction and the proliferation of mammalian species. While no mammal has yet undergone birth within the space environment, studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0- to 2-g are revealing startling insights into how reproduction and development may proceed under gravitational conditions deviating from those typically experienced on Earth. In this report, I review studies of pregnant Norway rats and their offspring flown in microgravity (μg) onboard the NASA Space Shuttle throughout the period corresponding to mid- to late gestation, and analogous studies of pregnant rats exposed to hypergravity ( ht) onboard the NASA Ames Research Center 24-ft centrifuge. Studies of postnatal rats flown in space or exposed to centrifugation are reviewed. Although many important questions remain unanswered, the available data suggest that numerous aspects of pregnancy, birth and early mammalian development can proceed under altered gravity conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Masks as Self-Study. Challenging and Sustaining Teachers' Personal and Professional Personae in Early-Mid Career Life Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on previous research identifying how teachers' capacities to sustain their effectiveness in different phases of their professional lives are affected positively and/or negatively by their sense of identity, this paper illuminates three early-mid career teachers' self-study inquiries, centring on mask work. The creative development of…

  14. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  15. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  16. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  17. Ring Current Development During Storm Main Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Greenspan, Marian E.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the ring current ions in the inner magnetosphere during the main phase of a magnetic storm is studied. The temporal and spatial evolution of the ion phase space densities in a dipole field are calculated using a three dimensional ring current model, considering charge exchange and Coulomb losses along drift paths. The simulation starts with a quiet time distribution. The model is tested by comparing calculated ion fluxes with Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/CCE measurement during the storm main phase on May 2, 1986. Most of the calculated omnidirectional fluxes are in good agreement with the data except on the dayside inner edge (L less than 2.5) of the ring current, where the ion fluxes are underestimated. The model also reproduces the measured pitch angle distributions of ions with energies below 10 keV. At higher energy, an additional diffusion in pitch angle is necessary in order to fit the data. The role of the induced electric field on the ring current dynamics is also examined by simulating a series of substorm activities represented by stretching and collapsing the magnetic field lines. In response to the impulsively changing fields, the calculated ion energy content fluctuates about a mean value that grows steadily with the enhanced quiescent field.

  18. The early research and development of ebselen.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimalarial compounds in Phase II clinical development.

    PubMed

    Held, Jana; Jeyaraj, Sankarganesh; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in endemic countries and chemotherapy remains the most important tool in combating it. Treatment options are limited and essentially rely on a single drug class - the artemisinins. Efforts are ongoing to restrict the evolving threat of artemisinin resistance but declining sensitivity has been reported. Fueled by the ambitious aim of malaria eradication, novel antimalarial compounds, with improved properties, are now in the progressive phase of drug development. Herein, the authors describe antimalarial compounds currently in Phase II clinical development and present the results of these investigations. Thanks to recent efforts, a number of promising antimalarial compounds are now in the pipeline. First safety data have been generated for all of these candidates, although their efficacy as antimalarials is still unclear for most of them. Of particular note are KAE609, KAF156 and DSM265, which are of chemical scaffolds new to malaria chemotherapy and would truly diversify antimalarial options. Apart from SAR97276, which also has a novel chemical scaffold that has had its development stopped, all other compounds in the pipeline belong to already known substance classes, which have been chemically modified. At this moment in time, there is not one standout compound that will revolutionize malaria treatment but several compounds that will add to its control in the future.

  20. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  1. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  2. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047

  4. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Numeracy Scales

    PubMed Central

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings The focus of this study was to construct and validate twelve brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)—as well as critical developmental precursors to later mathematics skill by the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; 2010). Participants were 393 preschool children ages 3 to 5 years old. Measure development and validation occurred through three analytic phases designed to ensure that the measures were brief, reliable, and valid. These measures included: one-to-one counting, cardinality, counting subsets, subitizing, number comparison, set comparison, number order, numeral identification, set-to-numerals, story problems, number combinations, and verbal counting. Practice or Policy Teachers have extensive demands on their time, yet, they are tasked with ensuring that all students’ academic needs are met. To identify individual instructional needs and measure progress, they need to be able to efficiently assess children’s numeracy skills. The measures developed in this study are not only reliable and valid, but also easy to use and can be utilized for measuring the effects of targeted instruction on individual numeracy skills. PMID:25709375

  5. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  6. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    PubMed

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    SciT

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology andmore » the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy.« less

  8. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  9. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001). There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63-25.97, p < 0.001), burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97-41.89, p < 0.001), pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54-40.75, p = 0.001), dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22-37.01, p = 0.03) or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21-5.55, p = 0.01) during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic

  10. The quantum defect: Early history and recent developments

    SciT

    Rau, A.R.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-03-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term {open_quotes}quantum defect{close_quotes} does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schr{umlt o}dinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. We present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments. {copyright}more » {ital 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers.}« less

  11. A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Som D; Coombes, Megan E; Levine, Mitch; Cosby, Jarold; Kowaleski, Brenda; Arnold, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical reasoning, tools used and challenges faced by the researchers who assign causality to SAE's. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists and trial coordinators at six Canadian academic cancer centres. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Individual interview content analysis was followed by thematic analysis across the interview set. Our study found that causality assessment tends to be a rather complex process, often without complete clinical and investigational data at hand. Researchers described using a common processing strategy whereby they gather pertinent information, eliminate alternative explanations, and consider whether or not the study drug resulted in the SAE. Many of the interviewed participants voiced concern that causality assessments are often conducted quickly and tend to be highly subjective. Many participants were unable to identify any useful tools to help in assigning causality and welcomed more objectivity in the overall process. Attributing causality to SAE's is a complex process. Clinical trial researchers apply a logical system of reasoning, but feel that the current method of assigning causality could be improved. Based on these findings, future research involving the development of a new causality assessment tool specifically for use in early phase oncology clinical trials may be useful.

  12. Examination of a modified cell cycle synchronization method and bovine nuclear transfer using synchronized early G1 phase fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Manami; Ideta, Atsushi; Sawada, Tokihiko; Aoyagi, Yoshito

    2004-08-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has a low success rate, due to a high incidence of fetal loss and increased perinatal morbidity/mortality. One factor that may affect the successful development of nuclear transfer embryos is the cell cycle stage of the donor cell. In order to establish a cell cycle synchronization method that can consistently produce cloned embryos and offspring, we examined the effects of different combinations of three cell treatments on the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells using bovine fetal fibroblasts. In the first experiment, we examined the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells by a combination of treatment with a metaphase arrestant (1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol), shaking the plate and selecting cells with a diameter of 20 microns. As a result, 99% of mitotic phase cells were recovered by repeating the combined treatment of metaphase arrestant and shaking, and collection of cells with a specific diameter. In the second experiment, nuclear transfer was carried out using early G1 phase cells by choosing pairs of bridged cells derived from mitotic phase cells recovered by the combined treatment of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol and shaking, and collection of cells with a diameter of 20 microns. The reconstructed embryos were transferred to recipient heifers to determine post-implantation development. Development of embryos reconstructed from early G1 phase cells from the >/=6 cells stage on Day 3 to the morula-blastocyst stage on Day 6 was 100%. Ten blastocysts constructed from two cell lines were transferred into 10 recipient heifers. Nine of the 10 recipients delivered single live calves. In conclusion, mitotic phase bovine fibroblast cells were easily recovered by the combined treatments of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol, shaking, and selecting cells of the appropriate diameter. Furthermore, nuclear transfer using cells in the early G1 phase as donor cells gave a high rate of offspring production.

  13. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase 2 Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Maddock, Robert W.; Prince, Jill L.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; White, Joseph P.; Tolson, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Carrelli, David

    2013-01-01

    NASA has used aerobraking at Mars and Venus to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit compared to an all-propulsive solution. Although aerobraking reduces the propellant, it does so at the expense of mission duration, large staff, and DSN coverage. These factors make aerobraking a significant cost element in the mission design. By moving on-board the current ground-based tasks of ephemeris determination, atmospheric density estimation, and maneuver sizing and execution, a flight project would realize significant cost savings. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored Phase 1 and 2 of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software (AADS) study, which demonstrated the initial feasibility of moving these current ground-based functions to the spacecraft. This paper highlights key state-of-the-art advancements made in the Phase 2 effort to verify that the AADS algorithms are accurate, robust and ready to be considered for application on future missions that utilize aerobraking. The advancements discussed herein include both model updates and simulation and benchmark testing. Rigorous testing using observed flight atmospheres, operational environments and statistical analysis characterized the AADS operability in a perturbed environment.

  14. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  15. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  16. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  17. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: a forgotten early phase of human evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    The field of paleoanthropology arose out of a strange and unacknowledged early phase of development prior to about the 1930s. It is often assumed that a key pillar of the discipline, the unity of humankind--the notion that humans are clearly separated phylogenetically (genealogically) from other non-human primates--was widely accepted from the inception of paleoanthropology around 1860. However, a final consensus on this fundamental question only appeared later on in the 20th century. This paper will focus on two key areas of disagreement, which reveal the unsettled state of this question during this early period: the question of uncertainty with respect to the number, identity and boundary of primate species (including humans) which prevailed in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries; and the matter of uncertainty with respect to the nature of the phylogenetic relationships among the various human populations and the other primate species which prevailed between 1864 and 1931. Consideration of these matters reveals that the modern research structure that paleoanthropologists take for granted today is much more recent than believed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase

    SciT

    Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao; Kohri, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating T{sub r} < 10{sup 9}GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  20. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  1. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  2. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  3. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  4. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  5. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    -modal due to the interaction of various constraints. Additionally, when these obstacles are coupled with The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories [1] (POST), an industry standard program to optimize ascent trajectories that is difficult to use, it requires expert trajectory analysts to effectively optimize a vehicle's ascent trajectory. As it has been pointed out, the paradigm of trajectory optimization is still a very manual one because using modern computational resources on POST is still a challenging problem. The nuances and difficulties involved in correctly utilizing, and therefore automating, the program presents a large problem. In order to address these issues, the authors will discuss a methodology that has been developed. The methodology is two-fold: first, a set of heuristics will be introduced and discussed that were captured while working with expert analysts to replicate the current state-of-the-art; secondly, leveraging the power of modern computing to evaluate multiple trajectories simultaneously, and therefore, enable the exploration of the trajectory's design space early during the pre-conceptual and conceptual phases of design. When this methodology is coupled with design of experiments in order to train surrogate models, the authors were able to visualize the trajectory design space, enabling parametric optimal ascent trajectory information to be introduced with other pre-conceptual and conceptual design tools. The potential impact of this methodology's success would be a fully automated POST evaluation suite for the purpose of conceptual and preliminary design trade studies. This will enable engineers to characterize the ascent trajectory's sensitivity to design changes in an arbitrary number of dimensions and for finding settings for trajectory specific variables, which result in optimal performance for a "dialed-in" launch vehicle design. The effort described in this paper was developed for the Advanced Concepts Office [2] at NASA Marshall

  6. Early visual processing is enhanced in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed an early attentional bias in processing unpleasant emotional images in women. Recent neuroimaging data suggests there are significant differences in cortical emotional processing according to menstrual phase. This study examined the impact of menstrual phase on visual emotional processing in women compared to men. ERPs were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men while they completed a passive viewing task of neutral and low- and high- arousing pleasant and unpleasant images. There was a significant effect of menstrual phase in early visual processing, as midluteal women displayed significantly greater P1 amplitude at occipital regions to all visual images compared to men. Both midluteal and early follicular women displayed larger N1 amplitudes than men (although this only reached significance for the midluteal group) to the visual images. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in later N2, P3, or LPP. A condition effect demonstrated greater P3 and LPP amplitude to highly-arousing unpleasant images relative to all other stimuli conditions. These results indicate that women have greater early automatic visual processing compared to men, and suggests that this effect is particularly strong in women in the midluteal phase at the earliest stage of visual attention processing. Our findings highlight the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  8. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SSME structural dynamic model development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Wilson, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test correlated mathematical models of the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) housing and rotor assembly was produced. New analysis methods within the EISI/EAL and SPAR systems were investigated and runstreams for future use were developed. The LOX pump models have undergone extensive modification since the first phase of this effort was completed. The rotor assembly from the original model was abandoned and a new, more detailed model constructed. A description of the new rotor math model is presented. Also, the pump housing model was continually modified as additional test data have become available. This model is documented along with measured test results. Many of the more advanced features of the EAL/SPAR finite element analysis system were exercised. These included the cyclic symmetry option, the macro-element procedures, and the fluid analysis capability. In addition, a new tool was developed that allows an automated analysis of a disjoint structure in terms of its component modes. A complete description of the implementation of the Craig-Bampton method is given along with two worked examples.

  10. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  11. The Development of Attention and Response Inhibition in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…

  12. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  13. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  14. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  15. Redefining Leadership: Lessons from an Early Education Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…

  16. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  17. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  18. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  19. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  20. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  1. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  2. White matter changes in early phase schizophrenia and cannabis use: an update and systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Cookey, Jacob; Bernier, Denise; Tibbo, Philip G

    2014-07-01

    The impact of cannabis use on the brain tissue is still unclear, both in the healthy developing brain and in people with schizophrenia. The focus of this review is on white matter, the primary connective infrastructure of the brain. We systematically reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of early phase schizophrenia (illness effect), of cannabis use in otherwise healthy brains (drug effect), and of early phase schizophrenia with cannabis use (combined effects). Studies had to include a healthy, non-cannabis using, control group as well as report on fractional anisotropy as it is the most commonly used DTI index. We excluded cohorts with heavy alcohol or illicit drug use and studies with a sample size of less than 20 in the clinical group. We retained 17 studies of early phase schizophrenia, which together indicate deficits in white matter integrity observed in all fiber tract families, but most frequently in association, callosal and projection fibers. In otherwise healthy cannabis users (2 studies), deficits in white matter tracts were reported mainly in callosal fibers, but also in projection and limbic fibers. In cannabis users with early phase schizophrenia (1 study), deficits in white matter integrity were also observed in all fiber tract families, except for limbic fibers. The current literature points to several families of white matter tracts being differentially affected in early phase schizophrenia. Further work is required to reveal the impact of cannabis use in otherwise healthy people as well as those with schizophrenia. Paucity of available studies as well as restricting analysis to FA values represent the main limitations of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  4. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Early stages of styrene-isoprene copolymerization in gas phase clusters probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Hatem; Germanenko, Igor N; El-Shall, M Samy

    2006-04-06

    We present direct evidence for the formation of the covalent bonded styrene (isoprene)(2) oligomer and the isoprene dimer ions following resonance ionization of the gas phase styrene-isoprene binary clusters. The application of resonance ionization to study polymerization reactions in clusters provides new information on the structure and mechanism of formation of the early stages of polymerization and holds considerable promise for the discovery of new initiation mechanisms and for the development of novel materials with unique properties.

  6. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Early Numeracy Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The focus of this study was to construct and validate 12 brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)-as well as critical developmental…

  7. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  8. Serum Uromodulin Levels in Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Sporek, Mateusz; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Gil, Krzysztof; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Walocha, Jerzy; Kucharz, Jakub; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Trąbka, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek

    2017-06-14

    In health, uromodulin is the main protein of urine. Serum uromodulin concentrations (sUMOD) have been shown to correlate with kidney function. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the main complications of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). No reports exist on sUMOD in patients with AP, including the diagnostic usefulness for early prediction of AP severity. We measured sUMOD during first 72 h of AP. Sixty-six adult patients with AP were recruited at the surgical ward of the District Hospital in Sucha Beskidzka, Poland. AP was diagnosed according to the Revised Atlanta Classification. Blood samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h of AP, and sUMOD concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent test. sUMOD decreased non-significantly during the study. Patients with severe AP had non-significantly lower sUMOD concentrations than those with mild disease. Significant positive correlation was observed between sUMOD and estimated glomerular filtration rate on each day of the study and negative correlations were shown between sUMOD and age, serum creatinine, cystatin C and urea. Patients with AKI tended to have lower sUMOD. Although sUMOD correlated significantly with kidney function in the early phase of AP, measuring sUMOD did not allow to reliably predict AP severity or development of AKI.

  9. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    PubMed

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  12. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  13. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  14. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  15. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  16. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  17. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  18. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  19. Study design and early result of a phase I study of SABR for early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tosol; Wee, Chan Woo; Choi, Noorie; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2018-05-14

    Avoidance of organs at risk has become possible with advances in image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early stage glottic cancer. This report presents the preliminary result of the first and second dose level. Fraction size was increased from 3.5 gray (Gy) (total dose 59.5 Gy) to 9 Gy (total dose 45 Gy). Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as grade 3 or higher treatment-related toxicities. Voice outcome was assessed with electroglottography, and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI). Seven patients received 59.5 Gy at 3.5 Gy per fraction as the first dose level, and five patients received 55 Gy at 5 Gy per fraction as the second dose level. None of the patients developed grade 3+ toxicity throughout a median follow-up of 17.5 months (range, 1.7-30.6 months). One patient in the second dose level recurred in the primary site at 4 months after radiotherapy (RT) and received total laryngectomy. The rest of participants were disease-free at locoregional and distant sites. Jitter, shimmer, mean phonation time, and noise-to-harmony ratio did not change significantly at 6 months after RT. HNCI scores between pretreatment and posttreatment were not significantly different (P = 0.221). This study revealed acceptable toxicity, voice outcome, and QoL in patients treated with hypofractionated VMAT of 3.5 Gy and 5 Gy per fraction. This phase I study is currently ongoing with a dose of 55 Gy in 11 fractions and 45 Gy in five fractions. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  1. Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Leskinen, Esko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    The present findings are drawn from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD), in which approximately 100 children with familial risk of dyslexia and 100 control children have been followed from birth. In this paper we report data on the reading development of the JLD children and their classmates, a total of 1,750 children from four…

  2. Developing an Engineering Identity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantoya, Michelle L.; Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Hunt, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    This project describes a strategy to introduce young children to engineering in a way that develops their engineering identity. The targeted age group is 3-7 year old students because they rarely experience purposeful engineering instruction. The curriculum was designed around an engineering storybook and included interactive academic discussions…

  3. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  4. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  5. Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between poverty and children's developmental outcomes, the effects of the timing and duration of poverty, and the effects of poverty at the family and neighborhood level, analyzing data from two longitudinal surveys. Found that poverty status was strongly related to low levels of cognitive development, even after…

  6. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  7. Wirelessly Networked Digital Phased Array: Analysis and Development of a Phase Synchronization Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited WIRELESSLY NETWORKED...DIGITAL PHASED ARRAY: ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION CONCEPT by Micael Grahn September 2007 Thesis Advisor...September 2007 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wirelessly Networked Digital Phased Array: Analysis and

  8. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Thin Film Phase Transition Materials Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    and ̂ from f are consistent with a real, positive film thickness d. These conditions are written IP( td /4) = 0, d > 0, (49) where IP denotes...surface of the substrate of the form . aAC(a) + bBD (a) >< cAB(a) + dCD(a) where (a) represents a phase adsorbed on the substrate surface, and the

  10. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  11. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  12. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    PubMed

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming < or =100 mg of caffeine to 45.2 pg/mL for women consuming > or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  13. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  14. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Subtitle... Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education and...

  15. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Port Arthur, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  16. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Panama City, FL | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  17. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…

  19. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  20. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  2. Phase II Validation of a New Panel of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    While all cancer patients could potentially benefit from earlier detection and prevention, the development of new screening technologies and chemoprevention for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in this regard. EOC is characterized by few early symptoms, presentation at an advanced stage, and poor survival. Presently there is no commercially available test that is diagnostic for either early or advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. The most commonly used marker, CA125, identifies a group of cell surface glycoproteins, which have uncertain biological behavior and very limited clinical utility for the detection of early stage disease. In recent years, several approaches have been used in order to develop a test for early detection, including the analysis of serum samples by SELDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF to find proteins or protein fragments of unknown identity that detect the presence/absence of cancer. Unfortunately, at the present time, none of these techniques have been shown to be adequate. Therefore, the development of a test that can detect early stages of the disease could dramatically improve treatment success and long-term survival. We have developed a new blood test based on a different approach: 1) we used known proteins related to cancer biology, 2) we characterized these proteins with several different screening steps using samples obtained from both healthy and cancer patient populations, and 3) validated the results with different techniques. Using split point analysis with four markers, 96 out of 100 EOC patients (96%) were correctly diagnosed with ovarian cancer (including 23 of 24 patients with Stage I/II EOC). In the healthy group, 6 out of 106 individuals were diagnosed incorrectly (5.6%). Working in collaboration with the Early Detection Network (EDRN/NCI/NIH), we performed Phase I discovery study confirming the potential application of this test for early detection of ovarian cancer (Preliminary results). The main objective of this pr

  3. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  4. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  5. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  6. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  7. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  8. Early development of an enterprise health data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Al-Tuwaijri, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe early development challenges of an enterprise data warehouse within a Saudi Arabian academic healthcare facility. An action case research method was selected for this paper. The study took place between December 2009 and February 2010. Data collection included interviews, meeting observations, and meeting minutes. Early development challenges centered on the development of clear contracts with vendors; development of a clear project plan; a need to fast-track bureaucracy; and educate clinicians and staff about the project; and lack of data standardization.

  9. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  10. The practical application of adaptive study design in early phase clinical trials: a retrospective analysis of time savings.

    PubMed

    Lorch, U; Berelowitz, K; Ozen, C; Naseem, A; Akuffo, E; Taubel, J

    2012-05-01

    The interest in adaptive study design is evident from the growing amount of clinical research employing this model in the mid to later stages of medicines development. Little has been published on the practical application and merits of adaptive study design in early phase clinical research. This paper describes a retrospective analysis performed on a sample of 29 industry lead adaptive early phase studies commencing between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010 in a clinical trials unit in London, England. All studies containing at least one adaptive feature in the original protocol were included in the analysis. The scope of the analysis was to assess whether the use of adaptive study designs provided tangible benefits over the use of conventional study designs using time savings as the main measure. We conclude that the use of adaptive study design saves time in early phase research programs. This is achieved by abolishing the need for substantial amendments or by mitigating their impact on timelines and by using adaptive scheduling efficiencies.

  11. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  12. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  13. Getting an Early Start on Early Child Development. Education Notes. 30194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming; Dunkelberg, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The children born this year--2004--will be eleven years old in 2015--the age of primary school completion in most countries. This is the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) generation--for whom the international community has pledged that by 2015, all children will be able to complete primary schooling. Ensuring good early child development is the…

  14. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Differential role of afferent and efferent renal nerves in the maintenance of early- and late-phase Dahl S hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Jason D.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data suggest that renal denervation (RDNX) may be an effective treatment for human hypertension; however, it is unclear whether this therapeutic effect is due to ablation of afferent or efferent renal nerves. We have previously shown that RDNX lowers arterial pressure in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats to a similar degree observed in clinical trials. In addition, we have recently developed a method for selective ablation of afferent renal nerves (renal-CAP). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of RDNX in the Dahl S rat is due to ablation of afferent renal nerves by comparing the effect of complete RDNX to renal-CAP during two phases of hypertension in the Dahl S rat. In the early phase, rats underwent treatment after 3 wk of high-NaCl feeding when mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ∼140 mmHg. In the late phase, rats underwent treatment after 9 wk of high NaCl feeding, when MAP was ∼170 mmHg. RDNX reduced MAP ∼10 mmHg compared with sham surgery in both the early and late phase, whereas renal-CAP had no antihypertensive effect. These results suggest that, in the Dahl S rat, the antihypertensive effect of RDNX is not dependent on pretreatment arterial pressure, nor is it due to ablation of afferent renal nerves. PMID:26661098

  16. An efficient early phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, and validation of an efficient crossover procedure for sensitivity in detecting medication efficacy for smoking cessation. First-line FDA-approved medications of nicotine patch, varenicline, and bupropion were tested as model drugs, in three separate placebo-controlled studies. We also tested specificity of our procedure in identifying a drug that lacks efficacy, using modafinil. This crossover procedure showed sensitivity (increased days of abstinence) during week-long "practice" quit attempts with each of the active cessation medications (positive controls) versus placebo, but not with modafinil (negative control) versus placebo, as hypothesized. Sensitivity to medication efficacy signal was observed only in smokers high in intrinsic quit motivation (i.e., already preparing to quit soon) and not smokers low in intrinsic quit motivation, even if monetarily reinforced for abstinence (i.e., given extrinsic motivation). A crossover procedure requiring less time and fewer subjects than formal trials may provide an efficient strategy for a go/no-go decision whether to advance to subsequent phase 2 randomized clinical trials with a novel drug. Future research is needed to replicate our results and evaluate this procedure with novel compounds, identify factors that may limit its utility, and evaluate its applicability to testing efficacy of compounds for treating other forms of addiction.

  17. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ..., choosing a study population, using a control group and blinding, dose selection, treatment plans...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

  19. Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y

    2001-03-01

    The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical to contemporary Western societies. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events heretofore considered minor.

  20. [Early childhood development and risk factors in rural China: a cohort study].

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Gao, J Q; Yue, A; Tang, L; Luo, R F; Scott, Rozelle

    2018-02-02

    Objective: To investigate the development status and risk factors of infants and toddlers in rural China. Methods: In this cohort study, 603 infants (6-12 months of age, Phase Ⅰ) in the rural areas of QinLing-Bashan (Qin-Ba) in Shaanxi were recruited in the control group that received no intervention from April 2013 to October 2015. Three follow-up visits were performed every six months (Phase Ⅱ(12-18 months of age), Phase Ⅲ (18-24 months of age) and Phase Ⅳ(24-30 months of age)). In all the 4 phases (Ⅰ-Ⅳ), general data of the children and the families were collected by questionnaires, early childhood growth and development were assessed by door to door visits, children's hemoglobin levels were determined by laboratory tests, and the cognitive and motor development screening was conducted by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the development of infants and toddlers in rural areas and the data were analyzed in terms of risk factors from infants, guardians and family. Results: Phase Ⅱ, Phase Ⅲ and Phase Ⅳ survey recruited 497, 483 and 486 participants respectively. The incidences of cognitive impairment (mental development scores<80) in rural areas of southern Shaanxi were 13.4% (81/603) in Phase Ⅰ(6-12 months), 20.1%(100/497) in PhaseⅡ(12-18 months), 42.9% (207/483) in Phase Ⅲ(18-24 months) and 50.4%(245/486) in Phase Ⅳ(24-30 months) respectively, which showed a significant increase with age (χ(2)=233.40, P< 0.01); the incidences of psychomotor impairment (psychomotor development scores<80) of Phase Ⅰ, Phase Ⅱ, Phase Ⅲ and Phase Ⅳ were 25.0% (151/603), 26.8% (133/497), 8.3% (40/483) and 11.9% (58/486), which showed a significant decrease with age (χ(2)=87.08, P< 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the leading risk factor of the cognitive development of 24-30-month-old children was the mothers' poor education background (

  1. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  2. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  3. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  4. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  5. Professional development session for early career scientists at SITC 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2012 Professional Development Session was held as part of the SITC 27th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, on October 24, 2012. The session was designed as a new opportunity for early career investigators to learn about relevant career development topics in a didactic setting. PMID:25742323

  6. Promising Directions for Research and Development in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David L.

    A survey of research and development studies currently needed in early childhood education stresses child development and its relation to instruction. Topics which have been discussed are perception, oral language, concept formation, learning set, motivation, and the psychology of learning. Universities and public school systems working together…

  7. Instructional Development for Early Career Academics: An Overview of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, the issue of improving teaching in higher education has been seriously addressed. Centres for instructional development, aimed at enhancing teaching, have been set up in many countries. Instructional development for early career academics is perceived to be of particular importance. Given the considerable…

  8. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  9. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  10. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  11. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N.; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:28767339

  12. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  13. Early Risk Reduction Phase 1 FLIR/Laser Designator Window. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    Sandwich-Type FLIR Windows," Air Force AFWAL-TR-83- 4122, Nov 1983. 4-1 Hughes Danbury Optical Systems Final Report, "ATA Window Technology Program," PRBll...Risk Reduction -- Phase I, Optical Properties Measurement Techniques of Three Wide Band Window Materials," 22 August 1991. xii I i 86PR0869 30... Optical Systems, Lexington, MA, 02173, 1 Feb 1991. 5-7 McDonnell Aircraft Company Technical Memorandum TM 256.91.0056.01, "Early Risk Reduction -- Phase

  14. Evaluating cardiac risk: exposure response analysis in early clinical drug development.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Julie; Paglialunga, Sabina; Morimoto, Bruce H; Lester, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of a drug's cardiac liability has undergone considerable metamorphosis by regulators since International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirement for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use E14 guideline was introduced in 2005. Drug developers now have a choice in how proarrhythmia risk can be evaluated; the options include a dedicated thorough QT (TQT) study or exposure response (ER) modeling of intensive electrocardiogram (ECG) captured in early clinical development. The alternative approach of ER modeling was incorporated into a guidance document in 2015 as a primary analysis tool which could be utilized in early phase dose escalation studies as an option to perform a dedicated TQT trial. This review will describe the current state of ER modeling of intensive ECG data collected during early clinical drug development; the requirements with regard to the use of a positive control; and address the challenges and opportunities of this alternative approach to assessing QT liability.

  15. Confocal Imaging of Early Heart Development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Kolker, Sandra J.; Tajchman, Urszula; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Xenopus laevis provides a number of advantages for studies on cardiovascular development. The embryos are fairly large, easy to obtain, and can develop at ambient temperature in simple buffer solutions. Although classic descriptions of heart development exist, the ability to use whole mount immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy may enhance the ability to understand both normal and experimentally perturbed cardiovascular development. We have started to examine the early stages of cardiac development in Xenopus, seeking to identify antibodies and fixatives that allow easy examination of the developing heart. We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against bovine cardiac troponin T and chicken tropomyosin to visualize cardiac muscle, a goat antibody recognizing bovine type VI collagen to stain the lining of vessels, and the JB3 mAb raised against chicken fibrillin which allows the visualization of a variety of cardiovascular tissues during early development. Results from embryonic stages 24–46 are presented. PMID:10644411

  16. Challenges in early clinical development of adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Della Cioppa, Giovanni; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Lewis, David

    2015-06-08

    A three-step approach to the early development of adjuvanted vaccine candidates is proposed, the goal of which is to allow ample space for exploratory and hypothesis-generating human experiments and to select dose(s) and dosing schedule(s) to bring into full development. Although the proposed approach is more extensive than the traditional early development program, the authors suggest that by addressing key questions upfront the overall time, size and cost of development will be reduced and the probability of public health advancement enhanced. The immunogenicity end-points chosen for early development should be critically selected: an established immunological parameter with a well characterized assay should be selected as primary end-point for dose and schedule finding; exploratory information-rich end-points should be limited in number and based on pre-defined hypothesis generating plans, including system biology and pathway analyses. Building a pharmacodynamic profile is an important aspect of early development: to this end, multiple early (within 24h) and late (up to one year) sampling is necessary, which can be accomplished by sampling subgroups of subjects at different time points. In most cases the final target population, even if vulnerable, should be considered for inclusion in early development. In order to obtain the multiple formulations necessary for the dose and schedule finding, "bed-side mixing" of various components of the vaccine is often necessary: this is a complex and underestimated area that deserves serious research and logistical support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  18. Perspectives and Open Problems in the Early Phases of Left-Right Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Embryonic left-right (LR) patterning is a fascinating aspect of embryogenesis. The field currently faces important questions about the origin of LR asymmetry, the mechanisms by which consistent asymmetry is imposed on the scale of the whole embryo, and the degree of conservation of early phases of LR patterning among model systems. Recent progress on planar cell polarity and cellular asymmetry in a variety of tissues and species provides a new perspective on the early phases of LR patterning. Despite the huge diversity in body-plans over which consistent LR asymmetry is imposed, and the apparent divergence in molecular pathways that underlie laterality, the data reveal conservation of physiological modules among phyla and a basic scheme of cellular chirality amplified by a planar cell polarity-like pathway over large cell fields. PMID:19084609

  19. Inside information: Financial conflicts of interest for research subjects in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Ratain, Mark J; Epstein, Richard A; Siegler, Mark

    2004-05-05

    In recent years, several research subjects have told us that they had bought or intended to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they were enrolled. This situation has led us to ask what, if any, are physician-investigators' scientific, ethical, and legal responsibilities concerning research subjects who choose to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they are participating. Although the scope of this problem is unknown and is likely to be small, this commentary examines the scientific, ethical, and legal concerns raised by such activities on the part of research subjects enrolled in early phase clinical trials. In addition, this commentary also outlines the basis for our opinion that research subjects involved in an early phase clinical trial should avoid the financial conflicts of interest created by trading stock in the company sponsoring the clinical trial.

  20. Ultra-Early Phase pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, I summarize the critical issues that should be successfully and consistently answered by a new concept of neurodegeneration. For reevaluating old concepts and reconstructing a new concept of neurodegeneration that will replace the old ones, non-biased comprehensive approaches including proteome combined with systems biology analyses will be a powerful tool. I introduce our recent efforts in this orientation that have reached to the stage of non-clinical proof of concept applicable to clinical trials.

  1. The development of self-regulation across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Janelle J; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; McClelland, Megan M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2016-11-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and 7 years, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across 3 diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow 3 distinct developmental patterns of growth. These 3 trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds, with implications for offering individualized support across children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of three and seven, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across three diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow three distinct developmental patterns of growth. These three trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds with implications for offering individualized support across children. PMID:27709999

  3. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  4. Impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Chaofeng; Zhu, Xiao; Han, Yajuan

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion. The normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups included 16, 8, and 19 subjects, respectively. Subjects underwent continuous glucose monitoring for 3 days, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) levels were measured at 30-min increments for 2 h after glucose intake. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The area under the curve (AUC) of total GIP (120-min GIP-AUC) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC of the NGT group was significantly larger than those of the T2DM and IGT groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. Mean amplitudes of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) went in the order of NGT < IGT < T2DM (P < 0.01, IGT vs. NGT; P < 0.001, T2DM vs. IGT). The 120-min GIP-AUC was negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.464), but uncorrelated with ΔI30/ΔG30. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC was positively correlated with ΔI30/ΔG30 (r = 0.580), but negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.606). Incretin may ameliorate glucose excursions, and GLP-1 may exert them by promoting early-phase insulin secretion. No correlation was observed between GIP secretion and early-phase insulin secretion.

  5. Effects of temperature on early-phase transmission of Yersina pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Bearden, Scott W; Vetter, Sara M; Holmes, Jennifer; Montenieri, John A; Graham, Christine B; Woods, Michael E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2011-03-01

    Sharp declines in human and animal cases of plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Yersin), have been observed when outbreaks coincide with hot weather. Failure of biofilm production, or blockage, to occur in the flea, as temperatures reach 30 degrees C has been suggested as an explanation for these declines. Recent work demonstrating efficient flea transmission during the first few days after fleas have taken an infectious blood meal, in the absence of blockage (e.g., early-phase transmission), however, has called this hypothesis into question. To explore the potential effects of temperature on early-phase transmission, we infected colony-reared Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) fleas with a wild-type strain of plague bacteria using an artificial feeding system, and held groups of fleas at 10, 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Naive Swiss Webster mice were exposed to fleas from each of these temperatures on days 1-4 postinfection, and monitored for signs of infection for 21 d. Temperature did not significantly influence the rates of transmission observed for fleas held at 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Estimated per flea transmission efficiencies for these higher temperatures ranged from 2.32 to 4.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-8.74). In contrast, no transmission was observed in mice challenged by fleas held at 10 degrees C (per flea transmission efficiency estimates, 0-1.68%). These results suggest that declines in human and animal cases during hot weather are not related to changes in the abilities of X. cheopis fleas to transmit Y. pestis infections during the early-phase period. By contrast, transmission may be delayed or inhibited at low temperatures, indicating that epizootic spread of Y. pestis by X. cheopis via early-phase transmission is unlikely during colder periods of the year.

  6. The Role of Early-Phase Transmission in the Spread of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    EISEN, REBECCA J.; DENNIS, DAVID T.; GAGE, KENNETH L.

    2015-01-01

    Early-phase transmission (EPT) of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas is a well-documented, replicable phenomenon with poorly defined mechanisms. We review evidence demonstrating EPT and current knowledge on its biological and biomechanical processes. We discuss the importance of EPT in the epizootic spread of Y. pestis and its role in the maintenance of plague bacteria in nature. We further address the role of EPT in the epidemiology of plague. PMID:26336267

  7. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.

  8. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  9. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (P<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. Out of these 57 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Through classification of physiological functions from Conserved Domain Database analysis, among the identified proteins, 21, 13, and 6 proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding process, respectively. Interestingly, eight proteins, which are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including catalase A, thioredoxin reductase, and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, were also identified. The expression levels of the genes were further confirmed using Northern blot and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses. This study represents the first proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    ACCESS provides a generic capability to develop software information system applications which are explicitly intended to facilitate software reuse. In addition, it provides the capability to retrofit existing large applications with a user friendly front end for preparation of input streams in a way that will reduce required training time, improve the productivity even of experienced users, and increase accuracy. Current and past work shows that ACCESS will be scalable to much larger object bases.

  11. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  13. Early dialogue between the developers of new technologies and pricing and reimbursement agencies: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Martin E; Wonder, Michael; Hornby, Edward; Kilburg, Anne; Drummond, Michael; Mayer, Friedrich Karl

    2011-06-01

    It is common practice for developers of new health care technologies to engage in early dialogue with the major regulatory agencies; such discussions frequently center around the proposed clinical trial designs to support the registration of new interventions and suggestions on their improvement. Pricing and reimbursement agencies are increasingly using the results from health technology assessments to inform their decision making for new technologies. Such assessments are invariably underpinned by the phase 3 clinical trial evidence which may not provide answers to the key questions. Technology developers are beginning to realize that direct, early dialogue on the evidence requirements of the major pricing and reimbursement agencies, before phase 3 clinical trial designs for their key development compounds have been finalized, may be beneficial. This article reports on the pioneering efforts of one technology developer in seeking early dialogue with seven pricing and reimbursement agencies in five countries globally in 2007-2008 on their likely evidence requirements for a new oral treatment for patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. The pilot project demonstrated that a feasible process of early dialogue could be established, through a face-to-face meeting with prior circulation of a briefing book. Although there was some variation in the advice the similarities far outweighed the differences. More experience of early dialogue needs to be accumulated, involving a wider range of pricing and reimbursement agencies and compounds. The conclusion of this study, however, was that early dialogue can be a worthwhile process for all parties and can lead to a common understanding about evidence development for market access. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  15. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  16. The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping Family-Child Relationships in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the cultural significance of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) and discusses changes that the discourse of this instrument makes to the way in which the child is conceptualised. It analyses the technological function of the AEDI to examine how it makes the child a universal resource for human capital. The article…

  17. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  18. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p < .0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  19. Development of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Testing Acceptability Criteria : (Phase I)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    Phase I of this research effort involved a review of the current state of the art of weld inspection using PAUT, development of the preliminary technical approach to inspecting CJP butt welds with and without transitions, fabrication of suitable test...

  20. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  1. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of early Xenopus development by ErbB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Chang, Chenbei

    2008-01-01

    ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development. Gain-of-function analyses show that EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB4 induce ectopic tumor-like cell mass that contains increased numbers of mitotic cells. Both the muscle and the neural markers are expressed in these ectopic protrusions. ErbBs also induce mesodermal markers in ectodermal explants. Loss-of-function studies using carboxyl terminal-truncated dominant-negative ErbB receptors demonstrate that blocking ErbB signals leads to defective gastrulation movements and malformation of the embryonic axis with a reduction in the head structures in early frog embryos. These data, together with the observation that ErbBs are expressed early during frog embryogenesis, suggest that ErbBs regulate cell proliferation, movements and embryonic patterning during early Xenopus development. PMID:16258939

  3. Development of Vapor-Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kiss, Mark; Borchers, Bruce; Tleimat, Badawi; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale; hide

    2007-01-01

    A report describes recent accomplishments of a continuing effort to develop the vapor-phase catalytic ammonia removal (VPCAR) process for recycling wastewater for consumption by humans aboard a spacecraft in transit to Mars.

  4. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  5. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  6. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  7. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  8. The Ecology of Early Reading Development for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainz, Kirsten; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated reading development from kindergarten to third grade for 1,913 economically disadvantaged children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Characteristics of the child, the family, classroom instruction, and school composition were used to model influences from multiple levels of children's…

  9. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  10. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  11. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  12. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  13. The Use of Electrophysiology in the Study of Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Denes

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a timely and important tool in the study of early cognitive development. This commentary polishes the definition of event-related potential (ERP) components; often interpreted as expressions of mental processes. Further, attention is drawn to time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which conveys much more…

  14. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  15. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  16. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  17. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  18. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  19. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  20. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  1. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  2. State Guide to Developing Successful Early Childhood Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF International (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Early education leaders--inside and outside of government--are looking for new ways to improve quality, accountability, and efficiency across many different programs serving young children and their families, and they see investment in data systems as a pivotal part of that effort. However, it can be challenging to develop and implement effective…

  3. Towards Sustainable National Development through Well Managed Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nath M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. The child is the "owner" of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannot be addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of…

  4. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  5. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  6. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  7. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  8. Cholinergic Mechanisms, Early Brain Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Randal G; Stevens, Karen E; Proctor, William R; Leonard, Sherry; Kisley, Michael A; Hunter, Sharon K; Freedman, Robert; Adams, Catherine E

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases are complex illnesses where the onset of diagnostic symptomology is often the end result of a decades-long process of aberrant brain development. The identification of novel treatment strategies aimed at normalizing early brain development and preventing mental illness should be a major therapeutic goal; however, there are few models for how this goal might be achieved. This report uses the attentional deficits of schizophrenia as an example and reviews data from genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pharmacologic studies to hypothesize a developmental model with translational primary prevention implications. Specifically, the model suggests that an early interaction between α7 nicotinic receptor density and choline availability may contribute to the development of schizophrenia-associated attentional deficits. Translational implications, including perinatal dietary choline supplementation, are discussed. It is hoped that presentation of this model will stimulate other efforts to develop empirically-driven primary prevention strategies. PMID:19925602

  9. Developing International Collaborations for Early Career Researchers in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Forbes, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration is becoming increasingly vital as the emphasis on unmet need for mental health across cultures and nations grows. Opportunities exist for early career researchers to engage in international collaboration. However, little information is provided about such opportunities in most current psychology training models. The authors are early career researchers in psychology from U.S. and Australia who have developed a collaborative relationship over the past two years. Our goal is to increase awareness of funding opportunities to support international research and to highlight the benefits and challenges associated with international collaboration based on our experience. PMID:27453624

  10. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  11. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  12. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of episodic memory impairment in early phase psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Tom A.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Yung, Matthew G.; Liffick, Emily; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F.; Radnovich, Alexander J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that episodic memory (EM) is often preferentially disrupted in schizophrenia. The neural substrates that mediate EM impairment in this illness are not fully understood. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have employed EM probe tasks to elucidate the neural underpinnings of impairment, though results have been inconsistent. The majority of EM imaging studies have been conducted in chronic forms of schizophrenia with relatively few studies in early phase patients. Early phase schizophrenia studies are important because they may provide information regarding when EM deficits occur and address potential confounds more frequently observed in chronic populations. In this study, we assessed brain activation during the performance of visual scene encoding and recognition fMRI tasks in patients with earlyphase psychosis (n=35) and age, sex, and race matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Patients demonstrated significantly lower activation than controls in the right hippocampus and left fusiform gyrus during scene encoding and lower activation in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and left middle temporal cortex during recognition of target scenes. Symptom levels were not related to the imaging findings, though better cognitive performance in patients was associated with greater right hippocampal activation during encoding. These results provide evidence of altered function in neuroanatomical circuitry subserving EM early in the course of psychotic illness, which may have implications for pathophysiological models of this illness. PMID:25749917

  14. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.

  15. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  16. Muscle contributions to knee extension in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Kubota, Ryo; Chujo, Yuta; Hirooka, Eiko; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Hase, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom. We analyzed each muscle contribution to knee angular acceleration in the 5%-15% and 15%-25% periods of the stance phase (% SP) using an induced acceleration analysis. We compared accelerations by individual muscles between the two groups using an analysis of covariance for controlling gait speed. Patients with knee OA had a significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles and higher knee acceleration by hip adductors than those in controls in 5-15% SP. In addition, knee OA resulted in significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles in 15-25% SP. These results indicate that patients with knee OA have decreased dependency on the vasti muscles to control knee movements during early stance phase. Hip adductor muscles, which mainly control mediolateral motion, partly compensate for the weak knee extension by the vasti muscles in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  18. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  19. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  20. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  1. New developments in optical phase-change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Czubatyj, Wolodymyr

    2001-02-01

    Phase change technology has progressed from the original invention of Ovshinsky to become the leading choice for rewritable optical disks. ECD's early work in phase change materials and methods for operating in a direct overwrite fashion were crucial to the successes that have been achieved. Since the introduction of the first rewritable phase change products in 1991, the market has expanded from CD-RW into rewritable DVD with creative work going on worldwide. Phase change technology is ideally suited to address the continuous demand for increased storage capacity. First, laser beams can be focused to ever-smaller spot sizes using shorter wavelength lasers and higher performance optics. Blue lasers are now commercially viable and high numerical aperture and near field lenses have been demonstrated. Second, multilevel approaches can be used to increase capacity by a factor of three or more with concomitant increases in data transfer rate. In addition, ECD has decreased manufacturing costs through the use of innovative production technology. These factors combine to accelerate the widespread use of phase change technology. As in all our technologies, such as thin film photovoltaics, nickel metal hydride batteries, hydrogen storage systems, fuel cells, electrical memory, etc., we have invented the materials, the products, the production machines and the production processes for high rate, low-cost manufacture.

  2. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  3. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Christian; Losa, Gabriele A.

    2001-01-01

    Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187) for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD) values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD) than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD) occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process. PMID:11790854

  4. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  5. Endosperm turgor pressure decreases during early Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Fourquin, Chloé; Dubrulle, Nelly; Boursiac, Yann; Boudaoud, Arezki; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2016-09-15

    In Arabidopsis, rapid expansion of the coenocytic endosperm after fertilisation has been proposed to drive early seed growth, which is in turn constrained by the seed coat. This hypothesis implies physical heterogeneity between the endosperm and seed coat compartments during early seed development, which to date has not been demonstrated. Here, we combine tissue indentation with modelling to show that the physical properties of the developing seed are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated endosperm-derived turgor pressure drives early seed expansion. We provide evidence that whole-seed turgor is generated by the endosperm at early developmental stages. Furthermore, we show that endosperm cellularisation and seed growth arrest are associated with a drop in endosperm turgor pressure. Finally, we demonstrate that this decrease is perturbed when the function of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 is lost, suggesting that turgor pressure changes could be a target of genomic imprinting. Our results indicate a developmental role for changes in endosperm turgor pressure in the Arabidopsis seed. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; P<.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception (Spearman r, -0.075; P = .329). Dispositional optimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (P<.0001) were found to be independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have

  7. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    SciT

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was tomore » establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.« less

  9. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    SciT

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was tomore » establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.« less

  10. Extinct radioactivities - A three-phase mixing model. [for early solar system abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of models is advanced for interpreting the relationship of radioactive abundances in the early solar system to their average concentration in the interstellar medium. The model assumes that fresh radioactivities are ejected from supernovae into the hot interstellar medium, and that the time scales for changes of phase into molecular clouds determine how much survives for formation therein of the solar system. A more realistic and physically motivated understanding of the low observed concentrations of I-129, Pu-244, and Pd-107 may result.

  11. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Development of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Testing Acceptability Criteria : (Phase II)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    The preliminary technical approach and scan plans developed during phase I of this research was implemented on testing four butt-weld specimens. The ray path analysis carried out to develop the scan plans and the preliminary data analysis indicated t...

  13. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  14. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the ‘germ band’ of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the ‘somites’ unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis, conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. PMID:29237861

  15. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baichuan; Dong, Xi-Ping; Porras, Luis; Vargas, Kelly; Cunningham, John A; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-12-20

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the 'germ band' of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the 'somites' unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis , conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  17. Development of New Laser-Protective Dyes. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-30

    technology to stabilize cyanine and squarylium dyes . This accomplishment will justify continued research on the synthesis and process development of...beyond. This is the subject of a proposed Phase II program. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION THERMAL STABILITY: In Phase I, dyes of the cyanine and squarylium ...Test in Appendix 1). Table 1 shows that the squarylium dyes are inherently more thermally stable than the cyanines. This observation supports

  18. Relationship between the neighbourhood built environment and early child development.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Ball, Stephen J; Zubrick, Stephen R; Brinkman, Sally; Turrell, Gavin; Boruff, Bryan; Foster, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between features of the neighbourhood built environment and early child development was investigated using area-level data from the Australian Early Development Census. Overall 9.0% of children were developmentally vulnerable on the Physical Health and Well-being domain, 8.1% on the Social Competence domain and 8.1% on the Emotional Maturity domain. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, Local Communities with the highest quintile of home yard space had significantly lower odds of developmental vulnerability on the Emotional Maturity domain. Residing in a Local Community with fewer main roads was associated with a decrease in the proportion of children developmentally vulnerable on the Social Competence domain. Overall, sociodemographic factors were more important than aspects of the neighbourhood physical environment for explaining variation between Local Communities in the developmental vulnerability of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    PubMed

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  20. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A

    2017-10-11

    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival. Alas, surviving early hazards, like prematurity or infectious disease, does not guarantee that children's development will not be compromised by other hazards as they grow older. Throughout the world, children continue to be confronted with a large number of biological and psychosocial challenges that greatly limit their developmental potential. The focus of this article is how such adverse experiences impact the developing brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early zebrafish development: It’s in the maternal genes

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Mullins, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The earliest stages of embryonic development in all animals examined rely on maternal gene products that are generated during oogenesis and supplied to the egg. The period of maternal control of embryonic development varies among animals according to the onset of zygotic transcription and the persistence of maternal gene products. This maternal regulation has been little studied in vertebrates, due to the difficulty in manipulating maternal gene function and lack of basic molecular information. However, recent maternal-effect screens in the zebrafish have generated more than 40 unique mutants that are providing new molecular entry points to the maternal control of early vertebrate development. Here we discuss recent studies of 12 zebrafish mutant genes that illuminate the maternal molecular controls on embryonic development, including advances in the regulation of animal-vegetal polarity, egg activation, cleavage development, body plan formation, tissue morphogenesis, microRNA function and germ cell development. PMID:19608405

  2. Emerging Use of Early Health Technology Assessment in Medical Product Development: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    IJzerman, Maarten J; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Krahn, Murray

    2017-07-01

    Early health technology assessment is increasingly being used to support health economic evidence development during early stages of clinical research. Such early models can be used to inform research and development about the design and management of new medical technologies to mitigate the risks, perceived by industry and the public sector, associated with market access and reimbursement. Over the past 25 years it has been suggested that health economic evaluation in the early stages may benefit the development and diffusion of medical products. Early health technology assessment has been suggested in the context of iterative economic evaluation alongside phase I and II clinical research to inform clinical trial design, market access, and pricing. In addition, performing early health technology assessment was also proposed at an even earlier stage for managing technology portfolios. This scoping review suggests a generally accepted definition of early health technology assessment to be "all methods used to inform industry and other stakeholders about the potential value of new medical products in development, including methods to quantify and manage uncertainty". The present review also aimed to identify recent published empirical studies employing an early-stage assessment of a medical product. With most included studies carried out to support a market launch, the dominant methodology was early health economic modeling. Further methodological development is required, in particular, by combining systems engineering and health economics to manage uncertainty in medical product portfolios.

  3. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  4. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  5. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  6. New developments for determination of uncertainty in phase evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng

    Phase evaluation exists mostly in, but not limited to, interferometric applications that utilize coherent multidimensional signals to modulate the physical quantity of interest into a nonlinear form, represented by repeating the phase modulo of 271 radians. In order to estimate the underlying physical quantity, the wrapped phase has to be unwrapped by an evaluation procedure which is usually called phase unwrapping. The procedure of phase unwrapping will obviously face the challenge of inconsistent phase, which could bring errors in phase evaluation. The main objectives of this research include addressing the problem of inconsistent phase in phase unwrapping and applications in modern optical techniques. In this research, a new phase unwrapping algorithm is developed. The creative idea of doing phase unwrapping between regions has an advantage over conventional pixel-to-pixel unwrapping methods because the unwrapping result is more consistent by using a voting mechanism based on all Zit-discontinuities hints. Furthermore, a systematic sequence of regional unwrapping is constructed in order to achieve a global consistent result. An implementation of the idea is illustrated in dct.il with step-by-step pseudo codes. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on real world applications. In order to solve a phase unwrapping problem which is caused by depth discontinuities in 3D shape measurement, a new absolute phase coding strategy is developed. The algorithm presented has two merits: effectively extends the coding range and preserves the measurement sensitivity. The performance of the proposed absolute coding strategy is proved by results of 3D shape measurement for objects with surface discontinuities. As a powerful tool for real world applications a universal software package, Optical Measurement and Evaluation Software (OMES), is designed for the purposes of automatic measurement and quantitative evaluation in 3D shape measurement and laser interferometry

  7. Early development and replacement of the stickleback dentition

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Nicholas A.; Donde, Nikunj N.; Miller, Craig T.

    2017-01-01

    Teeth have long served as a model system to study basic questions about vertebrate organogenesis, morphogenesis, and evolution. In non-mammalian vertebrates, teeth typically regenerate throughout adult life. Fish have evolved a tremendous diversity in dental patterning in both their oral and pharyngeal dentitions, offering numerous opportunities to study how morphology develops, regenerates, and evolves in different lineages. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a new system to study how morphology evolves, and provide a particularly powerful system to study the development and evolution of dental morphology. Here we describe the oral and pharyngeal dentitions of stickleback fish, providing additional morphological, histological, and molecular evidence for homology of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Focusing on the ventral pharyngeal dentition in a dense developmental time course of lab-reared fish, we describe the temporal and spatial consensus sequence of early tooth formation. Early in development, this sequence is highly stereotypical and consists of seventeen primary teeth forming the early tooth field, followed by the first tooth replacement event. Comparing this detailed morphological and ontogenetic sequence to that described in other fish reveals that major changes to how dental morphology arises and regenerates have evolved across different fish lineages. PMID:27145214

  8. Developing an Early Childhood Teacher Workforce Development Strategy for Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anne; Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The North West Early Childhood and Primary Teacher Workforce Development Strategy offers students in the Pilbara and Kimberley the opportunity to enrol in a Western Australian University's fully accredited Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood and Primary) part time and externally--so they can continue to live and work in their communities. The…

  9. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  10. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  11. Worldwide isotope ratios of the Fukushima release and early-phase external dose reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaisan, Kittisak; Smith, Jim T.; Bossew, Peter; Kirchner, Gerald; Laptev, Gennady V.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radionuclides (RNs) in air made worldwide following the Fukushima accident are quantitatively compared with air and soil measurements made in Japan. Isotopic ratios RN:137Cs of 131I, 132Te, 134,136Cs, are correlated with distance from release. It is shown, for the first time, that both within Japan and globally, ratios RN:137Cs in air were relatively constant for primarily particle associated radionuclides (134,136Cs; 132Te) but that 131I shows much lower local (<80 km) isotope ratios in soils relative to 137Cs. Derived isotope ratios are used to reconstruct external dose rate during the early phase post-accident. Model “blind” tests show more than 95% of predictions within a factor of two of measurements from 15 sites to the north, northwest and west of the power station. It is demonstrated that generic isotope ratios provide a sound basis for reconstruction of early-phase external dose rates in these most contaminated areas. PMID:24018776

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of kidneys in patients with early phase of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Kocakoc, Ercan; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an MR technique used to show molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as a quantitative parameter calculated from the DW MR images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of DW MR imaging in early phase of obstruction due to urolithiasis. Twenty-six patients with acute dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system detected by intravenous urography were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5 T whole-body superconducting MR scanner. DW imaging can be performed using single-shot spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences with the following diffusion gradient b values: 100, 600, 1000 s/mm(2). Circular region of interest (ROI) was placed in the renal parenchyma for the measurement of ADC values in the normal and obstructed kidney. For statistical analyses, Paired t test were used. In spite of obstructed kidneys had the lower ADC values compared to normal kidneys, these alterations were statistically insignificant. We did not observe significantly different ADC values of early phase of obstructed kidneys compared to normal kidneys.

  13. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  14. Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanbao; Kwon, Keehwan; Tsitrin, Tamara; Sikorski, Patricia; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins. PMID:28129394

  15. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    SciT

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in themore » analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.« less

  16. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reflections on the early development of poxvirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-06

    Poxvirus expression vectors were described in 1982 and quickly became widely used for vaccine development as well as research in numerous fields. Advantages of the vectors include simple construction, ability to accommodate large amounts of foreign DNA and high expression levels. Numerous poxvirus-based veterinary vaccines are currently in use and many others are in human clinical trials. The early reports of poxvirus vectors paved the way for and stimulated the development of other viral vectors and recombinant DNA vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Early career professional development issues for military academic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Warner, Christopher H; Bobo, William V; Flynn, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    Academically motivated graduates of military psychiatric residency programs confront serious challenges. In this article, the authors present a junior faculty development model organized around four overlapping domains: mentorship, scholarship, research, and career planning/development. Using these four domains as a platform for discussion, the authors focus on challenges facing academically oriented early-career military psychiatrists and provide guidance. The authors believe that a proactive stance, skillful mentoring, self-awareness through conscious planning and effort, ability to capitalize on existing opportunities for growth, and attention to detail are all vital to the junior military psychiatrist.

  19. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciT

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  20. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education.

    PubMed

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J

    2017-05-01

    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2007-09-01

    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  2. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  3. Early Intravascular Events are Associated with Development of ARDS.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E; Gunderson, Tina; Barkas, Ioanna; Timmons, Jack Y; Barnig, Cindy; Gong, Michelle; Kor, Daryl J; Gajic, Ognjen; Talmor, Daniel; Carter, Rickey E; Levy, Bruce D

    2018-05-21

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating illness with limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of early biochemical and immunological events in ARDS could inform the development of new preventive and treatment strategies. To determine select peripheral blood lipid mediator and leukocyte responses in patients at-risk for ARDS. Patients at risk for ARDS were randomized as part of a multicenter, double-blind clinical trial of aspirin versus placebo (LIPS-A; NCT01504867). Plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2), 15-epi-LXA4 (aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4, ATL), and peripheral blood leukocyte number and activation were determined upon enrollment and after treatment with either aspirin or placebo. Thirty-three of 367 subjects (9.0%) developed ARDS after randomization. Baseline ATL levels, total monocyte counts, intermediate monocyte (IntMo) counts, and Mo-PA were associated with the development of ARDS. Peripheral blood neutrophil count and monocyte-platelet aggregates significantly decreased over time. Of note, 9 subjects developed ARDS after randomization yet prior to study drug initiation, including 7 subjects assigned to aspirin treatment. Subjects without ARDS at the time of first dose demonstrated a lower incidence of ARDS with aspirin treatment. Compared with placebo, aspirin significantly decreased TxB2 and increased the ATL/TxB2 ratio. Biomarkers of intravascular monocyte activation in at-risk patients were associated with development of ARDS. The potential clinical benefit of early aspirin for prevention of ARDS remains uncertain. Together, results of the biochemical and immunological analyses provide a window into the early pathogenesis of human ARDS, and represent potential vascular biomarkers of ARDS risk.

  4. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    PubMed

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (p<0.0002) after treatment in group B patients, and this effect was higher (p=0.05) compared to group A patients. Furthermore, at the end of SLIT induction TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IFN-gamma production were reduced in group B patients (p<0.05, p=0.062 and p=0.060, respectively). The rapid induction scheme of sublingual immunotherapy induces an early immune suppression more effectively than the slower one. The rapid induction scheme should be the preferential way to start sublingual immunotherapy, particularly when monomeric allergoids are utilized.

  5. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A.; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S. Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAPs) received for slow-accruing Phase 1 and 2 trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for Phase 1 trials and 66 for Phase 2 trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (Phase 1: 48%), design/protocol concerns (Phase 1: 42%, Phase 2: 33%), and eligibility criteria (Phase 1: 41%, Phase 2: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (Phase 1: 43%, Phase 2: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (Phase 1: 55%, Phase 2: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (Phase 1=48; Phase 2=46). Of these, 67% of Phase 1 and 70% of Phase 2 trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial lifecycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. PMID:27401246

  6. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    PubMed

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed Central

    Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Menon, David K.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1–6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD. PMID:26439113

  8. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  10. Ka-Band Multibeam Aperture Phased Array Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Phased-array antenna systems offer many advantages to low-Earth-orbiting satellite systems. Their large scan angles and multibeam capabilities allow for vibration-free, rapid beam scanning and graceful degradation operation for high rate downlink of data to users on the ground. Technology advancements continue to reduce the power, weight, and cost of these systems to make phased arrays a competitive alternative in comparison to the gimbled reflector system commonly used in science missions. One effort to reduce the cost of phased arrays is the development of a Ka-band multibeam aperture (MBA) phased array by Boeing Corporation under a contract jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Office of Naval Research. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a space-qualifiable dual-beam Ka-band (26.5-GHz) phased-array antenna. The goals are to advance the state of the art in Ka-band active phased-array antennas and to develop and demonstrate multibeam transmission technology compatible with spacecraft in low Earth orbit to reduce the cost of future missions by retiring certain development risks. The frequency chosen is suitable for space-to-space and space-to-ground communication links. The phased-array antenna has a radiation pattern designed by combining a set of individual radiating elements, optimized with the type of radiating elements used, their positions in space, and the amplitude and phase of the currents feeding the elements. This arrangement produces a directional radiation pattern that is proportional to the number of individual radiating elements. The arrays of interest here can scan the main beam electronically with a computerized algorithm. The antenna is constructed using electronic components with no mechanical parts, and the steering is performed electronically, without any resulting vibration. The speed of the scanning is limited primarily by the control electronics. The radiation performance degrades gracefully if a portion of the elements

  11. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    PubMed

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  13. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Conclusions Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery. PMID:25050061

  14. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses.

    PubMed

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia.

  15. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. PMID:25309363

  16. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5μM fluoxetine for 6h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5μM) over 24h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K(+) channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ~30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development*

    PubMed Central

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  18. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    PubMed

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  20. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    of an estimate, and techniques and/or methods to attain representative and justifiable cost estimates are consequently discussed. Ultimately, the aim of the paper is to establish a baseline for development of a non-commercial, low cost, transparent cost estimation methodology to be applied during very early program research phases at a complete vehicle system level, for largely unprecedented manned launch vehicles in the future. This paper takes the first step to achieving this through the identification, analysis and understanding of established, existing techniques, models, tools and resources relevant within the space sector.

  1. Toward an Integrated View of Early Language and Communication Development and Socioemotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prizant, Barry M.; Wetherby, Amy M.

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews literature on the integrated nature of early communication and socioemotional development in children. It discusses two models, one addressing the role of the development of mutual (interactive) and self-regulatory capacities in young children's socioemotional development, and a transactional model conceptualizing the complex…

  2. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations

  3. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Mike; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young children's exposure to a chronically chaotic household may be one critical experience that is related to poorer language, beyond the contribution of SES and other demographic variables. In addition, it is not clear whether parenting might mediate the relationship between chaos and language. The purpose of this study was to understand how multiple indicators of chaos over children's first three years of life, in a representative sample of children living in low wealth rural communities, were related to child expressive and receptive language at 36 months. Factor analysis of 10 chaos indicators over five time periods suggested two factors that were named household disorganization and instability. Results suggested that after accounting for thirteen covariates like maternal education and poverty, one of two chaos composites (household disorganization) accounted for significant variance in receptive and expressive language. Parenting partially mediated this relationship although household disorganization continued to account for unique variance in predicting early language. PMID:23049162

  4. Macrosomia has its roots in early placental development

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Nadav; Quant, Hayley S.; Sammel, Mary D.; PARRY, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine if early placental size, as measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography, is associated with an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic or large-for-gestational age (LGA) infant. Methods We prospectively collected 3-dimensional ultrasound volume sets of singleton pregnancies at 11–14 weeks and 18–24 weeks. Birth weights were collected from the medical records. After delivery, the ultrasound volume set were used to measure the placental volume (PV) and placental quotient (PQ=PV/gestational age), as well as the mean placental and chorionic diameters (MPD and MCD, respectively). Placental measures were analyzed as predictors of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 grams) and LGA (birth weight ≥90th percentile). Results The 578 pregnancies with first trimester volumes included 44 (7.6%) macrosomic and 43 (7.4%) LGA infants. 373 subjects also had second trimester volumes available. A higher PV and PQ were both significantly associated with macrosomia and LGA in both the first and second trimesters. Second trimester MPD was significantly associated with both outcomes as well, while second trimester MCD was only associated with LGA. The above associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, age and diabetes. Adjusted models yielded moderate prediction of macrosomia and LGA (AUC: 0.71–0.77). Conclusions Sonographic measurement of the early placenta can identify pregnancies at greater risk of macrosomia and LGA. Macrosomia and LGA are already determined in part by early placental growth and development. PMID:25064071

  5. Fathers’ Sensitive Parenting and the Development of Early Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers’ sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children’s early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children’s early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers’ and mothers’ sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24-months predicted children’s executive functioning at 3-years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7-months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children’s executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. PMID:25347539

  6. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  8. Environmental estrogens alter early development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Cassandra L; Porter, Donna M; Prasad, Anita; Howard, Marthe J; Henderson, Leslie P

    2003-04-01

    A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the antiandrogen, p,p-DDE, or the synthetic androgen, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM and examined them at tailbud stages (approximately 48 hr of treatment). Exposure to the three environmental estrogens, as well as to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol, increased mortality, induced morphologic deformations, increased apoptosis, and altered the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in tailbud stage embryos. Although neural crest-derived melanocytes were markedly altered in embryos treated with estrogenic toxicants, expression of the early neural crest maker Xslug, a factor that regulates both the induction and subsequent migration of neural crest cells, was not affected, suggesting that the disruption induced by these compounds with respect to melanocyte development may occur at later stages of their differentiation. Co-incubation of embryos with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 blocked the ability of nonylphenol to induce abnormalities in body shape and in melanocyte differentiation but did not block the effects of methoxychlor. Our data indicate not only that acute exposure to these environmental estrogens induces deleterious effects on early vertebrate development but also that different environmental estrogens may alter the fate of a specific cell type via different mechanisms. Finally, our data suggest that the differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes may be particularly sensitive to the disruptive actions of these ubiquitous chemical contaminants.

  9. Development of a GNSS-Enhanced Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Melbourne, T. I.; Bock, Y.; Song, Y. T.; Komjathy, A.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed a terrible loss of life and economic disruption caused by large earthquakes and resultant tsunamis impacting coastal communities and infrastructure across the Indo-Pacific region. NASA has funded the early development of a prototype real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (RT-GNSS) based rapid earthquake and tsunami early warning (GNSS-TEW) system that may be used to enhance seismic tsunami early warning systems for large earthquakes. This prototype GNSS-TEW system geodetically estimates fault parameters (earthquake magnitude, location, strike, dip, and slip magnitude/direction on a gridded fault plane both along strike and at depth) and tsunami source parameters (seafloor displacement, tsunami energy scale, and 3D tsunami initials) within minutes after the mainshock based on dynamic numerical inversions/regressions of the real-time measured displacements within a spatially distributed real-time GNSS network(s) spanning the epicentral region. It is also possible to measure fluctuations in the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) in the RT-GNSS data caused by the pressure wave from the tsunami. This TEC approach can detect if a tsunami has been triggered by an earthquake, track its waves as they propagate through the oceanic basins, and provide upwards of 45 minutes early warning. These combined real-time geodetic approaches will very quickly address a number of important questions in the immediate minutes following a major earthquake: How big was the earthquake and what are its fault parameters? Could the earthquake have produced a tsunami and was a tsunami generated?

  10. Gross motor development is delayed following early cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Long, Suzanne H; Harris, Susan R; Eldridge, Beverley J; Galea, Mary P

    2012-10-01

    To describe the gross motor development of infants who had undergone cardiac surgery in the neonatal or early infant period. Gross motor performance was assessed when infants were 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. This scale is a discriminative gross motor outcome measure that may be used to assess infants from birth to independent walking. Infants were videotaped during the assessment and were later evaluated by a senior paediatric physiotherapist who was blinded to each infant's medical history, including previous clinical assessments. Demographic, diagnostic, surgical, critical care, and medical variables were considered with respect to gross motor outcomes. A total of 50 infants who underwent elective or emergency cardiac surgery at less than or up to 8 weeks of age, between July 2006 and January 2008, were recruited to this study and were assessed at 4 months of age. Approximately, 92%, 84%, and 94% of study participants returned for assessment at 8, 12, and 16 months of age, respectively. Study participants had delayed gross motor development across all study time points; 62% of study participants did not have typical gross motor development during the first year of life. Hospital length of stay was associated with gross motor outcome across infancy. Active gross motor surveillance of all infants undergoing early cardiac surgery is recommended. Further studies of larger congenital heart disease samples are required, as are longitudinal studies that determine the significance of these findings at school age and beyond.

  11. Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

    2013-08-01

    Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  13. A new insight into the phase transition in the early Universe with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Bian, Ligong; Jiang, Yun

    2018-05-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition in the alignment limit of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of Type I and Type II. The effective potential is evaluated at one-loop, where the thermal potential includes Daisy corrections and is reliably approximated by means of a sum of Bessel functions. Both 1-stage and 2-stage electroweak phase transitions are shown to be possible, depending on the pattern of the vacuum development as the Universe cools down. For the 1-stage case focused on in this paper, we analyze the properties of phase transition and discover that the field value of the electroweak symmetry breaking vacuum at the critical temperature at which the first order phase transition occurs is largely correlated with the vacuum depth of the 1-loop potential at zero temperature. We demonstrate that a strong first order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) in the 2HDM is achievable and establish benchmark scenarios leading to different testable signatures at colliders. In addition, we verify that an enhanced triple Higgs coupling (including loop corrections) is a typical feature of the SFOPT driven by the additional doublet. As a result, SFOEWPT might be able to be probed at the LHC and future lepton colliders through Higgs pair production.

  14. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  15. Development of Infrared Phase Closure Capability in the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2002-01-01

    We completed all major fabrication and testing for the third telescope and phase-closure operation at the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) during this period. In particular we successfully tested the phase-closure operation, using a laboratory light source illuminating the full delay-line optical paths, and using an integrated-optic beam combiner coupled to our Picnic-detector camera. This demonstration is an important and near-final milestone achievement. As of this writing, however, several tasks yet remain, owing to development snags and weather, so the final proof of success, phase-closure observation of a star, is now expected to occur in early 2002, soon after this report has been submitted.

  16. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  17. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  18. Development of Phase Change Materials for RF Switch Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matthew Russell

    For decades chalcogenide-based phase change materials (PCMs) have been reliably implemented in optical storage and digital memory platforms. Owing to the substantial differences in optical and electronic properties between crystalline and amorphous states, device architectures requiring a "1" and "0" or "ON" and "OFF" states are attainable with PCMs if a method for amorphizing and crystallizing the PCM is demonstrated. Taking advantage of more than just the binary nature of PCM electronic properties, recent reports have shown that the near-metallic resistivity of some PCMs allow one to manufacture high performance RF switches and related circuit technologies. One of the more promising RF switch technologies is the Inline Phase Change Switch (IPCS) which utilizes GeTe as the active material. Initial reports show that an electrically isolated, thermally coupled thin film heater can successfully convert GeTe between crystalline and amorphous states, and with proper design an RF figure of merit cutoff frequency (FCO) of 12.5 THz can be achieved. In order to realize such world class performance a significant development effort was undertaken to understand the relationship between fundamental GeTe properties, thin film deposition method and resultant device properties. Deposition pressure was found to be the most important deposition process parameter, as it was found to control Ge:Te ratio, oxygen content, Ar content, film density and surface roughness. Ultimately a first generation deposition process produced GeTe films with a crystalline resistivity of 3 ohm-mum. Upon implementing these films into IPCS devices, post-cycling morphological analysis was undertaken using STEM and related analyses. It was revealed that massive structural changes occur in the GeTe during switching, most notably the formation of an assembly of voids along the device centerline and large GeTe grains on either side of the so-called active region. Restructuring of this variety was tied to

  19. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  20. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    2010-07-01

    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  1. Early Childhood Development and Iranian Parents' Knowledge: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Elham; Sajedi, Firouzeh; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Hatamizadeh, Nikta; Shahshahanipour, Soheila; Glascoe, Frances Page

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016. The purposive sampling method is utilized to select 24 participants among parents and grandparents in Tehran. The inclusion criteria consisted of speaking in Persian and having a child or grandchild <3-year-old. Data were collected through four focus group discussions and four individual interviews. Iranian parental knowledge about integrative ECD is not enough, their knowledge about motor development and speech and language are relatively better, about cognitive development is little and socialemotional is very little. They said parents and other caregivers influence the process of children's development. Parents' knowledge resources about ECD included human resources, physical resources, virtual space, and the media. According to the majority of participants, "pediatricians are the most reliable source of parents' knowledge about ECD" even though the main focus of pediatricians is on treating diseases, physical health, and growth of children. According to the results, the knowledge of Iranian parent is not enough about ECD; therefore, actions must be taken to increase their knowledge in these domains. Parents look for reliable and valid sources to enhance their knowledge and they rely the most on pediatricians in this regard. Therefore, more studies on assessing parents' knowledge in community and the practical methods for knowledge promotion in this field is recommended.

  2. Early-stage aeolian protodune development and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Baddock, M. C.; Wiggs, G.

    2017-12-01

    Early-stage bedforms, or protodunes, can be observed to form on sandy beaches, desert gravels or superimposed on the surfaces of larger dunes and can develop topography of 0.1 m or more over several hours. These protodunes are the precursors to embryo and eventually mature dunes, and so it is important to understand how feedbacks between flow, transport and form contribute to this development sequence. Whilst theory and conceptual models have offered some explanation for protodune existence and development, we know surprisingly little about how these bedforms initiate and migrate because it is difficult to measure small changes in form (millimetres; seconds) on highly active surfaces of limited topographic expression. Here, we employ terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to measure morphological change at the high frequency and spatial resolution (sub-millimetre) required to gain new insights into protodune behaviour. Along with TLS derived saltation and surface moisture, additional sediment flux and windspeed measurements help to elucidate how the protodune topography interacts with airflow and sand transport. We focus on a number of coastal bedforms in various development stages including a 0.06 m high protodune which grew vertically by 0.005 m in two hours with the switch from erosion to deposition identified to occur at a point 0.07 m upwind of the crest. This growth was associated with a reduction in time-averaged sediment flux of 18% over the crestal region. We also observed a decline in lower stoss slope steepness (by 3°) and a steepening of the lee slope, indicating a reshaping of initial protodune form towards the morphology of a more mature dune. Our findings highlight the crucial role of form-flow feedbacks, even on very small bedforms, in driving early-stage bedform growth and development, and show how the use of high resolution TLS to measure both surface topography and grains moving above the surface, can offer new insights into a long standing deficiency

  3. NCI–RTOG Translational Program Strategic Guidelines for the Early-Stage Development of Radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The addition of chemotherapeutic agents to ionizing radiation has improved survival in many malignancies. Cure rates may be further improved by adding novel targeted agents to current radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy regimens. Despite promising laboratory data, progress in the clinical development of new drugs with radiation has been limited. To define and address the problems involved, a collaborative effort between individuals within the translational research program of the Radiation Oncology Therapy Group and the National Cancer Institute was established. We discerned challenges to drug development with radiation including: 1) the limited relevance of preclinical work, 2) the pharmaceutical industry’s diminished interest, and 3) the important individual skills and institutional commitments required to ensure a successful program. The differences between early-phase trial designs with and without radiation are noted as substantial. The traditional endpoints for early-phase clinical trials—acute toxicity and maximum-tolerated dose—are of limited value when combining targeted agents with radiation. Furthermore, response rate is not a useful surrogate marker of activity in radiation combination trials.Consequently, a risk-stratified model for drug-dose escalation with radiation is proposed, based upon the known and estimated adverse effects. The guidelines discuss new clinical trial designs, such as the time-to-event continual reassessment method design for phase I trials, randomized phase II “screening” trials, and the use of surrogate endpoints, such as pathological response. It is hoped that by providing a clear pathway, this article will accelerate the rate of drug development with radiation. PMID:23231975

  4. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of early child development in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ribe, Ingeborg G; Svensen, Erling; Lyngmo, Britt A; Mduma, Estomih; Hinderaker, Sven G

    2018-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania. This cohort study is part of the MAL-ED (The Interactions of Malnutrition & Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development) multi-country consortium studying risk factors for ill health and poor development in children. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analyses were performed. Associations between nutritional status, socio-economic status, and home environment at 6 months of age and cognitive outcomes at 15 months of age were studied. The third edition of the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development was used to assess cognitive, language and motor development. There were 262 children enrolled into the study, and this present analysis included the 137 children with data for 15-month Bayley scores. Univariate regression analysis, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months were significantly associated with 15-month Bayley gross motor score, but not with other 15-month Bayley scores. Length-for-age z-scores at 6 months were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. The socio-economic status, measured by a set of assets and monthly income was significantly associated with 15-month Bayley cognitive score, but not with language, motor, nor total 15-month Bayley scores. Other socio-economic variables were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. No significant associations were found between the home environment and 15-month Bayley scores. In multivariate

  6. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Yu-Da; Wang, Hwai-Lee; Liao, Kate Hsiurong; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Pan, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ted Weita

    2017-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is thought to facilitate the development of cerebral infarction after a stroke. In a typical stroke model (such as the one used in this study), the early phase of BBB disruption reaches a peak 6 h post-ischemia and largely recovers after 8-24 h, whereas the late phase of BBB disruption begins 48-58 h post-ischemia. Because cerebral infarct develops within 24 h after the onset of ischemia, and several therapeutic agents have been shown to reduce the infarct volume when administered at 6 h post-ischemia, we hypothesized that attenuating BBB disruption at its peak (6 h post-ischemia) can also decrease the infarct volume measured at 24 h. We used a mouse stroke model obtained by combining 120 min of distal middle cerebral arterial occlusion (dMCAo) with ipsilateral common carotid arterial occlusion (CCAo). This model produced the most reliable BBB disruption and cerebral infarction compared to other models characterized by a shorter duration of ischemia or obtained with dMCAO or CCAo alone. The BBB permeability was measured by quantifying Evans blue dye (EBD) extravasation, as this tracer has been shown to be more sensitive for the detection of early-phase BBB disruption compared to other intravascular tracers that are more appropriate for detecting late-phase BBB disruption. We showed that a 1 h-long treatment with isoflurane-anesthesia induced marked hypothermia and attenuated the peak of BBB disruption when administered 6 h after the onset of dMCAo/CCAo-induced ischemia. We also demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of isoflurane was hypothermia-dependent because the same treatment had no effect on ischemic BBB disruption when the mouse body temperature was maintained at 37°C. Importantly, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption by hypothermia had no effect on the volume of brain infarct 24 h post-ischemia. In conclusion, inhibiting the peak of BBB disruption is not an effective neuroprotective strategy, especially in comparison

  7. Consortium for Planning, Developing, and Implementing Exploratory Industrial Career Development Models (Phase I of Three Phases). Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

    The report describes the organizational phase of a project designed to create program models and supporting literature for exploratory industrial career development programs for grades seven to ten. The project was undertaken by Oregon State University in cooperation with the Oregon State Department of Education and involved the formation of a…

  8. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Simsek, Nilufer Genc; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancreatitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and interleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435+/-432 U/L vs. 27,426+/-118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970+/-323 pg/mL vs. 330+/-368 pg/mL, respectively). In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions.

  9. Carbachol improves secretion in the early phase after rabbit submandibular gland transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Ding, C; Ding, Q W; Fu, F Y; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the changes in the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway with submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation and whether carbachol improves secretion in transplanted SMGs. SMG autotransplantation was performed in a rabbit model. Carbachol (1 microM) was infused into the transplanted glands from postoperative day 1-7. The expression of the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by RT-PCR, immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. The content of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salivary flow of the transplanted SMGs was decreased after transplantation. As well, the expressions of M1 and M3 receptors and their downstream signaling molecules, IP(3), p-ERK1/2 and AQP5, were all reduced. Atrophy of acinar cells was shown in transplanted glands. However, all these alterations were reversed after carbachol treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, carbachol directly increased the mRNA expression of AQP5 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured neonatal rabbit SMG cells. A lack of acetylcholine and downregulation of the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway is involved in the early hypofunction of transplanted SMGs. Carbachol treatment could be a new therapeutic strategy to improve secretion and prevent the obstruction of Wharton's duct in the early phase after SMG transplantation.

  10. Downregulation of ribosome biogenesis during early forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Kevin F; Shannon, Morgan L; Fame, Ryann M; Fonseca, Erin; Mullan, Hillary; Johnson, Matthew B; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Springel, Mark W; Laurent, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Forebrain precursor cells are dynamic during early brain development, yet the underlying molecular changes remain elusive. We observed major differences in transcriptional signatures of precursor cells from mouse forebrain at embryonic days E8.5 vs. E10.5 (before vs. after neural tube closure). Genes encoding protein biosynthetic machinery were strongly downregulated at E10.5. This was matched by decreases in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, together with age-related changes in proteomic content of the adjacent fluids. Notably, c-MYC expression and mTOR pathway signaling were also decreased at E10.5, providing potential drivers for the effects on ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. Interference with c-MYC at E8.5 prematurely decreased ribosome biogenesis, while persistent c-MYC expression in cortical progenitors increased transcription of protein biosynthetic machinery and enhanced ribosome biogenesis, as well as enhanced progenitor proliferation leading to subsequent macrocephaly. These findings indicate large, coordinated changes in molecular machinery of forebrain precursors during early brain development. PMID:29745900

  11. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    PubMed Central

    Francino, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction. PMID:25438024

  12. Elevated aminopeptidase N affects sperm motility and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Do-Yeal; Kwon, Woo-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a naturally occurring ectopeptidase present in mammalian semen. Previous studies have demonstrated that APN adversely affects male fertility through the alteration of sperm motility. This enzyme constitutes 0.5 to 1% of the seminal plasma proteins, which can be transferred from the prostasomes to sperms by a fusion process. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of APN and its role in regulating sperm functions and male fertility. In this in vitro study, epididymal mouse spermatozoa were incubated in a capacitating media (pH 7) containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant mouse APN for 90 min. Our results demonstrated that the supplementation of recombinant APN in sperm culture medium significantly increased APN activity, and subsequently altered motility, hyperactivated motility, rapid and medium swimming speeds, viability, and the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa. These effects were potentially caused by increased toxicity in the spermatozoa. Further, altered APN activity in sperm culture medium affected early embryonic development. Interestingly, the effect of elevated APN activity in sperm culture medium was independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and protein kinase A activity. On the basis of these results, we concluded that APN plays a significant role in the regulation of several sperm functions and early embryonic development. In addition, increased APN activity could potentially lead to several adverse consequences related to male fertility. PMID:28859152

  13. Dihydroartemisinin promotes angiogenesis during the early embryonic development of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Qian; Duan, Juan; Tian, Jia-qiang; Wang, Zi-liang; Chen, Tao; Li, Xiao-guang; Chen, Pei-zhan; Wu, Song-jie; Xiang, Li; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the embryotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the main active metabolite of artemisinin, in zebrafish, and explore the corresponding mechanisms. Methods: The embryos of wild type and TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were exposed to DHA. Developmental phenotypes of the embryos were observed. Development of blood vessels was directly observed in living embryos of TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish under fluorescence microscope. The expression of angiogenesis marker genes vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos was detected using real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays. Results: Exposure to DHA (1–10 mg/L) dose-dependently caused abnormal zebrafish embryonic phenotypes in the early developmental stage. Furthermore, exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) resulted in more pronounced embryonic angiogenesis in TG (flk1:GFP) zebrafish line. Exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) significantly increased the mRNA expression of vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos. Knockdown of the flk1 protein partially blocked the effects of DHA on embryogenesis. Conclusion: DHA causes abnormal embryonic phenotypes and promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish early embryonic development, demonstrating the potential embryotoxicity of DHA. PMID:23708556

  14. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  15. Early lexical development in Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models.

  16. Altered Gravity and Early Heart Development in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Darrell J.; Lwigale, P.; Denning, J.

    1996-01-01

    The macromolecules comprising the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix of cells may be sensitive to gravitation. Since early development of organs depends on dynamic interactions across cell surfaces, altered gravity may disturb development. We investigated this possibility for heart development. Previous studies showed that the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is necessary for normal heart development. We cultured precardiac tissue explants in a high aspect ratio bioreactor vessel (HARV) to simulate microgravity. We observed tissue morphology, contraction, and Fn distribution by immunolocalization in HARV rotated and control (lxg) explants, cultured 18 hr. We also measured Fn amount by immunoassay. Explants in HARV were rotated at 6 rpm to achieve continuous freefall. Thirty-five of 37 control, but only 1 of 37 matched rotated explants exhibited contractions. Tissue architecture was identical. Immunolocalization of Fn showed remarkable differences which may be related to the development of contractions. The Fn staining in the HARV explants was less intense in all areas. Areas of linear staining along epithelia were present but shorter, and there was less intercellular staining in both mesenchymal tissue and myocardium. Initial immunoassay results of 5 matched pairs of explants showed a 22% reduction in total tissue Fn in the HARV rotated samples. Our results indicate that altered gravity in the HARV reduced the amount and distribution of Fn, as assessed by two independent criteria. This was correlated with a reduction in the development of contractile activity.

  17. Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transposable elements as genetic regulatory substrates in early development.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Wesley D; Pfaff, Samuel L; Macfarlan, Todd S

    2013-05-01

    The abundance and ancient origins of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes has spawned research into the potential symbiotic relationship between these elements and their hosts. In this review, we introduce the diversity of TEs, discuss how distinct classes are uniquely regulated in development, and describe how they appear to have been coopted for the purposes of gene regulation and the orchestration of a number of processes during early embryonic development. Although young, active TEs play an important role in somatic tissues and evolution, we focus mostly on the contributions of the older, fixed elements in mammalian genomes. We also discuss major challenges inherent in the study of TEs and contemplate future experimental approaches to further investigate how they coordinate developmental processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Transposable elements as genetic regulatory substrates in early development

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Wesley D.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Macfarlan, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and ancient origins of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes has spawned research into the potential symbiotic relationship between these elements and their hosts. In this review, we introduce the diversity of TEs, discuss how distinct classes are uniquely regulated in development, and describe how they appear to have been coopted for the purposes of gene regulation and the orchestration of a number of processes during early embryonic development. Although young, active TEs play an important role in somatic tissues and evolution, we focus mostly on the contributions of the older, fixed elements in mammalian genomes. We also discuss major challenges inherent in the study of TEs and contemplate future experimental approaches to further investigate how they coordinate developmental processes. PMID:23411159

  20. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  1. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    medical imaging, and eight (8) papers published in leading international conferences. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alzheimer disease, Amyloid plaque, X-ray phase...11 4 Introduction A. Overall: As the elderly population increases, dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a major...with an emphasis on improving the performance of G1 and G2, and the development of algorithmic solutions to deal with the issue caused by the

  2. Development of the CSI phase-3 evolutionary model testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronet, M. J.; Davis, D. A.; Tan, M. K.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the development effort for the reconfiguration of the Controls-Structures Integration (CSI) Evolutionary Model (CEM) Phase-2 testbed into the CEM Phase-3 configuration. This step responds to the need to develop and test CSI technologies associated with typical planned earth science and remote sensing platforms. The primary objective of the CEM Phase-3 ground testbed is to simulate the overall on-orbit dynamic behavior of the EOS AM-1 spacecraft. Key elements of the objective include approximating the low-frequency appendage dynamic interaction of EOS AM-1, allowing for the changeout of components, and simulating the free-free on-orbit environment using an advanced suspension system. The fundamentals of appendage dynamic interaction are reviewed. A new version of the multiple scaling method is used to design the testbed to have the full-scale geometry and dynamics of the EOS AM-1 spacecraft, but at one-tenth the weight. The testbed design is discussed, along with the testing of the solar array, high gain antenna, and strut components. Analytical performance comparisons show that the CEM Phase-3 testbed simulates the EOS AM-1 spacecraft with good fidelity for the important parameters of interest.

  3. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  4. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  5. Development of a Human Neurovascular Unit Organotypic Systems Model of Early Brain Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to model human brain and blood-brain barrier development in vitro poses a major challenge in studies of how chemicals impact early neurogenic periods. During human development, disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling is related to adverse morphological effects ...

  6. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  7. Early phase clinical trials with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and malaria vectored vaccines in The Gambia: frontline challenges in study design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Adetifa, Jane U; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Viebig, Nicola K; Kampmann, Beate; Bojang, Kalifa

    2014-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and malaria are among the most important infectious diseases in developing countries. Existing control strategies are unlikely to curtail these diseases in the absence of efficacious vaccines. Testing of HIV and malaria vaccines candidates start with early phase trials that are increasingly being conducted in developing countries where the burden of the diseases is high. Unique challenges, which affect planning and implementation of vaccine trials according to internationally accepted standards have thus been identified. In this review, we highlight specific challenges encountered during two early phase trials of novel HIV-1 and malaria vectored vaccine candidates conducted in The Gambia and how some of these issues were pragmatically addressed. We hope our experience will be useful for key study personnel involved in day-to-day running of similar clinical trials. It may also guide future design and implementation of vaccine trials in resource-constrained settings.

  8. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Q.; Tagawa, K.; Martindale, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia. Much less is known about the development of the hemichordates compared to other deuterostomes. For the first time, cell lineage analyses have been carried out for an indirect-developing representative of the enteropneust hemichordates, Ptychodera flava. Single blastomeres were iontophoretically labeled with Dil at the 2- through 16-cell stages, and their fates followed through development to the tornaria larval stage. The early cleavage pattern of P. flava is similar to that of the direct-developing hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, as well as that displayed by indirect-developing echinoids. The 16-celled embryo contains eight animal "mesomeres," four slightly larger "macromeres," and four somewhat smaller vegetal "micromeres." The first cleavage plane was not found to bear one specific relationship relative to the larval dorsoventral axis. Although individual blastomeres generate discrete clones of cells, the appearance and exact locations of these clones are variable with respect to the embryonic dorsoventral and bilateral axes. The eight animal mesomeres generate anterior (animal) ectoderm of the larva, which includes the apical organ; however, contributions to the apical organ were found to be variable as only a subset of the animal blastomeres end up contributing to its formation and this varies from embryo to embryo. The macromeres generate posterior larval ectoderm, and the vegetal micromeres form all the internal, endomesodermal tissues. These blastomere contributions are similar to those found during development of the only other hemichordate studied, the direct-developing enteropneust, S. kowalevskii. Finally, isolated blastomeres prepared at either the two- or the four-cell stage are capable of forming normal-appearing, miniature tornaria larvae. These findings indicate that the fates of these

  9. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciT

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723; Choe, Changyong

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetinemore » (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  10. GATA-3 is required for early T lineage progenitor development

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takashi; Moriguchi, Takashi; Cummings, Dustin; Maillard, Ivan; Lim, Kim-Chew

    2009-01-01

    Most T lymphocytes appear to arise from very rare early T lineage progenitors (ETPs) in the thymus, but the transcriptional programs that specify ETP generation are not completely known. The transcription factor GATA-3 is required for the development of T lymphocytes at multiple late differentiation steps as well as for the development of thymic natural killer cells. However, a role for GATA-3 before the double-negative (DN) 3 stage of T cell development has to date been obscured both by the developmental heterogeneity of DN1 thymocytes and the paucity of ETPs. We provide multiple lines of in vivo evidence through the analysis of T cell development in Gata3 hypomorphic mutant embryos, in irradiated mice reconstituted with Gata3 mutant hematopoietic cells, and in mice conditionally ablated for the Gata3 gene to show that GATA-3 is required for ETP generation. We further show that Gata3 loss does not affect hematopoietic stem cells or multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate that Gata3 mutant lymphoid progenitors exhibit neither increased apoptosis nor diminished cell-cycle progression. Thus, GATA-3 is required for the cell-autonomous development of the earliest characterized thymic T cell progenitors. PMID:19934022

  11. [An assessment tool for analysing the early vocal development of young children with cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Lang, S; Leistner, S; Sandrieser, P; Kröger, B J

    2009-05-01

    Early vocal development of German-speaking cochlear implant recipients has rarely been assessed so far. There-fore the purpose of this study was to describe the early vocal development following successful implantation. A case study was designed to assess the temporal progression of early vocal development in a young cochlear implant recipient who was bilaterally implanted at the age of 8;3 months. Data were collected during one year by recording parent-child interactions on a monthly basis. The first recording was made before the onset of the signal-processors, the 12 following recordings were made during the first year of implant use. The child's vocalizations were classified according to the vocalization categories and developmental levels from the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development--Revised (SAEVD-R). This assessment tool was translated into German in this study and used with German-speaking children for the first time. It allows a coding of prelinguistic utterances via auditory perceptual analysis. The results show an overall decrease of early vocalizations and an increase of speech-like vowels and consonants. In the first six months no apparent progress took place; The child produced almost exclusively vocalizations from Levels 1-3. In the second half of the year an increase of canonical utterances (Level 4) and advanced forms (Level 5) was observed. However, vocalizations beyond the canonical babbling phase, especially vocants and closants as well as their combinations, continued to be dominant throughout the first year of implant use. The progress of development of the child investigated in this study is comparable to other children implanted at young age who had also been assessed with the SAEVD-R. In comparison to normal-hearing children, the implanted child's development seemed to progress slightly faster. Interrater- and intrarater-reliability using the SAEVD-R were measured for two independent observers and for a first and second coding

  12. Short National Early Warning Score - Developing a Modified Early Warning Score.

    PubMed

    Luís, Leandro; Nunes, Carla

    2017-12-11

    Early Warning Score (EWS) systems have been developed for detecting hospital patients clinical deterioration. Many studies show that a National Early Warning Score (NEWS) performs well in discriminating survival from death in acute medical and surgical hospital wards. NEWS is validated for Portugal and is available for use. A simpler EWS system may help to reduce the risk of error, as well as increase clinician compliance with the tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a simplified NEWS model will improve use and data collection. We evaluated the ability of single and aggregated parameters from the NEWS model to detect patients' clinical deterioration in the 24h prior to an outcome. There were 2 possible outcomes: Survival vs Unanticipated intensive care unit admission or death. We used binary logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (ROC) to evaluate the parameters' performance in discriminating among the outcomes for a sample of patients from 6 Portuguese hospital wards. NEWS presented an excellent discriminating capability (Area under the Curve of ROC (AUCROC)=0.944). Temperature and systolic blood pressure (SBP) parameters did not contribute significantly to the model. We developed two different models, one without temperature, and the other by removing temperature and SBP (M2). Both models had an excellent discriminating capability (AUCROC: 0.965; 0.903, respectively) and a good predictive power in the optimum threshold of the ROC curve. The 3 models revealed similar discriminant capabilities. Although the use of SBP is not clearly evident in the identification of clinical deterioration, it is recognized as an important vital sign. We recommend the use of the first new model, as its simplicity may help to improve adherence and use by health care workers. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  14. Free Trehalose Accumulation in Dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis Cells and Its Breakdown in Early Resuscitation Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shleeva, Margarita O.; Trutneva, Kseniya A.; Demina, Galina R.; Zinin, Alexander I.; Sorokoumova, Galina M.; Laptinskaya, Polina K.; Shumkova, Ekaterina S.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2017-01-01

    Under gradual acidification of growth medium resulting in the formation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis, a significant accumulation of free trehalose in dormant cells was observed. According to 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy up to 64% of total organic substances in the dormant cell extract was represented by trehalose whilst the trehalose content in an extract of active cells taken from early stationary phase was not more than 15%. Trehalose biosynthesis during transition to the dormant state is provided by activation of genes involved in the OtsA-OtsB and TreY-TreZ pathways (according to RT-PCR). Varying the concentration of free trehalose in dormant cells by expression of MSMEG_4535 coding for trehalase we found that cell viability depends on trehalose level: cells with a high amount of trehalose survive much better than cells with a low amount. Upon resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis, a decrease of free trehalose and an increase in glucose concentration occurred in the early period of resuscitation (after 2 h). Evidently, breakdown of trehalose by trehalase takes place at this time as a transient increase in trehalase activity was observed between 1 and 3 h of resuscitation. Activation of trehalase was not due to de novo biosynthesis but because of self-activation of the enzyme from the inactive state in dormant cells. Because, even a low concentration of ATP (2 mM) prevents self-activation of trehalase in vitro and after activation the enzyme is still sensitive to ATP we suggest that the transient character of trehalase activation in cells is due to variation in intracellular ATP concentration found in the early resuscitation period. The negative influence of the trehalase inhibitor validamycin A on the resuscitation of dormant cells proves the importance of trehalase for resuscitation. These experiments demonstrate the significance of free trehalose accumulation for the maintenance of dormant mycobacterial viability and the involvement of trehalose

  15. Development of Mechanochemically Active Polymers for Early Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin

    Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

  16. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  17. Measuring the implementation of early childhood development programs.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Prado, Elizabeth L

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we describe ways to measure variables of interest when evaluating the implementation of a program to improve early childhood development (ECD). The variables apply to programs delivered to parents in group sessions and home or clinic visits, as well as in early group care for children. Measurements for four categories of variables are included: training and assessment of delivery agents and supervisors; program features such as quality of delivery, reach, and dosage; recipients' acceptance and enactment; and stakeholders' engagement. Quantitative and qualitative methods are described, along with when measures might be taken throughout the processes of planning, preparing, and implementing. A few standard measures are available, along with others that researchers can select and modify according to their goals. Descriptions of measures include who might collect the information, from whom, and when, along with how information might be analyzed and findings used. By converging on a set of common methods to measure implementation variables, investigators can work toward improving programs, identifying gaps that impede the scalability and sustainability of programs, and, over time, ascertain program features that lead to successful outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Early Miocene sequence development across the New Jersey margin

    Monteverde, D.H.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Miller, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy provides an understanding of the interplay between eustasy, sediment supply and accommodation in the sedimentary construction of passive margins. We used this approach to follow the early to middle Miocene growth of the New Jersey margin and analyse the connection between relative changes of sea level and variable sediment supply. Eleven candidate sequence boundaries were traced in high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles across the inner margin and matched to geophysical log signatures and lithologic changes in ODP Leg 150X onshore coreholes. Chronologies at these drill sites were then used to assign ages to the intervening seismic sequences. We conclude that the regional and global correlation of early Miocene sequences suggests a dominant role of global sea-level change but margin progradation was controlled by localized sediment contribution and that local conditions played a large role in sequence formation and preservation. Lowstand deposits were regionally restricted and their locations point to both single and multiple sediment sources. The distribution of highstand deposits, by contrast, documents redistribution by along shelf currents. We find no evidence that sea level fell below the elevation of the clinoform rollover, and the existence of extensive lowstand deposits seaward of this inflection point indicates efficient cross-shelf sediment transport mechanisms despite the apparent lack of well-developed fluvial drainage. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. Phase transition in tumor growth: I avascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Rebelo, I.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a mechanism for avascular tumor growth based on a simple chemical network. This model presents a logistic behavior and shows a “second order” phase transition. We prove the fractal origin of the empirical logistics and Gompertz constant and its relation to mitosis and apoptosis rate. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates the entropy production rate as a Lyapunov function during avascular tumor growth.

  20. A new Bayesian Inference-based Phase Associator for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Thomas; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    State of the art network-based Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide warnings for large magnitude 7+ earthquakes. Although regions in the direct vicinity of the epicenter will not receive warnings prior to damaging shaking, real-time event characterization is available before the destructive S-wave arrival across much of the strongly affected region. In contrast, in the case of the more frequent medium size events, such as the devastating 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake, providing timely warning to the smaller damage zone is more difficult. For such events the "blind zone" of current systems (e.g. the CISN ShakeAlert system in California) is similar in size to the area over which severe damage occurs. We propose a faster and more robust Bayesian inference-based event associator, that in contrast to the current standard associators (e.g. Earthworm Binder), is tailored to EEW and exploits information other than only phase arrival times. In particular, the associator potentially allows for reliable automated event association with as little as two observations, which, compared to the ShakeAlert system, would speed up the real-time characterizations by about ten seconds and thus reduce the blind zone area by up to 80%. We compile an extensive data set of regional and teleseismic earthquake and noise waveforms spanning a wide range of earthquake magnitudes and tectonic regimes. We pass these waveforms through a causal real-time filterbank with passband filters between 0.1 and 50Hz, and, updating every second from the event detection, extract the maximum amplitudes in each frequency band. Using this dataset, we define distributions of amplitude maxima in each passband as a function of epicentral distance and magnitude. For the real-time data, we pass incoming broadband and strong motion waveforms through the same filterbank and extract an evolving set of maximum amplitudes in each passband. We use the maximum amplitude distributions to check

  1. Longitudinal development of prefrontal function during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    This is a longitudinal study on development of prefrontal function in young children. Prefrontal areas have been observed to develop dramatically during early childhood. To elucidate this development, we gave children cognitive shifting tasks related to prefrontal function at 3 years of age (Time 1) and 4 years of age (Time 2). We then monitored developmental changes in behavioral performance and examined prefrontal activation using near infrared spectroscopy. We found that children showed better behavioral performance and significantly stronger inferior prefrontal activation at Time 2 than they did at Time 1. Moreover, we demonstrated individual differences in prefrontal activation for the same behavioral tasks. Children who performed better in tasks at Time 1 showed significant activation of the right inferior prefrontal regions at Time 1 and significant activation of the bilateral inferior prefrontal regions at Time 2. Children who showed poorer performance at Time 1 exhibited no significant inferior prefrontal activation at Time 1 but significant left inferior prefrontal activation at Time 2. These results indicate the importance of the longitudinal method to address the link between cognitive and neural development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The development of phonological skills in late and early talkers

    PubMed Central

    KEHOE, Margaret; CHAPLIN, Elisa; MUDRY, Pauline; FRIEND, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (<< late-talkers >>) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (<< middle group >>) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (<< precocious >> or “early talkers”). The phonological abilities (e.g., phonemic inventory, percentage of correct consonants, and phonological processes) of the three groups were compared. The comparison was based on analyses of spontaneous language samples. Most findings were consistent with previous results found in English-speaking children, indicating that the phonological abilities of late talkers are less well developed than those of children with average-sized vocabularies which in turn are less well-developed than those of children with advanced vocabularies. Nevertheless, several phonological measures were not related to vocabulary size, in particular those concerning syllable-final position. These findings differ from those obtained in English. The article finally discusses the clinical implications of the findings for children with delayed language development. PMID:26924855

  3. Oligodendrocytes as Regulators of Neuronal Networks during Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Maria; Ikrar, Taruna; Kinoshita, Chisato; De Mei, Claudia; Tirotta, Emanuele; Xu, Xiangmin; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for myelin formation. Myelination occurs during the first postnatal weeks and, in rodents, is completed during the third week after birth. Myelin ensures the fast conduction of the nerve impulse; in the adult, myelin proteins have an inhibitory role on axon growth and regeneration after injury. During brain development, oligodendrocytes precursors originating in multiple locations along the antero-posterior axis actively proliferate and migrate to colonize the whole brain. Whether the initial interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons might play a functional role before the onset of myelination is still not completely elucidated. In this article, we addressed this question by transgenically targeted ablation of proliferating oligodendrocytes during cerebellum development. Interestingly, we show that depletion of oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 1 (P1) profoundly affects the establishment of cerebellar circuitries. We observed an impressive deregulation in the expression of molecules involved in axon growth, guidance and synaptic plasticity. These effects were accompanied by an outstanding increase of neurofilament staining observed 4 hours after the beginning of the ablation protocol, likely dependent from sprouting of cerebellar fibers. Oligodendrocyte ablation modifies localization and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Purkinje neurons. These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. PMID:21589880

  4. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  6. Probable influence of early Carboniferous (Tournaisian-early Visean) geography on the development of Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David T., Jr.

    1990-07-01

    All of the known Tournaisian-early Visean (ca. 360-348 Ma) age carbonate mud mounds (Waulsortian and Waulsortian-like mounds) developed in low paleolatitudes on the southern shelf margin of Laurussia and in the Laurussian interior seaway. The Tournaisian-early Visean geography probably prevented hurricanes, tropical storms, and winter storms from crossing the shelf margin or interior seaway where these mounds developed. Implications of the lack of storm energy on mound development are discussed.

  7. Adaptation of the quality by design concept in early pharmaceutical development of an intranasal nanosized formulation.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory science based pharmaceutical development and product manufacturing is highly recommended by the authorities nowadays. The aim of this study was to adapt regulatory science even in the nano-pharmaceutical early development. Authors applied the quality by design (QbD) concept in the early development phase of nano-systems, where the illustration material was meloxicam. The meloxicam nanoparticles produced by co-grinding method for nasal administration were studied according to the QbD policy and the QbD based risk assessment (RA) was performed. The steps were implemented according to the relevant regulatory guidelines (quality target product profile (QTPP) determination, selection of critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs)) and a special software (Lean QbD Software(®)) was used for the RA, which represents a novelty in this field. The RA was able to predict and identify theoretically the factors (e.g. sample composition, production method parameters, etc.) which have the highest impact on the desired meloxicam-product quality. The results of the practical research justified the theoretical prediction. This method can improve pharmaceutical nano-developments by achieving shorter development time, lower cost, saving human resource efforts and more effective target-orientation. It makes possible focusing the resources on the selected parameters and area during the practical product development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  10. Development of phased twin flip-flop jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    The flip-flop nozzle is a device that can produce an oscillating jet flow without any moving parts. There is now a renewed interest in such nozzles due to their potential for use as excitation devices in practical applications. An experiment aimed at developing twin flip-flop jets that operate at prescribed frequencies and phase differences was performed. The phasing was achieved using two different nozzle interconnection schemes. In one configuration the two jets flapped in-phase and in another they flapped out-of-phase with respect to each other. In either configuration the frequencies of oscillation of both jets were equal. When one of the jets was run at a constant high velocity and the velocity of the second jet was increased gradually, the higher velocity jet determined the frequency of oscillation of both jets. The two flip-flop jet configurations described could be used to excite a primary jet flow in either an anti-symmetric (sinuous) or a symmetric (varicose) mode.

  11. Nuclear lamins during gametogenesis, fertilization and early development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of lamins (described by Gerace, 1978, as major proteins of nuclear envelope) during gametogenesis, fertilization, and early development was investigated in germ cells of a mouse (Mus musculus), an echinoderm (Lytechinus variegatus), and the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) was investigated in order to determine whether the differences detected could be correlated with differences in the function of cells in these stages of the germ cells. In order to monitor the behavior of lamins, the gametes and embryos were labeled with antibodies to lamins A, C, and B extracted from autoimmune sera of patients with scleroderma and Lupus erythematosus. Results indicated that lamin B could be identified in nuclear envelopes on only those nuclei where chromatin is attached and where RNA synthesis takes place.

  12. Unveiling changes in the landscape of patient populations in cancer early drug development

    PubMed Central

    Hierro, Cinta; Azaro, Analía; Argilés, Guillem; Elez, Elena; Gómez, Patricia; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of new Molecularly Targeted Agents (MTA) has changed the landscape in Early Drug Development (EDD) over the last two decades, leading to an improvement in clinical trial design. Previous Phase 1 (Ph1) studies with cytotoxics focused on safety objectives, only recruiting heavily pre-treated cancer patients, have been left behind. In this review, we will illustrate the slow although unstoppable change that has increasingly been observed in those populations candidate to participate in EDD trials with the advent of MTA. As more evidence regarding oncogene addiction becomes available, molecular-biomarker driven selection has been implemented among Molecularly-Selected Population (MSP) studies. New Window-Of-Opportunity (WOO) and Phase 0 (Ph0) studies have been developed in order to assess whether a MTA produces the hypothetical proposed biological effect. The rising need of getting early pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data has led to the conduction of Healthy Volunteer (HV) studies, in part favoured for the particular and different toxicity profile of these MTA. However, several challenges will need to be addressed in order to boost the implementation of these new clinical trial designs in the forthcoming years. Among the problems to overcome, we would highlight a better coordination effort between centers for ensuring adequate patient accrual among small patient populations and a deepening into the ethics implied in enrolling patients in studies with no therapeutic intent. However, these tribulations will be certainly compensated by the possibility of opening a new horizon of treatment for diseases with dismal prognosis. PMID:27835915

  13. Exploring Parental Involvement in Early Years Education in China: Development and Validation of the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…

  14. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  15. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  16. Documenting with Early Childhood Education Teachers: Pedagogical Documentation as a Tool for Developing Early Childhood Pedagogy and Practises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintakorpi, Kati

    2016-01-01

    The Finnish social pedagogical curriculum for early childhood education directs early childhood teachers to use documentation to assess and develop pedagogy and practise. This empirical study examines the challenges and benefits a group of Finnish preschool teachers experienced when they learned to document their work. Although the idea of…

  17. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  18. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights eight of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Communication Technology and Development. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as X-ray navigation, microsensor instrument for unmanned aerial vehicle airborne atmospheric measurements, 16-element graphene-based phased array antenna system, interferometric star tracker, ultralow power fast-response sensor, and integrated spacecraft navigation and communication. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  20. Insight as a social identity process in the evolution of psychosocial functioning in the early phase of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Klaas, H S; Clémence, A; Marion-Veyron, R; Antonietti, J-P; Alameda, L; Golay, P; Conus, P

    2017-03-01

    Awareness of illness (insight) has been found to have contradictory effects for different functional outcomes after the early course of psychosis. Whereas it is related to psychotic symptom reduction and medication adherence, it is also associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this line, the specific effects of insight on the evolution of functioning over time have not been identified, and social indicators, such as socio-occupational functioning have barely been considered. Drawing from social identity theory we investigated the impact of insight on the development of psychosocial outcomes and the interactions of these variables over time. The participants, 240 patients in early phase of psychosis from the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program (TIPP) of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, were assessed at eight time points over 3 years. Cross-lagged panel analyses and multilevel analyses were conducted on socio-occupational and general functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)] with insight, time and depressive symptoms as independent variables. Results from multilevel analyses point to an overall positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning, which increases over time. Yet the cross-lagged panel analysis did not reveal a systematic positive and causal effect of insight on SOFAS and GAF scores. Depressive symptoms seem only to be relevant in the beginning of the treatment process. Our results point to a complex process in which the positive impact of insight on psychosocial functioning increases over time, even when considering depressive symptoms. Future studies and treatment approaches should consider the procedural aspect of insight.

  1. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    SciT

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the mostmore » basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  2. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Genc Simsek, Nilufer; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Subjects and method. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancratitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activites were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and inleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Results. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435±432 U/L vs. 27,426±118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970±323 pg/mL vs. 330±368 pg/mL, respectively). Conclusion. In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions. PMID:19088933

  3. Differential Contributions of Ventral and Dorsal Striatum to Early and Late Phases of Cognitive Set Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Sleezer, Brianna J.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Flexible decision-making, a defining feature of human cognition, is typically thought of as a canonical pFC function. Recent work suggests that the striatum may participate as well; however, its role in this process is not well understood. We recorded activity of neurons in both the ventral (VS) and dorsal (DS) striatum while rhesus macaques performed a version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of flexibility. Our version of the task involved a trial-and-error phase before monkeys could identify the correct rule on each block. We observed changes in firing rate in both regions when monkeys switched rules. Specifically, VS neurons demonstrated switch-related activity early in the trial-and-error period when the rule needed to be updated, and a portion of these neurons signaled information about the switch context (i.e., whether the switch was intradimensional or extradimensional). Neurons in both VS and DS demonstrated switch-related activity at the end of the trial-and-error period, immediately before the rule was fully established and maintained, but these signals did not carry any information about switch context. We also observed associative learning signals (i.e., specific responses to options associated with rewards in the presentation period before choice) that followed the same pattern as switch signals (early in VS, later in DS). Taken together, these results endorse the idea that the striatum participates directly in cognitive set reconfiguration and suggest that single neurons in the striatum may contribute to a functional handoff from the VS to the DS during reconfiguration processes. PMID:27417204

  4. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Development of global cortical networks in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Otobe, Takayuki; Nakano, Tamami; Go, Tohshin; Konishi, Yukuo; Taga, Gentaro

    2010-04-07

    Human cognition and behaviors are subserved by global networks of neural mechanisms. Although the organization of the brain is a subject of interest, the process of development of global cortical networks in early infancy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we explored developmental changes in these networks from several days to 6 months after birth by examining spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. We set up 94 measurement channels over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions of the infant brain. The obtained signals showed complex time-series properties, which were characterized as 1/f fluctuations. To reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of continuous signals between all the pairs of measurement channels. We found that the cortical network organization showed regional dependency and dynamic changes in the course of development. In the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, connectivity increased between homologous regions in the two hemispheres and within hemispheres; in the frontal regions, it decreased progressively. Frontoposterior connectivity changed to a "U-shaped" pattern within 6 months: it decreases from the neonatal period to the age of 3 months and increases from the age of 3 months to the age of 6 months. We applied cluster analyses to the correlation coefficients and showed that the bilateral organization of the networks begins to emerge during the first 3 months of life. Our findings suggest that these developing networks, which form multiple clusters, are precursors of the functional cerebral architecture.

  6. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Recent early clinical drug development for acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin M; O'neill, Stephen; Harrison, Ewen M; Ross, James A; Wigmore, Stephen J; Hughes, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    Despite significant need and historical trials, there are no effective drugs in use for the prevention or treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). There are several promising agents in early clinical development for AKI and two trials have recently been terminated. There are also exciting new findings in pre-clinical AKI research. There is a need to take stock of current progress in the field to guide future drug development for AKI. Areas covered: The main clinical trial registries, PubMed and pharmaceutical company website searches were used to extract the most recent clinical trials for sterile, transplant and sepsis-associated AKI. We summarise the development of the agents recently in clinical trial, update on their trial progress, consider reasons for failed efficacy of two agents, and discuss new paradigms in pre-clinical targets for AKI. Agents covered include- QPI-1002, THR-184, BB-3, heme arginate, human recombinant alkaline phosphatase (recAP), ciclosporin A, AB103, levosimendan, AC607 and ABT-719. Expert opinion: Due to the heterogenous nature of AKI, agents with the widest pleiotropic effects on multiple pathophysiological pathways are likely to be most effective. Linking preclinical models to clinical indication and improving AKI definition and diagnosis are key areas for improvement in future clinical trials.

  8. The obesogenic effect of high fructose exposure during early development

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Dumke, Kelly; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Kayser, Brandon; Walker, Ryan W.; Blumberg, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Obesogens are compounds that disrupt the function and development of adipose tissue or the normal metabolism of lipids, leading to an increased risk of obesity and associated diseases. Evidence for the adverse effects of industrial and agricultural obesogens, such as tributyltin, bisphenol A and other organic pollutants is well-established. Current evidence suggests that high maternal consumption of fat promotes obesity and increased metabolic risk in offspring, but less is known about the effects of other potential nutrient obesogens. Widespread increase in dietary fructose consumption over the past 30 years is associated with chronic metabolic and endocrine disorders and alterations in feeding behaviour that promote obesity. In this Perspectives, we examine the evidence linking high intakes of fructose with altered metabolism and early obesity. We review the evidence suggesting that high fructose exposure during critical periods of development of the fetus, neonate and infant can act as an obesogen by affecting lifelong neuroendocrine function, appetite control, feeding behaviour, adipogenesis, fat distribution and metabolic systems. These changes ultimately favour the long-term development of obesity and associated metabolic risk. PMID:23732284

  9. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The SCL gene specifies haemangioblast development from early mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Gering, M; Rodaway, A R; Göttgens, B; Patient, R K; Green, A R

    1998-07-15

    The SCL gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the development of all haematopoietic lineages. SCL is also expressed in endothelial cells, but its function is not essential for specification of endothelial progenitors and the role of SCL in endothelial development is obscure. We isolated the zebrafish SCL homologue and show that it was co-expressed in early mesoderm with markers of haematopoietic, endothelial and pronephric progenitors. Ectopic expression of SCL mRNA in zebrafish embryos resulted in overproduction of common haematopoietic and endothelial precursors, perturbation of vasculogenesis and concomitant loss of pronephric duct and somitic tissue. Notochord and neural tube formation were unaffected. These results provide the first evidence that SCL specifies formation of haemangioblasts, the proposed common precursor of blood and endothelial lineages. Our data also underline the striking similarities between the role of SCL in haematopoiesis/vasculogenesis and the function of other bHLH proteins in muscle and neural development.

  11. Evaluation of measles-rubella vaccination for mothers in early puerperal phase.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Michi; Kato, Tatsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2016-02-24

    The postpartum period is an ideal opportunity to vaccinate mothers with inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases including measles and rubella. A prospective study of measles-rubella (MR) vaccination in the early puerperal phase was conducted in 171 mothers, who had insufficient antibody titers when screened for immunity to measles (≤ 1:4 on the neutralization test [NT]) or rubella (≤ 1:16 on the hemagglutination inhibition [HI] test) during pregnancy. To evaluate the efficacy of MR vaccination in the postpartum period, we determined their post-vaccination antibody titers and immune responses to vaccination, and investigated the association between these and their prolactin (PRL) levels and Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. We also examined the passage of viral RNA and antigen into breast milk. Of the 169 participants who completed the study schedule, 117 and 101 had low antibody titers against measles and rubella, respectively. In the measles-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 87% on the NT assay, and the NT geometric mean antibody titer was 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-13.0). In the rubella-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 88% on the HI test assay, and the HI geometric mean antibody titer was 64.0 (95% CI, 53.9-76.0). There was no association between the post-vaccination antibody titers and the PRL levels or Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. In the rubella-seronegative group, subjects with higher Th1/Th2 ratios showed higher rates of responsiveness than those with lower ratios (P=0.045). Although measles virus RNA was isolated from the breast milk of two vaccinated mothers, breastfeeding was not associated with clinical disease in any infants. MR vaccination in the early puerperal phase is considered an effective way to prevent the diseases, regardless of the mother's immunological status and hormonal milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Advanced Fuel Cell System (Phase 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A multiple-task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. During Phase 4, the lowest stabilized degradation rate observed in all the testing completed during four phases of the program, 1 microvolt/hour, was demonstrated. This test continues after 5,000 hours of operation. The cell incorporates a PPf anode, a 90Au/10Pt cathode, a hybrid frame, and a Fybex matrix. These elements were developed under this program to extend cell life. The result demonstrated that the 80Au/20Pt cathode is as stable as a 90Au/10Pt cathode of twice the precious metal loading, was confirmed in full-scale cells. A hybrid frame two-cell plaque with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids was demonstrated to prevent the cell-to cell electrolyte transfer that limited the endurance of multicell plaques. At the conclusion of Phase 4, more than 90,900 hours of testing had been completed and twelve different cell designs had been evaluated. A technology base has been established which is ready for evaluation at the powerplant level.

  13. Unimpaired endogenous pain inhibition in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumowski, N; Hegelmaier, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Maier, C; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Enax-Krumova, E

    2017-05-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by distal generalisation of pain beyond the initial trauma. This might be the result of impaired endogenous pain inhibition. We compared Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) between patients with CRPS (n = 24; pain: 4.5 ± 2.2, NRS 0-10; disease duration <1 year), neuralgia (n = 17; pain: 5.5 ± 1.1) and healthy subjects (n = 23) and its correlation with loss and gain of function as assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). CPM was assessed with heat as test stimulus (TS) and cold water as conditioning stimulus (CS). The early CPM-effect was calculated as difference between heat pain during and before conditioning, the late CPM-effect, 5 minutes after and before conditioning, respectively. Heat pain decreased comparably after CS in all groups, resulting in a significant CPM-effect (healthy: -12.5 ± 12.4, NRS 0-100; CRPS: -14.7 ± 15.7; neuralgia: -7.9 ± 9.8; p < 0.001). When compared to healthy subjects, heat pain declined significantly steeper in CRPS patients (healthy: -2.0 ± 5.5, NRS 0-100/10 s; CRPS: -6.3 ± 8.1; p < 0.05). Only CRPS patients demonstrated a late CPM effect (-6.0 ± 9.0, p < 0.005). Neither spontaneous pain nor any QST parameter correlated with CPM, with the exception of a decreased cold pain threshold, which correlated with an enhanced CPM in CRPS patients only (r = -0.456, p < 0.05). An impairment of endogenous pain inhibition does not explain the extent of pain in the early stage of CRPS or in neuralgia. The unexpectedly high CPM in CRPS patients might result from activation of the intact descending pathways in response to central sensitization, as cold hyperalgesia correlated with the CPM-effect. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is not impaired in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and neuralgia. Only in CRPS higher CPM was associated with lower cold pain thresholds. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Conceptual framework of the eco-physiological phases of insect diapause development justified by transcriptomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Štětina, Tomáš; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Bruce, Alexander William

    2017-01-01

    Insects often overcome unfavorable seasons in a hormonally regulated state of diapause during which their activity ceases, development is arrested, metabolic rate is suppressed, and tolerance of environmental stress is bolstered. Diapausing insects pass through a stereotypic succession of eco-physiological phases termed “diapause development.” The phasing is varied in the literature, and the whole concept is sometimes criticized as being too artificial. Here we present the results of transcriptional profiling using custom microarrays representing 1,042 genes in the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata. Fully grown, third-instar larvae programmed for diapause by a photoperiodic (short-day) signal were assayed as they traversed the diapause developmental program. When analyzing the gradual dynamics in the transcriptomic profile, we could readily distinguish distinct diapause developmental phases associated with induction/initiation, maintenance, cold acclimation, and termination by cold or by photoperiodic signal. Accordingly, each phase is characterized by a specific pattern of gene expression, supporting the physiological relevance of the concept of diapause phasing. Further, we have dissected in greater detail the changes in transcript levels of elements of several signaling pathways considered critical for diapause regulation. The phase of diapause termination is associated with enhanced transcript levels in several positive elements stimulating direct development (the 20-hydroxyecdysone pathway: Ecr, Shd, Broad; the Wnt pathway: basket, c-jun) that are countered by up-regulation in some negative elements (the insulin-signaling pathway: Ilp8, PI3k, Akt; the target of rapamycin pathway: Tsc2 and 4EBP; the Wnt pathway: shaggy). We speculate such up-regulations may represent the early steps linked to termination of diapause programming. PMID:28720705

  15. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  16. Development of Water Resources Drought Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. P. T.; Chen, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Signs of impending drought are often vague and result from hydrologic uncertainty. Because of this, determining the appropriate time to enforce water supply restrictions is difficult. This study proposes a drought early warning index (DEWI) that can help water resource managers to anticipate droughts so that preparations can be made to mitigate the impact of water shortages. This study employs the expected-deficit-rate of normal water supply conditions as the drought early warning index. An annual-use-reservoir-based water supply system in southern Taiwan was selected as the case study. The water supply simulation was based on reservoir storage at the evaluation time and the reservoir inflow series to cope with the actual water supply process until the end of the hydrologic year. A variety of deficits could be realized during different hydrologic years of records and assumptions of initial reservoir storage. These deficits are illustrated using the Average Shortage Rate (ASR) and the value of the ASR, namely the DEWI. The ASR is divided into 5 levels according to 5 deficit-tolerance combinations of each kind of annual demand. A linear regression model and a Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique model were employed to estimate the DEWI using selected factors deduced from supply-demand traits and available information, including: rainfall, reservoir inflow and storage data. The chosen methods mentioned above are used to explain a significant index is useful for both model development and decision making. Tests in the Tsengwen-Wushantou reservoir system showed this DEWI to perform very well in adopting the proper mitigation policy at the end of the wet season.

  17. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development

    PubMed Central

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  19. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony

    2010-05-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from < 10° on the valley floor to > 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  20. Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Lun Hung, Galen; Hahn, Jill; Alamiri, Bibi; Buka, Stephen L; Goldstein, Jill M; Laird, Nan; Nelson, Charles A; Smoller, Jordan W; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early social experiences are believed to shape neurodevelopment, with potentially lifelong consequences. Yet minimal evidence exists regarding the role of the social environment on children’s neural functioning, a core domain of neurodevelopment. Methods: We analysed data from 36 443 participants in the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project, a socioeconomically diverse pregnancy cohort conducted between 1959 and 1974. Study outcomes included: physician (neurologist or paediatrician)-rated neurological abnormality neonatally and thereafter at 4 months and 1 and 7 years; indicators of neurological hard signs and soft signs; and indicators of autonomic nervous system function. Results: Children born to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents were more likely to exhibit neurological abnormalities at 4 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.37], 1 year (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.17, 1.56), and 7 years (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.48, 1.89), and more likely to exhibit neurological hard signs (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.10, 1.76), soft signs (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.09, 1.45) and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions at 7 years. Pregnancy and delivery complications, themselves associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, did not account for the higher risks of neurological abnormalities among disadvantaged children. Conclusions: Parental socioeconomic disadvantage was, independently from pregnancy and delivery complications, associated with abnormal child neural development during the first 7 years of life. These findings reinforce the importance of the early environment for neurodevelopment generally, and expand knowledge regarding the domains of neurodevelopment affected by environmental conditions. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage with children’s neural functioning, the timing of such mechanisms and their potential reversibility. PMID:26675752

  1. Preschoolers Know, but How Do They Know? Developing a Framework for Early Epistemology Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Denise L.; Blake, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Two areas that are lacking for the purpose of training high-quality preschool teachers; and constructing developmentally appropriate learning standards and curriculum for preschool children are awareness of early epistemic development (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) and understanding preschoolers' cognitive processes during epistemic…

  2. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  3. Infant feeding effects on early neurocognitive development in Asian children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shirong; Pang, Wei Wei; Low, Yen Ling; Sim, Lit Wee; Sam, Suet Chian; Bruntraeger, Michaela Bianka; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Fok, Doris; Broekman, Birit F P; Singh, Leher; Richmond, Jenny; Agarwal, Pratibha; Qiu, Anqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. However, few studies have examined associations between breastfeeding and specific cognitive task performance in the first 2 y of life, particularly in an Asian population. We assessed associations between early infant feeding and detailed measures of cognitive development in the first 2 y of life in healthy Asian children born at term. In a prospective cohort study, neurocognitive testing was performed in 408 healthy children (aged 6, 18, and 24 mo) from uncomplicated pregnancies (i.e., birth weight >2500 and <4000 g, gestational age ≥37 wk, and 5-min Apgar score ≥9). Tests included memory (deferred imitation, relational binding, habituation) and attention tasks (visual expectation, auditory oddball) as well as the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Children were stratified into 3 groups (low, intermediate, and high) on the basis of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, significant associations and dose-response relations were observed for 4 of the 15 tests. Higher breastfeeding exposure was associated with better memory at 6 mo, demonstrated by greater preferential looking toward correctly matched items during early portions of a relational memory task (i.e., relational binding task: P-trend = 0.015 and 0.050 for the first two 1000-ms time bins, respectively). No effects of breastfeeding were observed at 18 mo. At 24 mo, breastfed children were more likely to display sequential memory during a deferred imitation memory task (P-trend = 0.048), and toddlers with more exposure to breastfeeding scored higher in receptive language [+0.93 (0.23, 1.63) and +1.08 (0.10, 2.07) for intermediate- and high-breastfeeding groups, respectively, compared with the low-breastfeeding group], as well as expressive language [+0.58 (-0.06, 1.23) and +1.22 (0.32, 2.12) for intermediate- and high

  4. Media Messages and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the Early Phase of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Erika Franklin; Baum, Laura M; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013. We find that higher volumes of insurance advertising and local news coverage are associated with participants' perceptions of being informed about the law. Volumes of insurance advertising and of local news coverage are also associated with participants' favorability toward the law, but the relationship varies with partisanship, supporting the growing body of research describing partisan perceptual bias. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  5. Beam-induced pressure gradients in the early phase of proton-heated solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamres, David H.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1986-01-01

    The pressure gradient induced in a coronal loop by proton beam momentum deposition is calculated and compared with the thermal pressure gradient arising from nonuniform deposition of beam energy; it is assumed that the transfer of momentum and energy from beam to target occurs via the Coulomb interaciton. Results are presented for both a low mean energy and a high mean energy proton beam injected at the loop apex and characterized by a power-law energy spectrum. The present treatment takes account of the breakdown of the cold target approximation for the low-energy proton beam in the corona, where the thermal speed of target electrons exceeds the beam speed. It is found that proton beam momentum deposition plays a potentially significant role in flare dynamics only in the low mean energy case and only in the corona, where it may dominate the acceleration of target material for as long as several tens of seconds. This conclusion suggest that the presence of low-energy nonthermal protons may be inferred from velocity-sensitive coronal observations in the early impulsive phase.

  6. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciT

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereasmore » the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.« less

  7. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    PubMed

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Relationship between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Intrinsic Corticostriatal Connectivity in Patients with Early Phase Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Deepak K; Robinson, Delbert G; Fales, Christina; Lencz, Todd; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to 2 years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry. We included 83 patients with early phase schizophrenia and minimal exposure to antipsychotic drugs (<2 years), who underwent resting state scanning while entering 12 weeks of prospective treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Functional connectivity maps of the striatum were generated and examined in relation to DUP as a covariate. Mediation analyses were performed on a composite measure of corticostriatal connectivity derived from the significant results of our DUP analysis. We found that longer DUP correlated with worse response to treatment as well as overall decreased functional connectivity between striatal nodes and specific regions within frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, the relationship between DUP and treatment response was significantly mediated by corticostriatal connectivity. Our results indicate that variation in corticostriatal circuitry may play a role in the relationship between longer DUP and worsened response to treatment. Future prospective studies are necessary to further characterize potential causal links between DUP, striatal circuitry and clinical outcomes.

  9. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  10. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range. PMID:26138760

  11. The early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution in low-z "young" galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in their nucleus, and the evolution of SMBHs is closely related with that of their host galaxies (the SMBH-galaxy coevolution). This is suggested by the correlation in the mass of SMBHs and their host galaxies, that has been observed in low redshifts. However, the physics of the coevolution is totally unclear, that prevents us from complete understandings of the galaxy evolution. One possible strategy to tackle this issue is measuring the mass ratio between SMBHs and their host galaxies (M_BH/M_host) at high redshifs, since different scenarios predict different evolution of the ratio ofMBH/Mhost. However it is extremely challenging to measure the mass of the host of high-z quasars, given the faint surface brightness of the host at close to the glaring quasar nucleus. Here we propose a brand-new approach to assess the early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution, by focusing on low-z AGN-hosting "young" galaxies. Specifically, we focus on some very metal-poor galaxies with broadline Balmer lines at z ~ 0.1 - 0.3. By examining the SMBH scaling relations in some low-z metal-poor AGNs through high-resolution IRCS imaging observations, we will discriminate various scenarios for the SMBH-galaxy coevolution.

  12. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Webcam delivery of the Lidcombe program for early stuttering: a phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe Program service delivery model. Participants were 3 preschool children who stuttered and their parents, all of whom received assessment and treatment using webcam in their homes with no clinic attendance. At 6 months post-Stage 1 completion, all children were stuttering below 1.0% syllables stuttered. The webcam intervention was acceptable to the parents and appeared to be practical and viable, with only occasional audiovisual problems. At present, there is no reason to doubt that a webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program will be shown with clinical trials to have comparable efficacy with the clinic version. Webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program intervention is potentially efficacious, is practical and viable, and requires further exploration with comparative clinical trials and a qualitative study of parent and caregiver experiences.

  14. Biomarkers for identifying the early phases of osteoarthritis secondary to medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Rafiqul; Ji, Joong Ryong; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Nam Soo

    2011-09-01

    The levels of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in synovial fluid (SF) and serum in cases of canine osteoarthritis (OA) were measured. OA was induced by a surgically-created medial patellar luxation in the left stifle of 24 dogs. SF and blood samples were collected at 1.5- and 3-month intervals, respectively. Every 3 months, one dog was euthanatized to collect tissue samples from both stifles. TRAP levels in SF and serum were measured using a spectrophotometer, and TRAP-positive cells in joint tissues were identified by enzyme histochemistry. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in SF and serum were detected by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. TRAP in SF from the stifles and serum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 3 months. TIMP-2 in SF and serum was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-2 in SF was significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the progression of OA. Histochemistry revealed an increased number of TRAP-positive cells in tissues from OA-affected joints. Assays measuring TRAP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 in SF and serum, and methods that detect increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells in the joint tissues can play an important role in identifying the early phases of degenerative changes in canine joint components.

  15. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    The ≈3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

  16. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... and Gene Therapy Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' that... sponsors of Investigational New Drug Applications for cellular therapy (CT) and gene therapy (GT) products...

  17. 77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... amended by section 1832(b) of Division B of Pub. L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of...

  18. 77 FR 7174 - Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-FHC-2012-N030; FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability and request...

  19. [Curriculum analysis and comparison between strategies or programs for early child development in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Guillermo; Guadarrama-Orozco, Jessica Haydee; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Narcizo-Cenobio, Francisco Javier; Medrano-Loera, Gerónimo; Villagrán, Daniel Aceves; O'Shea Cuevas, Gabriel; Muñoz Hernández, Onofre

    Most of the strategies or programs that support early child development in Mexico are independent efforts that vary in scale, services offered and means of providing them. For the evaluation of the quality of these programs, an important aspect is the curriculum content. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the curriculum content of the different strategies or programs focused on the promotion and intervention of early child development, which are offered by the Federal Government in Health and Education sectors in Mexico. We conducted a review of the curriculum content of the strategies and programs. The qualitative phase consisted of a comparative analysis where 75 indicators proposed by the Inter-American Development Bank were identified. The quantitative phase consisted of a descriptive analysis of the indicators. Finally, the analyses were compared to establish the performance of each one. Six strategies or programs were identified. In the analysis of the presence of indicators, the Oportunidades de Aprendizaje (Learning Opportunities, LO) strategy showed a larger number of indicators. In the amplitude analysis, both PEI-CONAFE and LO were the best balanced. Finally, in-depth analysis of the indicators LO and Skills for life were the best balanced while PEI-CONAFE was the best balanced in the social-emotional area, CeNSIA program for language and LO for cognitive development area. LO strategy showed the closest level of contents established by the Inter-American Development Bank. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.