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Sample records for early developmental milestones

  1. Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 years 4 years 5 years Milestone Tracker App Milestones in Action: Photos & Videos 2 months 4 ... milestone checklists (PDF) Download the Milestone Tracker mobile app View the Milestones in Action photo and video ...

  2. Associations of Early Developmental Milestones with Adult Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether age at attainment of 20 developmental milestones within the areas of language, walking, eating, dressing, social interaction, and toilet training was associated with adult intelligence. Mothers of 821 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 20 developmental milestones at a 3-year examination, and all…

  3. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  4. [Autism and Early Neurodevelopmental Milestones].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Xavier; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, also referred to in this study as autism, is a neurodevelopmental chronic disease that manifests early in childhood by impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior. Since there are no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. The purpose of the present study is to determine which are the early psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental milestones that present a significant correlation with the severity of the main symptoms of autism, development quotients, and adaptive function. We performed a retrospective study on a sample of 1572 individuals with a diagnosis of autism that were monitored at Hospital Pediátrico do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, in the Neurodevelopment and Autism Unit. We analyzed six early psychomotor developmental milestones: age of acquisition of 'walking', 'first words', 'first phrases', 'daytime control of bladder sphincter', 'night-time control of bladder sphincter', and age of first complaints. Afterwards, we divided the sample in three subgroups regarding clinical severity, according to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and we analyzed significant differences among each other concerning the six milestones established beforehand. The milestone 'age of first phrases' was, from the six milestones, the one with a stronger correlation with the variables of clinical manifestations of autism, development/intelligence quotients, and adaptive function. In division of the sample into subgroups of clinical severity, it was the most severe that showed later ages of acquisition of the neurodevelopmental milestones and earlier ages of first complaints. This study proves the clinical utility to know the age of achievement of early psychomotor developmental skills, since they act as predictors of clinical severity of autism, cognition, and adaptive function of a wide population with autism. Therefore, this data contribute for prognostic

  5. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426

  6. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  7. Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a…

  8. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... hour or less is better. Avoid programming with violent content. Redirect the child to reading or play activities. Control the type of games the child plays. Alternative Names Growth milestones for ...

  9. Correlates of age at attainment of developmental milestones in HIV-infected infants receiving early antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Eshelman, Christal; Wamalwa, Dalton; Langat, Agnes; Tapia, Ken; Okinyi, Helen Moraa; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Infant HIV-1 infection is associated with impaired neurologic and motor development. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has the potential to improve developmental outcomes but the relative contributions of pre-ART disease status, growth, treatment regimen and ART response during infancy are unknown. Kenyan ART-naive infants <5-months old initiated ART and had monthly assessment of age of full neck control, unsupported walking and monosyllabic speech during 24 months of follow-up. Pre-ART and post-ART correlates of age at milestone attainment were evaluated using t tests or multivariate linear regression. Among 99 infants, pre-ART correlates of later milestone attainment included: underweight and stunted (neck control, walking and speech, all P values <0.05), missed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (P = 0.04) (neck control), previous hospitalization, World Health Organization (WHO) Stage III/IV, low CD4 count, and wasting (speech and walking, all P values <0.05), and low maternal CD4 (speech, P = 0.04). Infants initiated ART at a median of 14 days following enrollment. Infants receiving nevirapinevs lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART attained later speech (18.1 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.003) [corrected]. Adjusting for pre-ART level, lower 6-month gain in CD4% was associated with later walking (0.18 months earlier per unit increase in CD4%; P = 0.004) and speech (0.12 months earlier per unit increase in CD4%; P = 0.05), and lower 6-month gains in weight-for-age (P = 0.009), height-for-age (P = 0.03) and weight-for-height (P = 0.02) were associated with later walking. In HIV-infected infants, compromised pre-ART immune and growth status, poor post-ART immune and growth responses, and use of nevirapine- vs. lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART were each associated with later milestone attainment [corrected]. The long-term consequences of these delays are unknown.

  10. Early developmental milestones and age of independent walking in orphans compared with typical home-raised infants.

    PubMed

    Chaibal, Supattra; Bennett, Surussawadi; Rattanathanthong, Korrawan; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2016-10-01

    Early gross motor development is a major indicator of global milestones in the first year of life, affecting the walking ability of a child. There has been limited research reporting on early motor development and the age of independent walking of orphaned infants compared to typical home-raised infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean scores of early gross motor movement at 4, 6 and 8months of age and at the age of walking attainment of typically raised infants and orphaned infants. In addition, we looked to compare the walking age between these same infants. This cross-sectional study recruited 59 typical home-raised infants and 62 orphans. Their gross motor development was assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). The age of walking attainment was also prospectively monitored and ascertained. The Student's independent t-test was used to analyse the differences of the AIMS scores at 4, 6 and 8months of age and at the age of independent walking between the two groups. The orphans showed significantly lower AIMS scores at 4, 6 and 8months of age and the age of independent walking (P-value<0.05). The orphan group had a 5-month older mean age of walking attainment (15.0±4.2months) compared with typical home-raised infants (9.9±1.4months). Orphans have delays in early gross motor development and walk independently at an older age, compared with home-raised infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of developmental milestone attainment in early treated HIV-infected infants versus HIV-unexposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Wamalwa, Dalton; Langat, Agnes; Tapia, Kenneth; Adhiambo, Judith; Chebet, Daisy; Okinyi, Helen Moraa; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-01-17

    Infant HIV infection is associated with delayed milestone attainment. The extent to which effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents these delays is not well defined. Ages at attainment of milestones were compared between HIV-infected (initiated ART by age <5 months), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Kaplan Meier analyses were used to estimate and compare (log-rank tests) ages at milestones between groups. Adjusted analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Seventy-three HIV-infected on ART (median enrollment age 3.7 months) and 92 HUU infants (median enrollment age 1.6 months) were followed prospectively. HIV-infected infants on ART had delays in developmental milestone attainment compared to HUU: median age at attainment of sitting with support, sitting unsupported, walking with support, walking unsupported, monosyllabic speech and throwing toys were each delayed (all p-values <0.0005). Compared with HUU, the subset of HIV-infected infants with both virologic suppression and immune recovery at 6 months had delays for speech (delay: 2.0 months; P = 0.0002) and trend to later walking unsupported. Among HIV-infected infants with poor 6-month post-ART responses (lacking viral suppression and immune recovery) there were greater delays versus HUU for: walking unsupported (delay: 4.0 months; P = 0.0001) and speech (delay: 5.0 months; P < 0.0001). HIV infected infants with viral suppression on ART had better recovery of developmental milestones than those without suppression, however, deficits persisted compared to uninfected infants. Earlier ART may be required for optimized cognitive outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected infants. NCT00428116 ; January 22, 2007.

  12. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... the spirit of making both good eating and reading a part of every healthy childhood, the following ...

  13. There is variability in the attainment of developmental milestones in the CDKL5 disorder.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Stephanie; Leonard, Helen; Ho, Gladys; Williams, Simon; de Klerk, Nick; Forbes, David; Christodoulou, John; Downs, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the CDKL5 disorder have been described as having severely impaired development. A few individuals have been reported having attained more milestones including walking and running. Our aim was to investigate variation in attainment of developmental milestones and associations with underlying genotype. Data was sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, and individuals were included if they had a pathogenic or probably pathogenic CDKL5 mutation and information on early development. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses investigated the occurrence of developmental milestones. Mutations were grouped by their structural/functional consequence, and Cox regression was used to investigate the relationship between genotype and milestone attainment. The study included 109 females and 18 males. By 5 years of age, only 75% of the females had attained independent sitting and 25% independent walking whilst a quarter of the males could sit independently by 1 year 3 months. Only one boy could walk independently. No clear relationship between mutation group and milestone attainment was present, although females with a late truncating mutation attained the most milestones. Attainment of developmental milestones is severely impaired in the CDKL5 disorder, with the majority who did attain skills attaining them at a late age. It appears as though males are more severely impaired than the females. Larger studies are needed to further investigate the role of genotype on clinical variability.

  14. [Early mobilization. Competencies, responsibilities, milestones].

    PubMed

    Nydahl, P; Dewes, M; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Klas, K; Mende, H; Rothaug, O; Schuchhardt, D

    2016-03-01

    Early mobilization is an evident, interprofessional concept to improve the outcome of intensive care patients. It reduces psychocognitive deficits and delirium and attenuates a general deconditioning, including atrophy of the respiratory pump and skeletal muscles. In this regard the interdisciplinary approach of early mobilization, taking into account different levels of mobilization, appears to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to explore opinions on collaboration and tasks between different professional groups. During the 25th Bremen Conference on Intensive Medicine and Nursing on 20 February 2015, a questionnaire survey was carried out among the 120 participants of the German Early Mobilization Network meeting. In all, 102 questionnaires were analyzed. Most participants reported on the interdisciplinarity of the approach, but none of the tasks and responsibilities concerning early mobilization can be assigned to a single professional group. The practical implementation of mobilizing orally intubated patients may require two registered nurses as well as a physical therapist. Implementation in daily practice seems to be heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding collaboration, competencies, and responsibilities with respect to early mobilization of intensive care patients. The approach to date has been characterized by a lack of interprofessional communication, which may lead to an inefficient use of the broad and varied base of knowledge and experienceof the different professions.

  15. Age cohort differences in the developmental milestones of gay men.

    PubMed

    Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p < 0.05), whereas social milestones (e.g., coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.

  16. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence: A 34-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-07-01

    A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity, mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association. Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1155 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20-34 years and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQ were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant associations were found for Performance IQ. Correlations were generally small (r < 0.10), but significant interactions were found between parental social status and age of attaining developmental milestones, with associations being significantly stronger in the offspring of lower social status parents. The effects remained significant after adjusting for possible confounding factors. This is the first study to find significant interactions with parental social status, thereby suggesting that associations between early motor development and intelligence are stronger in infants of low social status parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  18. Puberty: Maturation, Timing and Adjustment, and Sexual Identity Developmental Milestones among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Milestones and Movement: Results from the Gemini Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lee; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fildes, Alison; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Variability in the timing of infant developmental milestones is poorly understood. We used a twin analysis to estimate genetic and environmental influences on motor development and activity levels in infancy. Method: Data were from the Gemini Study, a twin birth cohort of 2,402 families with twins born in the United Kingdom in 2007.…

  20. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  1. The relationship between social play and developmental milestones in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Heintz, Matthew R; Murray, Carson M; Markham, A Catherine; Pusey, Anne E; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2017-12-01

    Social play is common among many group-living animals, but the benefits are not well understood. Proposed benefits include increased muscle coordination as the result of increased locomotor versatility and development, and strengthened social bonds through interactions with like-aged individuals. In this study, we used 33 years of long-term behavioral data on infant chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to examine these potential benefits of social play, specifically how the percentage of time engaged in social play relates to motor and social developmental milestones. We predicted that infants who engaged in more social play would achieve motor and social milestones at younger ages. We found that individuals that spent more time engaging in social play achieved the motor milestones of riding dorsally and traveling independently at earlier ages. Additionally, we found that the amount of play was correlated with earlier ages for reaching the social milestones of spatial independence from mother, first grooming of non-maternal kin, and first observed mating attempt. This is the first study in great apes to demonstrate a relationship between play behavior and developmental milestones, supporting the hypotheses that play provides motor, and social benefits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early milestones in the understanding of echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Alan D

    2018-04-23

    Almost 80 years ago, Griffin and Galambos discovered the phenomenon of echolocation in bats. Since then, the field has grown exponentially as new generations of investigators have joined the chase and technological advances have revolutionized working with ultrasound in the laboratory and in the field. Today our understanding of the diversity of behavioral and neural adaptations for echolocation constitutes one of the paramount triumphs of neuroethology. At the invitation of the editor in chief, I here review some of the important milestones in the discovery and early understanding of echolocation in bats through about the mid-1980s.

  3. Genetic analysis of motor milestones attainment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Peter, I; Vainder, M; Livshits, G

    1999-03-01

    The age of attainment for four motor developmental traits, such as turning over, sitting up without support, pulling up to a standing position and walking without support, was examined in 822 children, including 626 siblings from families with 2 to 6 children, 68 pairs of dizygotic twins and 30 pairs of monozygotic twins. Correlation analysis, carried out separately for each type of sibship, showed the highest pairwise correlations in monozygotic twins and the lowest correlation in non-twin siblings for all motor milestones. Variance component analysis was used to decompose the different independent components forming the variation of the studied trait, such as genetic effect, common twin environment, common sib environment and residual factors. The results revealed that the major proportion of the total variance after adjustment for gestation age for the attainment of each motor skill, except pulling up to standing position, is explained by the common twin environment (50.5 to 66.6%), whilst a moderate proportion is explained by additive genetic factors (22.2 to 33.5%). Gestational age was found to be an important predictor of appearance of all motor milestones, affecting delay of 4.5 to 8.6 days for the attainment of the motor abilities for each week of earlier gestation. The age of attainment of the standing position was affected only by shared sibs environment (33.3% of the total variance) and showed no influence of either genetic or common twin environment. Phenotypic between trait correlations were high and significant for all studied traits (range between 0.40 and 0.67, P < 0.01 in all instances). Genetic cross correlations, however, were not easily interpreted and did not show clear variance trends among the different groups of children.

  4. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    PubMed

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  5. Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement Is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Rachael; Saez de Urabain, Irati R.; Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Smith, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen technologies provide an intuitive and attractive source of sensory/cognitive stimulation for young children. Despite fears that usage may have a negative impact on toddlers’ cognitive development, empirical evidence is lacking. The current study presents results from the UK Toddler Attentional Behaviours and LEarning with Touchscreens (TABLET) project, examining the association between toddlers’ touchscreen use and the attainment of developmental milestones. Data were gathered in an online survey of 715 parents of 6- to 36-month-olds to address two research questions: (1) How does touchscreen use change from 6 to 36 months? (2) In toddlers (19–36 months, i.e., above the median age, n = 366), how does retrospectively reported age of first touchscreen usage relate to gross motor (i.e., walking), fine motor (i.e., stacking blocks), and language (i.e., producing two-word utterances) milestones? In our sample, the proportion of children using touchscreens, as well as the average daily usage time, increased with age (youngest quartile, 6–11 months: 51.22% users, 8.53 min per day; oldest quartile, 26–36 months: 92.05% users, average use of 43.95 min per day). In toddlers, aged 19–36 months, age of first touchscreen use was significantly associated with fine motor (stacking blocks), p = 0.03, after controlling for covariates age, sex, mother’s education (a proxy for socioeconomic status) as well as age of early fine motor milestone achievement (pincer grip). This effect was only present for active scrolling of the touchscreen p = 0.04, not for video watching. No significant relationships were found between touchscreen use and either gross motor or language milestones. Touchscreen use increases rapidly over the first 3 years of life. In the current study, we find no evidence to support a negative association between the age of first touchscreen usage and developmental milestones. Indeed, earlier touchscreen use, specifically scrolling of the screen

  6. Do developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months predict IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Hugo; Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck

    2017-03-01

    The present study aims: (i) to determine how well developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months may predict IQ at 5-6 years old, (ii) to identify cognitive domains during the first two years that best predict later IQ and (iii) to determine whether children with IQ in the normal range at 5-6 years old may differ from disabled (IQ < 70) and gifted children (IQ > 130) with regard to their early cognitive development. The main developmental milestones were collected through self-administered questionnaires rated by parents at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months and through parental questionnaires administered by a trained interviewer and questionnaires completed following a medical examination at 12 months. These questionnaires were derived from the Brunet-Lézine Psychomotor Development Scale and they addressed several cognitive domains (gross and fine motor skills, language and socialization). (i) Developmental milestones predict a substantial part of the later IQ variance from 24 months (R 2  ∼ 20%). (ii) Early language skills more strongly predict later IQ than the other cognitive domains. (iii) Several cognitive domains, but particularly language skills, predict disabled children at 5-6 years old (from the age of 8 months) and gifted children (from the age of 12 months). The present study provides valuable information for early developmental assessment and could contribute to a better understanding of intellectual development. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Developmental Milestones in Pediatric Residency Training and Practice: Time to Rethink the Meaning of the Mean

    PubMed Central

    Sices, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective Pediatricians frequently report the use of developmental milestones in monitoring young children’s development, despite evidence that use of screening tools improves detection of developmental delays. Methods Core texts in the field of pediatrics and developmental-behavioral pediatrics were reviewed for content and presentation on child development. Most texts included and many focused on developmental milestones, many with an emphasis on 50th percentile milestone data. Problems and limitations in the use of 50th percentile milestones to monitor young children’s development and to identify children whose development is suspicious for delay, include questionable utility in clinical decision making and the potential to increase parental anxiety. Results The recommendation is made to reconsider a focus on 50th percentile milestone data in pediatric training and practice, in favor of measures that have better clinical utility and are more psychometrically sound. Conclusion A conceptual approach to the presentation of developmental milestones differentiates the use of the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of age of achievement of skills, based on the clinical purpose of surveillance. PMID:17353732

  8. Developmental milestones at one year for the offspring of mothers with congenital hypothyroidism: a population-based study

    PubMed

    Léger, Juliane; Forhan, Anne; Dos Santos, Sophie; Larroque, Béatrice; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. No data are currently available for the offspring of patients treated early for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The aim of this study was to investigate motor and language milestones at one year of age in a population-based registry of children born to young women with CH. We assessed 110 children born to mothers with CH, and 1367 children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study prospectively, at the age of one year, with identical questionnaires. Outcomes were assessed in terms of scores for childhood developmental milestones relating to mobility, motor coordination, communication, motricity and language skills. After adjustment for confounding factors, children born to mothers with CH were found to have a higher risk of poor motor coordination than those of the EDEN cohort (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 2.52-6.93). No differences were identified for the other four domains investigated. Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of low motor coordination score than their peers (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.21-3.66). Children born to mothers with TSH ≥ 10 IU/L during the first six months of pregnancy were more likely to have low motricity or communication skills scores than those born to mothers with lower TSH concentrations (56% vs 21% for each score, P  < 0.04). Maternal CH may have slight adverse effects on some developmental milestones in the child at one year of age, particularly for children born to mothers with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. However, it remains unclear whether these adverse effects modify subsequent neurodevelopment. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Limperg, P F; Haverman, L; Maurice-Stam, H; Coppens, M; Valk, C; Kruip, M J H A; Eikenboom, J; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in Dutch young adults (YA) with bleeding disorders compared to peers. Ninety-five YA (18-30 years) with bleeding disorders (78 men; mean 24.7 years, SD 3.5) and 17 women (mean 25.1 years, SD 3.8) participated and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult version, the Course of Life Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Differences between patients with bleeding disorders and their peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann-Whitney U tests. YA men with bleeding disorders report a slightly lower HRQOL on the total scale, physical functioning, and school/work functioning in comparison to healthy peers (small effect sizes). YA men with severe hemophilia report more problems on the physical functioning scale than non-severe hemophilia. YA men with bleeding disorders achieved more psychosexual developmental milestones than peers, but show a delay in 'paid jobs, during middle and/or high school.' A somewhat lower self-esteem was found in YA men with bleeding disorders in comparison to peers (small effect size). For YA women with bleeding disorders, no differences were found on any of the outcomes in comparison to peers. This study demonstrates some impairments in HRQOL and self-esteem in YA men with bleeding disorders. By monitoring HRQOL, problems can be identified early, especially with regard to their physical and professional/school functioning.

  10. Influence of supine sleep positioning on early motor milestone acquisition.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Barr, Ronald G

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether supine sleep-positioned infants have delayed motor skills at age 4 and 6 months, and if delays are associated with decreased exposure to prone position. One 4 and one 6-month-old sample of healthy infants born at term were recruited. Motor assessments included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Parents completed an infant behavior diary for 3 consecutive days. Seventy-one 4-month-old infants were assessed (38 males; mean age 4.4 mo, standard deviation [SD] 0.2). Mean motor scores were close to normative standards (AIMS 47.7, SD 19.6; PDMS gross motor quotient [GMQ] 96.3, SD 6.5; PDMS fine motor quotient [FMQ] 99.2, SD 4.8). No infant scored below cut-off values used to identify motor delay. Milestones less likely to be achieved included extended arm support in prone, hands to feet in supine, and sitting with arm support. Exposure to 'tummy time' while awake was correlated with AIMS scores (r = 0.38, p < 0.01). F i fty 6-month-old infants were assessed (21 males; mean age 6.4 mo, SD 0.4). Mean scores were shifted down for all scales, and as much as 1 SD for PDMS (AIMS 44.5, SD 21.6; PDMS GMQ 85.7, SD 7.6; PDMS FMQ 88.9, SD 9.0). Only 22% of 6-month-olds could sit without arm support versus 50% expected in a normative sample. Remarkably, 22% of our sample exhibited gross motor delays (quotient <78). Tummy time (awake) was significantly associated with the AIMS (r = 0.64) and PDMS GMQ (r = 0.55) and FMQ (r = 0.33) quotients, even after adjusting for confounders. Typically developing infants who were sleep-positioned in supine had delayed motor development by age 6 months, and this was significantly associated with limited exposure to awake prone positioning. This has important implications for interpreting motor assessments of infants at risk and for preventing inappropriate referrals.

  11. Developmental milestones for productivity occupations in children and youth: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    d'Entremont, Lisette; Gregor, Megan; Kirou, Evangelia; Nelligan, Lindsay; Dennis, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Limited research exists on developmental milestones for productivity occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan, and negative connotations of work for children and youth may have contributed to a paucity of literature on the topic. To ascertain what is currently known about the timing and types of engagement in productivity occupations in children and youth aged 4-19. Literature referencing productive occupations in children and youth aged 4-19 was searched for this integrative review. Search terms were established based on paediatric age and occupational therapy descriptors, and terminology associated with productivity. Sixty-seven peer-reviewed articles were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Six core productive occupations emerged as avenues for productive engagement: paid work, school-related activities, caring for self and others, household chores, volunteering, and agricultural chores. A timeline was constructed to display common milestones for engagement in these occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan. Paediatric engagement was found to be influenced by personal (age, gender, child and youth perceptions, and safety considerations), and environmental (familial factors, parental perceptions, societal influences, and safety considerations) factors. Approaches to paediatric practice must account for the full spectrum of productive occupations children and youth engage in beyond the school context.

  12. Milestones of critical thinking: a developmental model for medicine and nursing.

    PubMed

    Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen

    2014-05-01

    Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.

  13. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study

    PubMed Central

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S. Bryn

    2017-01-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, males reached milestones earlier than females, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. PMID:27148762

  14. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.

  15. Charting the Road to Competence: Developmental Milestones for Internal Medicine Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael L.; Aagaard, Eva M.; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Chick, Davoren A.; Holmboe, Eric; Kane, Gregory; Smith, Cynthia D.; Iobst, William

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project requires that residency program directors objectively document that their residents achieve competence in 6 general dimensions of practice. Intervention In November 2007, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ACGME initiated the development of milestones for internal medicine residency training. ABIM and ACGME convened a 33-member milestones task force made up of program directors, experts in evaluation and quality, and representatives of internal medicine stakeholder organizations. This article reports on the development process and the resulting list of proposed milestones for each ACGME competency. Outcomes The task force adopted the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition as a framework the internal medicine milestones, and calibrated the milestones with the expectation that residents achieve, at a minimum, the “competency” level in the 5-step progression by the completion of residency. The task force also developed general recommendations for strategies to evaluate the milestones. Discussion The milestones resulting from this effort will promote competency-based resident education in internal medicine, and will allow program directors to track the progress of residents and inform decisions regarding promotion and readiness for independent practice. In addition, the milestones may guide curriculum development, suggest specific assessment strategies, provide benchmarks for resident self-directed assessment-seeking, and assist remediation by facilitating identification of specific deficits. Finally, by making explicit the profession's expectations for graduates and providing a degree of national standardization in evaluation, the milestones may improve public accountability for residency training. PMID:21975701

  16. Norms for developmental milestones using VABS-II and association with anthropometric measures among apparently healthy urban Indian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Zhu, Jianjun; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of developmental milestones based on locally developed norms is critical for accurate estimate of overall development of a child's cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional development. A cross-sectional study was done to develop age specific norms for developmental milestones using Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS-II) (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) for apparently healthy children from 2 to 5 years from urban Bangalore, India, and to examine its association with anthropometric measures. Mothers (or caregivers) of 412 children participated in the study. Age-specific norms using inferential norming method and adaptive levels for all domains and subdomains were derived. Low adaptive level, also called delayed developmental milestone, was observed in 2.3% of the children, specifically 2.7% in motor and daily living skills and 2.4% in communication skills. When these children were assessed on the existing U.S. norms, there was a significant overestimation of delayed development in socialization and motor skills, whereas delay in communication and daily living skills were underestimated (all p < .01). Multiple linear regression revealed that stunted and underweight children had significantly lower developmental scores for communication and motor skills compared with normal children (β coefficient ranges from 2.6-5.3; all p < .01). In the absence of Indian normative data for VABS-II in preschool children, the prevalence of developmental delay could either be under- or overestimated using Western norms. Thus, locally referenced norms are critical for reliable assessments of development in children. Stunted and underweight children are more likely to have poorer developmental scores compared with healthy children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... type b n Hib Pneumococcal n PCV Inactivated Poliovirus n IPV Influenza (Flu) Milestones should be achieved ... type b n Hib Pneumococcal n PCV Inactivated Poliovirus n IPV Influenza (Flu) n Influenza, first dose ...

  18. Psychosexual development and satisfaction with timing of developmental milestones among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Vicky; Keim, Madelaine C; Ferrante, Amanda C; Olshefski, Randal S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2018-04-27

    To extend the limited research on psychosexual development among childhood cancer survivors, by not only focusing on the prevalence and age of milestone attainment, but also survivors' attitudes toward the timing of reaching such milestones. Adult survivors of childhood cancer (N = 90; M age  = 29.8, SD = 5.2), recruited from a US pediatric institution, completed online surveys indicating whether they had reached 5 milestones of psychosexual development (ie, first kiss, first boy-/girlfriend, first physical intimacy, sexual debut, first time in love), age at attainment, and perceptions about the timing (ie, right time, wished it had happened earlier, wished they had waited). Almost all survivors had reached each milestone (≥90%), except for sexual debut (83.3%). Survivors reported their first kiss as the earliest milestone at age 14.6 (N = 82, 92%) and falling in love as the latest milestone at age 18.8 (N = 80; 90%). This timing did not differ by sex/cancer-specific factors. Most survivors (~60%) felt they reached each milestone at the right time. Compared with US normative data, both male and female survivors were less likely to have experienced their sexual debut and were approximately 1.5 years older at sexual debut. Nevertheless, 59% of survivors felt that this timing was right and 31% wished they had waited longer. This is the first study to demonstrate that although childhood cancer survivors may delay some aspects of psychosexual development, most are satisfied with this timing. Research and clinical practice should emphasize survivors' perceptions/satisfaction toward psychosexual development rather than focusing only on normative milestone attainment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Relationship between early motor milestones and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Alvares, Gail A; Varcin, Kandice J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the relationships between the later age of achievement of early motor milestones, current motor atypicalities (toe walking), and the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD (M age  = 8.09 years, SD = 4.28; 119 males) completed an early developmental milestones questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of Insistence on Sameness (IS) and Repetitive Mannerisms (RM). Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test whether RM and IS behaviors were predicted by early motor milestones, or current toe walking. The final model predicting RM accounted for 15% of the variance (F = 3.02, p = .009), with toe walking as a unique and independent predictor of RM scores (t = 3.568, p = .001). The final model predicting IS accounted for 19.1% of variance in IS scores (F = 4.045, p = .001), with chronological age (CA) (t = 2.92, p = .004), age when first standing (t = 2.09, p = .038), and toe walking (t = 2.53, p = .013) as unique independent predictors. Toe walking (t = 2.4, p = .018) and age when first sitting (t = 2.08, p = .04) predicted the severity of RRBs on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (F = 2.334, p = .036). Our study replicates previous findings on the relationship between concurrent motor impairments and RRBs, and provides the first evidence for the association between RRBs and age of attainment of early motor milestones. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1163-1168. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Level-2 Milestone 4797: Early Users on Max, Sequoia Visualization Cluster

    SciT

    Cupps, Kim C.

    This report documents the fact that an early user has run successfully on Max, the Sequoia visualization cluster, ASC L2 milestone 4797: Early Users on Sequoia Visualization System (Max), due December 31, 2013. The Max visualization and data analysis cluster will provide Sequoia users with compute cycles and an interactive option for data exploration and analysis. The system will be integrated in the first quarter of FY14 and the system is expected to be moved to the classified network by the second quarter of FY14. The goal of this milestone is to have early users running their visualization and datamore » analysis work on the Max cluster on the classified network.« less

  1. Preemie Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... were born early.​ How to Adjust Your Baby's Age If your baby was born early, she has 2 important days to mark on ... Development Milestones Matter: 10 to Watch for by Age 5 Motor Delays: Early Identification and Evaluation (AAP Clinical Report)​ Article Body ...

  2. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  3. Maternal prepregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the upstate KIDS study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H

    2015-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however, studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, maternal prepregnancy weight status and infants' gross motor development were examined. Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal prepregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios (HR) below one indicate a lower "risk" of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Compared to infants born to thin and normal-weight mothers (BMI < 25), infants born to mothers with obesity (BMI > 30) were slower to sit without support (HR = 0.91, P = 0.03) and crawl on hands and knees (HR = 0.86, P < 0.001), after adjusting for maternal and birth characteristics. Increased gestational age was associated with faster achievement of all milestones, but additional adjustment did not impact results. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Developmental milestones across the programmatic life cycle: implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program.

    PubMed

    Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; DeGroff, Amy; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Preissle, Judith; Boehm, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    In 2005 through 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites to implement a colorectal cancer screening program for uninsured, low-income populations. These 5 sites composed a demonstration project intended to explore the feasibility of establishing a national colorectal cancer screening program through various service delivery models. A longitudinal, multiple case study was conducted to understand and document program implementation processes. Using metaphor as a qualitative analytic technique, evaluators identified stages of maturation across the programmatic life cycle. Analysis rendered a working theory of program development during screening implementation. In early stages, program staff built relationships with CDC and local partners around screening readiness, faced real-world challenges putting program policies into practice, revised initial program designs, and developed new professional skills. Midterm implementation was defined by establishing program cohesiveness and expanding programmatic reach. In later stages of implementation, staff focused on sustainability and formal program closeout, which prompted reflection about personal and programmatic accomplishments. Demonstration sites evolved through common developmental stages during screening implementation. Findings elucidate ways to target technical assistance to more efficiently move programs along their maturation trajectory. In practical terms, the time and cost associated with guiding a program to maturity may be potentially shortened to maximize return on investment for both organizations and clients receiving service benefits. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  5. First Steps for Early Success: State Strategies to Support Developmental Screening in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Staub, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Young children's development occurs along a continuum, with milestones reached at ages that vary within an accepted timeframe. Milestones not met within the expected timeframe can raise concerns about developmental delays, health conditions, or other factors contributing negatively to the child's growth and learning. Monitoring children's…

  6. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance < 0.05) was used to compare the mean developmental ages from our study with those seen in children with TD (Comparison 1) and also in children with DS reported by four other authors (Comparison 2a-2d). Results Children with DS developed at a significantly slower pace compared to children with TD (p=0.005). Generally, delay and variance of developmental age in children with DS increased chronologically with the complexity of the skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  7. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  8. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  9. Early developmental trajectories of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Yaari, Maya; Mankuta, David; Harel-Gadassi, Ayelet; Friedlander, Edwa; Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Maniv, Nimrod; Zucker, David; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2017-11-04

    Preterm infants are at risk for neuro-developmental impairments and atypical developmental trajectories. The aims of this study were to delineate early developmental trajectories of preterm and full-term infants. The cognitive, language, and motor development of 149 infants - 19 extremely preterm (EPT), 34 very preterm (VPT), 57 moderately preterm (MPT), and 39 full-term (FT) - was evaluated using Mullen Scales at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 18 months. Mixed models were applied to examine group differences. Gender, maternal education, and neurobehavior were included as predictors of developmental trajectories. The EPT and VPT infants achieved significantly lower scores than the FT infants in all domains, with a significantly increasing gap over time. The MPT infants' trajectories were more favorable than those of the EPT and VPT infants yet lower than the FT infants on the Visual Reception, Gross, and Fine Motor subscales. Male gender and lower maternal education were associated with lower scores that declined over time. Abnormal neonatal neurobehavior was associated lower Mullen scores and with less stability in scores over time. The EPT and VPT infants were found to have disadvantages across all domains. The MPT infants revealed more favorable developmental trajectories yet displayed vulnerability compared to the FT infants. Gender, maternal education, and neonatal neurobehavior are important in predicting the developmental outcomes of preterm infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul J; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V; Benton, Arthur L

    2004-06-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical profiles and real life developmental outcomes. Based on these cases, there is preliminary evidence to support distinctive developmental differences after: (1) dorsolateral, (2) mesial, and (3) orbital-polar prefrontal lesions, for more profound impairments after bilateral damage, and possibly for recovery differences after very early vs. later childhood lesion onset. Further case and group studies are needed to confirm reliable effects of specific lesion locations, the influence of age of lesion onset, and related experiential and treatment variables in determining adult outcomes. Rather than a single underlying deficit associated with early prefrontal cortex damage, we interpret the findings to suggest that it is the altered integration and interplay of cognitive, emotional, self-regulatory, and executive/metacognitive deficits that contribute to diverse developmental frontal lobe syndromes. The findings support the fundamental importance of prefrontal cortex maturation in protracted cognitive, social-emotional, and moral development.

  11. A Mobile Early Stimulation Program to Support Children with Developmental Delays in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raquel da Luz; Silva, Kátia Cristina Correa Guimarães; Lima, Marcela Raquel de Oliveira; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2018-01-01

    Developmental delay is a deviation development from the normative milestones during the childhood and it may be caused by neurological disorders. Early stimulation is a standardized and simple technique to treat developmental delays in children (aged 0-3 years), allowing them to reach the best development possible and to mitigate neuropsychomotor sequelae. However, the outcomes of the treatment depending on the involvement of the family, to continue the activities at home on a daily basis. To empower and educate parents of children with neurodevelopmental delays to administer standardized early stimulation programs at home, we developed a mobile early stimulation program that provides timely and evidence-based clinical decision support to health professionals and a personalized guidance to parents about how to administer early stimulation to their child at home.

  12. Exposure to Alcohol Content in Movies and Initiation of Early Drinking Milestones.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  14. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting. PMID:26644858

  15. From Early to Current Developments in Online Learning at Nova Southeastern University: Reflections on Historical Milestones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.; Scigliano, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the major historical milestones achieved by Nova Southeastern University in its pioneering of graduate level online learning programs. Highlights include delivery systems; Web-based electronic classrooms; overview of the technology, including telecommunications through UNIX; evaluation and research; and technology used in the School of…

  16. Where do we go from here? Moving from systems-based practice process measures to true competency via developmental milestones.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Johanna; Phillips, Erica; Harris, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For many educators it has been challenging to meet the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's requirements for teaching systems-based practice (SBP). An additional layer of complexity for educators is evaluating competency in SBP, despite milestones and entrustable professional activities (EPAs). In order to address this challenge, the authors present the results of a literature review for how SBP is currently being taught and a series of recommendations on how to achieve competency in SBP for graduate medical trainees with the use of milestones. The literature review included 29 articles and demonstrated that only 28% of the articles taught more than one of the six core principles of SBP in a meaningful way. Only 7% of the articles received the highest grade of A. The authors summarize four guiding principles for creating a competency-based curriculum that is in alignment with the Next Accreditation System (NAS): 1) the curriculum needs to include all of the core principles in that competency, 2) the objectives of the curriculum should be driven by clinical outcomes, 3) the teaching modalities need to be interactive and clinically relevant, and 4) the evaluation process should be able to measure competency and be directly reflective of pertinent milestones and/or EPAs. This literature review and the provided guiding principles can guide other residency educators in their development of competency-based curricula that meets the standards of the NAS.

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the Upstate KIDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, we examined maternal pre-pregnancy weight status and infants’ gross motor development. Design and Methods Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios below one indicate a lower “risk” of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Results Compared to infants born to thin and normal weight mothers (BMI <25), infants born to obese mothers (BMI>30) were slower to sit without support [HR=0.91, p=0.03] and crawl on hands and knees [HR=0.86, p<0.001], after adjusting for maternal and birth characteristics. Increased gestational age was associated with faster achievement of all milestones but additional adjustment did not impact results. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. PMID:25755075

  18. CDC Kerala 5: Developmental therapy clinic experience--use of Child Development Centre grading for motor milestones.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Resmi, V R; Krishnan, Rajee; Harikumaran Nair, G S; Leena, M L; Bhaskaran, Deepa; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To document the experiences of the intervention given to children who attended the developmental therapy clinic of Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala, a specialized clinic for providing developmental intervention/therapy for babies less than two years with developmental delay/disability. All the babies referred to this speciality clinic from developmental screening/evaluation clinics of CDC were registered in the clinic and re-evaluation was done using CDC grading for head holding, sitting, standing, Amiel Tison passive angles, and Trivandrum Developmental Screening Chart (TDSC) 0-2 y. Out of a total of 600 consecutive babies below 2 y with developmental delay/disability referred to developmental therapy clinic, on comparing the test results at enrollment and after 6 mo of intervention, a statistically significant reduction was observed (i) in the 2-4 mo age group with regard to abnormal TDSC (25.5%), (ii) in the 4-8 mo age group with regard to abnormal head holding grade (87.1%) and abnormal TDSC (19.4%), (iii) in the 8-12 mo age group, with regard to abnormal sitting grade (71.7%) and (iv) in the above 12 mo age group with regard to abnormal sitting grade (35.3%) and abnormal standing grade (78.8%). The experience of organizing the developmental intervention/therapy clinic at CDC Kerala has shown that therapy services by developmental therapists in a centre and supportive therapy by mother at home is useful in improving the developmental status of children with developmental delay.

  19. Developmental Rainbow: Early Childhood Development Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; Mahoney, Frida

    One of the most important skills of professionals who work with young children is the ability to assess developmental functioning through informal observation. This skill serves as the foundation for screening or identifying children in need of developmental services, conducting play-based developmental assessments, and helping parents to…

  20. Exact milestoning

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Rivas, Juan M.; Elber, Ron

    2015-01-01

    A new theory and an exact computer algorithm for calculating kinetics and thermodynamic properties of a particle system are described. The algorithm avoids trapping in metastable states, which are typical challenges for Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on rough energy landscapes. It is based on the division of the full space into Voronoi cells. Prior knowledge or coarse sampling of space points provides the centers of the Voronoi cells. Short time trajectories are computed between the boundaries of the cells that we call milestones and are used to determine fluxes at the milestones. The flux function, an essential component of the new theory, provides a complete description of the statistical mechanics of the system at the resolution of the milestones. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the exact Milestoning approach by comparing numerical results obtained on a model system using exact Milestoning with the results of long trajectories and with a solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. The theory uses an equation that resembles the approximate Milestoning method that was introduced in 2004 [A. K. Faradjian and R. Elber, J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10880-10889 (2004)]. However, the current formulation is exact and is still significantly more efficient than straightforward MD simulations on the system studied. PMID:25747056

  1. A developmental perspective on early-life exposure to neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C; Matthews-Bellinger, Julia A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposure have not been designed, analyzed, or interpreted in the context of a fully developmental perspective. The goal of this paper is to describe the key principles of a developmental perspective and to use examples from the literature to illustrate the relevance of these principles to early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Four principles are discussed: 1) the effects of early-life neurotoxicant exposure depend on a child's developmental context; 2) deficits caused by early-life exposure initiate developmental cascades that can lead to pathologies that differ from those observed initially; 3) early-life neurotoxicant exposure has intra-familial and intergenerational impacts; 4) the impacts of early-life neurotoxicant exposure influence a child's ability to respond to future insults. The first principle is supported by considerable evidence, but the other three have received much less attention. Incorporating a developmental perspective in studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposures requires prospective collection of data on a larger array of covariates than usually considered, using analytical approaches that acknowledge the transactional processes between a child and the environment and the phenomenon of developmental cascades. Consideration of early-life neurotoxicant exposure within a developmental perspective reveals that many issues remain to be explicated if we are to achieve a deep understanding of the societal health burden associated with early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zinchuk, Andrii; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian; Dürr, Dorte Wive; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children's motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status of smoking exposure in comparison with self-report. To investigate whether prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, is associated with maternal interview based assessment of motor development in infancy (age at crawling, standing-up and walking) and motor skills at young school age (assessed by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07)). In 2002-2004, 1,253 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine were included in the INUENDO birth cohort. The participating women filled in questionnaires and 1,177 provided blood samples, which were analyzed for serum cotinine. Smokers were defined as women with a serum cotinine concentration >10ng/ml. At follow-up when the offspring were 6-9 years of age 1,026 of the parents from the cohort participated. They completed an interview-based questionnaire including questions about age at motor milestones of their children. In addition, child motor development was assessed using the questionnaire "DCDQ'07". Linear regression analyzes were performed and adjusted for covariates; age of the mother and child, parity, sex, maternal educational level, maternal pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and duration of breastfeeding. Data were stratified by country. No statistically significant difference in age at motor milestones was found comparing children of smokers with children of non-smokers. Also, there was no statistically significant difference in motor score (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire Score, DCDQ-score) among five to seven-year-old children. However, in Greenland children of smokers had a lower DCDQ-score than children of non-smokers at eight to nine years (-2.2 DCDQ points, 95% CI: -4

  3. Teaching Preschoolers to Count: Effective Strategies for Achieving Early Mathematics Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Brown, E. Todd; Molfese, Victoria J.; Do, Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Attention to early childhood mathematics instructional strategies has sharpened due to the relatively poor mathematics performance of U.S. students in comparison to students from other countries and research evidence that early mathematics skills impact later achievement. Early Childhood counting skills form the foundation for subsequent…

  4. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    SciT

    Bertsch, A. D.

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Early Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maatta, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills and their connections to later parent-reported language difficulties. Method: The participants represent a subset of a community-based sample of 508 children. Data include parent reports of prelinguistic communication skills at 12, 15, 18, and 21 months…

  6. Research on Children's Play: Analysis of Developmental and Early Education Journals from 2005 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Mei-Fang; Johnson, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Our review examined four early childhood journals ("Early Child Development and Care," "Early Childhood Education Journal," "Journal of Research in Childhood Education," and "Early Childhood Research Quarterly") and four developmental science journals ("Child Development," "Developmental Psychology," "Journal of Applied Developmental…

  7. Does early paternal involvement predict offspring developmental diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-12-01

    A long line of research has illustrated that fathers play an important role in the development of their children. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of paternal involvement at the earliest stages of life on developmental diagnoses in childhood. The present study extends this line of research by exploring the possibility that paternal involvement prenatally, postnatally, and at the time of birth may influence offspring risk for various diagnoses in childhood. A quasi-experimental, propensity score matching design was used to create treatment and control groups to assess the relationship between paternal involvement at each stage of development and developmental diagnoses. Approximately 6000 children, and a subsample of fathers, who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Activity, attention and learning, speech or language, and other diagnoses in early childhood, and overall number of diagnoses at 4years of age. We find no consistent evidence that low paternal involvement prenatally or postnatally increases the risk of various developmental diagnoses by age 4. However, children whose fathers were absent at the time of their birth were at significantly greater risk of incurring various developmental diagnoses, as well as a significantly greater number of developmental diagnoses. The findings expand our understanding of exactly how early paternal influence begins and the specific dimensions of early father behaviors that are related to the risk of various developmental diagnoses. Ultimately, these results have important implications concerning father involvement during the earliest stages of the life course. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Developmental Changes in the Early Child Lexicon in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Meiling; Liu, Youyi; Shu, Hua; Xing, Ailing; Jiang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of…

  9. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  10. The study on achievement of motor milestones and associated factors among children in rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arti; Kalaivani, Mani; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Sanjay K.; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nearly 14% of children worldwide do not reach their developmental potential in early childhood. The early identification of delays in achieving milestones is critical. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed normal age ranges for the achievement of motor milestones by healthy children. This study aimed to assess the gross motor developmental achievements and associated factors among children in rural India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with rural children in North India. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. The median age at the time of the highest observed milestone was calculated and compared with the WHO windows of achievement. Results: Overall, 221 children aged 4–18 months were included in the study. The median age of motor development exhibited a 0.1–2.1-month delay compared to the WHO median age of motor milestone achievement. The prevalence of the gross motor milestone achievements for each of the six milestones ranged from 91.6% to 98.4%. Developmental delay was observed in 6.3% of the children. After adjusting for different variables, children with birth order of second or more were found to be significantly associated with the timely achievement of gross motor milestones. Conclusion: The apparently healthy children of the rural area of Haryana achieved gross motor milestones with some delay with respect to the WHO windows of achievement. Although the median value of this delay was low, awareness campaigns should be implemented to promote timely identification of children with development delays. PMID:27843845

  11. Diversity & Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Challenges for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Bruce L., Ed.; New, Rebecca S., Ed.

    The current conceptualization of what is appropriate in early childhood education is overly narrow in its interpretation of the role of the teacher, and with respect to variations in cultural and developmental diversity. Based on this observation, this book discusses various issues surrounding diversity, inclusion, and appropriate early…

  12. Developmental Planning: An Introduction for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Jim

    2009-01-01

    "Developmental Planning" is the thinking process of using developmental milestones as a general basis for planning and predicting needs for the child within the early years. It considers the time frames associated with normal development across all facets of the child's development. The areas include bone and joint development, movement, sensory…

  13. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  14. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can do at home to stimulate your child’s development. They might also recommend group or individual therapy ... other gestures, such as eye blinking or mouth movements. Your baby’s hearing and communicative development checklist Birth to 3 Months Reacts to loud ...

  15. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2 naps during the day SENSORY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The typical 12-month-old: Begins pretend play ( ... Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Development Read more Toddler Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  16. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... The typical 18-month-old: Shows affection Has separation anxiety Listens to a story or looks at pictures Can say 10 or more words when asked Kisses parents with lips puckered Identifies one or more parts ...

  18. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... as helping set the table or picking up toys. Encourage play with other children to help develop ... the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Toddler Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  19. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... little differently. If you are concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Child Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeds self with fingers Throws or shakes objects SENSORY AND COGNITIVE SKILLS The 9-month-old typically: Babbles Has separation anxiety and may cling to parents Is developing depth perception Understands that objects continue to exist, even when ...

  1. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strongly identifies with the parent of the same sex Has a group of friends Likes to imagine and pretend while playing (for example, pretends to take a trip to the moon) Ways to encourage a 5-year-old's development include: Reading together Providing enough space for ...

  2. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  3. [Developmental amnesia and early brain damage: neuropsychology and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Dominguez, P D; Vaquero, M; Narbona, J

    2018-03-01

    To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9). All participants in every groups did have normal general intelligence and attention. Both clinical groups had, as another clinical consequence, spastic cerebral palsy (diplegia). Neuropsychological exam consisted on tests of general intelligence, attentional abilities, declarative memory and semantic knowledge. All participants had a brain magnetic resonance image and spectroscopy of hippocampi. Scheltens criteria were used for visual estimation of hippocampal atrophy. Parametric and non-parametric statistical contrasts were made. Despite preservation of semantic and procedural learning, declarative-episodic memory is impaired in the first group versus the other two groups. A significant proportion of bilateral hippocampal atrophy is only present in the first group versus the other two non-amnesic groups using Scheltens estimation on MRI. Two cases without evident atrophy did have diminished NAA/(Cho + Cr) index in both hippocampi. Taken together, these results contribute to delineate developmental amnesia as an specific impairment due to early partial bihippocampal damage, in agreement with previous studies. After diagnosis of developmental amnesia, a specific psychoeducational intervention must be made; also this impairment could be candidate for pharmacological trials in the future.

  4. Are infants with torticollis at risk of a delay in early motor milestones compared with a control group of healthy infants?

    PubMed

    Ohman, Anna; Nilsson, Staffan; Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Beckung, Eva

    2009-07-01

    Recently it has been claimed that infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) are at risk of a delay in early motor milestones. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether infants with CMT are indeed at risk in comparison with a control group of healthy infants. A second aim was to investigate whether the time spent in a prone position and plagiocephaly had any influence on motor development. Eighty-two infants with CMT (35 females and 47 males) were compared with 40 healthy infants (18 females and 22 males). Motor development was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS). Multiple regression showed that infants in the CMT group had a significantly lower AIMS score than the control group at 2 months (p=0.03) and 6 months of age (p=0.05). Infants who spent at least three occasions daily in a prone position when awake had significantly higher AIMS scores than infants who spent less time prone at 2 months (p=0.001), 6 months (p<0.001), and 10 months of age (p<0.001). The CMT group achieved early motor milestones significantly later than the control group until the age of 10 months, but the risk of delay seems to be more strongly associated with little or no time prone when awake than with CMT.

  5. Developmental patterns of spatial ability: an early sex difference.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E S; Meade, A C

    1987-06-01

    Over 1,800 public school students (grades K-12, ages 6-18) took a battery of 7 spatial tests tailored to their respective developmental levels. Analyses of resulting data indicate that it is feasible to measure spatial ability throughout this developmental range with modified versions of adult paper-and-pencil tests, that a male advantage in spatial performance appears reliably by age 10, and that the magnitude of the advantage remains constant through age 18. Analysis of covariance suggests that an early female precocity in language skills may mask a male advantage in spatial ability during the primary school years. There is no indication of a sex difference in kindergarten children.

  6. Milestoning with coarse memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Alexander T.

    2013-04-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal—which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction—are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible.

  7. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  8. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from age 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from age 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample. PMID:19765007

  9. Trajectories of physical discipline: early childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated distinct physical discipline trajectory groups that varied in frequency of physical discipline and rate of change. In both samples, family ecological disadvantage differentiated the trajectory groups; in the first sample, early child externalizing also differentiated the groups. Controlling for early childhood externalizing, the minimal/ceasing trajectory groups were associated with the lowest levels of subsequent adolescent antisocial behavior in both samples and with parent-adolescent positive relationship quality in the second sample.

  10. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  11. Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in early childhood: implications for developmental psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods Parent-reported patterns of temper loss were delineated in a diverse community sample of preschoolers (n = 1,490). A developmentally sensitive questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), was used to assess temper loss in terms of tantrum features and anger regulation. Specific aims were: (a) document the normative distribution of temper loss in preschoolers from normative misbehaviors to clinically concerning temper loss behaviors, and test for sociodemographic differences; (b) use Item Response Theory (IRT) to model a Temper Loss dimension; and (c) examine associations of temper loss and concurrent emotional and behavioral problems. Results Across sociodemographic subgroups, a unidimensional Temper Loss model fit the data well. Nearly all (83.7%) preschoolers had tantrums sometimes but only 8.6% had daily tantrums. Normative misbehaviors occurred more frequently than clinically concerning temper loss behaviors. Milder behaviors tended to reflect frustration in expectable contexts, whereas clinically concerning problem indicators were unpredictable, prolonged, and/or destructive. In multivariate models, Temper Loss was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Parent reports on a developmentally informed questionnaire, administered to a large and diverse sample, distinguished normative and problematic manifestations of preschool temper loss. A developmental, dimensional approach shows promise for elucidating the boundaries between normative early childhood temper loss and emergent psychopathology. PMID:22928674

  12. [The Battelle developmental inventory screening test for early detection of developmental disorders in cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Moraleda-Barreno, E; Romero-López, M; Cayetano-Menéndez, M J

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is usually associated with motor, cognitive, and language deficits, and with other disorders that cause disability in daily living skills, personal independence, social interaction and academic activities. Early detection of these deficits in the clinical setting is essential to anticipate and provide the child with the necessary support for adapting to the environment in all possible areas. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that these deficits can be detected at an early age and comprehensively through the use of a brief development scale. We studied 100 children between 4 and 70 months old, half of them with cerebral palsy and the other half without any disorder. All subjects were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory screening test. We compared the developmental quotients in both groups and between the subjects with different motor impairments, using a simple prospective ex post facto design. The test detected statistically significant differences between the clinical group and the control group at all age levels. Statistically significant differences were also found between tetraplegia and other motor disorders. There were no differences by gender. The deficit in development associated with cerebral palsy can be quantified at early ages through the use of a brief development scale, thus we propose that the systematic implementation of protocols with this screening tool would be helpful for treatment and early intervention. This would also help in anticipating and establishing the means for the multidisciplinary actions required, and could provide guidance to other health professionals, to provide adequate school, social, and family support,. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  14. Precursors of Adolescent Substance Use from Early Childhood and Early Adolescence: Testing a Developmental Cascade Model

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined developmentally-salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting, maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24029248

  15. Punishment insensitivity in early childhood: A developmental, dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara R.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal:abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAPDB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (three-five years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N=1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50% of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed. PMID:25425187

  16. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  17. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Onset, Developmental Course and Risk Factors during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…

  18. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifah, Yotsawee

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

  19. Developmental Changes in Ultradian Sleep Cycles across Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Lopp, Sean; Navidi, William; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique; Diniz Behn, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce. To address this gap, we examined ultradian cycling during nocturnal sleep following 13 h of prior wakefulness in 8 healthy children at 3 longitudinal points: 2Y (2.5-3.0 years of age), 3Y (3.5-4.0 years of age), and 5Y (5.5-6.0 years of age). We found that the length of ultradian cycles increased with age as a result of increased NREM sleep episode duration. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the number of NREM sleep episodes as well as a nonsignificant trend for a decrease in the number of cycles with increasing age. Together, these findings suggest a concurrent change in which cycle duration increases and the number of cycles decreases across development. We also found that, consistent with data from adolescents and adults, the duration of NREM sleep episodes decreased with time since lights-off whereas the duration of REM sleep episodes increased over this time period. These results indicate the presence of circadian modulation of nocturnal sleep in preschool children. In addition to characterizing changes in ultradian cycling in healthy children ages 2 to 5 years, this work describes a developmental model that may provide insights into the emergence of normal adult REM sleep regulatory circuitry as well as potential trajectories of dysregulated ultradian cycles such as those associated with affective disorders.

  20. Developmental amnesia associated with early hypoxic-ischaemic injury.

    PubMed

    Gadian, D G; Aicardi, J; Watkins, K E; Porter, D A; Mishkin, M; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2000-03-01

    We recently reported on three young patients with severe impairments of episodic memory resulting from brain injury sustained early in life. These findings have led us to hypothesize that such impairments might be a previously unrecognized consequence of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Neuropsychological and quantitative magnetic resonance investigations were carried out on five young patients, all of whom had suffered hypoxic-ischaemic episodes at or shortly after birth. All five patients showed severe impairments of episodic memory (memory for events), with relative preservation of semantic memory (memory for facts). However, none had any of the major neurological deficits that are typically associated with hypoxic-ischaemic injury, and all attended mainstream schools. Quantitative magnetic resonance investigations revealed severe bilateral hippocampal atrophy in all cases. As a group, the patients also showed bilateral reductions in grey matter in the regions of the putamen and the ventral part of the thalamus. On the basis of their clinical histories and the pattern of magnetic resonance findings, we attribute the patients' pathology and associated memory impairments primarily to hypoxic-ischaemic episodes sustained very early in life. We suggest that the degree of hypoxia-ischaemia was sufficient to produce selective damage to particularly vulnerable regions of the brain, notably the hippocampi, but was not sufficient to result in the more severe neurological and cognitive deficits that can follow hypoxic-ischaemic injury. The impairments in episodic memory may be difficult to recognize, particularly in early childhood, but this developmental amnesia can have debilitating consequences, both at home and at school, and may preclude independent life in adulthood.

  1. Longitudinal Comparison of Early Speech and Language Milestones in Children with Cleft Palate: A Comparison of US and Slovak Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children…

  2. Children’s early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Stuart I.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children’s early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget’s “Moral Judgment of the Child” (Piaget, 1932/1997), “Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood” (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the “Grasp of Consciousness” (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping. PMID:25101027

  3. Children's early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Stuart I

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children's early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget's "Moral Judgment of the Child" (Piaget, 1932/1997), "Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood" (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the "Grasp of Consciousness" (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping.

  4. Another View on "Reinforcement in Developmentally Appropriate Early Childhood Classrooms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasts the use of behavioral and developmental theories to address a child's aggression. Presents concerns about the use of social reinforcers, activity reinforcers, and tangible reinforcers. Asserts that behavioral techniques that shape children's surface behaviors without placing the behaviors within a developmental context may interfere with…

  5. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education in Turkey within the Scope of the Developmental System Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…

  6. Milestones in Rotorcraft Aeromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is milestones in rotorcraft aeromechanics. Aeromechanics covers much of what the engineer needs: performance, loads, vibration, stability, flight dynamics, noise. These topics cover many of the key performance attributes, and many of the often-encountered problems in rotorcraft designs. A milestone is a critical achievement, a turning point, an event marking a significant change or stage in development. The milestones identified and discussed include the beginnings of aeromechanics with autogyro analysis, ground resonance, aeromechanics books, unsteady aerodynamics and airloads, nonuniform inflow and wakes, beams and dynamics, comprehensive analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and rotor airloads tests. The focus on milestones limits the scope of the history, but allows the author to acknowledge his choices for key steps in the development of the science and engineering of rotorcraft.

  7. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  8. Fine motor and self-care milestones for individuals with Down syndrome using a Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Frank, K; Esbensen, A J

    2015-08-01

    Developmental milestone markers for fine motor and self-care skills among children with Down syndrome (DS) are either minimal, anecdotal or out-of date. Our goal was to produce normative expectations for the development of fine motor and self-care milestones specific to children with DS. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was completed on 274 children with DS seen at a specialty clinic that ranged in age from 4 months to 18 years. Specific skills were assessed at occupational therapy assessments as either present or absent, including fine motor, handwriting, scissor usage, self-feeding and clothing management. Fine motor milestones describing when 10-30% ('early achievers') and 75-95% ('representative achievement') of children with DS had mastered each skill were developed based upon descriptive review. As the fine motor and self-care skills advanced in complexity, the range of ages for documented skill acquisition was observed to increase. Age ranges for the mastery of fine motor developmental milestones for early and representative achievement were developed based upon descriptive analysis of cross-sectional retrospective clinical chart reviews. That the age range for mastering fine motor and self-care skills broadens as children with DS get older is in agreement with what is identified in the DS behavioural phenotype with regard to variable motor skills overall. These fine motor and self-care developmental milestone markers contribute to the field by informing parents, caregivers and healthcare providers of potential fine motor and self-care outcomes and describing normative development for children with DS. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Priorities for Developmental Areas in Early Childhood Education: A Comparison of Parents' and Teachers' Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parents' and early childhood teachers' perceptions of the priorities for developmental areas targeted in the Turkish Early Childhood Education Curriculum for children aged 36-72 months. The sample of this study consisted of 1600 parents and 158 early childhood teachers. The study utilized a survey research…

  10. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  11. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Multidisciplinary Developmental Evaluation Improves Early Diagnosis of Infantile Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, B.; And Others

    A life-course perspective of the diagnostic histories of 75 autistic individuals (ages 4-25) was obtained through the use of parent surveys and a review of their charts. The study was made to understand better how children who presented with uneven or unusual behavioral development are identified as developmentally multihandicapped. Areas examined…

  13. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  14. Trajectories of Physical Discipline: Early Childhood Antecedents and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Criss, Michael M.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes associated with trajectories of mild and harsh parental physical discipline. Interview, questionnaire, and observational data were available from 499 children followed from ages 5 to 16 and from 258 children in an independent sample followed from ages 5 to 15. Analyses indicated…

  15. Internal Medicine Residents' Perspectives on Receiving Feedback in Milestone Format

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Steven; Moriarty, John; Nardino, Robert J.; Chmielewski, Amy; Rosenblum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to historical feedback, which was vague or provided residents' numerical scores without clear meaning, milestone-based feedback is focused on specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors that define developmental trajectory. It was anticipated that residents would welcome the more specific and actionable feedback provided by the milestone framework, but this has not been studied. Objective We assessed internal medicine (IM) residents' perceptions of receiving feedback in the milestone framework, particularly assessing perception of the utility of milestone-based feedback compared to non–milestone-based feedback. Methods We surveyed a total of 510 IM residents from 7 institutions. Survey questions assessed resident perception of milestone feedback in identifying strengths, weaknesses, and trajectory of professional development. Postgraduate years 2 and 3 (PGY-2 and PGY-3) residents were asked to compare milestones with prior methods of feedback. Results Of 510 residents, 356 (69.8%) responded. Slightly less than half of the residents found milestone-based feedback “extremely useful” or “very useful” in identifying strengths (44%), weaknesses (43%), specific areas for improvement (45%), and appropriate education progress (48%). Few residents found such feedback “not very useful” or “not at all useful” in these domains. A total of 51% of PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents agreed that receiving milestone-based feedback was more helpful than previous forms of feedback. Conclusions IM residents are aware of the concepts of milestones, and half of the residents surveyed found milestone feedback more helpful than previous forms of feedback. More work needs to be done to understand how milestone-based feedback could be delivered more effectively to enhance resident development. PMID:26221438

  16. Early Identification of Developmental Delays through Surveillance, Screening, and Diagnostic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Erickson, Stephanie; Johnston, Mark; Bass, Tamicah; Lucinski, Loraine; Bleuel, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Developmental and behavioral problems in young children are prevalent in the United States. While young children experience an increased prevalence of such problems, a lack of early identification services continues to exist. Not only are early identification services required under American law, such as the Individual with Disabilities Education…

  17. The Role of Maternal Depression in Accessing Early Intervention Services for Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Siobhan Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any special…

  18. On the assumptions underlying milestoning.

    PubMed

    Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Venturoli, Maddalena; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Elber, Ron

    2008-11-07

    Milestoning is a procedure to compute the time evolution of complicated processes such as barrier crossing events or long diffusive transitions between predefined states. Milestoning reduces the dynamics to transition events between intermediates (the milestones) and computes the local kinetic information to describe these transitions via short molecular dynamics (MD) runs between the milestones. The procedure relies on the ability to reinitialize MD trajectories on the milestones to get the right kinetic information about the transitions. It also rests on the assumptions that the transition events between successive milestones and the time lags between these transitions are statistically independent. In this paper, we analyze the validity of these assumptions. We show that sets of optimal milestones exist, i.e., sets such that successive transitions are indeed statistically independent. The proof of this claim relies on the results of transition path theory and uses the isocommittor surfaces of the reaction as milestones. For systems in the overdamped limit, we also obtain the probability distribution to reinitialize the MD trajectories on the milestones, and we discuss why this distribution is not available in closed form for systems with inertia. We explain why the time lags between transitions are not statistically independent even for optimal milestones, but we show that working with such milestones allows one to compute mean first passage times between milestones exactly. Finally, we discuss some practical implications of our results and we compare milestoning with Markov state models in view of our findings.

  19. Autism in Early Childhood: An Unusual Developmental Course—Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Ophir, Michal; Castel-Deutsh, Tsophia; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is typically characterized by either an emerging and gradual course or developmental regression in early childhood. The versatile clinical course is progressively acknowledged in recent years. Children with developmental disorders in general are referred to the Child Development Center for a multidisciplinary assessment, investigation, treatment and followup. We report three infants with an initial diagnosis of developmental delays, recovery of normal development following intervention in a multidisciplinary center, and subsequent regression into classic autism following their discharge from the program. An extensive medical workup was noncontributory. This unusual presentation, to our knowledge not reported previously, should be recognized by professionals involved in child development and psychiatry. PMID:22937419

  20. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. The developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic: cognitive and behavioral consequences of early life exposure.

    PubMed

    Tolins, Molly; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Landrigan, Philip

    2014-01-01

    More than 200 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, and its carcinogenic and systemic toxicity have been extensively studied. By contrast, the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic has been less well described. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive review of the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. We reviewed the published epidemiological and toxicological literature on the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Arsenic is able to gain access to the developing brain and cause neurotoxic effects. Animal models link prenatal and early postnatal exposure to reduction in brain weight, reductions in numbers of glia and neurons, and alterations in neurotransmitter systems. Animal and in vitro studies both suggest that oxidative stress may be a mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. Fifteen epidemiological studies indicate that early life exposure is associated with deficits in intelligence and memory. These effects may occur at levels of exposure below current safety guidelines, and some neurocognitive consequences may become manifest only later in life. Sex, concomitant exposures, and timing of exposure appear to modify the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Four epidemiological studies failed to show behavioral outcomes of arsenic exposure. The published literature indicates that arsenic is a human developmental neurotoxicant. Ongoing and future prospective birth cohort studies will allow more precise definition of the developmental consequences of arsenic exposure in early life. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  3. Petition for an Additional Vision Developmental Milestone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Frari, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This petition is about two of the traditional three R's - reading, writing, and arithmetic; it concerns learning letter formation and learning to read, both of which require continuous interplay between the different perceptual attunements of central and paracentral areas of the retina. This interplay, managing the field of view between zooming-in…

  4. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes of High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Infants and Children Enrolled in a State Early Childhood Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify child, maternal, family, and community factors associated with rate of developmental disability among children enrolled in the California Early Start Program. The cohort included 8,987 children considered at high risk for developmental disability due to medical risks and/or developmental…

  5. Mother-Child Interaction and Resilience in Children with Early Developmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal and genetic factors make strong contributions to the emergence of intellectual disability (ID), children's early environment may have the potential to alter developmental trajectories and to foster resilience in children with early risk. The present study examined mother-child interaction and the promotion of competence in 50 children with early developmental delays. Three related but distinct aspects of mother-child interaction were considered: maternal technical scaffolding, maternal positive-sensitivity, and mother-child dyadic pleasure. Children were classified as exhibiting undifferentiated delays at age three based upon performance on developmental assessments and the absence of known genetic syndromes. Mother-child interaction was assessed at age four through observational ratings of structured laboratory tasks and through naturalistic home observations. ID was identified at age five using the dual criteria of clinically significant delays in cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID, beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother-child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular sub-domains. Implications for theories of intellectual disability and for family-based early intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22662771

  6. Defining the Developmental Parameters of Temper Loss in Early Childhood: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Choi, Seung W.; Carter, Alice S.; Hullsiek, Heide; Burns, James; McCarthy, Kimberly; Leibenluft, Ellen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds. Methods:…

  7. Linking Developmental Working Memory and Early Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Janice E.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-based initiatives and school readiness mandates in education have prompted researchers to examine the biological mechanisms associated with learning in the hope that understanding empirical evidence can maximize learning potential. Current research has examined working memory skills in relationship to early learning. The function of working…

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  9. Developmental Needs and Early Childhood Education: Evolutionary, My Dear Watson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Examining the processes of natural selection, described by Darwin in "The Origin of Species", casts light on our own species' fundamental needs and on the far greater role that early childhood educators can play in their fulfillment. The second section of this paper analyzes how our fundamental needs emerge in a sequence underpinned by the…

  10. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  11. Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

  12. Latent Class Analysis of Early Developmental Trajectory in Baby Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Gross, Alden L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Methods: Sibs-A (N = 204) were assessed…

  13. Interdisciplinary Early Intervention for Developmentally Delayed Infants and Young Children: A Family-Oriented Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Fay F.; And Others

    Intended to help developers of early intervention programs for children with developmental disabilities, the book provides philosophy, methods, and procedures based on experiences of the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences. The first section presents a program description including information on…

  14. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  15. Vicissitudes of Children's Mathematical Knowledge: Implications of Developmental Research for Early Childhood Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophian, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…

  16. Similar Developmental Trajectories in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: From Early Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Method: Sixty-four…

  17. Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) in Botswana: In-Service Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Kabita

    2009-01-01

    Developmentally Appropriate Technology in Early Childhood (DATEC) aims to identify the most appropriate applications of Information and Communication Technology to support the development of children under eight years of age. Botswana has a unique spread of population density and deep-rooted socio-cultural values. There is a need to address the…

  18. Infancy to Early Childhood: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emde, Robert N., Ed.; Hewitt, John K., Ed.

    This book analyzes the MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study, a collaborative study by leading developmental scientists and behavioral geneticists on the transition from infancy to early childhood. Part 1 of the book describes the twin method and procedures used and introduces the analytic strategies. Parts 2 through 4 present results related to…

  19. Developmentally Appropriate Technology Practice: Exploring Myths and Perceptions of Early Childhood and Instructional Technology Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Sally; Winsor, Denise; Burkett, Candice; Allen, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of technology in early childhood classrooms has become a controversial issue among professionals in this field. One issue which may influence technology in these classrooms may be perceptions of what is developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). This article explores perceptions about technology and age appropriate recommendations…

  20. Context Matters: The Interrelatedness of Early Literacy Skills, Developmental Health, and Community Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Hertzman, Clyde; Siegel, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas the great majority of literacy research has been focused at the child level, this study examined the relationship between early literacy rates, developmental health of the population, and demographics in 23 school communities. The results showed that school-level literacy scores were related to the physical, social, and emotional maturity…

  1. Caregiver Descriptions of the Developmental Skills of Infants and Toddlers Entering Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Spiker, Donna

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to describe the developmental skills of a national sample of infants and toddlers at entry into early intervention services. Caregivers were asked about their child's skills during a telephone interview. Summary values were derived from descriptions of motor, communication, independence, and cognitive skills. More…

  2. Moving beyond Screen Time: Redefining Developmentally Appropriate Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about what constitutes "developmentally appropriate" use of technology in early childhood education have, to date, focused largely on a single, blunt measure--screen time--that fails to capture important nuances, such as what type of media a child is accessing and whether technology use is taking place solo or with peers.…

  3. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant…

  4. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  5. Early Developmental Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from an International Multiplex Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Jeremy R.; Le Couteur, Ann; Baird, Gillian; Rutter, Michael; Pickles, Andrew; Fombonne, Eric; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of early developmental regression (EDR) were investigated in individuals with ASD from affected relative pairs recruited to the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC). Four hundred and fifty-eight individuals with ASD were recruited from 226 IMGSAC families. Regression before age 36 months occurred…

  6. Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 - 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and…

  7. Correlations between Developmental Kindergarten Screenings and Early Reading Indicators One Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan-Mainard, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the U.S. are mandated to identify young children with disabilities. Developmental screeners are typically used to screen for such skill deficits. Academic tests are used in older students. A significant challenge is identifying children with potential learning disabilities early in their school career. This study identifies a…

  8. Small Steps: An Early Intervention Program for Children with Developmental Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira; And Others

    This boxed set includes eight booklets of home activities for early intervention for young children with developmental delays. The first book provides an introduction to the program and its implementation, lists 23 resources, describes a videotape which supplements the booklets, and includes a glossary. Book 2 covers how to select goals for the…

  9. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 10 CFR 603.570 - Determining milestone payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pre-Award Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.570 Determining... share for early milestones if a project involves a start-up company with limited resources. (c) For an...

  11. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  12. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  13. Fertilisation and early developmental barriers to hybridisation in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Frances; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2013-02-15

    Post-mating interactions between the reproductive traits and gametes of mating individuals and among their genes within zygotes are invariably complex, providing multiple opportunities for reproduction to go awry. These interactions have the potential to act as barriers to gene flow between species, and may be important in the process of speciation. There are multiple post-mating barriers to interbreeding between the hybridising field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris. Female G. bimaculatus preferentially store sperm from conspecific males when mated to both conspecific and heterospecific partners. Additionally, conspecific males sire an even greater proportion of offspring than would be predicted from their sperm's representation in the spermatheca. The nature of these post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation are unknown. We use a fluorescent staining technique to determine whether barriers occur prior to, or during embryo development. We show that eggs laid by G. bimaculatus females mated to G. campestris males are less likely to begin embryogenesis than eggs from conspecific mating pairs. Of the eggs that are successfully fertilised and start to develop, those from heterospecific mating pairs are more likely to arrest early, prior to blastoderm formation. We find evidence for bimodal variation among egg clutches in the number of developing embryos that subsequently arrest, indicating that there is genetic variation for incompatibility between mating individuals. In contrast to the pattern of early embryonic mortality, those hybrids reaching advanced stages of embryogenesis have survival rates equal to that of embryos from conspecific mating pairs. Post-sperm-storage barriers to hybridisation show evidence of genetic polymorphism. They are sufficiently large, that if the species interbreed where they are sympatric, these barriers could play a role in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between them. The number of eggs that fail to develop

  14. Early developmental characteristics and features of major depressive disorder among child psychiatric patients in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kapornai, Krisztina; Gentzler, Amy L; Tepper, Ping; Kiss, Eniko; Mayer, László; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Maria; Vetró, Agnes

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the relations of early atypical characteristics (perinatal problems, developmental delay, and difficult temperament) and onset-age (as well as severity of) first major depressive disorder (MDD) and first internalizing disorder in a clinical sample of depressed children in Hungary. Participants were 371 children (ages 7-14) with MDD, and their biological mothers, recruited through multiple clinical sites. Diagnoses (via DSM-IV criteria) and onset dates of disorders were finalized "best estimate" psychiatrists, and based on multiple information sources. Mothers provided developmental data in a structured interview. Difficult temperament predicted earlier onset of MDD and first internalizing disorder, but its effect was ameliorated if the family was intact during early childhood. Further, the importance of difficult temperament decreased as a function of time. Perinatal problems and developmental delay did not impact onset ages of disorders, and none of the early childhood characteristics associated with MDD episode severity. Children with MDD may have added disadvantage of earlier onset if they had a difficult temperament in infancy. Because early temperament mirrors physiological reactivity and regulatory capacity, it can affect various areas of functioning related to psychopathology. Early caregiver stability may attenuate some adverse effects of difficult infant temperament.

  15. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  16. Developmental commentary: individual and contextual influences on student-teacher relationships and children's early problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sonya S; Pianta, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    Understanding factors associated with children's early behavioral difficulties is of vital importance to children's school success, and to the prevention of future behavior problems. Although biological factors can influence the expression of certain behaviors, the probability of children exhibiting classroom behavior problems is intensified when they are exposed to multiple risk factors, particularly negative student-teacher interactions. Children who exhibit behavior problems during early childhood and the transition to kindergarten, without intervention, can be placed on a developmental trajectory for serious behavior problems in later grades. Using a developmental systems model, this commentary provides a conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of individual and contextual factors to the development of early student-teacher relationships. Parent, teacher, and student characteristics are discussed as they are related to shaping student-teacher interactions and children's adjustment to school.

  17. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hydrocortisone (2× 10 mg/kg), betamethasone (2× 0.4 mg/kg) or vehicle. On postnatal day (P)15, seizures were induced by flurothyl or kainic acid (3.5 or 5.0 mg/kg). Horizontal bar holding was determined prior to seizures and again on P17. Performance in the elevated plus maze was assessed on P20-22. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreased postnatal susceptibility to flurothyl-induced clonic seizures but not to kainic acid-induced seizures. Prenatal hydrocortisone decreased postnatal weight but did not affect seizure susceptibility. Hydrocortisone alone did not affect performance in behavioral tests except for improving horizontal bar holding on P17. A combination of prenatal hydrocortisone and postnatal seizures resulted in increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to mineralocorticoid receptor blocker canrenoic acid did not attenuate, but surprisingly amplified the effects of hydrocortisone on body weight and significantly worsened horizontal bar performance. Thus, prenatal exposure to excess corticosteroids alters postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. Specific effects may depend on corticosteroid species. PMID:21429712

  19. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEROTONIN SIGNALING: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BRAIN FUNCTION, BEHAVIOR AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    BRUMMELTE, S.; GLANAGHY, E. MC; BONNIN, A.; OBERLANDER, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity and risk of psychiatric disorders, and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health across the life span. Drawing on preclinical and emerging human evidence this narrative review paper will examine three key aspects when considering the consequences of early life changes in 5-HT: (1) developmental origins of variations of 5-HT signaling; (2) influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; and (3) preclinical and clinical consequences of 5-HT-related changes associated with antidepressant exposure (SSRIs). The developmental consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling varies greatly and outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations) and environmental factors, both pre and postnatally. Emerging evidence suggests that variations in 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to risky home environments, but may also amplify a positive response to a nurturing environment. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may act as ‘plasticity’ rather than ‘risk’ factors associated with developmental vulnerability. Understanding the impact of early changes in 5-HT levels offers critical insights that might explain the variations in early typical brain development that underlies behavioral risk. PMID:26905950

  1. Milestones in welding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolby, Richard E.

    2013-09-01

    Sir Alan's PhD thesis describes his research into cracking during arc welding of armour steels. Throughout his career, he had a strong interest in defects of all types, how they formed in metallic structures and how the larger ones could be detected and sized by non-destructive techniques. He was also vitally concerned with how defects impacted on the engineering integrity of welded structures, particularly the risk of fracture in nuclear plant. This study presents a view of some of the major milestones in global welding technology that took place over the 60 or more years of Sir Alan's career and highlights those where he had a personal and direct involvement.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, M K; Shyama, S K; Kashif, Shamim; Dubey, S K; Avelyno, D'costa; Sonaye, B H; Kadam Samit, B; Chaubey, R C

    2017-08-01

    The zebrafish is gaining importance as a popular vertebrate model organism and is widely employed in ecotoxicological studies, especially for the biomonitoring of pollution in water bodies. There is limited data on the genetic mechanisms governing the adverse health effects in regards to an early developmental exposure to gamma radiation. In the present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10Gy of gamma radiation at 3h post fertilization (hpf). Different developmental toxicity endpoints were investigated. Further, expression of genes associated with the development and DNA damage i.e. (sox2 sox19a and p53) were evaluated using Quantitative PCR (qPCR). The significant changes in the expression of sox2 sox19a and p53 genes were observed. This data was supported the developmental defects observed in the zebrafish embryo exposed to gamma radiation such as i.e. increased DNA damage, decreased hatching rate, increase in median hatching time, decreased body length, increased mortality rate, increased morphological deformities. Further, study shows that the potential ecotoxicological threat of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of zebrafish. Further, it revealed that the above parameters can be used as predictive biomarkers of gamma radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Early Developmental Conditioning of Later Health and Disease: Physiology or Pathophysiology?

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. A.; Gluckman, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later. We argue that the evidence suggests the former, through the operation of conditioning processes induced across the normal range of developmental environments, and we summarize current knowledge of the physiological processes involved. The adaptive pathway to later risk accords with current concepts in evolutionary developmental biology, especially those concerning parental effects. Outside the normal range, effects on development can result in nonadaptive processes, and we review their underlying mechanisms and consequences. New concepts concerning the underlying epigenetic and other mechanisms involved in both disruptive and nondisruptive pathways to disease are reviewed, including the evidence for transgenerational passage of risk from both maternal and paternal lines. These concepts have wider implications for understanding the causes and possible prevention of NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, for broader social policy and for the increasing attention paid in public health to the lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. PMID:25287859

  4. Prevention and early intervention for behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Stewart L; Tonge, Bruce J; Clarke, Kristina S

    2013-05-01

    To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted. Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of parent training interventions when delivered in minimally sufficient formats or in clinical settings. Two recent studies have demonstrated the utility of behavioural interventions for children with genetic causes of disability. Various forms of behavioural and parent training interventions are effective at reducing the behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. However, research on prevention and early intervention continues to be relatively scarce. Further large-scale dissemination studies and effectiveness studies in clinical or applied settings are needed.

  5. New features of triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways of peanut seeds in early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingli; Liu, Fengzhen; Zhu, Weiwei; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Jiang; Li, Xinzheng

    2015-11-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the three most important oil crops in the world due to its high average oil content (50 %). To reveal the biosynthetic pathways of seed oil in the early developmental stages of peanut pods with the goal of improving the oil quality, we presented a method combining deep sequencing analysis of the peanut pod transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) verification of seed oil-related genes. From the sequencing data, approximately 1500 lipid metabolism-associated Unigenes were identified. The RT-PCR results quantified the different expression patterns of these triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis-related genes in the early developmental stages of peanut pods. Based on these results and analysis, we proposed a novel construct of the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of TAG, including the Kennedy pathway, acyl-CoA-independent pathway and proposed monoacylglycerol pathway. It showed that the biosynthetic pathways of TAG in the early developmental stages of peanut pods were much more complicated than a simple, unidirectional, linear pathway.

  6. Beyond Developmentalism? Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of Multiage Grouping in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Blaise, Mindy; Hammer, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Postdevelopmental perspectives in early childhood education and care increasingly reference alternative ways of understanding learning, growth and development in early learning. Drawing on these ideas, this paper examines research findings which focused on early childhood teachers' understandings of multiage grouping. The findings suggested that…

  7. Revisiting a Progressive Pedagogy. The Developmental-Interaction Approach. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education: Inquiries and Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nager, Nancy, Ed.; Shapiro, Edna K., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of the developmental-interactive approach, a formulation rooted in developmental psychology and educational practice, progressively informing educational thinking since the early 20th century. The book describes and analyzes key assumptions and assesses the compatibility of new theoretical approaches, focuses on…

  8. Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Essex, Marilyn J; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Goldsmith, H Hill; Kalin, Ned H

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are a precursor of social anxiety disorder. The authors sought to identify early risk factors for, and developmental pathways to, chronic high inhibition among school-age children and the association of chronic high inhibition with social anxiety disorder by adolescence. A community sample of 238 children was followed from birth to grade 9. Mothers, teachers, and children reported on the children's behavioral inhibition from grades 1 to 9. Lifetime history of psychiatric disorders was available for the subset of 60 (25%) children who participated in an intensive laboratory assessment at grade 9. Four early risk factors were assessed: female gender; exposure to maternal stress during infancy and the preschool period; and at age 4.5 years, early manifestation of behavioral inhibition and elevated afternoon salivary cortisol levels. All four risk factors predicted greater and more chronic inhibition from grades 1 to 9, and together they defined two developmental pathways. The first pathway, in girls, was partially mediated by early evidence of behavioral inhibition and elevated cortisol levels at age 4.5 years. The second pathway began with exposure to early maternal stress and was also partially mediated by childhood cortisol levels. By grade 9, chronic high inhibition was associated with a lifetime history of social anxiety disorder. Chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are associated with social anxiety disorder by adolescence. The identification of two developmental pathways suggests the potential importance of considering both sets of risk factors in developing preventive interventions for social anxiety disorder.

  9. Early Developmental Processes and the Continuity of Risk for Underage Drinking and Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Masten, Ann S.; Mattson, Margaret E.; Moss, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental pathways to underage drinking emerge before the second decade of life. Nonetheless, many scientists, as well as the general public, continue to focus on proximal influences surrounding the initiation of drinking in adolescence, such as the social, behavioral, and genetic variables relating to availability and ease of acquisition of the drug, social reinforcement for its use, and individual differences in drug response. Over the past 20 years, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated on the early predictors and pathways of youthful alcohol use and abuse, often much earlier than the time of first drink. These early developmental influences involve numerous risk, vulnerability, promotive and protective processes. Some of these factors are not directly related to alcohol use per se, while others involve learning and expectancies about later drug use that are shaped by social experience. The salience of these factors-- identifiable in early childhood-- for understanding the course and development of adult alcohol and other drug use disorders is evident from the large and growing body of findings on their ability to predict these adult clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the evidence on early pathways toward and away from underage drinking, with a particular focus on the risk and protective factors, mediators and moderators of risk for underage drinking that become evident during the preschool and early school years. It is guided by a developmental perspective on the aggregation of risk and protection, and examines the contributions of biological, psychological, and social processes within the context of normal development. Implications of this evidence for policy, intervention, and future research are discussed. PMID:18381493

  10. Analysis of the Developmental Functioning of Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Populations in Oregon. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-078

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nave, Gary; Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the developmental functioning levels of children from birth through age 2 in early intervention services and children ages 3-5 in early childhood special education services at the time of entry into services, using data from the Oregon Early Childhood Assessment System. The assessment system contains data on the assessed…

  11. The developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling may involved in autism during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-J; Tan, H-P; Du, Y-J

    2014-05-16

    Autism is a developmental disorder defined by the presence of a triad of communication, social and stereo typical behavioral characteristics with onset before 3years of age. In spite of the fact that there are potential environmental factors for autistic behavior, the dysfunction of serotonin during early development of the brain could be playing a role in this prevalence rise. Serotonin can modulate a number of developmental events, including cell division, neuronal migration, cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Hyperserotonemia during fetal development results in the loss of serotonin terminals through negative feedback. The increased serotonin causes a decrease of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the central nucleus of the amygdale, which are associated with social interactions and vital in autism. However, hyposerotonemia may be also relevant to the development of sensory as well as motor and cognitive faculties. And the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. This review briefly summarized the developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling involved in the pathogenesis of autism during early development of the brain. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental cascades: Externalizing, internalizing, and academic competence from middle childhood to early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Maxwell, Kari L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was initiated to increase understanding of developmental cascades in childhood in a sample of at-risk boys (N = 291; 52% White). Mothers, teachers, and boys reported on boys’ externalizing problems, internalizing difficulties, and academic competence. Consistent with hypotheses regarding school-related transitions, high levels of externalizing problems were associated with both low levels of academic competence and high levels of internalizing problems during the early school-age period, and with elevations in internalizing problems during the transition to adolescence. Low levels of academic competence were associated with high levels of internalizing problems in middle childhood, and with high levels of externalizing problems during the transition from elementary school to middle school. Shared risk factors played a minimal role in these developmental cascades. Results suggest that there are cascading effects of externalizing problems and academic competence in childhood and early adolescence, and that some cascading effects are more likely to occur during periods of school-related transitions. Implications of developmental cascade effects for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:20576184

  13. Early developmental gene regulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in response to elevated CO₂ seawater conditions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, LaTisha M; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2012-07-15

    Ocean acidification, or the increased uptake of CO(2) by the ocean due to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, may variably impact marine early life history stages, as they may be especially susceptible to changes in ocean chemistry. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms of early development in an environmental context, or ecological development, will contribute to increased understanding of potential organismal responses to such rapid, large-scale environmental changes. We examined transcript-level responses to elevated seawater CO(2) during gastrulation and the initiation of spiculogenesis, two crucial developmental processes in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos were reared at the current, accepted oceanic CO(2) concentration of 380 microatmospheres (μatm), and at the elevated levels of 1000 and 1350 μatm, simulating predictions for oceans and upwelling regions, respectively. The seven genes of interest comprised a subset of pathways in the primary mesenchyme cell gene regulatory network (PMC GRN) shown to be necessary for the regulation and execution of gastrulation and spiculogenesis. Of the seven genes, qPCR analysis indicated that elevated CO(2) concentrations only had a significant but subtle effect on two genes, one important for early embryo patterning, Wnt8, and the other an integral component in spiculogenesis and biomineralization, SM30b. Protein levels of another spicule matrix component, SM50, demonstrated significant variable responses to elevated CO(2). These data link the regulation of crucial early developmental processes with the environment that these embryos would be developing within, situating the study of organismal responses to ocean acidification in a developmental context.

  14. Temporal variations in early developmental decisions: an engine of forebrain evolution.

    PubMed

    Bielen, H; Pal, S; Tole, S; Houart, C

    2017-02-01

    Tight control of developmental timing is pivotal to many major processes in developmental biology, such as patterning, fate specification, cell cycle dynamics, cell migration and connectivity. Temporal change in these ontogenetic sequences is known as heterochrony, a major force in the evolution of body plans and organogenesis. In the last 5 years, studies in fish and rodents indicate that heterochrony in signaling during early development generates diversity in forebrain size and complexity. Here, we summarize these findings and propose that, additionally to spatio-temporal tuning of neurogenesis, temporal and quantitative modulation of signaling events drive pivotal changes in shape, size and complexity of the forebrain across evolution, participating to the generation of diversity in animal behavior and emergence of cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early augmented language intervention for children with developmental delays: potential secondary motor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Ani S; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2014-09-01

    This exploratory study examined the potential secondary outcome of an early augmented language intervention that incorporates speech-generating devices (SGD) on motor skill use for children with developmental delays. The data presented are from a longitudinal study by Romski and colleagues. Toddlers in the augmented language interventions were either required (Augmented Communication-Output; AC-O) or not required (Augmented Communication-Input; AC-I) to use the SGD to produce an augmented word. Three standardized assessments and five event-based coding schemes measured the participants' language abilities and motor skills. Toddlers in the AC-O intervention used more developmentally appropriate motor movements and became more accurate when using the SGD to communicate than toddlers in the AC-I intervention. AAC strategies, interventionist/parent support, motor learning opportunities, and physical feedback may all contribute to this secondary benefit of AAC interventions that use devices.

  16. The utility of early developmental assessments on understanding later nonverbal IQ in children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Phillips, Jannel; Altaye, Mekibib; Choo, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    In children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), it is helpful to have meaningful early measures of development in order to provide effective interventions and offer benchmarks that help recognize varied developmental trajectories. The main objective of this study was to compare results of an early developmental assessment prior to 3 years of age to later nonverbal IQ assessed between 3 and 6 years of age in children who are DHH. This study included children 3-6 years of age with bilateral permanent hearing who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study on developmental outcomes. As part of the study, children received the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, which provided a nonverbal Brief IQ, as well as standardized language assessment and behavioral checklists. Children were included in this analysis if they had received an early developmental assessment with the Gesell Developmental Schedules-Revised as part of a clinical visit with a developmental pediatrician. Correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used to associate the scores on the Gesell (using a developmental quotient) with scores on the Leiter-R Brief IQ. Forty-five participants who enrolled in the observational study had available evaluation results from the Gesell and complete Brief IQ results from the Leiter-R. The adaptive domain of the Gesell had good correlation (r = 0.61, p < 0.0001) with the Brief IQ on the Leiter-R. Children who had stable developmental or intelligence classifications based on scores (<70, 70 to <85, 85 to <100, ≥100) over time were older (>24 months) at the early Gesell assessment. Degree of hearing loss or maternal education did not appear to confound the relationship between the Gesell and the Leiter-R. The adaptive domain of the Gesell Developmental Schedules - Revised administered in early childhood (under 3 years of age) has good correlation with the nonverbal Brief IQ on the Leiter International Performance Scale-R. Because

  17. Interactions of sex and early life social experiences at two developmental stages shape nonapeptide receptor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Lisa C; Ophir, Alexander G

    2018-05-31

    Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior. We investigated whether oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) distributions of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) change as a function of parental composition within the natal nest or social composition after weaning. We raised pups either in the presence or absence of their fathers. At weaning, offspring were housed either individually or with a same-sex sibling. We also examined whether changes in receptor distributions are sexually dimorphic because the impact of the developmental environment on the nonapeptide system could be sex-dependent. We found that differences in nonapeptide receptor expression were region-, sex-, and rearing condition-specific, indicating a high level of complexity in the ways that early life experiences shape the social brain. We found many more differences in V1aR density compared to OTR density, indicating that nonapeptide receptors demonstrate differential levels of neural plasticity and sensitivity to environmental and biological variables. Our data highlight that critical factors including biological sex and multiple experiences across the developmental continuum interact in complex ways to shape the social brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays.

    PubMed

    Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenting and the development of effortful control from early childhood to early adolescence: A transactional developmental model.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kerr, David C R; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C; Owen, Lee

    2016-08-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13-14 years, involving five time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11-12 to 13-14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. The findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children's effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children's development of effortful control from middle childhood to early adolescence.

  20. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  1. Developmental plasticity of growth and digestive efficiency in dependence of early-life food availability

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is a potent mediator of developmental plasticity. If food is scarce, developing organisms may invest into growth to outgrow size-dependent mortality (short-term benefit) and/or into an efficient digestion system (long-term benefit). We investigated this potential trade-off, by determining the influence of food availability on juvenile body and organ growth, and on adult digestive efficiency in the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus. We reared two groups of fish at constant high or low food rations, and we switched four other groups between these two rations at an early and late juvenile period. We measured juvenile growth and organ sizes at different developmental stages and determined adult digestive efficiency. Fish kept at constant, high rations grew considerably faster than low-food fish. Nevertheless, S. pleurospilus partly buffered the negative effects of low food availability by developing heavier digestive organs, and they were therefore more efficient in digesting their food as adults. Results of fish exposed to a ration switch during either the early or late juvenile period suggest (i) that the ability to show compensatory growth after early exposure to low food availability persists during the juvenile period, (ii) that digestive efficiency is influenced by varying juvenile food availability during the late juvenile phase and (iii) that the efficiency of the adult digestive system is correlated with the growth rate during a narrow time window of juvenile period. PMID:25866430

  2. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  3. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: implications for developmental language disability

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, R. Holly; Alexander, Michelle L.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the “Kennard Principle,” which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents) aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate—both developmentally and functionally—with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications) led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human “term,” but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood) when induced in a “preterm” window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing (RAP) outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations). Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  4. Childhood developmental vulnerabilities associated with early life exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Kariuki, Maina; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J

    2017-12-26

    Fetal exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases may influence early childhood developmental functioning, on the path to later mental illness. Here, we investigated the effects of in utero exposure to maternal infection and noninfectious diseases during pregnancy on offspring developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years, in the context of estimated effects for early childhood exposures to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness. We used population data for 66,045 children from an intergenerational record linkage study (the New South Wales Child Development Study), for whom a cross-sectional assessment of five developmental competencies (physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication) was obtained at school entry, using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC). Child and maternal exposures to infectious or noninfectious diseases were determined from the NSW Ministry of Health Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC) and maternal mental illness exposure was derived from both APDC and Mental Health Ambulatory Data collections. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between these physical and mental health exposures and child developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years. Among the physical disease exposures, maternal infectious diseases during pregnancy and early childhood infection conferred the largest associations with developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years; maternal noninfectious illness during pregnancy also retained small but significant associations with developmental vulnerabilities even when adjusted for other physical and mental illness exposures and covariates known to be associated with early childhood development (e.g., child's sex, socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, prenatal smoking). Among all exposures examined, maternal mental illness first diagnosed prior to childbirth conferred the greatest odds of developmental

  5. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Stringaris, Argyris; Lewis, Glyn; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Pathways from early-life conduct problems to young adult depression remain poorly understood. To test developmental pathways from early-life conduct problems to depression at age 18. Data (n = 3542) came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Previously derived conduct problem trajectories (ages 4-13 years) were used to examine associations with depression from ages 10 to 18 years, and the role of early childhood factors as potential confounders. Over 43% of young adults with depression in the ALSPAC cohort had a history of child or adolescent conduct problems, yielding a population attributable fraction of 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.22). The association between conduct problems and depression at age 18 was considerable even after adjusting for prior depression (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.94). Early-onset persistent conduct problems carried the highest risk for later depression. Irritability characterised depression for those with a history of conduct problems. Early-life conduct problems are robustly associated with later depressive disorder and may be useful targets for early intervention. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  6. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stringaris, Argyris; Lewis, Glyn; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathways from early-life conduct problems to young adult depression remain poorly understood. Aims To test developmental pathways from early-life conduct problems to depression at age 18. Method Data (n = 3542) came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Previously derived conduct problem trajectories (ages 4-13 years) were used to examine associations with depression from ages 10 to 18 years, and the role of early childhood factors as potential confounders. Results Over 43% of young adults with depression in the ALSPAC cohort had a history of child or adolescent conduct problems, yielding a population attributable fraction of 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.22). The association between conduct problems and depression at age 18 was considerable even after adjusting for prior depression (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.94). Early-onset persistent conduct problems carried the highest risk for later depression. Irritability characterised depression for those with a history of conduct problems. Conclusions Early-life conduct problems are robustly associated with later depressive disorder and may be useful targets for early intervention. PMID:24764545

  7. Curriculum for the Special Education Early Childhood Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    This document presents Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District's Special Education Early Childhood Center's 1988 curriculum. Sections focus on: (1) the center's program; (2) play observation; (3) eligibility; (4) classroom structure and function; (5) the importance of play; (6) developmental milestones; (7) planning and teaching…

  8. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  9. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Stéphanie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Larroque, Béatrice; Melchior, Maria; Falissard, Bruno; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers. Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence. A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood.

  10. Mothers of children with developmental disabilities: stress in early and middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George A

    2013-10-01

    Using a sample of 219 families of children with (n=94) and without (n=125) developmental disabilities, this study examined the longitudinal perspectives of maternal stress in early (ages 3-5) and middle childhood (ages 6-13) and its relationship to mothers' and children's characteristics. Multivariate latent curve models indicated that maternal stress remained high and stable with minimal individual variation in early childhood, but declined with significant individual variation in middle childhood. Maternal stress at the beginning of middle childhood was associated with earlier maternal stress, as well as children's behavioral problems and social skills. The trajectory of maternal stress across middle childhood was related to children's behavioral problems. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness—competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  12. Parsing the Effects Violence Exposure in Early Childhood: Modeling Developmental Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alice S.; Ford, Julian D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine pathways from early childhood violence exposure and trauma-related symptoms to school-age emotional health. Methods A longitudinal, birth cohort (N = 437) was assessed with parent reports of lifetime violence exposure and trauma-related symptoms at 3 years of age and later, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and social competence at school age. Results Early family and neighborhood violence correlated significantly with early trauma-related symptoms and also significantly predicted school-age internalizing and externalizing symptoms and poorer competence, independent of sociodemographic risk and past-year violence exposure. Longitudinal pathways were significantly mediated by arousal and avoidance symptoms at 3 years of age, which increased risk for clinically significant emotional problems and lower competence at school age (adjusted odds ratios = 3.1–6.1, p < 0.01). Conclusions Trauma-related symptoms may mediate developmental pathways from early violence exposure to later emotional health. Interventions that prevent or reduce early trauma-related symptoms may ameliorate the long-term deleterious impact of violence exposure. PMID:21903730

  13. Similar developmental trajectories in autism and Asperger syndrome: from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixty-four high-functioning children with ASD were ascertained at 4-6 years of age from several different regional diagnostic and treatment centers. At 6-8 years of age, the ADI-R and the Test of Oral Language Development were used to define an autism group (those with StrLI at 6-8 years of age) and an AS group (those without StrLI). Growth curve analysis was then used to chart the developmental trajectories of these children on measures of autistic symptoms, and adaptive skills in communication, daily living and socialization. Differentiating the ASD group in terms of the presence/absence of StrLI provided a better explanation of the variation in growth curves than not differentiating high-functioning ASD children. The two groups had similar developmental trajectories but the group without StrLI (the AS group) was functioning better and had fewer autistic symptoms than the group with StrLI (the autism group) on all measures across time. The differences in outcome could not be explained by non-verbal IQ or change in early language skills. Distinguishing between autism and Asperger syndrome based on the presence or absence of StrLI appears to be a clinically useful way of classifying ASD sub-types.

  14. Social Problem-Solving in Early Childhood: Developmental Change and the Influence of Shyness

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental change and the influence of shyness on social problem-solving (SPS). At 24, 36, and 48 months, children (N=570) were observed while interacting with an unfamiliar peer during an SPS task and at 24 months, maternal report of shyness was collected. Results showed that across the full sample, children displayed low but stable levels of withdrawn SPS and increasing levels of SPS competence over development. In addition, results showed that 24-month shyness was associated with high-increasing and high-decreasing withdrawn SPS trajectories compared to the low-increasing withdrawn SPS trajectory. Shyness was also associated with the low-increasing compared to the high-increasing SPS competence trajectory. Findings demonstrate the development of SPS competence over early childhood, as well as the influence of early shyness on this developmental course, with some shy children showing improvement in SPS skills and others continuing to show SPS difficulties over time. PMID:24039325

  15. The presence of MWCNTs reduces developmental toxicity of PFOS in early life stage of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Zhuang, Changlu; Du, Jia; Wu, Chuan; You, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used widely. There is considerable concern regarding their ecotoxicity. CNTs might interact with PFOS in water and result in different impacts compared with those after single exposures. To our knowledge, the developmental toxicity of PFOS in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the early life stage of zebrafish (from 3 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf) was investigated for the first time in this study. The embryos and larvae were exposed to PFOS (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/L), MWCNTs (50 mg/L), and a mixture of both. Compared with PFOS exposure, the adverse effects induced by PFOS on the hatching rate of zebrafish embryos and the heart rate and body length of zebrafish larvae were reduced in the presence of MWCNTs, and mortality and malformation were also alleviated. In addition, zebrafish larvae exposed to PFOS showed decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in the presence of MWCNTs, indicating that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation was relieved. Thus, the presence of MWCNTs reduces the developmental toxicity of PFOS in the early life stage of zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A longitudinal twin study of physical aggression during early childhood: evidence for a developmentally dynamic genome.

    PubMed

    Lacourse, E; Boivin, M; Brendgen, M; Petitclerc, A; Girard, A; Vitaro, F; Paquin, S; Ouellet-Morin, I; Dionne, G; Tremblay, R E

    2014-09-01

    Physical aggression (PA) tends to have its onset in infancy and to increase rapidly in frequency. Very little is known about the genetic and environmental etiology of PA development during early childhood. We investigated the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental etiology of PA during this crucial developmental period. Participants were 667 twin pairs, including 254 monozygotic and 413 dizygotic pairs, from the ongoing longitudinal Quebec Newborn Twin Study. Maternal reports of PA were obtained from three waves of data at 20, 32 and 50 months. These reports were analysed using a biometric Cholesky decomposition and linear latent growth curve model. The best-fitting Cholesky model revealed developmentally dynamic effects, mostly genetic attenuation and innovation. The contribution of genetic factors at 20 months substantially decreased over time, while new genetic effects appeared later on. The linear latent growth curve model revealed a significant moderate increase in PA from 20 to 50 months. Two separate sets of uncorrelated genetic factors accounted for the variation in initial level and growth rate. Non-shared and shared environments had no effect on the stability, initial status and growth rate in PA. Genetic factors underlie PA frequency and stability during early childhood; they are also responsible for initial status and growth rate in PA. The contribution of shared environment is modest, and perhaps limited, as it appears only at 50 months. Future research should investigate the complex nature of these dynamic genetic factors through genetic-environment correlation (r GE) and interaction (G×E) analyses.

  17. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Willa A; Noroña, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n = 211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, whereas child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. How Competent are Adolescent Bullying Perpetrators and Victims in Mastering Normative Developmental Tasks in Early Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Branje, Susan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Meeus, Wim H J; Deković, Maja; Koot, Hans M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2018-01-01

    A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early adult tasks in domains including romantic relationships, education, work, financial competence, and conduct. These links were tested using data from two Dutch cohorts (RADAR-young, n = 497, 43% girls; TRAILS, n = 2230, 51% girls) who reported on victimization and perpetration at age 11 (TRAILS) and 13 (RADAR-young) and mastery of developmental tasks in early adulthood. Unadjusted regression analyses suggested for both cohorts that perpetrators were less likely to abide the law and more likely to smoke. Victims in TRAILS were less competent in the domains of education, work, and finances, and more likely to smoke in RADAR-young. Adjusting for childhood demographics and child intelligence and including psychopathology in the prediction models substantially reduced the strength of associations between bullying involvement and later outcomes in both cohorts; although association were retained between victimization and welfare dependence and perpetration and crime involvement in TRAILS. Parental support did not buffer associations in either sample and neither were gender differences detected. Overall, findings underline that negative outcomes of bullying are not only a concern for victims but also for their perpetrators although involvement in bullying is not a stable predictor of mastery of developmental tasks when childhood demographics, child intelligence, and psychopathology are taken into account.

  20. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Willa A.; Noroña, Amanda N.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n=211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, while child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:28054804

  1. Latent class analysis of early developmental trajectory in baby siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Landa, Rebecca J; Gross, Alden L; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Sibs-A (N = 204) were assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning from age 6 to 36 months. Mullen T scores served as dependent variables. Outcome classifications at age 36 months included: ASD (N = 52); non-ASD social/communication delay (broader autism phenotype; BAP; N = 31); and unaffected (N = 121). Child-specific patterns of performance were studied using latent class growth analysis. Latent class membership was then related to diagnostic outcome through estimation of within-class proportions of children assigned to each diagnostic classification. A 4-class model was favored. Class 1 represented accelerated development and consisted of 25.7% of the sample, primarily unaffected children. Class 2 (40.0% of the sample), was characterized by normative development with above-average nonverbal cognitive outcome. Class 3 (22.3% of the sample) was characterized by receptive language, and gross and fine motor delay. Class 4 (12.0% of the sample), was characterized by widespread delayed skill acquisition, reflected by declining trajectories. Children with an outcome diagnosis of ASD were spread across Classes 2, 3, and 4. Results support a category of ASD that involves slowing in early non-social development. Receptive language and motor development is vulnerable to early delay in sibs-A with and without ASD outcomes. Non-ASD sibs-A are largely distributed across classes depicting average or accelerated development. Developmental trajectories of motor, language, and cognition appear independent of communication and social delays in non-ASD sibs-A. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Latent Class Analysis of Early Developmental Trajectory in Baby Siblings of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Gross, Alden L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Methods Sibs-A (n=204) were assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning from age 6–36 months. Mullen T scores served as dependent variables. Outcome classifications at age 36 months included: ASD (n=52); non-ASD social/communication delay (broader autism phenotype; BAP) (n=31); and unaffected (n=121). Child-specific patterns of performance were studied using latent class growth analysis. Latent class membership was then related to diagnostic outcome through estimation of within-class proportions of children assigned to each diagnostic classification. Results A 4-class model was favored. Class 1 represented accelerated development and consisted of 25.7% of the sample, primarily unaffected children. Class 2 (40.0% of the sample), was characterized by normative development with above-average nonverbal cognitive outcome. Class 3 (22.3% of the sample) was characterized by receptive language, and gross and fine motor delay. Class 4 (12.0% of the sample), was characterized by widespread delayed skill acquisition, reflected by declining trajectories. Children with an outcome diagnosis of ASD were spread across Classes 2, 3, and 4. Conclusions Results support a category of ASD that involves slowing in early non-social development. Receptive language and motor development is vulnerable to early delay in sibs-A with and without ASD outcomes. Non-ASD sibs-A are largely distributed across classes depicting average or accelerated development. Developmental trajectories of motor, language, and cognition appear independent of communication and social delays in non-ASD sibs-A. PMID:22574686

  3. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  4. Effects of chronic crude oil exposure on early developmental stages of the Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica).

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Maj; Moodley, Leon; Dunaevskaya, Evgenia; Ramanand, Sreerekha; Ingvarsdóttir, Anna; Nilsen, Marianne; Ravagnan, Elisa; Westerlund, Stig; Sanni, Steinar; Tarling, Geraint A; Bechmann, Renée K

    2017-01-01

    Rising oil and gas activities in northern high latitudes have led to an increased risk of petroleum pollution in these ecosystems. Further, seasonal high UV radiation at high latitudes may elevate photo-enhanced toxicity of petroleum pollution to marine organisms. Zooplanktons are a key ecological component of northern ecosystems; therefore, it is important to assess their sensitivity to potential pollutants of oil and gas activity. As ontogenetic development may be particularly sensitive, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of chronic exposure to oil water dispersion (OWD) on development and feeding of early life stages of the Northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica. In a range of experiments, embryonic, nonfeeding, and feeding larval stages were exposed to concentrations of between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L of oil or photo-modified oil for 19 and 21 d. No significant effects on egg respiration, hatching success, development, length and larval survival were observed from these treatments. Similarly, evolution of fatty acid composition patterns during ontogenetic development was unaffected. The results indicates a high degree of resilience of these early developmental stages to such types and concentrations of pollutants. However, feeding and motility in later calyptopis-stage larvae were significantly impaired at exposure of 0.1 mg/L oil. Data indicate that feeding larval stage of krill was more sensitive to OWD than early nonfeeding life stages. This might be attributed to the narcotic effects of oil pollutants, their direct ingestion, or accumulated adverse effects over early development.

  5. Laminarin improves developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Shuang; Yao, Xue-Rui; Jin, Yong-Xun; Shen, Xing-Hui; Yuan, Bao; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2018-04-23

    Laminarin (LMA), a β-glucan mixture with good biocompatibility, improves the growth performance and immune response when used as food additives and nutraceuticals. The aim of the present research was to explore the effects of LMA on porcine early stage embryo development, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos was dramatically improved after LMA supplementation during the in vitro culture period. The presence of 20 μg/mL LMA during the in vitro culture period significantly improved cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rates, hatching rate, and total cell number in the blastocyst compared to that in the control group. Notably, LMA attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation induced by H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, LMA not only increased intracellular glutathione levels, but also ameliorated mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the expression of a zygotic genome activation related gene (YAP1), pluripotency-related genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and hatching-related genes (COX2, GATA4, and ITGA5) were up-regulated following LMA supplementation during porcine early stage embryo development. These results demonstrate that LMA has beneficial effects on the development of porcine early stage embryos via regulation of oxidative stress. This evidence provides a novel method for embryo development improvement associated with exposure to LMA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early childhood predictors of mothers' and fathers' relationships with adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D B; Hauser-Cram, P

    2010-06-01

    The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of questions regarding these relationships. In particular, we asked: are there differences in the relationships of mothers and fathers with their adolescent with DD? Are there early childhood predictors of the parent-teen relationship and are those based on variables that are amenable to intervention? Finally, do these predictors differ for mothers and fathers? This study focused on the relationships of 72 mothers and 53 fathers with their 15-year-old teens with DD and their predictors from the early childhood years. Data were collected from parents through interviews and self-administered questionnaires, and from their children with disabilities through structured assessment when children were age 3 years and again at age 15 years. Analyses indicated that both mother-teen and father-teen relationships were predicted by earlier parenting stress. The father-teen relationship was also predicted by early behaviour problems, but this relation was mediated by parenting stress. Socio-economic status, type of disability and the child's level of functioning were not predictive of later relationships between parents and teens. Mothers and fathers did not differ significantly in their reports of perceived positive relationships with their teens. The findings from this study suggest two important points of potential intervention during the early intervention years. First, parenting assistance and support to reduce stress during the early childhood years can benefit both mothers and fathers. Second, helping families and children cope with and diminish problem behaviours is likely to yield multiple advantages for parents and children and deserves

  7. Interpersonal Callousness from Childhood to Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories and Early Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Amy L; Hawes, Samuel W; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2018-01-01

    Youth with a callous interpersonal style, consistent with features of adult psychopathy (e.g., lack of guilt, deceitful), are at risk for exhibiting severe and protracted antisocial behaviors. However, no studies have examined changes that occur in interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence, and little is known about the influence of early child, social, and contextual factors on trajectories of IC. The current study examined distinct patterns of IC across childhood and adolescence and associations with early risk factors. Participants were an at-risk sample of 503 boys (56% African American) assessed annually from around ages 7-15. Analyses examined child (anger dysregulation, fearfulness), social (peer, family, maltreatment), and contextual (psychosocial adversity) factors associated with teacher-reported IC trajectories across childhood and adolescence. Using latent class growth analysis, five trajectories of IC were identified (early-onset chronic, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, low). Approximately 10% of boys followed an early-onset chronic trajectory, and a roughly equal percent of youth followed childhood-limited trajectory (10%) or an adolescent-onset trajectory (12%) of IC across development. Specifically, half of the boys with high IC in childhood did not continue to exhibit significant levels of these features into adolescence, whereas an equal proportion of youth with low IC in childhood demonstrated increasing levels during the transition to adolescence. Boys in the early-onset chronic group were characterized by the most risk factors and were differentiated from those with childhood-limited and adolescent-onset IC only by higher conduct problems, fearlessness, and emotional abuse/neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental models of IC and several avenues for early targeted interventions.

  8. Developmental changes in automatic rule-learning mechanisms across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Männel, Claudia

    2018-06-27

    Infants' ability to learn complex linguistic regularities from early on has been revealed by electrophysiological studies indicating that 3-month-olds, but not adults, can automatically detect non-adjacent dependencies between syllables. While different ERP responses in adults and infants suggest that both linguistic rule learning and its link to basic auditory processing undergo developmental changes, systematic investigations of the developmental trajectories are scarce. In the present study, we assessed 2- and 4-year-olds' ERP indicators of pitch discrimination and linguistic rule learning in a syllable-based oddball design. To test for the relation between auditory discrimination and rule learning, ERP responses to pitch changes were used as predictor for potential linguistic rule-learning effects. Results revealed that 2-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, showed ERP markers of rule learning. Although, 2-year-olds' rule learning was not dependent on differences in pitch perception, 4-year-old children demonstrated a dependency, such that those children who showed more pronounced responses to pitch changes still showed an effect of rule learning. These results narrow down the developmental decline of the ability for automatic linguistic rule learning to the age between 2 and 4 years, and, moreover, point towards a strong modification of this change by auditory processes. At an age when the ability of automatic linguistic rule learning phases out, rule learning can still be observed in children with enhanced auditory responses. The observed interrelations are plausible causes for age-of-acquisition effects and inter-individual differences in language learning. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Developmental Predictors of Inattention-Hyperactivity from Pregnancy to Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foulon, Stéphanie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Melchior, Maria; Falissard, Bruno; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to characterize the developmental sequence of pre- and postnatal risk factors for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in preschoolers. Materials and Methods Longitudinal data came from a French population based birth cohort study (EDEN; N = 1311 mother-child pairs followed from the pregnancy onwards). Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when participating children were 3 years of age. Potential risk factors were classified in four domains (fetal exposures and child somatic characteristics, child temperament, child neurodevelopmental status, psychosocial environment) and four periods (before pregnancy, prenatal/birth, infancy, toddlerhood). Their role as potential moderator or mediator was tested with path analysis to determine the developmental sequence. Results A low family socioeconomic status before pregnancy was the main environmental risk factor for inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 3 years, and its effect occurred via two pathways. The first was a risk pathway, where lower SES was associated with higher maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy; then to higher maternal and child distress and dysregulation in infancy; and in turn to higher levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. The second was a protective pathway, where higher SES was associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during infancy; then to better child neurodevelopmental status in toddlerhood; and in turn to lower levels of inattention-hyperactivity at 3 years. Discussion This study identified psychosocial factors at several developmental periods that represent potential targets for preventing the emergence of inattention-hyperactivity symptoms in early childhood. PMID:25938453

  10. Impact of early developmental fluoride exposure on the peripheral pain sensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Liu, Fei; Liu, Peng; Dong, Ying-Ying; Chu, Zheng; Hou, Tie-Zhou; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of high concentration of fluoride in the drinking water would cause the fluorosis and chronic pain. Similar pain syndrome appeared in the patients in fluoride therapy of osteoporotic. The aim of the current study was to examine whether exposing immature mice to fluoride would modify the peripheral pain sensitivity or even cause a pain syndrome. We gave developmental fluoride exposure to mice in different concentration (0mg/L, 50mg/L and 100mg/L) and evaluated their basal pain threshold. Von Frey hair test, hot plate test and formalin test were conducted to examine the mechanical, thermal nociceptive threshold and inflammatory pain, respectively. In addition, the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also evaluated by Western blotting. Hyperalgesia in fluoride exposure mice was exhibited in the Von Frey hair test, hot plate test and formalin test. Meanwhile, the expression of BDNF was significantly higher than that of control group. The results suggest that early developmental fluoride exposure may lower the basal pain threshold and be associated with the increasing of BDNF expression in hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early object labels: the case for a developmental lexical principles framework.

    PubMed

    Golinkoff, R M; Mervis, C B; Hirsh-Pasek, K

    1994-02-01

    Universally, object names make up the largest proportion of any word type found in children's early lexicons. Here we present and critically evaluate a set of six lexical principles (some previously proposed and some new) for making object label learning a manageable task. Overall, the principles have the effect of reducing the amount of information that language-learning children must consider for what a new word might mean. These principles are constructed by children in a two-tiered developmental sequence, as a function of their sensitivity to linguistic input, contextual information, and social-interactional cues. Thus, the process of lexical acquisition changes as a result of the particular principles a given child has at his or her disposal. For children who have only the principles of the first tier (reference, extendibility, and object scope), word learning has a deliberate and laborious look. The principles of the second tier (categorical scope, novel name-nameless category' or N3C, and conventionality) enable the child to acquire many new labels rapidly. The present unified account is argued to have a number of advantages over treating such principles separately and non-developmentally. Further, the explicit recognition that the acquisition and operation of these principles is influenced by the child's interpretation of both linguistic and non-linguistic input is seen as an advance.

  12. Early Developmental Disturbances of Cortical Inhibitory Neurons: Contribution to Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a disabling and core feature of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments have been linked to disturbances in inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Cognitive deficits are present well before the onset of psychotic symptoms and have been detected in early childhood with developmental delays reported during the first year of life. These data suggest that the pathogenetic process that produces dysfunction of prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia may be related to altered prenatal development. Interestingly, adult postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue studies have provided evidence consistent with a disease process that affects different stages of prenatal development of specific subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neurons. Prenatal ontogeny (ie, birth, proliferation, migration, and phenotypic specification) of distinct subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons is differentially regulated by a host of transcription factors, chemokine receptors, and other molecular markers. In this review article, we propose a strategy to investigate how alterations in the expression of these developmental regulators of subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical GABA neuron dysfunction and consequently cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25053651

  13. From Cheerleader to Coach: The Developmental Progression of Bedside Teachers in Giving Feedback to Early Learners.

    PubMed

    Wenrich, Marjorie D; Jackson, Molly Blackley; Maestas, Ramoncita R; Wolfhagen, Ineke H A P; Scherpbier, Albert J J

    2015-11-01

    Medical students learn clinical skills at the bedside from teaching clinicians, who often learn to teach by teaching. Little is known about the process of becoming an effective clinical teacher. Understanding how teaching skills and approaches change with experience may help tailor faculty development for new teachers. Focusing on giving feedback to early learners, the authors asked: What is the developmental progression of clinician-teachers as they learn to give clinical skills feedback to medical students? This qualitative study included longitudinal interviews with clinician-teachers over five years in a new clinical skills teaching program for preclinical medical students. Techniques derived from grounded theory were used for initial analyses. The current study focused on one theme identified in initial analyses: giving feedback to students. Transcript passages were organized by interview year, coded, and discussed in year clusters; thematic codes were compared and emergent codes developed. Themes related to giving feedback demonstrated a dyadic structure: characteristic of less experienced teachers versus characteristic of experienced teachers. Seven dominant dyadic themes emerged, including teacher as cheerleader versus coach, concern about student fragility versus understanding resilience, and focus on creating a safe environment versus challenging students within a safe environment. With consistent teaching, clinical teachers demonstrated progress in giving feedback to students in multiple areas, including understanding students' developmental trajectory and needs, developing tools and strategies, and adopting a dynamic, challenging, inclusive team approach. Ongoing teaching opportunities with targeted faculty development may help improve clinician-teachers' feedback skills and approaches.

  14. Astronomy Education Milestone in Hermanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    A milestone in astronomy awareness and education in South Africa was achieved during October when Hermanus Centre members, together with science teachers and learners from Hermanus High and Qhayiya Secondary School, saw "first light" on the 1,2m MONET North telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas via the internet from the Hermanus High School's computer room.

  15. 25 Legal and Legislative Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This timeline reflects some of the most significant legal and legislative milestones that have influenced higher education over the 25 years that "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education," formerly "Black Issues in Higher Education," has been in print. The legal battles have primarily involved the settlement of desegregation cases and the use of race…

  16. Milestones: a rapid assessment method for the Clinical Competency Committee

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Christopher; Forman, Leanne; Peterson, Stephen J.; Gennarelli, Melissa; Aronow, Wilbert S.; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Chandy, Dipak; Ahn, Chul; Sule, Sachin; Stallings, Gary W.; Khera, Sahil; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Frishman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Educational milestones are now used to assess the developmental progress of all U.S. graduate medical residents during training. Twice annually, each program’s Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) makes these determinations and reports its findings to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The ideal way to conduct the CCC is not known. After finding that deliberations reliant upon the new milestones were time intensive, our internal medicine residency program tested an approach designed to produce rapid but accurate assessments. Material and methods For this study, we modified our usual CCC process to include pre-meeting faculty ratings of resident milestones progress with in-meeting reconciliation of their ratings. Data were considered largely via standard report and presented in a pre-arranged pattern. Participants were surveyed regarding their perceptions of data management strategies and use of milestones. Reliability of competence assessments was estimated by comparing pre-/post-intervention class rank lists produced by individual committee members with a master class rank list produced by the collective CCC after full deliberation. Results Use of the study CCC approach reduced committee deliberation time from 25 min to 9 min per resident (p < 0.001). Committee members believed milestones improved their ability to identify and assess expected elements of competency development (p = 0.026). Individual committee member assessments of trainee progress agreed well with collective CCC assessments. Conclusions Modification of the clinical competency process to include pre-meeting competence ratings with in-meeting reconciliation of these ratings led to shorter deliberation times, improved evaluator satisfaction and resulted in reliable milestone assessments. PMID:28144272

  17. Early-developmental stress, repeatability, and canalization in a suite of physiological and behavioral traits in female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Careau, Vincent; Buttemer, William A; Buchanan, Katherine L

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive developmental plasticity allows individuals experiencing poor environmental conditions in early life to adjust their life-history strategy in order to prioritize short-term fitness benefits and maximize reproductive output in challenging environments. Much research has been conducted to test whether such adoption of a "faster" life-history strategy is accompanied by concordant changes in behavior and physiology, with mixed results. As research in this field has focused on comparison of mean-level responses of treatment groups, few studies include repeated measures of response variables and the effect that developmental stress may have on repeatability per se. We investigated how early-developmental stress affects the mean expression of (and repeatability in) a variety of behavioral and physiological traits in female zebra finches. We predicted that: (1) individuals subjected to nutritional restriction in the nestling phase would have higher feeding and activity rates, with associated increases in hematocrit and basal metabolic rates (BMRs), (2) nutritional restriction in early life would alter adults' stress-induced corticosterone level, and (3) developmental stress would, respectively, influence the amount of among-individual and within-individual variation in behavioral and physiological traits, hence affecting the repeatability of these traits. In comparison to control females, stressed females did not differ in activity rate or stress-induced corticosterone level, but they did have higher levels of feeding, hematocrit, and BMR. Among-individual variance and repeatability were generally higher in stressed females than in controls. Finally, we found that developmental dietary restriction significantly reduced the amount of within-individual variance both in activity rate in the novel environment and in stress-induced corticosterone level. Our results not only confirm previous findings on the effect of early-developmental stress on BMR, but also extend

  18. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  19. The typical developmental trajectory of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Trickett, Penelope K

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9-13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency.

  1. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms Among Boys Across Early and Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms among 290 boys and evaluated the association of trajectory groups with child and family risk factors and children’s internalizing disorders. Anxiety symptoms were measured using maternal reports from the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1991, 1992) for boys between the ages of 2 and 10. A group-based trajectory analysis revealed 4 distinct trajectories in the development of anxiety symptoms: low, low increasing, high declining, and high-increasing trajectories. Child shy temperament tended to differentiate between initial high and low groups, whereas maternal negative control and maternal depression were associated with increasing trajectories and elevated anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Follow-up analyses to diagnoses of preadolescent depression and/or anxiety disorders revealed different patterns on the basis of trajectory group membership. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of risk factors and implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:18266484

  3. Toxic effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on early developmental and larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ghobadian, Mehdi; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Parivar, Kazem; Fathi, Mojtaba; Pazooki, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) are used in medicine, manufacturing and food industries. Because of their extensive application in our daily lives, environmental exposure to these nanoparticles is inevitable. The present study examined the effects of MgONPs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stages. The results showed that, at different concentrations, MgONPs induced cellular apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The hatching rate and survival of embryos decreased in a dose dependent manner. The 96-h LC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish survival was 428 mg/l and the 48-h EC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish embryo hatching rate was 175 mg/l. Moreover different types of malformation were observed in exposed embryos. The results demonstrate the toxic effects of MgONPs on zebrafish embryos and emphasize the need for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infants’ Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants’ early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n=325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at four centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network, included high-risk (cocaine exposed) and matched non-cocaine exposed infants. Hierarchical regressions revealed that infants’ attention orienting at 1 month significantly predicted more frequent initiating joint attention at 12 (but not 18) months of age. Social engagement at 4 months predicted initiating joint attention at 18 months. Results provide the first empirical evidence for the role of visual attention and social engagement behaviors as developmental precursors for later joint attention outcome. PMID:27786527

  5. Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

  6. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' and Elementary Teachers' Perspectives on Including Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Burbidge, Julie; Minnes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study reports on the perspectives of 143 preservice early childhood educators (ECE) and 208 elementary teacher candidates (TC) on teaching children with developmental disabilities and delays (DDD) in inclusive classrooms. A questionnaire was administered which included items on demographic characteristics, experience, knowledge,…

  7. Teaching the Standards Is Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Strategies for Incorporating the Sociopolitical Dimension of DAP in Early Childhood Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Many early childhood practitioners in the U.S. are experiencing tension between their desire to offer students developmentally appropriate learning experiences and their obligation to teach the academic knowledge and skills mandated by their states. However, careful examination of the DAP guidelines' definition of culturally appropriate practice…

  8. The Positive Impact of Early Intervention for Children with Developmental Delays, Gestational Cocaine Exposure, and Co-Occurring Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Katz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    This article examined transition rates of young children (n = 102) from an early intervention program at the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) who had documented developmental delays and co-occurring prenatal drug exposure often coupled with verified child maltreatment. Findings indicated that there was significant group improvement from…

  9. Missing the Boat with Technology Usage in Early Childhood Settings: A 21st Century View of Developmentally Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Blum, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Technology use permeates virtually all aspects of twenty-first century society, though its integration in early childhood settings and recognition as a developmentally appropriate practice remains problematic. A position is taken that education professionals may be "missing the boat" by not embracing technology usage as a developmentally…

  10. An Annotated Bibliography of Some Recent Articles That Correlate with the Sewall Early Education Developmental Program (SEED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janice; Flamboe, Thomas C.

    The annotated bibliography contains approximately 110 references (1969-1976) of articles related to the Sewall Early Education Developmental Program. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author within the following seven topic areas: social emotional, gross motor, fine motor, adaptive reasoning, speech and language, feeding and dressing and…

  11. Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5–17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in prereading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure. PMID:26836227

  12. RNA-sequencing of the sturgeon Acipenser baeri provides insights into expression dynamics of morphogenic differentiation and developmental regulatory genes in early versus late developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Jiang, Keji; Zhang, Fengying; Lin, Yu; Ma, Lingbo

    2016-08-08

    Acipenser baeri, one of the critically endangered animals on the verge of extinction, is a key species for evolutionary, developmental, physiology and conservation studies and a standout amongst the most important food products worldwide. Though the transcriptome of the early development of A. baeri has been published recently, the transcriptome changes occurring in the transition from embryonic to late stages are still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the transcriptomes of embryonic and post-embryonic stages of A. baeri and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their expression patterns using mRNA collected from specimens at big yolk plug, wide neural plate and 64 day old sturgeon developmental stages for RNA-Seq. The paired-end sequencing of the transcriptome of samples of A. baeri collected at two early (big yolk plug (T1, 32 h after fertilization) and wide neural plate formation (T2, 45 h after fertilization)) and one late (T22, 64 day old sturgeon) developmental stages using Illumina Hiseq2000 platform generated 64039846, 64635214 and 75293762 clean paired-end reads for T1, T2 and T22, respectively. After quality control, the sequencing reads were de novo assembled to generate a set of 149,265 unigenes with N50 value of 1277 bp. Functional annotation indicated that a substantial number of these unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in public databases. Differential expression profiling allowed the identification of 2789, 12,819 and 10,824 DEGs from the respective T1 vs. T2, T1 vs. T22 and T2 vs. T22 comparisons. High correlation of DEGs' features was recorded among early stages while significant divergences were observed when comparing the late stage with early stages. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed the biological processes, cellular component, molecular functions and metabolic pathways associated with identified DEGs. The qRT-PCR performed for candidate genes in specimens confirmed the validity of the RNA

  13. If You're Concerned - Act Early

    MedlinePlus

    ... fill out a Milestone Checklist to track your child’s development. Share the completed checklist or milestone summary with ... Developmental pediatricians. These doctors have special training in child development and children with special needs. Child neurologists. These ...

  14. The Role of Developmental Screening Practices in Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analysis of All-Payer Claims Data in New Hampshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Betsy P.

    2013-01-01

    Universal developmental screening during pediatric well child care detects early delays in development and is a critical gateway to early intervention for young children at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Developmental screening practices are highly variable, and few studies have examined screening utilization for children at risk for…

  15. Developmental Changes in Ultradian Sleep Cycles across Early Childhood: Preliminary Insights

    PubMed Central

    Lopp, Sean; Navidi, William; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique; Diniz Behn, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce. To address this gap, we examined ultradian cycling during nocturnal sleep following 13 h of prior wakefulness in 8 healthy children at 3 longitudinal points: 2Y (2.5-3.0 years of age), 3Y (3.5-4.0 years of age), and 5Y (5.5-6.0 years of age). We found that the length of ultradian cycles increased with age as a result of increased NREM sleep episode duration. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the number of NREM sleep episodes as well as a nonsignificant trend for a decrease in the number of cycles with increasing age. Together, these findings suggest a concurrent change in which cycle duration increases and the number of cycles decreases across development. We also found that, consistent with data from adolescents and adults, the duration of NREM sleep episodes decreased with time since lights-off whereas the duration of REM sleep episodes increased over this time period. These results indicate the presence of circadian modulation of nocturnal sleep in preschool children. In addition to characterizing changes in ultradian cycling in healthy children ages 2 to 5 years, this work describes a developmental model that may provide insights into the emergence of normal adult REM sleep regulatory circuitry as well as potential trajectories of dysregulated ultradian cycles such as those associated with affective disorders. PMID:28088873

  16. Developmental trajectories of the fronto-temporal lobes from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume

  17. Milestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    Tami Bond, environmental engineer and professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been selected as a 2014 MacArthur Fellow.

  18. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health. PMID:17016842

  19. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  2. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyunghee; Wang, Zixing; Sehgal, Ritika; Chen, Chun-Hong; Kikuno, Keiko; Hay, Bruce; Park, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    A great number of obsolete larval neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are eliminated by developmentally programmed cell death (PCD) during early metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal PCD occurring during this period, we undertook genetic dissection of seven currently known Drosophila caspases in the PCD of a group of interneurons (vCrz) that produce corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide in the ventral nerve cord. The molecular death program in the vCrz neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation. PCD was significantly suppressed in dronc-null mutants, but not in null mutants of either dredd or strica. A double mutation lacking both dronc and strica impaired PCD phenotype more severely than did a dronc mutation alone, but comparably to a triple dredd/strica/dronc mutation, indicating that dronc is a main initiator caspase, while strica plays a minor role that overlaps with dronc's. As for effector caspases, vCrz PCD requires both ice and dcp-1 functions, as they work cooperatively for a timely removal of the vCrz neurons. Interestingly, the activation of the Ice and Dcp-1 is not solely dependent on Dronc and Strica, implying an alternative pathway to activate the effectors. Two remaining effector caspase genes, decay and damm, found no apparent functions in the neuronal PCD, at least during early metamorphosis. Overall, our work revealed that vCrz PCD utilizes dronc, strica, dcp-1, and ice wherein the activation of Ice and Dcp-1 requires a novel pathway in addition to the initiator caspases.

  3. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. S-(–)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nadine M.; Galandi, Stephanie L.; Summer, Suzanne S.; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E.; King, Eileen C.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.

    2016-01-01

    S-(−)7-hydroxy-3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(−)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(−)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow’s milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(−)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(−)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(−)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow’s milk formula–fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(−)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(−)equol. In conclusion, S-(−)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(−)equol production. PMID:24916553

  5. Screening for Autism in Young Children with Developmental Delay: An Evaluation of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist--Early Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, K. M.; Tonge, B. J.; Sweeney, D. J.; Einfeld, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to identify children who require specialist assessment for the possibility of autism at as early an age as possible has become a growing area of research. A number of measures have been developed as potential screening tools for autism. The reliability and validity of one of these measures for screening for autism in young children…

  6. Early development in males with Fragile X syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kau, Alice S M; Meyer, Walter A; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2002-05-01

    This article reviews the current bibliographic knowledge on early neurobehavioral development and milestones in Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with emphasis on males affected by the condition. Three broad areas of early development were examined: (1) gross and fine motor, (2) speech and language, and (3) social. The result of the current review indicates very limited information on the developmental milestones in all three areas. The scarce literature on motor development shows that in FraX there is an early developmental delay. Research on speech and language demonstrates pervasive deficits in conversational skills and severe developmental delay, with increasing discrepancy between language level and chronological age in young males with FraX. Finally, deficits in social development in FraX include abnormal gaze, approach and avoidance conflict, and high incidence of autistic spectrum disorders. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  8. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  9. Skeletal Morphogenesis of Microbrachis and Hyloplesion (Tetrapoda: Lepospondyli), and Implications for the Developmental Patterns of Extinct, Early Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Olori, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The ontogeny of extant amphibians often is used as a model for that of extinct early tetrapods, despite evidence for a spectrum of developmental modes in temnospondyls and a paucity of ontogenetic data for lepospondyls. I describe the skeletal morphogenesis of the extinct lepospondyls Microbrachis pelikani and Hyloplesion longicostatum using the largest samples examined for either taxon. Nearly all known specimens were re-examined, allowing for substantial anatomical revisions that affect the scoring of characters commonly used in phylogenetic analyses of early tetrapods. The palate of H. longicostatum is re-interpreted and suggested to be more similar to that of M. pelikani, especially in the nature of the contact between the pterygoids. Both taxa possess lateral lines, and M. pelikani additionally exhibits branchial plates. However, early and rapid ossification of the postcranial skeleton, including a well-developed pubis and ossified epipodials, suggests that neither taxon metamorphosed nor were they neotenic in the sense of branchiosaurids and salamanders. Morphogenetic patterns in the foot suggest that digit 5 was developmentally delayed and the final digit to ossify in M. pelikani and H. longicostatum. Overall patterns of postcranial ossification may indicate postaxial dominance in limb and digit formation, but also more developmental variation in early tetrapods than has been appreciated. The phylogenetic position and developmental patterns of M. pelikani and H. longicostatum are congruent with the hypothesis that early tetrapods lacked metamorphosis ancestrally and that stem-amniotes exhibited derived features of development, such as rapid and complete ossification of the skeleton, potentially prior to the evolution of the amniotic egg. PMID:26083733

  10. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems’ developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact. PMID:25944445

  11. Developmentally dynamic genome: Evidence of genetic influences on increases and decreases in conduct problems from early childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; Viding, Essi

    2015-05-06

    The development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including psychiatric morbidity. Although genes constitute a proven factor of stability in conduct problems, less is known regarding their role in conduct problems' developmental course (i.e. systematic age changes, for instance linear increases or decreases).Mothers rated conduct problems from age 4 to 16 years in 10,038 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study. Individual differences in the baseline level (.78; 95% CI: .68-.88) and the developmental course of conduct problems (.73; 95% CI: .60-.86) were under high and largely independent additive genetic influences. Shared environment made a small contribution to the baseline level but not to the developmental course of conduct problems. These results show that genetic influences not only contribute to behavioural stability but also explain systematic change in conduct problems. Different sets of genes may be associated with the developmental course versus the baseline level of conduct problems. The structure of genetic and environmental influences on the development of conduct problems suggests that repeated preventive interventions at different developmental stages might be necessary to achieve a long-term impact.

  12. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A.; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05–0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother’s own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion

  13. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion

  14. Developmental Surveillance and Screening Practices by Pediatric Primary Care Providers: Implications for Early Intervention Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sallie; Qureshi, Rubab; Caldwell, Barbara Ann; Echevarria, Mercedes; Dubbs, William B.; Sullivan, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a survey approach to investigate current developmental surveillance and developmental screening practices by pediatric primary care providers in a diverse New Jersey county. A total of 217 providers were contacted with a final sample size of 57 pediatric primary care respondents from 13 different municipalities. Most providers…

  15. Developmentally Universal Practice: Visioning Innovative Early Childhood Pedagogy for Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2015-01-01

    Although developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) has strong merits, there are considerations pertaining to its development and implementation which must be raised. In order for educators to include diverse voices of young children, the time has come for a new conversation to unfold introducing developmentally universal practice (DUP). With this…

  16. Generation of a transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain for visualization of nuclear dynamics in early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takanobu; Iida, Atsuo; Maegawa, Shingo; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Kinoshita, Masato

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution. Furthermore, male and female pronuclei were visualized in fertilized eggs, and nuclear dynamics of pronuclear fusion and subsequent cleavage were captured by time-lapse imaging. In contrast, SV40NLS exhibited no activity of nuclear transport in early embryos. In conclusion, the aNLS possesses a strong nuclear localization activity and is a useful probe for fluorescent observation of the pronuclei and nuclei in early developmental stage of medaka. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. ASDS Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery Fellowship Milestones.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Arndt, Kenneth A; Avram, Mathew M; Brown, Mariah R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Fabi, Sabrina G; Friedmann, Daniel P; Geronemus, Roy G; Goldberg, David J; Goldman, Mitchel P; Green, Jeremy B; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Jones, Derek H; Kilmer, Suzanne L; McDaniel, David H; Obagi, Suzan; Ortiz, Arisa E; Rohrer, Thomas E; Taylor, Mark B; Torres, Abel; Weinkle, Susan H; Weiss, Margaret A; Weiss, Eduardo T; Weiss, Robert A; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2016-10-01

    The American Council of Graduate Medical Education, which oversees much of postgraduate medical education in the United States, has championed the concept of "milestones," standard levels of achievement keyed to particular time points, to assess trainee performance during residency. To develop a milestones document for the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery (CDS) fellowship program. An ad hoc milestone drafting committee was convened that included members of the ASDS Accreditation Work Group and program directors of ASDS-approved Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery (CDC) fellowship training programs. Draft milestones were circulated through email in multiple rounds until consensus was achieved. Thirteen milestones were developed in the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency areas, with 8 of these being patient-care milestones. Additional instructions for milestone administration more specific to the CDS fellowship than general ACGME instructions were also approved. Implementation of semiannual milestones was scheduled for the fellowship class entering in July 2018. Milestones are now available for CDS fellowship directors to implement in combination with other tools for fellow evaluation.

  18. Developmental outcome after surgery in focal cortical dysplasia patients with early-onset epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nobusuke; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ootani, Hideyuki; Takayama, Rumiko; Mogami, Yukiko; Kimura, Noriko; Baba, Koichi; Matsuda, Kazumi; Tottori, Takayasu; Usui, Naotaka; Inoue, Yushi

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental outcome after surgery for early-onset epilepsy in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Among 108 patients with histopathologically confirmed FCD operated between 1985 and 2008, we selected 17 patients with epilepsy onset up to 3 years of age. Development was evaluated by the developmental quotient or intelligence quotient (DQ-IQ) and mental age was measured by the Mother-Child Counseling baby test or the Tanaka-Binet scale of intelligence. Postsurgical development outcome was evaluated by the changes in DQ-IQ and mental age as well as rate of increase in mental age (RIMA) after surgery. RIMA was calculated as the increase in mental age per chronological year (months/year; normal average rate: 12 months/year). Age at epilepsy onset of 17 patients ranged from 15 days to 36 months (mean±SD, 11.0±10.0 months). Age at surgery ranged from 18 to 145 months (75.1±32.4 months). Evaluation just before surgery showed that 13 of 17 (76.4%) patients had DQ-IQ below 70. Ten patients (58.8%) were seizure-free throughout the postsurgical follow-up period. After surgery, DQ-IQ was maintained within 10 points of the presurgical level in 13 patients (76.4%), and increased by more than 10 points in one patient (5.9%). After surgery, RIMA in patients with Engel's class I (7.5±3.8) was higher than patients with Engel's class II-IV (2.6±3.4) (unpaired t-test with Welch's correction, t=2.99, df=15, p=0.0092). RIMA was particularly low in two patients with spasm. In four patients with presurgical DQ-IQ<70, seizure-free after surgery and without spasm, DQ-IQ did not increase but RIMA improved from 3.6±2.8 before surgery to 6.9±2.5 months/year after surgery. RIMA became better from 2 years after surgery. In four patients with presurgical DQ-IQ≥70 and no spasm, two showed the same or higher RIMA than normal average after surgery. In 58.8% of FCD patients with early onset epilepsy, epilepsy surgery effectively

  19. Ways to Write a Milestone: Approaches to Operationalizing the Development of Competence in Graduate Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Reed, Darcy A; Starr, Stephanie R; Havyer, Rachel D; Lang, Tara R; Norby, Suzanne M

    2017-09-01

    To identify approaches to operationalizing the development of competence in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. The authors reviewed all 25 "Milestone Project" documents available on the ACGME Web site on September 11, 2013, using an iterative process to identify approaches to operationalizing the development of competence in the milestones associated with each of 601 subcompetencies. Fifteen approaches were identified. Ten focused on attributes and activities of the learner, such as their ability to perform different, increasingly difficult tasks (304/601; 51%), perform a task better and faster (171/601; 45%), or perform a task more consistently (123/601; 20%). Two approaches focused on context, inferring competence from performing a task in increasingly difficult situations (236/601; 29%) or an expanding scope of engagement (169/601; 28%). Two used socially defined indicators of competence such as progression from "learning" to "teaching," "leading," or "role modeling" (271/601; 45%). One approach focused on the supervisor's role, inferring competence from a decreasing need for supervision or assistance (151/601; 25%). Multiple approaches were often combined within a single set of milestones (mean 3.9, SD 1.6). Initial ACGME milestones operationalize the development of competence in many ways. These findings offer insights into how physicians understand and assess the developmental progression of competence and an opportunity to consider how different approaches may affect the validity of milestone-based assessments. The results of this analysis can inform the work of educators developing or revising milestones, interpreting milestone data, or creating assessment tools to inform milestone-based performance measures.

  20. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Blind Child and His Parents: Congenital Visual Defect and the Repercussion of Family Attitudes on the Early Development of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lairy, G. C.; Harrison-Covello, A.

    Discussed are the effects of parental attitudes on the early development of the congenitally blind child. The disproportion between family reactions and the limitations of the handicap are attributed to symbolic aspects of blindness and previously existing pathological elements in the parents. Compared are developmental milestones (such as the…

  2. Profile of referrals for early childhood developmental delay to ambulatory subspecialty clinics.

    PubMed

    Shevell, M I; Majnemer, A; Rosenbaum, P; Abrahamowicz, M

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the profile and pattern of referral to subspecialty clinics of young children with suspected developmental delay together with the factors prompting their referral. All children under 5 years of age referred to either developmental pediatrics or pediatric neurology clinics at a single tertiary hospital over an 18-month period were prospectively identified. Standardized demographic and referral information were collected at intake, final developmental delay subtype diagnosed was identified, and referring physicians were surveyed regarding factors prompting referral. A total of 224 children met study criteria. There was a marked male preponderance (166/224), especially among those with either cognitive or language delay. Two delay subtypes, global developmental delay and developmental language disorder, accounted for two thirds of the diagnoses made. For slightly more than one third of the children (75/224), the delay subtype diagnosed following specialty evaluation was different from that initially suspected by the referring physician. A mean delay of 15.5 months was observed for the cohort as a whole between initial parental concern and specialty assessment. For referring physicians, the major factor prompting referral was the severity of the observed delay. The most important aspects of the specialty evaluation according to referral sources were the identification of a possible etiology and confirmation of delay. A profile of referrals and the rationale thereof for a cohort of children with suspected developmental delay is presented that, although locale specific, has implications for service provision and training.

  3. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER–CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    PubMed Central

    GUL, HESNA; EROL, NESE; AKIN, DUYGU PAMIR; GULLU, BELGİN USTUN; AKCAKİN, MELDA; ALPAS, BAŞAK; ÖNER, ÖZGÜR

    2016-01-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent–child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant’s diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, 2012; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 2000) scores and the relative contributions of infant’s age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant–mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant’s diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant’s age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants’ involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent–child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. PMID:26891759

  4. 48 CFR 307.7106 - Acquisition milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition milestones. 307.7106 Section 307.7106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION... to track progress of the acquisition. The milestone schedule signatories (see the Requirements and...

  5. 48 CFR 307.7106 - Acquisition milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition milestones. 307.7106 Section 307.7106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION... to track progress of the acquisition. The milestone schedule signatories (see the Requirements and...

  6. Milestones in the history of personality disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model. PMID:24174889

  7. Morphological and histomorphological structures of testes and ovaries in early developmental stages of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Kirino, Yohei; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2016-01-01

    The gonad develops as a testis in male or an ovary in female. In the silkworm, B. mori , little is known about testis and ovary in the embryonic stages and early larval stages. In this study, we performed morphological and histomorphological observations of ovaries and testes from the late embryonic stage to the 1st instar larval stage. Results obtained with lack of accurate information on sex of examined individuals may be misleading, thus we performed phenotypic observations of gonads by utilizing sex-limited strain that enables us to easily discriminate female embryos from male ones based on those egg colors. In testis, four testicular follicles were clearly observed in the testis at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the testicular follicles. At the late embryonic stage, the testis consisted of four testicular follicles, while the boundary layers were still obscure. In ovary, four ovarioles were easily recognizable in the ovary at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the ovarioles. However, in the late embryonic stage, it was quite difficult to identify four ovarioles. Morphological characteristics were almost similar between testis and ovary in early developmental stages. Our present study demonstrates that the most reliable difference between testis and ovary in early developmental stages is the attaching point of the duct. Formation and development of the duct may be sensitive to the sex-determining signal and display sexual dimorphism in early embryonic stages.

  8. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  9. Divergence of developmental trajectories is triggered interactively by early social and ecological experience in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Lena; Oberhummer, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeders feature the highest level of social complexity among vertebrates. Environmental constraints foster the evolution of this form of social organization, selecting for both well-developed social and ecological competences. Cooperative breeders pursue one of two alternative social trajectories: delaying reproduction to care for the offspring of dominant breeders or dispersing early to breed independently. It is yet unclear which ecological and social triggers determine the choice between these alternatives and whether diverging developmental trajectories exist in cooperative vertebrates predisposing them to dispersal or philopatry. Here we experimentally reared juveniles of cooperatively breeding cichlid fish by varying the social environment and simulated predation threat in a two-by-two factorial long-term experiment. First, we show that individuals develop specialized behavioral competences, originating already in the early postnatal phase. Second, these specializations predisposed individuals to pursue different developmental trajectories and either to disperse early or to extend philopatry in adulthood. Thus, our results contrast with the proposition that social specializations in early ontogeny should be restricted to eusocial species. Importantly, social and ecological triggers were both required for the generation of divergent life histories. Our results thus confirm recent predictions from theoretical models that organisms should combine relevant information from different environmental cues to develop integrated phenotypes. PMID:29078289

  10. Educational Milestone Development in the First 7 Specialties to Enter the Next Accreditation System

    PubMed Central

    Swing, Susan R.; Beeson, Michael S.; Carraccio, Carol; Coburn, Michael; Iobst, William; Selden, Nathan R.; Stern, Peter J.; Vydareny, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project introduced 6 general competencies relevant to medical practice but fell short of its goal to create a robust assessment system that would allow program accreditation based on outcomes. In response, the ACGME, the specialty boards, and other stakeholders collaborated to develop educational milestones, observable steps in residents' professional development that describe progress from entry to graduation and beyond. Objectives We summarize the development of the milestones, focusing on 7 specialties, moving to the next accreditation system in July 2013, and offer evidence of their validity. Methods Specialty workgroups with broad representation used a 5-level developmental framework and incorporated information from literature reviews, specialty curricula, dialogue with constituents, and pilot testing. Results The workgroups produced richly diverse sets of milestones that reflect the community's consideration of attributes of competence relevant to practice in the given specialty. Both their development process and the milestones themselves establish a validity argument, when contemporary views of validity for complex performance assessment are used. Conclusions Initial evidence for validity emerges from the development processes and the resulting milestones. Further advancing a validity argument will require research on the use of milestone data in resident assessment and program accreditation. PMID:24404235

  11. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid acts as a nutrient-derived developmental cue to regulate early hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisen; Yue, Rui; Wei, Bin; Gao, Ge; Du, Jiulin; Pei, Gang

    2014-06-17

    Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac blood islands during vertebrate embryogenesis, where abundant phosphatidylcholines (PC) are available as important nutrients for the developing embryo. However, whether these phospholipids also generate developmental cues to promote hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signaling molecule derived from PC, regulated hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Pharmacological and genetic blockage of LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) or autotoxin (ATX), a secretory lysophospholipase that catalyzes LPA production, inhibited hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and impaired the formation of hemangioblasts. Mechanistic experiments revealed that the regulatory effect of ATX-LPA signaling was mediated by PI3K/Akt-Smad pathway. Furthermore, during in vivo embryogenesis in zebrafish, LPA functioned as a developmental cue for hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Taken together, we identified LPA as an important nutrient-derived developmental cue for primitive hematopoiesis as well as a novel mechanism of hemangioblast regulation. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Lysophosphatidic acid acts as a nutrient-derived developmental cue to regulate early hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haisen; Yue, Rui; Wei, Bin; Gao, Ge; Du, Jiulin; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Primitive hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac blood islands during vertebrate embryogenesis, where abundant phosphatidylcholines (PC) are available as important nutrients for the developing embryo. However, whether these phospholipids also generate developmental cues to promote hematopoiesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a signaling molecule derived from PC, regulated hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Pharmacological and genetic blockage of LPA receptor 1 (LPAR1) or autotoxin (ATX), a secretory lysophospholipase that catalyzes LPA production, inhibited hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and impaired the formation of hemangioblasts. Mechanistic experiments revealed that the regulatory effect of ATX-LPA signaling was mediated by PI3K/Akt-Smad pathway. Furthermore, during in vivo embryogenesis in zebrafish, LPA functioned as a developmental cue for hemangioblast formation and primitive hematopoiesis. Taken together, we identified LPA as an important nutrient-derived developmental cue for primitive hematopoiesis as well as a novel mechanism of hemangioblast regulation. PMID:24829209

  14. Early-postnatal changes in adiposity and lipids profile by transgenerational developmental programming in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Global Perspective on Early Diagnosis and Intervention for Children with Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherzer, Alfred L.; Chhagan, Meera; Kauchali, Shuaib; Susser, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing a significant reduction in mortality of children under 5 years of age. This reduction is bringing in its wake large numbers of surviving children with developmental delays and disabilities. Very little attention has been paid to these children, most of whom receive minimal or no support. Thus,…

  16. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Perceived Friendship Intimacy, Constructive Problem Solving, and Depression from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…

  18. Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

  19. Early Childhood Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, D. B.; Hauser-Cram, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The importance of positive parent-adolescent relationships is stressed in research on adolescents, although very little is known about this relationship when a teen has developmental disabilities (DD). We investigated the relationships of adolescents with disabilities with their mothers and their fathers in order to answer a number of…

  20. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  1. Community College Developmental Education Services: Perspectives of Spanish-Speaking Latino Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberly, John E.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this single-case study was to understand the perceptions of Latino Spanish-speaking English learners on the efficacy of developmental education services at a Western U.S. community college. The primary data collection method was in-depth individual interviews of a purposeful sample of nine successful students. Findings indicated…

  2. An Examination of the Relationship between a Child's Developmental Age and Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Christine E.; Senseny, Karlen

    2016-01-01

    American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA) of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age…

  3. Early Domain-Specific Knowledge? Nonlinear Developmental Trajectories Further Erode a House of Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deak, Gedeon O.

    2011-01-01

    Rakison and Yermolayeva (this issue) argue that domain specificity is difficult to reconcile with U-, N-, or M-shaped developmental trends. They are justified because: (1) There is no compelling evidence that nonlinear trends require mechanisms beyond general, well-known cognitive processes; and (2) epigenetic neuroscience provides no clear…

  4. Talk with Your Mother or Your Sibling? Developmental Changes in Early Family Conversations about Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane R.; Dunn, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Developmental changes in the pattern of 50 families' conversations about feelings were examined when the families' second-born children were 33 and 47 months old. The total amount of talk and the frequency of talk about feelings between sibling pairs increased, whereas the amount of mother-child conversation and references to feelings decreased.…

  5. Individual and Developmental Differences in Disengagement of Fixation in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Janet E.; Colombo, John; Saxon, Terrill F.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether individual and developmental differences in look duration were correlated with latency to disengage fixation from a visual stimulus for 3- and 4-month olds. Found that look duration was correlated with disengagement latency. Three-month olds showed slower latencies than 4-month olds. Long-looking infants showed greater…

  6. Thinking about Feelings: Emotion Focus in the Parenting of Children with Early Developmental Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. K.; Crnic, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental delays exhibit more difficulty with certain emotional processes than their typically developing peers, which seems to partially account for the increased risk for the development of social problems in this population. Despite considerable study with typically developing populations, research on parental…

  7. The Role of Early Childhood Personality in the Developmental Course of Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavcic, Tina; Podlesek, Anja; Zupancic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    This study explored children, preschool, and family characteristics that contribute to individual differences in the developmental trajectories of social competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Teachers reported on personality and social adjustment of 304 children at ages 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Predictors of social adjustment…

  8. Parental Practices and Developmental Challenges of Boys of Color: Opportunities for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.

    2015-01-01

    The "My Brother's Keeper" Initiative (Obama, 2014) has helped to attract public attention to the vulnerabilities faced by many boys of color (BOC). In this article, I review what is known about the developmental status of BOC, identify key family practices that are critical to their development, and consider the implications of both for…

  9. Identification and Characterization of Genes Required for Early Myxococcus xanthus Developmental Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongchuan; Wu, Yun; Kaplan, Heidi B.

    2000-01-01

    Starvation and cell density regulate the developmental expression of Myxococcus xanthus gene 4521. Three classes of mutants allow expression of this developmental gene during growth on nutrient agar, such that colonies of strains containing a Tn5 lac Ω4521 fusion are Lac+. One class of these mutants inactivates SasN, a negative regulator of 4521 expression; another class activates SasS, a sensor kinase-positive regulator of 4521 expression; and a third class blocks lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen biosynthesis. To identify additional positive regulators of 4521 expression, 11 Lac− TnV.AS transposon insertion mutants were isolated from a screen of 18,000 Lac+ LPS O-antigen mutants containing Tn5 lac Ω4521 (Tcr). Ten mutations identified genes that could encode positive regulators of 4521 developmental expression based on their ability to abolish 4521 expression during development in the absence of LPS O antigen and in an otherwise wild-type background. Eight of these mutations mapped to the sasB locus, which encodes the known 4521 regulators SasS and SasN. One mapped to sasS, whereas seven identified new genes. Three mutations mapped to a gene encoding an NtrC-like response regulator homologue, designated sasR, and four others mapped to a gene designated sasP. One mutation, designated ssp10, specifically suppressed the LPS O-antigen defect; the ssp10 mutation had no effect on 4521 expression in an otherwise wild-type background but reduced 4521 developmental expression in the absence of LPS O antigen to a level close to that of the parent strain. All of the mutations except those in sasP conferred defects during growth and development. These data indicate that a number of elements are required for 4521 developmental expression and that most of these are necessary for normal growth and fruiting body development. PMID:10913090

  10. Developmental tasks of early marriage: Barefoot in the Park (1967), Raising Arizona (1987), The Quiet Man (1952).

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Salman; Billinkoff, Zoe

    2011-06-01

    Using three Hollywood movies as a springboard, the authors offer a discussion of the psychosocial challenges faced by an individual entering a marital relationship. Keeping their attention on both intrapsychic and interpersonal factors, as well as the group matrix surrounding the couple, the authors discuss the subtleties of identity transformation, evolution of true mutuality, distance-related conflicts, and the deeper synthesis of affection and sensuality in the setting of early marriage. Their portrayal of this adult developmental phase is intended to help clinicians evolve greater empathy with newly married individuals.

  11. Early developmental influences on self-esteem trajectories from adolescence through adulthood: Impact of birth weight and motor skills.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) survivors (N = 179) and normal birth weight controls (N = 145) in the world, born between 1977 and 1982. Motor skills were measured using a performance-based assessment at age 8 and a retrospective self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.

  12. Early developmental trajectories of number knowledge and math achievement from 4 to 10 years: Low-persistent profile and early-life predictors.

    PubMed

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Kovas, Yulia; Parent, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Dionne, Ginette

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the development of number knowledge (NK) and the antecedents of low-persistent NK profiles in early childhood. We documented the developmental trajectories of NK across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles. Children's NK was assessed four times at regular intervals between the ages 4 and 7 years in a large, representative population-based sample. Developmental trajectories of NK were established for 1597 children. These children were also assessed with respect to several features of their family environment at 5, 17, and 29 months, as well as their cognitive skills at age 41 months. Analyses revealed a best-fitting 4-trajectory model, characterized by Low-Increasing (10% of the children), Moderate-Increasing (39%), Moderate-Fast Increasing (32%) and High-Increasing (19%) groups. Children of these trajectory groups differed significantly with respect to math achievement at ages 8 and 10 years, with the Low-Increasing group persistently scoring lower than the other groups throughout these years. Children of Low-Increasing NK group were from household of lower income and father with low educational background, poorer early cognitive development, and more importantly, reduced visual-spatial skills and memory-span. Children displaying reduced cognitive abilities and impoverished living conditions early in life are at greater risk of low NK throughout late preschool and school entry, with ensuing difficulties in math achievement. They deserve early preventive attention to help alleviate later mathematic difficulties. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood. PMID:26267439

  15. Early life experience contributes to the developmental programming of depressive-like behaviour, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Fernandes, Gabrielly C; de Moura, Airam B; Silva, Ritele H; Darabas, Ana Caroline; de Souza, Thays G; Abelaira, Helena M; Carneiro, Celso; Wendhausen, Diogo; Michels, Monique; Pescador, Bruna; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Macêdo, Danielle S; Quevedo, João

    2017-12-01

    This study used an animal model of depression induced by maternal care deprivation (MCD) to investigate whether depressive behaviour, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were underlying factors in developmental programming after early life stress. At postnatal days (PND) 20, 30, 40, and 60, individual subsets of animals were evaluated in behavioural tests and then euthanized to assess cytokine levels and oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and serum. The results showed that MCD did not induce behavioural changes at PND 30 and 40. However, at PND 20 and 60, the rats displayed a depressive-like behaviour in the forced swimming test, without changes in locomotor spontaneous activity. In the brain and serum, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) were increased, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) level was reduced throughout developmental programming (PND 20, 30, 40 and 60). Protein carbonyl levels increased in the brain at PND 30, 40 and 60. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased during all developmental programming phases evaluated in the brain. Catalase (CAT) activity was decreased at PND 20, 40 and 60 in the brain. Our results revealed that "critical episodes" in early life stressful events are able to induce behavioural alterations that persist into adulthood and can stimulate inflammation and oxidative damage in both central and peripheral systems, which are required for distinct patterns of resilience against psychiatric disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interdyad differences in early mother-infant face-to-face communication: real-time dynamics and developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-12-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads with analyses performed dyad by dyad showed that most dyads go through 2 qualitatively different developmental phases of early face-to-face communication: After a phase of mutual attentiveness, mutual engagement begins in Weeks 7-8, with infant smiling and cooing bidirectionally linked with maternal mirroring. This gives rise to sequences of positive feedback that, by the 3rd month, dynamically stabilizes into innovative play routines. However, when there is a lack of bidirectional positive feedback between infant and maternal behaviors, and a lack of permeability of the early communicative patterns to incorporate innovations, the development of the mutual engagement phase is compromised. The findings contribute both to theories of relationship change processes and to clinical work with at-risk mother-infant interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  18. Sex differences in the developmental trajectories of impulse control and sensation-seeking from early adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Harden, K Paige; Chein, Jason M; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that high rates of risk-taking in adolescence are partly attributable to patterns of neurobiological development that promote an increase in sensation-seeking tendencies at a time when impulse control is still developing. It is not known, however, whether this pattern is the same for males and females. The present study investigates sex differences in the developmental trajectories of self-reported impulse control and sensation-seeking between the ages of 10 and 25 using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult Survey (N = 8,270; 49% female; 33% Black, 22% Hispanic, 45% Non-Black, Non-Hispanic). Prior work has found that, consistent with the dual-systems model of adolescent neurobiological development, sensation-seeking rises and falls across this age span, whereas impulse control increases into the 20s. In the present study, we find that this same general pattern holds for both males and females, but with some key differences. As expected, males exhibit higher levels of sensation-seeking and lower levels of impulse control than females. Differences also emerged in the shapes of the developmental trajectories. Females reach peak levels of sensation-seeking earlier than males (consistent with the idea that sensation-seeking is linked to pubertal development) and decline in sensation-seeking more rapidly thereafter. Also, males increase in impulse control more gradually than females. Consequently, sex differences in both impulse control and sensation-seeking increase with age. The findings suggest that the window of heightened vulnerability to risk-taking during adolescence may be greater in magnitude and more protracted for males than for females.

  19. Thermally induced chronic developmental stress in coho salmon: Integrating measures of mortality, early growth and fluctuating asymmetry

    Campbell, W.B.; Emlen, J.M.; Hershberger, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental stability, or homeostasis, facilitates the production of consistent phenotypes by buffering against stress. Fluctuating asymmetry is produced by developmental instability and is manifested as small random departures from bilateral symmetry. Increased fluctuating asymmetry is thought to parallel compromised fitness, in part, because stress promotes energy dissipation. Compensatory energy expenditures within the organism are required to complete development, thus promoting instability through reductions in homeostasis. Increased heterozygosity may enhance developmental stability by reducing energy dissipation from stress through increased metabolic efficiency, possibly by providing greater flexibility in metabolic pathways. Traditionally, fluctuating asymmetry has been used as a bioindicator of chronic stress, provided that selective mortality of less fit individuals did not reduce stress-mediated increases in fluctuating asymmetry to background levels produced by natural developmental error, or create data inconsistencies such as higher asymmetry in groups exposed to lower stress. Unfortunately, absence of selective mortality and its effects, while often assumed, can be difficult to substantiate. We integrated measures of early growth, mortality, fluctuating asymmetry (mandibular pores, pectoral finrays, pelvic finrays, and gillrakers on the upper and lower arms of the first branchial arch) and directional asymmetry (branchiostegal rays) to assess chronic thermal stress (fluctuating temperatures as opposed to ambient temperatures) in developing eggs from two different coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) stocks and their reciprocal hybrids. Hybridization provided insight on the capacity of heterozygosity to reduce stress during development. Although egg losses were consistently higher in crosses exposed to fluctuating temperatures, egg mortality was predominantly a function of maternal stock of origin. Post-hatch losses were higher in crosses exposed to

  20. Early predictors of helpless thoughts and behaviors in children: developmental precursors to depressive cognitions.

    PubMed

    Cole, David A; Warren, Dana E; Dallaire, Danielle H; Lagrange, Beth; Travis, Rebekah; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Learned helplessness behavior and cognitions were assessed in 95 kindergarten-age children during a series of impossible puzzle trials followed by a solvable puzzle trial. Latent growth curve analysis revealed reliable individual differences in the trajectories of children's affect, motivation, and self-cognitions over time. Parents' reports of negative life events, harsh/negative parenting, and warm/positive parenting were associated with their children's learned helplessness behavioral trajectories and outcomes over the course of the puzzle trials. Results support speculations about the developmental origins of depressive explanatory or attributional style in children.

  1. A Taxonomy of Instructional Strategies in Early Childhood Education; Toward a Developmental Theory of Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Barbara

    This paper suggests two steps in instructional deisgn for early childhood that can be derived from a recent major paper on instructional strategy taxonomy. These steps, together with the instructional design variables involved in each step, are reviewed relative to current research in child development and early education. The variables reviewed…

  2. The Typical Developmental Trajectory of Social and Executive Functions in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…

  3. Applying Contemporary Developmental and Movement Science Theories and Evidence to Early Intervention Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Robbin; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Long, Toby M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in early childhood science, theory, and best practices for improving outcomes of children with motor delay or dysfunction and their families have evolved rapidly since EI began. Changes in daily early intervention (EI) practice have been more elusive. Closing the gap between knowledge and practice requires EI providers to piece together…

  4. Early Influences and Later Outcomes Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Eriksonian Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Eriksonian theory suggests that adolescents’ sense of fidelity is a key component of healthy development, research on this psychosocial construct has been limited. The current study developed an index of youth fidelity, examined the developmental course of this construct, explored the influence of contextual factors on different fidelity trajectories, and tested if trajectories were associated with later indicators of adolescents’ positive development. Participants included 1,941 ethnically diverse youth (61% female) participants in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development who were recruited from schools and youth development programs across the United States. Results suggested that three types of developmental trajectories existed among youth: high and increasing, moderate and increasing, and low and decreasing. Fidelity group membership varied in relation to social relationships and psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., contribution, substance use, and delinquency). Girls were more likely than boys to be in the highest fidelity trajectories. Directions for future research and implications for enhancing the thriving of adolescents are discussed. PMID:22545838

  5. Born early and born poor: An eco-bio-developmental model for poverty and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth.

  6. Developmental disruption of medial prefrontal cortical GABAergic function by non-contingent cocaine exposure during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Daryn K.; Thomases, Daniel R.; Caballero, Adriana; Tseng, Kuei Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug experimentation during adolescence is associated with increased risk of drug addiction relative to any other age group. To further our understanding on the neurobiology underlying such liability, we investigate how early adolescent cocaine experience impacts the overall medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network function in adulthood. Methods A non-contingent administration paradigm was used to assess the impact of early adolescent cocaine treatment (rats; postnatal days -PD- 35-40) on the overall inhibitory regulation of mPFC activity in adulthood (PD65-75) by means of histochemical and in vivo electrophysiological measures combined with pharmacological manipulations. Results Cocaine exposure during early adolescence yields a distinctive hyper-metabolic PFC state that was not observed in adult (PD75-80)-treated rats. Local field potential recordings expand upon these findings by showing that early adolescent cocaine exposure is associated with an attenuation of mPFC GABAergic inhibition evoked by ventral hippocampal stimulation at beta and gamma frequencies that endures throughout adulthood. Such cocaine-induced mPFC disinhibition was not observed in adult-exposed animals. Furthermore, the normal developmental upregulation of parvalbumin immunoreactivity observed in the mPFC from PD35 to PD65 is lacking following early adolescent cocaine treatment. Conclusion Our data indicate that repeated cocaine exposure during early adolescence can elicit a state of mPFC disinhibition resulting from a functional impairment of the local prefrontal GABAergic network that endures through adulthood. A lack of acquisition of prefrontal GABAergic function during adolescence could trigger long-term deficits in the mPFC that may increase the susceptibility for the onset of substance abuse and related psychiatric disorders. PMID:23558299

  7. Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a New South Wales child population at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Green, Melissa J; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Laurens, Kristin R; Dean, Kimberlie; Kariuki, Maina; Harris, Felicity; O'Reilly, Nicole; Chilvers, Marilyn; Brinkman, Sally A; Carr, Vaughan J

    2018-06-01

    Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age. We used binary data from 16 subdomains of the Australian Early Development Census to determine classes of children with shared patterns of Australian Early Development Census-defined vulnerability using latent class analysis. Covariates, which included demographic features (sex, socioeconomic status) and exposure to child maltreatment, parental mental illness, parental criminal offending and perinatal adversities (i.e. birth complications, smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight), were examined hierarchically within latent class analysis models. Four classes were identified, reflecting putative risk states for mental disorders: (1) disrespectful and aggressive/hyperactive behaviour, labelled 'misconduct risk' ( N = 4368; 6.5%); (2) 'pervasive risk' ( N = 2668; 4.0%); (3) 'mild generalised risk' ( N = 7822; 11.6%); and (4) 'no risk' ( N = 52,495; 77.9%). The odds of membership in putative risk groups (relative to the no risk group) were greater among children from backgrounds of child maltreatment, parental history of mental illness, parental history of criminal offending, socioeconomic disadvantage and perinatal adversities, with distinguishable patterns of association for some covariates. Patterns of early childhood developmental vulnerabilities may provide useful indicators

  8. Comparative toxicity of several metal oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Duan, Zhenghua; Qi, Ruiqi; Li, Yan; Lang, Yupeng

    2008-02-15

    With the emergence of manufactured nanomaterials, it is urgent to carry out researches on their potential environmental impacts and biological effects. To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles released to aquatic environments, the zebrafish 96-h embryo-larval bioassay was used to assess and compare the developmental toxicities of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO), titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) and alumina (nAl(2)O(3)) aqueous suspensions. Toxicological endpoints such as zebrafish embryos or larvae survival, hatching rate and malformation were noted and described within 96 h of exposure. Meanwhile, a comparative experiment with their bulk counterparts (i.e., ZnO/bulk, TiO(2)/bulk and Al(2)O(3)/bulk) was conducted to understand the effect of particle size on their toxicities. The results showed that: (i) both nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions delayed zebrafish embryo and larva development, decreased their survival and hatching rates, and caused tissue damage. The 96-h LC(50) of nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions on the zebrafish survival are 1.793 mg/L and 1.550 mg/L respectively; and the 84-h EC(50) on the zebrafish embryo hatching rate are 2.065 mg/L and 2.066 mg/L respectively. Serious tissue ulceration was found on zebrafish larvae exposed to nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions. (ii) In contrast, neither nTiO(2) and TiO(2)/bulk nor nAl(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3)/bulk showed any toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae under the same experimental condition. It revealed that the metal oxide nanoparticles with different chemical composition have different zebrafish developmental toxicities. (iii) Exposures of nTiO(2), nZnO and nAl(2)O(3) produced toxic effects on zebrafish embryos and larvae, which was not different from the effects caused by exposing to their bulk counterparts. This is the first study about the developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, and the results demonstrate that nZnO is very toxic to

  9. Milestone-specific, Observed data points for evaluating levels of performance (MODEL) assessment strategy for anesthesiology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Christopher J; Fitzgerald, Brian M; Kraus, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesiology residency programs will be expected to have Milestones-based evaluation systems in place by July 2014 as part of the Next Accreditation System. The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium (SAUSHEC) anesthesiology residency program developed and implemented a Milestones-based feedback and evaluation system a year ahead of schedule. It has been named the Milestone-specific, Observed Data points for Evaluating Levels of performance (MODEL) assessment strategy. The "MODEL Menu" and the "MODEL Blueprint" are tools that other anesthesiology residency programs can use in developing their own Milestones-based feedback and evaluation systems prior to ACGME-required implementation. Data from our early experience with the streamlined MODEL blueprint assessment strategy showed substantially improved faculty compliance with reporting requirements. The MODEL assessment strategy provides programs with a workable assessment method for residents, and important Milestones data points to programs for ACGME reporting.

  10. Hepcidin, Cathelicidin-1 and IL-8 as immunological markers of responsiveness in early developmental stages of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula A; Guzmán, Fanny; Forero, Juan C; Luna, Omar F; Mercado, Luis

    2016-09-01

    During the early developmental stage of salmonids, high mortality occurs largely as a result of pathogens. These cause low immune competence in fry, producing disease, decreasing production and finally leading to economic losses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the developmental stages in which rainbow trout acquires immune response capability when challenged with LPS from Pseudomona aeruginosa for 8 h, studying the hepcidin, cathelicidin-1 and IL-8. Total RNA was extracted from fry at 34, 42, 56 and 66 days post hatching (dph). Hepcidin and cathelicidin-1 transcripts were detected only at days 34 and 42, whereas the IL-8 transcript was detected from day 34 to day 66. To analyse the protein expression in the fry, polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies were generated in rabbit. These three immune sera demonstrated the ability to recognise the whole molecule in biological samples. Immunofluorescence showed that skin, gills and intestine mainly responded to the LPS challenge, indicating that these portals of pathogen entry are capturing LPS. This study constitutes a valuable approach, since it has the potential to identify molecules with biological activity that can be used to evaluate the status of fry in culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Detection and Prevention of Mental Health Problems: Developmental Epidemiology and Systems of Support.

    PubMed

    Costello, E Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the role of developmental epidemiology in the prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders and the implications for systems of support. The article distinguishes between universal or primary prevention, which operates at the level of the whole community to limit risk exposure before the onset of symptoms, and secondary or targeted prevention, which operates by identifying those at high risk of developing a disorder. It discusses different aspects of time as it relates to risk for onset of disease, such as age at first exposure, duration of exposure, age at onset of first symptoms, and time until treatment. The study compares universal and targeted prevention, describing the systems needed to support each, and their unintended consequences.

  12. Developing a comprehensive resident education evaluation system in the era of milestone assessment.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Choti, Michael A; Mansour, John C

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to move training programs toward competency-based education, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced the Next Accreditation System (NAS), which organizes specific milestones regarding resident skills, knowledge, and abilities along a continuum. In order to foster innovation and creativity, the ACGME has provided programs with minimal guidelines regarding the optimal way to approach these milestones. The education team at UT Southwestern embraced the milestones and developed a process in which performance assessment methods were critically evaluated, mapped onto an extrapolated performance list corresponding to the areas required by the ACGME milestones, and filled gaps in the previous system by modifying evaluation tools and creating new program components. Although the authors are early in the evolution of applying the new milestones system, this approach has thus far allowed them to comprehensively evaluate the residents and the program in an efficient and effective fashion, with notable improvements compared to the prior approach. The authors hope that these experiences can inform others embarking upon similar journeys with the milestones. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals developmental heterogeneity among early lymphoid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Alberti-Servera, Llucia; von Muenchow, Lilly; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Eschbach, Katja; Beisel, Christian; Ceredig, Rhodri; Ivanek, Robert; Rolink, Antonius

    2017-12-15

    Single-cell RNA sequencing is a powerful technology for assessing heterogeneity within defined cell populations. Here, we describe the heterogeneity of a B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - uncommitted hematopoietic progenitor having combined lymphoid and myeloid potential. Phenotypic and functional assays revealed four subpopulations within the progenitor with distinct lineage developmental potentials. Among them, the Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - fraction was lymphoid-restricted exhibiting strong B-cell potential, whereas the Ly6D - SiglecH - CD11c - fraction showed mixed lympho-myeloid potential. Single-cell RNA sequencing of these subsets revealed that the latter population comprised a mixture of cells with distinct lymphoid and myeloid transcriptional signatures and identified a subgroup as the potential precursor of Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - Subsequent functional assays confirmed that B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - single cells are, with rare exceptions, not bipotent for lymphoid and myeloid lineages. A B-cell priming gradient was observed within the Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - subset and we propose a herein newly identified subgroup as the direct precursor of the first B-cell committed stage. Therefore, the apparent multipotency of B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - progenitors results from underlying heterogeneity at the single-cell level and highlights the validity of single-cell transcriptomics for resolving cellular heterogeneity and developmental relationships among hematopoietic progenitors. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Early developmental, temperamental and educational problems in 'substance use disorder' patients with and without ADHD. Does ADHD make a difference?

    PubMed

    Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Jellestad, Finn Konow; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Levin, Frances R; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; Koeter, Maarten W J; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz; Møller, Merete; van de Glind, Geurt

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of ADHD among patients with substance use disorder (SUD) is substantial. This study addressed the following research questions: Are early developmental, temperamental and educational problems overrepresented among SUD patients with ADHD compared to SUD patients without ADHD? Do this comorbid group receive early help for their ADHD, and are there signs of self-medicating with illicit central stimulants? An international, multi-centre cross-sectional study was carried out involving seven European countries, with 1205 patients in treatment for SUD. The mean age was 40 years and 27% of the sample was female. All participants were interviewed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV. SUD patients with ADHD ( n  = 196; 16.3% of the total sample) had a significantly slower infant development than SUD patients without ADHD ( n  = 1,009; 83.4%), had greater problems controlling their temperament, and had lower educational attainment. Only 24 (12%) of the current ADHD positive patients had been diagnosed and treated during childhood and/or adolescence. Finally, SUD patients with ADHD were more likely to have central stimulants or cannabis as their primary substance of abuse, whereas alcohol use was more likely to be the primary substance of abuse in SUD patients without ADHD. The results emphasize the importance of early identification of ADHD and targeted interventions in the health and school system, as well as in the addiction field.

  15. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Early Adulthood with Family Interventions in Adolescence: Outcomes and Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Caruthers, Allison S.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent study participants who engaged in a brief, family-centered intervention (the Family Check-Up; FCU) were later assessed for the intervention’s effects on high-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) in early adulthood (age 22). Participants (N = 998 adolescents and their families) were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention in 6th grade and were offered a gated, multilevel intervention that included (a) a school-based family resource center, (b) the FCU, and (c) more intensive, family-based treatment. All services were voluntary, but high-risk families were actively recruited into the FCU. Approximately 23% of the intervention families engaged in the FCU and approximately 18% engaged in more intensive treatment. Using an intent-to-treat design, we found that the direct effect of the FCU on HRSB was not significant; however, an analysis of the developmental processes indicated that intervention families demonstrated improved family relationship quality when compared to control families, which in turn resulted in lower levels of HRSB in early adulthood. Further, the significant effect of family relationship quality on HRSB was mediated by differences in parental monitoring and early sexual activity, and these effects varied as a function of gender and ethnicity. Indirect effects of the FCU on HRSB were significant via multiple different pathways. The implications of these findings for enhancing the impact of family-centered interventions are discussed. PMID:23536124

  16. Demonstration of Parent Training to Address Early Self-Injury in Young Children with Intellectual and Developmental Delays.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Jill C; Kirsch, Alexandra; Faidley, Micah; Bauer, Nerissa

    2018-06-20

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at a high risk for engaging in self-injurious behavior (SIB). Prognosis is poor when SIB emerges early. Limited research exists on interventions teaching parents how to manage their young child's SIB. This investigation assessed the feasibility of adapting an applied behavior analytic parent training program with 11 parents of children 1-5 years of age with IDD and SIB. Quantitative and observational measures were used to assess outcomes; semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver satisfaction. Outcomes yielded preliminary data suggesting the adapted curriculum was feasible and acceptable to parents. Initial efficacy outcomes yielded decreases in SIB and observed negative parent-child interactions on pre- and post-measures. Qualitative data provided areas for further curriculum refinement.

  17. Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

  18. Improving diagnosis and broadening the phenotypes in early-onset seizure and severe developmental delay disorders through gene panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Trump, Natalie; McTague, Amy; Brittain, Helen; Papandreou, Apostolos; Meyer, Esther; Ngoh, Adeline; Palmer, Rodger; Morrogh, Deborah; Boustred, Christopher; Hurst, Jane A; Jenkins, Lucy; Kurian, Manju A; Scott, Richard H

    2016-05-01

    We sought to investigate the diagnostic yield and mutation spectrum in previously reported genes for early-onset epilepsy and disorders of severe developmental delay. In 400 patients with these disorders with no known underlying aetiology and no major structural brain anomaly, we analysed 46 genes using a combination of targeted sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform and targeted, exon-level microarray copy number analysis. We identified causative mutations in 71/400 patients (18%). The diagnostic rate was highest among those with seizure onset within the first two months of life (39%), although overall it was similar in those with and without seizures. The most frequently mutated gene was SCN2A (11 patients, 3%). Other recurrently mutated genes included CDKL5, KCNQ2, SCN8A (six patients each), FOXG1, MECP2, SCN1A, STXBP1 (five patients each), KCNT1, PCDH19, TCF4 (three patients each) and ATP1A3, PRRT2 and SLC9A6 (two patients each). Mutations in EHMT1, GABRB3, LGI1, MBD5, PIGA, UBE3A and ZEB2 were each found in single patients. We found mutations in a number of genes in patients where either the electroclinical features or dysmorphic phenotypes were atypical for the identified gene. In only 11 cases (15%) had the clinician sufficient certainty to specify the mutated gene as the likely cause before testing. Our data demonstrate the considerable utility of a gene panel approach in the diagnosis of patients with early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay disorders., They provide further insights into the phenotypic spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations for a number of the causative genes and emphasise the value of exon-level copy number testing in their analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Early deprivation disruption of associative learning is a developmental pathway to depression and social problems.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Winter, Warren; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2018-06-07

    Exposure to psychosocial deprivation is associated with elevations in numerous forms of impairment throughout the life-course. Disruptions in associative learning may be a key mechanism through which adversity, particularly psychosocial deprivation, increases risk for impairment. Existing data consistent with this claim come entirely from correlational studies. Here, we present the first experimental evidence relating psychosocial deprivation and disruptions in multiple forms of associative learning. Using data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, we demonstrate that randomized placement into a family caregiving environment during the infant/toddler period as compared to prolonged institutional care normalizes two forms of associative learning in early adolescence: reward responsivity and implicit motor learning. These forms of associative learning significantly mediate the effect of institutional rearing on depressive symptoms and peer relationships. In sum, we provide evidence for a novel pathway linking early experience to psychopathology and peer relationships through basic associative learning mechanisms.

  20. Early Language Impairments and Developmental Pathways of Emotional Problems across Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh Kok Yew, Shaun; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Language impairments are associated with an increased likelihood of emotional difficulties later in childhood or adolescence, but little is known about the impact of LI on the growth of emotional problems. Aims: To examine the link between early language status (language impaired (LI), typical language (TL)) and the pattern and…

  1. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  2. Social Studies, Social Competence and Citizenship in Early Childhood Education: Developmental Principles Guide Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of appropriate social studies education in the Kindergarten and Pre-Kindergarten years. The importance of social competence development as a basic foundation of the social studies in the early years of schooling is examined, with particular attention to the commonalities shared between goals and…

  3. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to the Early Thirties: Personality and Behavioral Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Whiteman, Martin; Cohen, Patricia; Finch, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of cigarette smoking from ages 14 to 32, and to examine adolescent personality factors that distinguish trajectories of smoking behavior. Participants (N=975) were randomly selected and followed prospectively since 1975. Follow-up data on cigarette use and personality and behavioral attributes were collected at five points in time, using structured interviews given in private by trained interviewers. Of these subjects, 746 comprised the cohort used in this study. Growth mixture modeling identified five smoking trajectory groups: nonsmokers, occasional smokers, late starters, quitters, and heavy/continuous smokers. Adolescent personality and behavioral risk factors such as lower ego integration, more externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations distinguished the trajectory groups. No gender differences were noted. The findings supported the hypotheses indicating multiple distinct trajectory groups of smoking behavior. Smoking behavior appeared in early adolescence and most often continued into adulthood. Emotional difficulties (i.e., lower ego integration), externalizing behavior, and lower educational aspirations in early adolescence were associated both with smoking at an early age and with continuing to smoke into the thirties. To be more effective, smoking prevention programs should target personality and behavioral variations, before smoking becomes habitual, particularly focused on characteristics reflecting behavioral problems as manifested in emotional difficulties, externalizing behavior, and low educational aspirations in early adolescence. The implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:18686175

  5. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  6. What Makes a Difference: Early Head Start Evaluation Findings in a Developmental Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Raikes, Helen; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal Early Head Start (EHS) program began in 1995, and a randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 17 EHS programs. In all, 3,001 low-income families (35% African American, 24% Hispanic, and 37% White) with a pregnant women or an infant under the age of 12 months were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group (with…

  7. Developmental Phenotypes and Causal Pathways in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Potential Targets for Early Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention approaches have rarely been implemented for the prevention of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this paper we explore whether such an approach may represent an important new direction for therapeutic innovation. We propose that such an approach is most likely to be of value when grounded in and informed by…

  8. Genetic Moderation of Early Child-Care Effects on Social Functioning Across Childhood: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Data from 508 Caucasian children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development shows that the DRD4 (but not 5-HTTLPR) polymorphism moderates the effect of child-care quality (but not quantity or type) on caregiver-reported externalizing problems at 54 months and in kindergarten and teacher-reported social skills at kindergarten and…

  9. Developmental Changes in the Relations between Inhibitory Control and Externalizing Problems during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utendale, William T.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in executive function, and in particular, reduced capacity to inhibit a dominant action, are a risk factor for externalizing problems (EP). Inhibitory control (IC) develops in the later preschool and early childhood periods, such that IC might not regulate EP in toddlers and younger preschoolers. Aggression was observed during peer play…

  10. Infants' Early Visual Attention and Social Engagement as Developmental Precursors to Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Neal-Beevers, A. Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined infants' early visual attention (at 1 month of age) and social engagement (4 months) as predictors of their later joint attention (12 and 18 months). The sample (n = 325), drawn from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a longitudinal multicenter project conducted at 4 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human…

  11. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…

  12. The Developmental Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: An Examination of School-Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories and the roles of school-related factors in predicting the membership of different trajectories in a sample of early adolescents in Taiwan. In all, 870 junior high school students were followed for 3 years. Using growth mixture modeling, the study identified four distinct…

  13. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Peet, Evan D; Ezzati, Majid; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-06-01

    The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development. The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million) in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children ages 3 and 4 y), followed by

  14. Developmental Changes in Early Comprehension and Production of Drawings: Evidence From Two Socioeconomic Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Salsa, Analía M; Vivaldi, Romina

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's comprehension and production of representational drawings across and within 2 socioeconomic strata (SES). Participants were 130 middle-SES (MSES) and low-SES (LSES) Argentine children, from 30 to 60 months old, given a task with 2 phases, production and comprehension. The production phase assessed free drawing and drawings from simple 3-dimensional objects (model drawing); the comprehension phase assessed children's understanding of an adult's line drawings of the objects. MSES children solved the comprehension phase of the task within the studied age range; representational production emerged first in model drawing (42 months) and later in free drawing (48 months). The same developmental pathway was observed in LSES children but with a clear asynchrony in the age of onset of comprehension and production: Children understood the symbolic nature of drawings at 42 months old and the first representational drawings were found at 60 months old. These results provide empirical evidence that support the crucial influence of social experiences by organizing and constraining graphic development.

  15. Early adolescent outcomes of joint developmental trajectories of problem behavior and IQ in childhood.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Papachristou, Efstathios; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Ploubidis, George B; Lewis, Glyn

    2018-04-16

    General cognitive ability (IQ) and problem behavior (externalizing and internalizing problems) are variable and inter-related in children. However, it is unknown how they co-develop in the general child population and how their patterns of co-development may be related to later outcomes. We carried out this study to explore this. Using data from 16,844 Millennium Cohort Study children, we fitted three-parallel-process growth mixture models to identify joint developmental trajectories of internalizing, externalizing and IQ scores at ages 3-11 years. We then examined their associations with age 11 outcomes. We identified a typically developing group (83%) and three atypical groups, all with worse behavior and ability: children with improving behavior and low (but improving in males) ability (6%); children with persistently high levels of problems and low ability (5%); and children with worsening behavior and low ability (6%). Compared to typically developing children, the latter two groups were more likely to show poor decision-making, be bullies or bully victims, engage in antisocial behaviors, skip and dislike school, be unhappy and have low self-esteem. By contrast, children (especially males) in the improver group had outcomes that were similar to, or even better than, those of their typically developing peers. These findings encourage the development of interventions to target children with both cognitive and behavioral difficulties.

  16. Regional white matter development in very preterm infants: perinatal predictors and early developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Smyser, Tara; Smyser, Christopher D; Shimony, Joshua; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for white matter (WM) injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from very preterm infants (N = 78) born <30 wk gestation imaged up to four times from 26-42 wk postmenstrual age. Slopes were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within regions of interest for infants with ≥2 scans (N = 50). Sixty-five children underwent neurodevelopmental testing at 2 y of age. FA slope for the posterior limb of the internal capsule was greater than other regions. The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), corpus callosum, and optic radiations demonstrated greater FA slope with increasing gestational age. Infants with patent ductus arteriosus had lower FA slope in the ALIC. MD slope was lower with prolonged ventilation or lack of antenatal steroids. At 2 y of age, lower motor scores were associated with lower FA in the left but higher FA in the right inferior temporal lobe at term-equivalent age. Better social-emotional competence was related to lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. This study demonstrates regional variability in the susceptibility/sensitivity of WM maturation to perinatal factors and relationships between altered diffusion measures and developmental outcomes in preterm neonates.

  17. Are survivors of childhood cancer with an unfavourable psychosocial developmental trajectory more likely to apply for disability benefits?

    PubMed

    Maurice-Stam, H; Verhoof, E J; Caron, H N; Grootenhuis, M A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an unfavourable psychosocial developmental trajectory while growing up with childhood cancer is related to a smaller likelihood of labour participation in adult life. A total of 53 childhood cancer survivors (CCS) with and 313 CCS without disability benefits, and 508 peers from the general Dutch population (reference group) completed the Course of Life Questionnaire (CoLQ) about the achievement of psychosocial developmental milestones. Differences between the three groups were tested by conducting analysis of variance with contrasts (scale scores CoLQ) and logistic regression analysis (individual milestones). Effect sizes and odds ratios were calculated. Compared with the reference group, both CCS with and CCS without benefits reported lower scale scores with respect to social and psychosexual development. CCS with disability benefits had lower social (d = - 0.6; p < 0.001) and psychosexual (d = -0.4; p < 0.01) scale scores than the CCS without disability benefits. CCS with disability benefits scored less favourably (p < 0.01) than peers from the general population on 14 out of 22 psychosocial milestones whereas the number was only six for those without disability benefits. CCS with an unfavourable developmental trajectory while growing up were more likely to apply for disability benefits in adulthood than CCS with a more favourable development. Early recognition and support are warranted. Further research is needed on risk factors of application for disability benefits. In addition, research should show whether stimulating the achievement of developmental milestones while growing up will create conditions for a better labour market position. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  19. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M.A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N=109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents’ infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential methylation among adolescents whose parents reported high levels of stress during their children’s early lives. Maternal stressors in infancy and paternal stressors in the preschool years were most strongly predictive of differential methylation, and the patterning of such epigenetic marks varied by children’s gender. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of prospective associations between adversities in early childhood and the epigenetic conformation of adolescents’ genomic DNA. PMID:21883162

  20. Epigenetic vestiges of early developmental adversity: childhood stress exposure and DNA methylation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Essex, Marilyn J; Boyce, W Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Neumann, Sarah M A; Kobor, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential methylation among adolescents whose parents reported high levels of stress during their children's early lives. Maternal stressors in infancy and paternal stressors in the preschool years were most strongly predictive of differential methylation, and the patterning of such epigenetic marks varied by children's gender. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of prospective associations between adversities in early childhood and the epigenetic conformation of adolescents' genomic DNA. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Early-stage valuation of medical devices: the role of developmental uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan; Young, Terry; Brown, Celia; Lilford, Richard

    2010-08-01

    At the concept stage, many uncertainties surround the commercial viability of a new medical device. These include the ultimate functionality of the device, the cost of producing it and whether, and at what price, it can be sold to a health-care provider (HCP). Simple assessments of value can be made by estimating such unknowns, but the levels of uncertainty may mean that their operational value for investment decisions is unclear. However, many decisions taken at the concept stage are reversible and will be reconsidered later before the product is brought to market. This flexibility can be exploited to enhance early-stage valuations. To develop a framework for valuing a new medical device at the concept stage that balances benefit to the HCP against commercial costs. This is done within a simplified stage-gated model of the development cycle for new products. The approach is intended to complement existing proposals for the evaluation of the commercial headroom available to new medical products. A model based on two decision gates can lead to lower bounds (underestimates) for product value that can serve to support a decision to develop the product. Quantifiable uncertainty that can be resolved before the device is brought to market will generally enhance early-stage valuations of the device, and this remains true even when some components of uncertainty cannot be fully described. Clinical trials and other evidence-gathering activities undertaken as part of the development process can contribute to early-stage estimates of value.

  2. Maternal separation with early weaning: A rodent model providing novel insights into neglect associated developmental deficits

    PubMed Central

    CARLYLE, BECKY C.; DUQUE, ALVARO; KITCHEN, ROBERT R.; BORDNER, KELLY A.; COMAN, DANIEL; DOOLITTLE, ELIZA; PAPADEMETRIS, XENOPHONIOS; HYDER, FAHMEED; TAYLOR, JANE R.; SIMEN, ARTHUR A.

    2013-01-01

    Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment in the United States, and poses a serious public health concern. Children who survive such episodes go on to experience long-lasting psychological and behavioral problems, including higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and cognitive deficits. To date, most research into the causes of these life-long problems has focused on well-established targets such as stress responsive systems, including the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis. Using the maternal separation and early weaning model, we have attempted to provide comprehensive molecular profiling of a model of early-life neglect in an organism amenable to genomic manipulation: the mouse. In this article, we report new findings generated with this model using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, diffuse tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral analyses. We also review the validity of the maternal separation and early weaning model, which reflects behavioral deficits observed in neglected humans including hyperactivity, anxiety, and attentional deficits. Finally, we summarize the molecular characterization of these animals, including RNA profiling and label-free proteomics, which highlight protein translation and myelination as novel pathways of interest. PMID:23062306

  3. Developmental Origins of Rumination in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Early Temperament and Positive Parenting.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Tina H; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Laptook, Rebecca S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-09-08

    Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood. Early childhood (age 3) temperament and parenting behaviors were assessed observationally and rumination was self-reported in middle childhood (age 9) in a large community sample (N = 425; 47.1% female). Two significant interactions emerged. First, temperamental anger interacted with inhibitory control (IC) such that high anger and low IC predicted higher levels of rumination, whereas low anger and low IC predicted lower levels of rumination. Second, IC interacted with parenting such that children with low IC and positive parenting had lower levels of rumination. In contrast, children with high IC reported similar levels of rumination regardless of parenting quality. Overall, these findings highlight the interplay of early IC with temperamental anger and positive parenting in the development of ruminative tendencies in middle childhood.

  4. Developmental treatment with bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol causes few alterations on early preweaning measures.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, Charles D; Abshire, Jordan S

    2011-11-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is nearly ubiquitous, increased knowledge of its potential effects on development will enable better risk assessment and regulatory guidance. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in low exogenous estrogen environments. After breeding at adulthood, dams were gavaged on gestational days (GDs) 6-21 with vehicle (VEH), 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg/day BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE₂). Offspring were orally treated on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21 with the same dose the dam received. Relative to the VEH group, dams of both EE₂-treated groups weighed less throughout gestation and lactation. PND 1 absolute anogenital distance and anogenital index were unaltered by any treatment. Ages at fur development and eye and ear opening were unaffected by any treatment. Despite a significant treatment effect, no group was significantly different from VEH in PNDs 3-6 righting latencies; although males had shorter latencies and all latencies decreased with age. PNDs 8-11 slant board behavior was unaffected by any treatment; however, males had shorter turning latencies and latencies decreased with age. Preweaning body weights of BPA- and EE₂-treated groups as well as naive controls were less than VEH. No treatment affected PND 21 whole or regional brain weights or levels of estradiol, testosterone, corticosterone, T3, T4, luteinizing hormone, ghrelin, or leptin. These results add to the literature indicating that developmental BPA treatment at these doses has no effects on gestational or lactational body weight, offspring anogenital distance, preweaning behaviors or hormone levels, and whole and regional brain weights measured at weaning.

  5. Risk Factors of Children Who Exited from an Early Intervention Program without an Identified Disability and Returned with a Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to identify risk factors for children at greatest risk of delayed diagnosis of developmental disability. Two thousand four hundred and thirty-nine children were selected for this study due to their participation in the California Early Start (ES) Program in 1998. Comparisons were made among children that…

  6. Sex-Specific Pathways to Early Puberty, Sexual Debut, and Sexual Risk Taking: Tests of an Integrated Evolutionary-Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jenee; Ellis, Bruce J.; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Garber, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for…

  7. The Contribution of M.N. Skatkin to the Advancement of Didactic Ideas about the Developmental Role of Education (1950s to Early 1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivyorstova, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the research that M.N. Skatkin conducted during the 1950s and early 1960s and describes its contribution to the elabortion of Russian teaching science approaches towards understanding of the developmental role of education. [This article was translated by Kenneth Cargill.

  8. The Early Developmental Competencies and School Readiness of Low-Income, Immigrant Children: Influences of Generation, Race/Ethnicity, and National Origins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Feyter, Jessica Johnson; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Though much valuable research has been conducted on the academic achievement of school-age immigrant youth, less is known about the early developmental competencies of immigrant children during the preschool years. This study describes the school readiness of 2194 low-income children receiving subsidies to attend child care with emphasis on how…

  9. An Interpretative Model of Early Indicators of Specific Developmental Dyslexia in Preschool Age: A Comparative Presentation of Three Studies in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakopoulou, Victoria; Anagnostopoulou, Areti; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Stavrou, Lambros; Sarri, Ioanna; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Tzoufi, Meropi

    2011-01-01

    The detection of specific factors of the developmental dyslexia at an early stage, and the identification of the role of those factors responsible for its manifestation, is a fundamental area of study on dyslexia in the recent literature. The objective of the present study is to clarify that dysfunctions in the following specific domains…

  10. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan E.; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle C.; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara J.; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steven; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; Thompson, Patrick Aaron; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2012-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal,…

  11. Effects of a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide formulation on early developmental stages of two anuran species.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Müller, Hendrik; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination, especially due to the increasing use of pesticides, is suggested to be one out of six main reasons for the global amphibian decline. Adverse effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians have been already discussed in several studies with different conclusions, especially regarding sublethal effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Therefore, we studied the acute toxic effects (mortality, growth, and morphological changes) of the commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup® UltraMax on early aquatic developmental stages of two anuran species with different larval types (obligate vs. facultative filtrating suspension feeders), the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and the Mediterranean painted frog (Discoglossus pictus). While X. laevis is an established anuran model organism in amphibian toxicological studies, we aim to establish D. pictus as another model for species with facultative filtrating larvae. A special focus of the present study lies on malformations in X. laevis embryos, which were investigated using histological preparations. In general, embryos and larvae of X. laevis reacted more sensitive concerning lethal effects compared to early developmental stages of D. pictus. It was suggested, that especially the different morphology of their filter apparatus and the higher volume of water pumped through the buccopharynx of X. laevis larvae lead to higher exposure to the formulation. The test substance induced similar lethal effects in D. pictus larvae as it does in the teleost standard test organism used in pesticide approval, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), whereas embryos of both species are apparently more tolerant and, conversely, X. laevis larvae about two times more sensitive. In both species, early larvae always reacted significantly more sensitive than embryos. Exposure to the test substance increased malformation rates in embryos of both species in a concentration

  12. Effective Connectivity from Early Visual Cortex to Posterior Occipitotemporal Face Areas Supports Face Selectivity and Predicts Developmental Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Lucia; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duchaine, Bradley C.; Furl, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Face processing is mediated by interactions between functional areas in the occipital and temporal lobe, and the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior temporal lobe play key roles in the recognition of facial identity. Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a lifelong face recognition impairment, have been shown to have structural and functional neuronal alterations in these areas. The present study investigated how face selectivity is generated in participants with normal face processing, and how functional abnormalities associated with DP, arise as a function of network connectivity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling, we examined effective connectivity in normal participants by assessing network models that include early visual cortex (EVC) and face-selective areas and then investigated the integrity of this connectivity in participants with DP. Results showed that a feedforward architecture from EVC to the occipital face area, EVC to FFA, and EVC to posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) best explained how face selectivity arises in both controls and participants with DP. In this architecture, the DP group showed reduced connection strengths on feedforward connections carrying face information from EVC to FFA and EVC to pSTS. These altered network dynamics in DP contribute to the diminished face selectivity in the posterior occipitotemporal areas affected in DP. These findings suggest a novel view on the relevance of feedforward projection from EVC to posterior occipitotemporal face areas in generating cortical face selectivity and differences in face recognition ability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Areas of the human brain showing enhanced activation to faces compared to other objects or places have been extensively studied. However, the factors leading to this face selectively have remained mostly unknown. We show that effective connectivity from early visual cortex to posterior occipitotemporal face areas gives

  13. Social visual engagement in infants and toddlers with autism: early developmental transitions and a model of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Klin, Ami; Shultz, Sarah; Jones, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes. These changes both lead to and are led by the accomplishment of specific social adaptive tasks in a typical infant's life. However, based on recent research that indicates that infants later diagnosed with autism fail to accomplish at least some of these tasks, we suggest that a narrow developmental period, spanning critical transitions from reflexive, subcortically-controlled visual behavior to interactional, cortically-controlled and social visual behavior be prioritized for future study. Mapping epigenetic, neural, and behavioral changes that both drive and are driven by these early transitions may shed a bright light on the pathogenesis of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social visual engagement in infants and toddlers with autism: Early developmental transitions and a model of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klin, Ami; Shultz, Sarah; Jones, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes. These changes both lead to and are led by the accomplishment of specific social adaptive tasks in a typical infant's life. However, based on recent research that indicates that infants later diagnosed with autism fail to accomplish at least some of these tasks, we suggest that a narrow developmental period, spanning critical transitions from reflexive, subcortically-controlled visual behavior to interactional, cortically-controlled and social visual behavior be prioritized for future study. Mapping epigenetic, neural, and behavioral changes that both drive and are driven by these early transitions may shed a bright light on the pathogenesis of autism. PMID:25445180

  15. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  16. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.908 - Milestone payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milestone payments. 1274.908 Section 1274.908 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH...) Taxpayer identification number (TIN). (x) While not required, the recipient is strongly encouraged to...

  18. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  19. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems...) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems licensed on... placed in the authorized orbital location or non-geostationary orbit(s) and that in-orbit operation of...

  20. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  1. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  2. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  3. Early reproductive developmental anatomy in Decaisnea (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Feng; Friedman, Cynthia Ross; Zhu, Zhi-Xin; Qin, Hai-Ning

    2009-11-01

    Decaisnea insignis, known as 'dead man's fingers' (Lardizabalaceae), is widely distributed in China and the Himalayan foothill countries. This economically important plant, which is the only species in the genus, has not been the subject of any embryological studies aside from one brief, older paper that lacks micrographs. Data on Decaisnea are also important because its systematic position has been unstable since the genus was established in 1855. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (a) to use modern microscopy to document early reproductive anatomical development in Decaisnea; and (b) to compare qualitatively these early embryological characters with allied taxa in a systematic context. Decaisnea insignis floral buds and inflorescences were regularly collected from Shaanxi Province, China and prepared for light microscopy. The embryological characters studied were qualitatively compared with those of allied taxa via a thorough examination of the existing literature. Early reproductive anatomy in Decaisnea was documented and novel revelations made. It was discovered that the pollen is shed when three-celled (not two-celled, as previously reported), and that endosperm formation is nuclear (not cellular or helobial, as previously reported). These two newly revealed embryological characters are not found in any other members of Lardizabalaceae. Furthermore, neither are persistent antipodal cells, which we confirmed to be present in Decaisnea. Decaisnea and other Lardizabalaceae characteristically have tetrasporangiate anthers, a secretory tapetum, simultaneous microsporocyte cytokinesis, primarily bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules, and a Polygonum type embryo sac. However, in the family, persistent antipodals, nuclear endosperm, and pollen shed at the three-celled stage are only found in Decaisnea. These embryological data prompted the suggestion that Decaisnea needs elevation above the level of genus.

  4. Early reproductive developmental anatomy in Decaisnea (Lardizabalaceae) and its systematic implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Feng; Friedman, Cynthia Ross; Zhu, Zhi-Xin; Qin, Hai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Decaisnea insignis, known as ‘dead man's fingers’ (Lardizabalaceae), is widely distributed in China and the Himalayan foothill countries. This economically important plant, which is the only species in the genus, has not been the subject of any embryological studies aside from one brief, older paper that lacks micrographs. Data on Decaisnea are also important because its systematic position has been unstable since the genus was established in 1855. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: (a) to use modern microscopy to document early reproductive anatomical development in Decaisnea; and (b) to compare qualitatively these early embryological characters with allied taxa in a systematic context. Methods Decaisnea insignis floral buds and inflorescences were regularly collected from Shaanxi Province, China and prepared for light microscopy. The embryological characters studied were qualitatively compared with those of allied taxa via a thorough examination of the existing literature. Key Results Early reproductive anatomy in Decaisnea was documented and novel revelations made. It was discovered that the pollen is shed when three-celled (not two-celled, as previously reported), and that endosperm formation is nuclear (not cellular or helobial, as previously reported). These two newly revealed embryological characters are not found in any other members of Lardizabalaceae. Furthermore, neither are persistent antipodal cells, which we confirmed to be present in Decaisnea. Conclusions Decaisnea and other Lardizabalaceae characteristically have tetrasporangiate anthers, a secretory tapetum, simultaneous microsporocyte cytokinesis, primarily bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules, and a Polygonum type embryo sac. However, in the family, persistent antipodals, nuclear endosperm, and pollen shed at the three-celled stage are only found in Decaisnea. These embryological data prompted the suggestion that Decaisnea needs elevation above the level of genus

  5. Early interventions for youths at high risk for bipolar disorder: a developmental approach.

    PubMed

    Benarous, Xavier; Consoli, Angèle; Milhiet, Vanessa; Cohen, David

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, ongoing research programmes on primary prevention and early identification of bipolar disorder (BD) have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the principal forms of evidence that support preventive interventions for BD in children and adolescents and the main challenges associated with these programmes. We performed a literature review of the main computerised databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED) and a manual search of the literature relevant to prospective and retrospective studies of prodromal symptoms, premorbid stages, risk factors, and early intervention programmes for BD. Genetic and environmental risk factors of BD were identified. Most of the algorithms used to measure the risk of developing BD and the early interventions programmes focused on the familial risk. The prodromal signs varied greatly and were age dependent. During adolescence, depressive episodes associated with genetic or environmental risk factors predicted the onset of hypomanic/manic episodes over subsequent years. In prepubertal children, the lack of specificity of clinical markers and difficulties in mood assessment were seen as impeding preventive interventions at these ages. Despite encouraging results, biomarkers have not thus far been sufficiently validated in youth samples to serve as screening tools for prevention. Additional longitudinal studies in youths at high risk of developing BD should include repeated measures of putative biomarkers. Staging models have been developed as an integrative approach to specify the individual level of risk based on clinical (e.g. prodromal symptoms and familial history of BD) and non-clinical (e.g. biomarkers and neuroimaging) data. However, there is still a lack of empirically validated studies that measure the benefits of using these models to design preventive intervention programmes.

  6. Developmental Associations Between Conduct Problems and Expressive Language in Early Childhood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Doyle, Orla; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood.

  7. Developmental trajectories and longitudinal mediation effects of self-esteem, peer attachment, child maltreatment and depression on early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ju, Soyoung; Lee, Yanghee

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i.e., Year 2) and 8th (i.e., Year 5) grades. The results indicate that from the 5th to the 8th grade, the degree of abuse and depression increases while self-esteem gradually decreases with slowly lowering peer attachment. A significant distribution of the initial values and the rate of change were present for all main variables of the study, confirming individual differences in time wise changes. Further, more exposure to abuse correlated with a decrease in self-esteem, while an increase in self-esteem greatly reduced depression. The initial value of self-esteem showed a partial mediation effect, whereas the rate of change indicated a full mediation effect with a significant longitudinal mediation effect. More experience of abuse during early adolescence indicated a lower degree of peer attachment, and a higher peer attachment was related to decreased depression. A significant partial mediation effect was present for both the initial value and the rate of change of peer attachment, and a longitudinal mediation effect was present. This study confirmed that self-esteem in early adolescents is an important protective factor that can greatly reduce the degree of depression, and suggests continuous interventions conducted to increase self-esteem in adolescence. Furthermore, by determining that peer attachment decreases the degree of depression in children at risk, the study emphasizes the healing aspect of adolescent peer attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    SciT

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  9. Neighborhood poverty and early transition to sexual activity in young adolescents: a developmental ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Diane I.; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C.; Thirkill, Twanda L.; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Samollow, Paul B.; Ross, Pablo J.; Bannasch, Danika L.; Douglas, Gordon C.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  11. Early neurotrophic pharmacotherapy rescues developmental delay and Alzheimer’s-like memory deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Blanchard, Julie; Bianchi, Riccardo; Iqbal, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and is associated with a greatly increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits several key features of the disease including developmental delay and AD-like cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests that impairments in early brain development caused by trisomy 21 contribute significantly to memory deficits in adult life in DS. Prenatal genetic testing to diagnose DS in utero, provides the novel opportunity to initiate early pharmacological treatment to target this critical period of brain development. Here, we report that prenatal to early postnatal treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021), rescued developmental delay in pups and AD-like hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adult life in Ts65Dn mice. Furthermore, this treatment prevented pre-synaptic protein deficit, decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β) activity, and increased levels of synaptic plasticity markers including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and phosphorylated CREB, both in young (3-week-old) and adult (~ 7-month-old) Ts65Dn mice. These findings provide novel evidence that providing neurotrophic support during early brain development can prevent developmental delay and AD-like memory impairments in a DS mouse model. PMID:28368015

  12. Biochemical defects of mutant nudel alleles causing early developmental arrest or dorsalization of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    LeMosy, E K; Leclerc, C L; Hashimoto, C

    2000-01-01

    The nudel gene of Drosophila is maternally required both for structural integrity of the egg and for dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. It encodes a structurally modular protein that is secreted by ovarian follicle cells. Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the Nudel protein is also functionally modular, with a serine protease domain that is specifically required for ventral development. Here we describe biochemical and immunolocalization studies that provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinct phenotypes produced by nudel mutations and for the interactions between these alleles. Mutations causing loss of embryonic dorsoventral polarity result in a failure to activate the protease domain of Nudel. Our analyses support previous findings that catalytic activity of the protease domain is required for dorsoventral patterning and that the Nudel protease is auto-activated and reveal an important role for a region adjacent to the protease domain in Nudel protease function. Mutations causing egg fragility and early embryonic arrest result in a significant decrease in extracellular Nudel protein, due to defects in post-translational processing, stability, or secretion. On the basis of these and other studies of serine proteases, we suggest potential mechanisms for the complementary and antagonistic interactions between the nudel alleles. PMID:10628985

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (Mage=11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder. PMID:24062146

  14. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  15. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Gallo, Alessandra; Silvestre, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development. Three stages of immature oocytes were discriminated in the ovary, with the germinal vesicle showing specific different features of growth and maturation. Stage-A (pre-vitellogenic) oocytes exhibited the highest L-type calcium current activity and were incompetent for meiosis resumption. Stage-B (vitellogenic) oocytes showed a progressive disappearance of calcium currents and the first appearance of sodium currents that remained high during the maturation process, up to the post-vitellogenic stage-C oocytes. The latter had acquired meiotic competence, undergoing spontaneous in vitro maturation and interacting with the spermatozoon. However, fertilized oocytes did not produce normal larvae, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation may affect embryo development. In mature oocytes at the metaphase I stage, sodium currents were present and remained high up to the zygote stage. Oocytes fertilized in the absence of sodium showed significant reduction of the fertilization current amplitude and high development of anomalous "rosette" embryos. Current amplitudes became negligible in embryos at the 2- and 4-cell stage, whereas resumption of all the current activities occurred at the 8-cell embryo. Taken together, these results suggest: (i) an involvement of L-type calcium currents in initial oocyte meiotic progression and growth; (ii) a role of sodium currents at fertilization; (iii) a role of the fertilization current in ensuring normal embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early developmental gene enhancers affect subcortical volumes in the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; Hibar, Derrek P; Renteria, Miguel E; Stein, Jason L; Thompson, Paul M; Francks, Clyde; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association screens aim to identify common genetic variants contributing to the phenotypic variability of complex traits, such as human height or brain morphology. The identified genetic variants are mostly within noncoding genomic regions and the biology of the genotype-phenotype association typically remains unclear. In this article, we propose a complementary targeted strategy to reveal the genetic underpinnings of variability in subcortical brain volumes, by specifically selecting genomic loci that are experimentally validated forebrain enhancers, active in early embryonic development. We hypothesized that genetic variation within these enhancers may affect the development and ultimately the structure of subcortical brain regions in adults. We tested whether variants in forebrain enhancer regions showed an overall enrichment of association with volumetric variation in subcortical structures of >13,000 healthy adults. We observed significant enrichment of genomic loci that affect the volume of the hippocampus within forebrain enhancers (empirical P = 0.0015), a finding which robustly passed the adjusted threshold for testing of multiple brain phenotypes (cutoff of P < 0.0083 at an alpha of 0.05). In analyses of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified an association upstream of the ID2 gene with rs7588305 and variation in hippocampal volume. This SNP-based association survived multiple-testing correction for the number of SNPs analyzed but not for the number of subcortical structures. Targeting known regulatory regions offers a way to understand the underlying biology that connects genotypes to phenotypes, particularly in the context of neuroimaging genetics. This biology-driven approach generates testable hypotheses regarding the functional biology of identified associations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1788-1800, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    PubMed

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Characterization and developmental expression of genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Citrus paradisi Macf.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio G C; Moreira, Cristina D; Melton, John R; Otoni, Wagner C; Moore, Gloria A

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequences of PSY, PDS, and ZDS, encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the carotenoid pathway of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), were isolated and characterized for the first time. CpPSY contained a 1311-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids, CpPDS contained a 1659-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 552 amino acids, and CpZDS contained a 1713-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 570 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpPSY shares homology with PSYs from Citrus, tomato, pepper, Arabidopsis, and the monocot PSY1 group, while CpPDS and CpZDS are most closely related to orthologs from Citrus and tomato. Expression analysis revealed fluctuations in CpPSY, CpPDS, and CpZDS transcript abundance and a non-coordinated regulation between the former and the two latter genes during fruit development in albedo and juice vesicles of white ('Duncan') and red ('Flame') grapefruits. A 3× higher upregulation of CpPSY expression in juice vesicles of red-fleshed 'Flame' as compared to white-fruited 'Duncan' was observed in the middle stages of fruit development, which correlates with the well documented accumulation pattern of lycopene in red grapefruit. Together with previous data, our results suggest that the primary mechanism controlling lycopene accumulation in red grapefruit involves the transcriptional upregulation of CpPSY, which controls the flux into the carotenoid pathway, and the downregulated expression of CpLCYB2, which controls the step of cyclization of lycopene in chromoplasts during fruit ripening. A correlation between CpPSY expression and fruit color evolution in red grapefruit is demonstrated.

  19. [Cost effectiveness of mass orthoptic screening in kindergarten for early detection of developmental vision disorders].

    PubMed

    König, H H; Barry, J C; Leidl, R; Zrenner, E

    2000-04-01

    Orthoptic screening in the kindergarten is one option to improve early detection of amblyopia in children aged 3 years. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of such a screening programme in Germany. Based on data from the literature and own experience gained from orthoptic screening in kindergarten a decision-analytic model was developed. According to the model, all children in kindergarten, aged 3 years, who had not been treated for amblyopia before, were subjected to an orthoptic examination. Non-cooperative children were reexamined in kindergarten after one year. Children with positive test results were examined by an ophthalmologist for diagnosis. Effects were measured by the number of newly diagnosed cases of amblyopia, non-obvious strabismus and amblyogenic refractive errors. Direct costs were estimated from a third-party payer perspective. The influence of uncertain model parameters was tested by sensitivity analysis. In the base analysis the cost per orthoptic screening test was DM 15.39. Examination by an ophthalmologist cost DM 71.20. The total cost of the screening programme in all German kindergartens was DM 6.1 million. With a 1.5% age-specific prevalence of undiagnosed cases, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98%, a total of 4,261 new cases would be detected. The cost-effectiveness ratio was DM 1,421 per case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed considerable influence of prevalence and specificity on the cost-effectiveness ratio. It was more cost-effective to re-screen non-cooperative children in kindergarten than to have them examined by an ophthalmologist straight-away. The decision-analytic model showed stable results which may serve as a basis for discussion on the implementation of orthoptic screening and for planning a field study.

  20. Is early adulthood a critical developmental stage for psychosis proneness? A survey of delusional ideation in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Verdoux, H; van Os, J; Maurice-Tison, S; Gay, B; Salamon, R; Bourgeois, M

    1998-02-09

    It has been hypothesized that late adolescence and early adulthood might be a brain developmental stage favoring the clinical expression of psychotic symptoms in psychiatric or neurological diseases. The aim of the present survey was to examine the relationship between age and delusional ideation in a sample of subjects with no psychiatric disorder. The survey was carried out with the Aquitaine Sentinel Network of general practitioners. Consecutive practice attenders were invited to complete the PDI-21 (Peters Delusional Inventory 21 items), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure delusional ideation in the normal population. The study concerned 444 patients who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder and who completed the PDI-21. A principal component analysis of the PDI-21 items was performed in order to identify delusional dimensions. An age-related decrease in the likelihood to report delusional ideas was found, younger subjects scoring higher on most dimensions of delusional ideation, such as 'persecution', 'thought disturbance', 'grandiosity' and 'paranormal beliefs'. 'Religiosity' was the only dimension positively associated with age. The results suggest that there may be a physiological neurodevelopmental stage favouring the expression of psychosis proneness in normal subjects, and support the hypothesis that the association between age and positive psychotic symptoms in functional and organic psychoses may be linked to the interaction between normal brain maturational processes and cerebral abnormalities involved in the aetiology of functional and organic psychoses.

  1. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-11-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.

  2. Substance Use Changes and Social Role Transitions: Proximal Developmental Effects on Ongoing Trajectories from Late Adolescence through Early Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. Not coincidentally, this time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time- invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use; and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. PMID:20883590

  3. Developmental insights from early mammalian embryos and core signaling pathways that influence human pluripotent cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin G; Mallon, Barbara S; Johnson, Kory R; Hamilton, Rebecca S; McKay, Ronald D G; Robey, Pamela G

    2014-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have two potentially attractive applications: cell replacement-based therapies and drug discovery. Both require the efficient generation of large quantities of clinical-grade stem cells that are free from harmful genomic alterations. The currently employed colony-type culture methods often result in low cell yields, unavoidably heterogeneous cell populations, and substantial chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we shed light on the structural relationship between hPSC colonies/embryoid bodies and early-stage embryos in order to optimize current culture methods based on the insights from developmental biology. We further highlight core signaling pathways that underlie multiple epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), cellular heterogeneity, and chromosomal instability in hPSCs. We also analyze emerging methods such as non-colony type monolayer (NCM) and suspension culture, which provide alternative growth models for hPSC expansion and differentiation. Furthermore, based on the influence of cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, we propose concepts, strategies, and solutions for production of clinical-grade hPSCs, stem cell precursors, and miniorganoids, which are pivotal steps needed for future clinical applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Rbm20-deficient cardiogenesis reveals early disruption of RNA processing and sarcomere remodeling establishing a developmental etiology for dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Beraldi, Rosanna; Li, Xing; Martinez Fernandez, Almudena; Reyes, Santiago; Secreto, Frank; Terzic, Andre; Olson, Timothy M; Nelson, Timothy J

    2014-07-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) due to mutations in RBM20, a gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, is associated with high familial penetrance, risk of progressive heart failure and sudden death. Although genetic investigations and physiological models have established the linkage of RBM20 with early-onset DCM, the underlying basis of cellular and molecular dysfunction is undetermined. Modeling human genetics using a high-throughput pluripotent stem cell platform was herein designed to pinpoint the initial transcriptome dysfunction and mechanistic corruption in disease pathogenesis. Tnnt2-pGreenZeo pluripotent stem cells were engineered to knockdown Rbm20 (shRbm20) to determine the cardiac-pathogenic phenotype during cardiac differentiation. Intracellular Ca(2+) transients revealed Rbm20-dependent alteration in Ca(2+) handling, coinciding with known pathological splice variants of Titin and Camk2d genes by Day 24 of cardiogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated elongated and thinner sarcomeres in the absence of Rbm20 that is consistent with human cardiac biopsy samples. Furthermore, Rbm20-depleted transcriptional profiling at Day 12 identified Rbm20-dependent dysregulation with 76% of differentially expressed genes linked to known cardiac pathology ranging from primordial Nkx2.5 to mature cardiac Tnnt2 as the initial molecular aberrations. Notably, downstream consequences of Rbm20-depletion at Day 24 of differentiation demonstrated significant dysregulation of extracellular matrix components such as the anomalous overexpression of the Vtn gene. By using the pluripotent stem cell platform to model human cardiac disease according to a stage-specific cardiogenic roadmap, we established a new paradigm of familial DCM pathogenesis as a developmental disorder that is patterned during early cardiogenesis and propagated with cellular mechanisms of pathological cardiac remodeling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  5. The zerovalent iron nanoparticle causes higher developmental toxicity than its oxidation products in early life stages of medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Wu, Wan-Lin; Wu, Kevin Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI)-mediated oxidation reaction is increasingly being used for enhanced treatment of water or wastewater processes; however, the fate and eco-toxicological effects of nZVI in the surface aquifer remain unclear. We investigated bioaccumulation and lethal-to-sublethal toxic effects on early life development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) with 7-day exposure to 25-200 mg/L of well-characterized solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized nZVI (CMC-nZVI), nanoscale iron oxide (nFe3O4) or ferrous ion [Fe(II)aq]. The CMC-nZVI solution had the greatest acute mortality and developmental toxic effects in embryos, with lesser and the least effects with Fe(II)aq and nFe3O4. The toxicity of CMC-nZVI was ascribed to its high reactivity in the oxygenic solution, which led to a combination of hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Fe(II)aq. nFe3O4 (50-100 mg/L) was more bioavailable to embryos and bioaccmulative in hatchlings than suspended CMC-nZVI. The antioxidant balance was differentially altered by induced intracellular ROS in hatchlings with all 3 iron species. We revealed causal toxic effects of nZVI and its oxidized products in early life stages of medaka fish using different organizational levels of biomarker assays. The toxicity results implicate a potential eco-toxicological impact of nZVI on the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early language impairments and developmental pathways of emotional problems across childhood.

    PubMed

    Yew, Shaun Goh Kok; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Language impairments are associated with an increased likelihood of emotional difficulties later in childhood or adolescence, but little is known about the impact of LI on the growth of emotional problems. To examine the link between early language status (language impaired (LI), typical language (TL)) and the pattern and predictors of growth in emotional difficulties from school entry to the start of high school in a large cohort of Australian children. Unconditional latent growth curves of emotional difficulties were modelled across four waves (ages 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11) using data from 1627 boys (280 LI, 1347 TL) and 1609 girls (159 LI, 1450 TL). Conditional latent growth curves estimated the main effects of LI on the severity and slope of growth in emotional problems. Simultaneous multiple regression tested the interaction between language status and the other predictors of the development of emotional symptoms. LI predicted a significant persistent elevation in severity of emotional difficulties across childhood among boys (d = 0.33-0.57) and girls (d = 0.25-0.39) but was not associated with their growth. LI moderated the association between hostile parenting and the severity of emotional symptoms for boys and the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and temperamental sociability on the linear and quadratic growth of emotional problems for girls but had no impact on the influence of other predictors. There is no effect of LI on the characteristic rate and shape of growth in emotional symptoms across childhood although LI children maintain elevated severities of emotional difficulties. The associations between child reactivity, peer problems, prosocial behaviours, maternal distress and parental warmth and the development of emotional difficulties were the same for LI and TL children. LI enhanced the influence of hostile parenting on a higher severity of emotional symptoms for boys and of lower SES on a faster rate of development of emotional symptoms for

  7. Specific subpopulations of hypothalamic leptin receptor-expressing neurons mediate the effects of early developmental leptin receptor deletion on energy balance.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Alan C; Allison, Margaret B; Jones, Justin C; Patterson, Christa M; Faber, Chelsea L; Bozadjieva, Nadejda; Heisler, Lora K; Seeley, Randy J; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G

    2018-06-06

    To date, early developmental ablation of leptin receptor (LepRb) expression from circumscribed populations of hypothalamic neurons (e.g., arcuate nucleus (ARC) Pomc- or Agrp-expressing cells) has only minimally affected energy balance. In contrast, removal of LepRb from at least two large populations (expressing vGat or Nos1) spanning multiple hypothalamic regions produced profound obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we tested the notion that the total number of leptin-responsive hypothalamic neurons (rather than specific subsets of cells with a particular molecular or anatomical signature) subjected to early LepRb deletion might determine energy balance. We generated new mouse lines deleted for LepRb in ARC Ghrh Cre neurons or in Htr2c Cre neurons (representing roughly half of all hypothalamic LepRb neurons, distributed across many nuclei). We compared the phenotypes of these mice to previously-reported models lacking LepRb in Pomc, Agrp, vGat or Nos1 cells. The early developmental deletion of LepRb from vGat or Nos1 neurons produced dramatic obesity, but deletion of LepRb from Pomc, Agrp, Ghrh, or Htr2c neurons minimally altered energy balance. Although early developmental deletion of LepRb from known populations of ARC neurons fails to substantially alter body weight, the minimal phenotype of mice lacking LepRb in Htr2c cells suggests that the phenotype that results from early developmental LepRb deficiency depends not simply upon the total number of leptin-responsive hypothalamic LepRb cells. Rather, specific populations of LepRb neurons must play particularly important roles in body energy homeostasis; these as yet unidentified LepRb cells likely reside in the DMH. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of suspected developmental delays in early infancy: results from a regional population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Valla, Lisbeth; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Hofoss, Dag; Slinning, Kari

    2015-12-17

    Prevalence estimates on suspected developmental delays (SDD) in young infants are scarce and a necessary first step for planning an early intervention. We investigated the prevalence of SDD at 4, 6 and 12 months, in addition to associations of SDD with gender, prematurity and maternal education. This study is based on a Norwegian longitudinal sample of 1555 infants and their parents attending well-baby clinics for regular health check-ups. Moreover, parents completed the Norwegian translation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) prior to the check-up, with a corrected gestational age being used to determine the time of administration for preterm infants. Scores ≤ the established cut-offs in one or more of the five development areas: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving and personal-social, which defined SDD for an infant were reported. Chi-square tests were performed for associations between the selected factors and SDD. According to established Norwegian cut-off points, the overall prevalence of SDD in one or more areas was 7.0 % (10.3 % US cut-off) at 4 months, 5.7 % (12.3 % US cut-off) at 6 months and 6.1 % (10.3 % US cut-off) at 12 months. The highest prevalence of SDD was in the gross motor area at all three time points. A gestational age of < 37 weeks revealed a significant association with the communication SDD at 4 months, and with the fine motor and personal social SDD at 6 months. Gender was significantly associated with the fine motor and problem solving SDD at 4 months and personal- social SDD at 6 months: as more boys than girls were delayed. No significant associations were found between maternal education and the five developmental areas of the ASQ. Our findings indicate prevalence rates of SDD between 5.7 and 7.0 % in Norwegian infants between 4 and 12 months of age based on the Norwegian ASQ cut-off points (10.3-12.3 %, US cut-off points). During the first year of life, delay is most frequent

  9. Annotation: Early Intervention and Prevention of Self-Injurious Behaviour Exhibited by Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    The ontogeny of self-injurious behaviour exhibited by young children with developmental delays or disabilities is due to a complex interaction between neurobiological and environmental variables. In this manuscript, the literature on emerging self-injury in the developmental disability population is reviewed with a focus on an operant conceptual…

  10. Getting Ready for College: An Implementation and Early Impacts Study of Eight Texas Developmental Summer Bridge Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathington, Heather D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Weissman, Evan; Teres, Jedediah; Pretlow, Joshua; Nakanishi, Aki

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) funded 22 colleges to establish developmental summer bridge programs. Aimed at providing an alternative to traditional developmental education, these programs involve intensive remedial instruction in math, reading, and/or writing and college preparation content for students entering…

  11. Getting Ready for College: An Implementation and Early Impacts Study of Eight Texas Developmental Summer Bridge Programs. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathington, Heather D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Weissman, Evan; Teres, Jedediah; Pretlow, Joshua; Nakanishi, Aki

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) funded 22 colleges to establish developmental summer bridge programs. Aimed at providing an alternative to traditional developmental education, these programs involve intensive remedial instruction in math, reading, and/or writing and college preparation content for students entering…

  12. Getting Ready for College: An Implementation and Early Impacts Study of Eight Texas Developmental Summer Bridge Programs. NCPR Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathington, Heather D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Weissman, Evan; Teres, Jedediah; Pretlow, Joshua; Nakanishi, Aki

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the National Center for Postsecondary Research (NCPR) launched an evaluation of eight developmental summer bridge programs in Texas to assess whether these programs reduce the need for developmental coursework and improve student outcomes in college. The evaluation uses an experimental design to measure the effects of these programs on…

  13. Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  14. Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Serena, Ed.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  15. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Diana; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa; Fallin, M Danielle; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura; Wiggins, Lisa; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steve; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; AaronThompson, Patrick; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal, gastrointestinal, and sociodemographic characteristics. SEED uses a case–control design with population-based ascertainment of children aged 2–5 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children in two control groups—one from the general population and one with non-ASD developmental problems. Data from parent-completed questionnaires, interviews, clinical evaluations, biospecimen sampling, and medical record abstraction focus on the prenatal and early postnatal periods. SEED is a valuable resource for testing hypotheses regarding ASD characteristics and causes. PMID:22350336

  16. Homozygous EEF1A2 mutation causes dilated cardiomyopathy, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, epilepsy and early death.

    PubMed

    Cao, Siqi; Smith, Laura L; Padilla-Lopez, Sergio R; Guida, Brandon S; Blume, Elizabeth; Shi, Jiahai; Morton, Sarah U; Brownstein, Catherine A; Beggs, Alan H; Kruer, Michael C; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2017-09-15

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (EEF1A), is encoded by two distinct isoforms, EEF1A1 and EEF1A2; whereas EEF1A1 is expressed almost ubiquitously, EEF1A2 expression is limited such that it is only detectable in skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spinal cord. Currently, the role of EEF1A2 in normal cardiac development and function is unclear. There have been several reports linking de novo dominant EEF1A2 mutations to neurological issues in humans. We report a pair of siblings carrying a homozygous missense mutation p.P333L in EEF1A2 who exhibited global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dilated cardiomyopathy and epilepsy, ultimately leading to death in early childhood. A third sibling also died of a similar presentation, but DNA was unavailable to confirm the mutation. Functional genomic analysis was performed in S. cerevisiae and zebrafish. In S. cerevisiae, there was no evidence for a dominant-negative effect. Previously identified putative de novo mutations failed to complement yeast strains lacking the EEF1A ortholog showing a major growth defect. In contrast, the introduction of the mutation seen in our family led to a milder growth defect. To evaluate its function in zebrafish, we knocked down eef1a2 expression using translation blocking and splice-site interfering morpholinos. EEF1A2-deficient zebrafish had skeletal muscle weakness, cardiac failure and small heads. Human EEF1A2 wild-type mRNA successfully rescued the morphant phenotype, but mutant RNA did not. Overall, EEF1A2 appears to be critical for normal heart function in humans, and its deficiency results in clinical abnormalities in neurologic function as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle defects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Developmental trends in alcohol use initiation and escalation from early- to middle-adolescence: Prediction by urgency and trait affect

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on adolescent drinking have not always been able to distinguish between initiation and escalation of drinking, because many studies include samples in which initiation has already occurred; hence initiation and escalation are often confounded. The present study draws from a dual-process theoretical framework to investigate: if changes in the likelihood of drinking initiation and escalation are predicted by a tendency towards rash action when experiencing positive and negative emotions (positive and negative urgency); and whether trait positive and negative affect moderate such effects. Alcohol naïve adolescents (n=944; age: M=12.16, SD=.96; 52% female) completed 6 semi-annual assessments of trait urgency and affect (wave-1) and alcohol use (waves 2–6). A two-part random-effects model was used to estimate changes in the likelihood of any alcohol use vs. escalation in the volume of use amongst initiators. Main effects suggest a significant association between positive affect and change in level of alcohol use amongst initiators, such that lower positive affect predicted increased alcohol involvement. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between positive urgency and positive affect predicting changes in the escalation of drinking, such that the effect of positive urgency was augmented for those high on trait positive affect, though only at extremely high levels of positive affect. Results suggest risk factors in the development of drinking depend on whether initiation or escalation is investigated. A more nuanced understanding of the early developmental phases of alcohol involvement can inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27031086

  18. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in Family Study and maternal responsiveness in Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps that led children to believe they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationship moderated the future developmental trajectory: Children’s attenuated tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in Family Study indicated that the links between low tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by parental stronger discipline pressure. By influencing indirectly future developmental sequelae, early relationship may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes. PMID:24280347

  19. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  20. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  1. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  2. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  3. Developmental coordination disorders: state of art.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, descriptions of children with motor coordination difficulties and clumsy movements have been discussed since the early 1900s. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), it is a marked impairment in the development of fine or global motor coordination, affecting 6% of school-age children. All these children are characterized for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in motor learning and new motor skill acquisition, in contrast to adult apraxia which is a disorder in the execution of already learned movements. No consensus has been established about etiology of DCD. Intragroup approach through factor and cluster analysis highlights that motor impairment in DCD children varies both in severity and nature. Indeed, most studies have used screening measures of performance on some developmental milestones derived from global motor tests. A few studies have investigated different functions together with standardized assessments, such as neuromuscular tone and soft signs, qualitative and quantitative measures related to gross and fine motor coordination and the specific difficulties -academic, language, gnosic, visual motor/visual-perceptual, and attentional/executive- n order to allow a better identification of DCD subtypes with diagnostic criteria and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms and of the cerebral involvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Early IGF-1 primes visual cortex maturation and accelerates developmental switch between NKCC1 and KCC2 chloride transporters in enriched animals.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Laura; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Melani, Riccardo; Deidda, Gabriele; Landi, Silvia; Narducci, Roberta; Cancedda, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has a remarkable impact on brain development. Continuous exposure to EE from birth determines a significant acceleration of visual system maturation both at retinal and cortical levels. A pre-weaning enriched experience is sufficient to trigger the accelerated maturation of the visual system, suggesting that factors affected by EE during the first days of life might prime visual circuits towards a faster development. The search for such factors is crucial not only to gain a better understanding of the molecular hierarchy of brain development but also to identify molecular pathways amenable to be targeted to correct atypical brain developmental trajectories. Here, we showed that IGF-1 levels are increased in the visual cortex of EE rats as early as P6 and this is a crucial event for setting in motion the developmental program induced by EE. Early intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of IGF-1 in standard rats was sufficient to mimic the action of EE on visual acuity development, whereas blocking IGF-1 signaling by i.c.v. injections of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevented the deployment of EE effects. Early IGF-1 decreased the ratio between the expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 cation/chloride transporters, and the reversal potential for GABA A R-driven Cl - currents (E Cl ) was shifted toward more negative potentials, indicating that IGF-1 is a crucial factor in accelerating the maturation of GABAergic neurotransmission and promoting the developmental switch of GABA polarity from excitation to inhibition. In addition, early IGF-1 promoted a later occurring increase in its own expression, suggesting a priming effect of early IGF-1 in driving post-weaning cortical maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  6. Level-2 Milestone 5213. CTS-1 Contract Award Completed

    SciT

    Leininger, Matt

    2015-09-24

    This report documents the fact that the first commodity technology (CT) system contract award, CTS-1, has been completed. The description of the milestone is: Based on Tri-Lab CTS-1 process and review, LLNL successfully awards the procurement for the next-generation Tri-Lab Linux CTS-1. The milestone completion criterion is: Signed contract. The milestone was completed on September 24th. 2015.

  7. Birth Cohort Differences in Sexual Identity Development Milestones among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-12

    The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. We examined trends in SID milestones by birth cohort in a 2015 U.S. national sample of GBM (n = 1,023). Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of the same sex (median age 11 to 12). However, with the exception of age of first same-sex attraction, older cohorts tended to pass other milestones at later ages than younger cohorts. Latent class analysis (LCA) of SID milestone patterns identified three subgroups. The majority (84%) began sexual identity development with same-sex attraction around the onset of puberty (i.e., around age 10) and progressed to self-identification, same-sex sexual activity, and coming out-in that order. The other two classes felt same-sex attraction during teen years (ages 12.5 to 18.0) but achieved the remaining SID milestones later in life. For 13% of men, this was during early adulthood; for 3% of men, this was in middle adulthood. Findings highlight the need to monitor ongoing generational differences in passing SID milestones.

  8. Pediatrics Milestone Project: Next Steps Toward Meaningful Outcomes Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Patricia J.; Englander, Robert; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Burke, Ann; Benson, Bradley J.; Guralnick, Susan; Ludwig, Stephen; Carraccio, Carol

    2010-01-01

    In the September 2010 issue of JGME, the Pediatric Milestones Working Group published “The Pediatrics Milestones: Conceptual Framework, Guiding Principles, and Approach to Development”, a document that describes the construction of the first iteration of the Pediatric Milestones. These Milestones were developed by the Working Group as a group of practical behavioral expectations for each of the 52 sub-competencies. In constructing these Milestones, the authors were cognizant of the need to ground the Milestones themselves in evidence, theories or other conceptual frameworks that would provide the basis for the ontogeny of development for each sub-competency. During this next phase of the Milestones development, the process will continue with consultation with content experts and consideration of assessment of Milestones. We have described possible measurement tools, explored threats to validity, establishment of benchmarks, and possible approaches to reporting of performance. The vision of the Pediatrics Milestone Project is to understand the development of a pediatrician from entry into medical school through the twilight of a physician’s career, and the work will require a collaborative effort of the undergraduate and graduate medical education communities, and the accrediting and certifying bodies. PMID:22132281

  9. Revisiting and Computing Reaction Coordinates with Directional Milestoning

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Elber, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The method of Directional Milestoning is revisited. We start from an exact and more general expression and state the conditions and validity of the memory-loss approximation. An algorithm to compute a reaction coordinate from Directional Milestoning data is presented. The reaction coordinate is calculated as a set of discrete jumps between Milestones that maximizes the flux between two stable states. As an application we consider a conformational transition in solvated Adenosine. We compare a long molecular dynamic trajectory with Directional Milestoning and discuss the differences between the maximum flux path and minimum energy coordinates. PMID:21500798

  10. Developmental profiles of progesterone receptor transcripts and molecular responses to gestagen exposure during Silurana tropicalis early development.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paisley; Langlois, Valerie S

    2018-05-18

    Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear. This project aims to understand the roles and the regulatory mechanisms of P4 in amphibians and to assess the consequences of exposures to environmental gestagens on the P4-receptor signaling pathways in frogs. Here, we established the developmental profiles of the P4 receptors: the intracellular progesterone receptor (ipgr), the membrane progesterone receptor β (mpgrβ), and the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (pgrmc1) in Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) embryos using real-time qPCR. P4-receptor mRNAs were detected throughout embryogenesis. Transcripts for ipgr and pgrmc1 were detected in embryos at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 2 and 7, indicative of maternal transfer of mRNA. We also assessed the effects of P4 and MGA exposure in embryonic and early larval development. Endocrine responses were evaluated through transcript analysis of a suite of gene targets of interest, including: ipgr, mpgrβ, pgrmc1, androgen receptor (ar), estrogen receptor α (erα), follicle stimulating hormone β (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and the steroid 5-alpha reductase family (srd5α1, 2, and 3). Acute exposure (NF 12-46) to P4 caused a 2- to 5-fold change increase of ipgr, mpgrβ, pgrmc1, and ar mRNA levels at the environmentally relevant concentration of 195 ng/L P4. Acute exposure to MGA induced a 56% decrease of srd5α3 at 1140

  11. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  12. MOTHERS AND FATHERS TOGETHER: CONTRASTS IN PARENTING ACROSS PRESCHOOL TO EARLY SCHOOL AGE IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS

    PubMed Central

    Crnic, Keith; Arbona, Anita Pedersen y; Baker, Bruce; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Much of our understanding of families and parenting of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) reflects the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of mothers with relatively little focus on the ways in which fathers contribute to and are affected by this unique context. In this chapter, we address the importance of fathers as a source of critical developmental influence, and contrast fathers and mothers of children with ID along three important dimensions of parent functioning (stress, well-being, and interactive behavior). The contrasts explore the developmental trajectories of these parenting constructs over time from the perspective of an emerging new complexity in conceptual models of family and parent adaptation. Data from the Collaborative Family Study are used to explore paternal and maternal stress, well-being, and behavior across the preschool through transition to school-age developmental period, and findings are discussed within the context of the broader literature in each area. PMID:20224748

  13. Putting the pediatrics milestones into practice: a consensus roadmap and resource analysis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Spector, Nancy D; Calaman, Sharon; West, Daniel C; Cruz, Mario; Frohna, John G; Gonzalez Del Rey, Javier; Gustafson, Kristina K; Poynter, Sue Ellen; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Southgate, W Michael; Vinci, Robert J; Sectish, Theodore C

    2014-05-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has partnered with member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties to initiate the next steps in advancing competency-based assessment in residency programs. This initiative, known as the Milestone Project, is a paradigm shift from traditional assessment efforts and requires all pediatrics residency programs to report individual resident progression along a series of 4 to 5 developmental levels of performance, or milestones, for individual competencies every 6 months beginning in June 2014. The effort required to successfully make this shift is tremendous given the number of training programs, training institutions, and trainees. However, it holds great promise for achieving training outcomes that align with patient needs; developing a valid, reliable, and meaningful way to track residents' development; and providing trainees with a roadmap for learning. Recognizing the resources needed to implement this new system, the authors, all residency program leaders, provide their consensus view of the components necessary for implementing and sustaining this effort, including resource estimates for completing this work. The authors have identified 4 domains: (1) Program Review and Development of Stakeholders and Participants, (2) Assessment Methods and Validation, (3) Data and Assessment System Development, and (4) Summative Assessment and Feedback. This work can serve as a starting point and framework for collaboration with program, department, and institutional leaders to identify and garner necessary resources and plan for local and national efforts that will ensure successful transition to milestones-based assessment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Stepping Stones to a Degree: The Impact of Enrollment Pathways and Milestones on Older Community College Student Outcomes. CCRC Brief Number 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Crosta, Peter; Bailey, Thomas; Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    This Brief reports on a new study that begins to fill this research gap. Using longitudinal unit record transcript data on a cohort of first-time community college students in Florida, the study sought to determine whether remedial pathways, such as enrolling in a developmental math course, and enrollment milestones, such as completing a certain…

  15. The impact of youth, family, peer and neighborhood risk factors on developmental trajectories of risk involvement from early through middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors

  16. A comparative view of early development in the corals Favia lizardensis, Ctenactis echinata, and Acropora millepora - morphology, transcriptome, and developmental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Nami; Hayward, David C; Forêt, Sylvain; Ball, Eldon E

    2016-02-29

    Research into various aspects of coral biology has greatly increased in recent years due to anthropogenic threats to coral health including pollution, ocean warming and acidification. However, knowledge of coral early development has lagged. The present paper describes the embryonic development of two previously uncharacterized robust corals, Favia lizardensis (a massive brain coral) and Ctenactis echinata (a solitary coral) and compares it to that of the previously characterized complex coral, Acropora millepora, both morphologically and in terms of the expression of a set of key developmental genes. Illumina sequencing of mixed age embryos was carried out, resulting in embryonic transcriptomes consisting of 40605 contigs for C.echinata (N50 = 1080 bp) and 48536 contigs for F.lizardensis (N50 = 1496 bp). The transcriptomes have been annotated against Swiss-Prot and were sufficiently complete to enable the identification of orthologs of many key genes controlling development in bilaterians. Developmental series of images of whole mounts and sections reveal that the early stages of both species contain a blastocoel, consistent with their membership of the robust clade. In situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of the developmentally important genes brachyury, chordin and forkhead. The expression of brachyury and forkhead was consistent with that previously reported for Acropora and allowed us to confirm that the pseudo-blastopore sometimes seen in robust corals such as Favia spp. is not directly associated with gastrulation. C.echinata chordin expression, however, differed from that seen in the other two corals. Embryonic transcriptomes were assembled for the brain coral Favia lizardensis and the solitary coral Ctenactis echinata. Both species have a blastocoel in their early developmental stages, consistent with their phylogenetic position as members of the robust clade. Expression of the key developmental genes brachyury, chordin and

  17. Milestones toward Majorana-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicea, Jason

    Experiments on nanowire-based Majorana platforms now appear poised to move beyond the preliminary problem of zero-mode detection and towards loftier goals of realizing non-Abelian statistics and quantum information applications. Using an approach that synthesizes recent materials growth breakthroughs with tools long successfully deployed in quantum-dot research, I will outline a number of relatively modest milestones that progressively bridge the gap between the current state of the art and these grand longer-term challenges. The intermediate Majorana experiments surveyed in this talk should be broadly adaptable to other approaches as well. Supported by the National Science Foundation (DMR-1341822), Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, and Walter Burke Institute at Caltech.

  18. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0–5)

    PubMed Central

    SOTO, TIMOTHY; KISS, IVY GISERMAN; CARTER, ALICE S.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0–5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. PMID:27556740

  19. The influence of early intervention, informal support and the family environment on trajectories of competence for fathers raising children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Crossman, Morgan K; Parish, Susan L; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Garcia, Dolores Acevedo; Warfield, Marji Erickson

    2018-05-21

    Scant research disentangles the relationship between parenting competence, early intervention (EI) services, the family environment and informal support among fathers of children with developmental disabilities. (1) To determine the trajectory of parental competence for fathers of children with DD from age 3 to age 15. (2) Controlling for child and family characteristics, determine the main effects of the family environment, informal support, and EI services on paternal competence when their child with a developmental disability was age 3. (3) To determine whether there were lasting effects of the family environment, informal support, and the EI service system on differences in paternal competence over time. This study used multilevel modeling to analyze longitudinal data from 93 American fathers from the Early Intervention Collaborative Study. There was no significant change over time in paternal competence after controlling for various covariates. Fathers who initially reported low levels of competence when their child was three reported continuously lower competence over time. Family relationships, positive supports, and perceived helpfulness of home visits were significant predictors of paternal competence at age three. Implications for programs and policy include developing and adopting rigorous ways to measure and carefully monitor service provision, including assessments of paternal competence, family relationships and informal supports at the start of early intervention, and fostering continuous collaborations between providers, researchers and clinicians to address challenges in data collection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Early Effects of Responsivity Education/Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching for Children with Developmental Delays and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L.; Fairchild, Martha; Sokol, Shari; Yoder, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a 6-month course of responsivity education/prelinguistic milieu teaching (RE/PMT) for children with developmental delay and RE/PMT's effects on parenting stress in a randomized clinical trial. Method: Fifty-one children, age 24-33 months, with no more than 10 expressive words or signs, were randomly assigned to…

  1. Multidimensional Latent Markov Models in a Developmental Study of Inhibitory Control and Attentional Flexibility in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne L.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a multidimensional extension of the latent Markov model to analyse data from studies with repeated binary responses in developmental psychology. In particular, we consider an experiment based on a battery of tests which was administered to pre-school children, at three time periods, in order to measure their inhibitory…

  2. Teaching Early Reading Skills to Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Using Computer-Delivered Instruction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Emily J.; Hughes, John C.; Wilson, Meadhbh M.; Beverley, Michael; Hastings, Richard P.; Williams, Bethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) have considerable difficulty learning basic reading skills. Increasing evidence suggests individuals with IDD may benefit from instruction incorporating components of reading found to be effective for typically developing children. However, little research into reading…

  3. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  4. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  5. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  6. The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot: Development of Workplace-Based Assessment Content, Instruments, and Processes.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Patricia J; Margolis, Melissa; Poynter, Sue E; Chaffinch, Christa; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Turner, Teri L; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Lockridge, Robin; Clyman, Stephen G; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-05-01

    To report on the development of content and user feedback regarding the assessment process and utility of the workplace-based assessment instruments of the Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot (PMAP). One multisource feedback instrument and two structured clinical observation instruments were developed and refined by experts in pediatrics and assessment to provide evidence for nine competencies based on the Pediatrics Milestones (PMs) and chosen to inform residency program faculty decisions about learners' readiness to serve as pediatric interns in the inpatient setting. During the 2012-2013 PMAP study, 18 U.S. pediatric residency programs enrolled interns and subinterns. Faculty, residents, nurses, and other observers used the instruments to assess learner performance through direct observation during a one-month rotation. At the end of the rotation, data were aggregated for each learner, milestone levels were assigned using a milestone classification form, and feedback was provided to learners. Learners and site leads were surveyed and/or interviewed about their experience as participants. Across the sites, 2,338 instruments assessing 239 learners were completed by 630 unique observers. Regarding end-of-rotation feedback, 93% of learners (128/137) agreed the assessments and feedback "helped me understand how those with whom I work perceive my performance," and 85% (117/137) agreed they were "useful for constructing future goals or identifying a developmental path." Site leads identified several benefits and challenges to the assessment process. PM-based instruments used in workplace-based assessment provide a meaningful and acceptable approach to collecting evidence of learner competency development. Learners valued feedback provided by PM-based assessment.

  7. Campaign 2 Level 2 Milestone Review 2009: Milestone # 3131 Grain Scale Simulation of Pore Collapse

    SciT

    Schwartz, A J

    2009-09-28

    The milestone reviewed on Sept. 16, 2009 was 'High-fidelity simulation of shock initiation of high explosives at the grain scale using coupled hydrodynamics, thermal transport and chemistry'. It is the opinion of the committee that the team has satisfied the milestone. A detailed description of how the goals were met is provided. The milestone leveraged capabilities from ASC Physics and Engineering Materials program combined with experimental input from Campaign 2. A combined experimental-multiscale simulation approach was used to create and validate the various TATB model components. At the lowest length scale, quantum chemical calculations were used to determine equations ofmore » state, thermal transport properties and reaction rates for TATB as it is decomposing. High-pressure experiments conducted in diamond anvil cells, gas guns and the Z machine were used to validate the EOS, thermal conductivity, specific heat and predictions of water formation. The predicted reaction networks and chemical kinetic equations were implemented in Cheetah and validated against the lower length scale data. Cheetah was then used within the ASC code ALE3D for high-resolution, thermo-mechanically coupled simulations of pore collapse at the micron size scale to predict conditions for detonation initiation.« less

  8. The international society for developmental psychobiology Sackler symposium: early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits--a cross-species analysis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Bridget L; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2014-12-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from four different research laboratories, using three different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behavior with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Oral Health Characteristics and Dental Rehabilitation of Children with Global Developmental Delay.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurabh; Pai, Deepika; Saran, Runki

    2017-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is a chronic neurological disturbance which includes defects in one or more developmental domains. The developmental domain can be motor, cognitive, daily activities, speech or language, and social or personal development. The etiology for GDD can be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. It can be diagnosed early in childhood as the delay or absence of one or more developmental milestones. Hence the role of pedodontist and pediatricians becomes more crucial in identifying this condition. The diagnosis of GDD requires a detailed history including family history and environmental risk factors followed by physical and neurological examinations. Investigations for GDD include diagnostic laboratory tests, brain imaging, and other evidence-based evaluations. GDD affects multiple developmental domains that not only have direct bearing on maintenance of oral health, but also require additional behavior management techniques to deliver optimal dental care. This paper describes two different spectra of children with GDD. Since the severity of GDD can vary, this paper also discusses the different behavior management techniques that were applied to provide dental treatment in such children.

  10. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Adaptive Behaviors from Early Childhood to Adolescence in a Cohort of 152 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdadli, Amaria; Assouline, Brigitte; Sonie, Sandrine; Pernon, Eric; Darrou, Celine; Michelon, Cecile; Picot, Marie-Christine; Aussilloux, Charles; Pry, Rene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines change in 152 children over an almost 10-year period (T1: 4.9 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T2: 8.1 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T3: 15(plus or minus 1.6) years) using a group-based, semi-parametric method in order to identify distinct developmental trajectories. Important deficits remain at adolescence in the adaptive abilities of…

  12. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-04-29

    Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700,000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood development action and policies, using the database as a tool

  13. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  14. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea L; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Harty, Seth C; Arnold, L Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16 years) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21 years). Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9 and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8 and 12 years after randomization. Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. A total of 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years at baseline (mean = 8.5, SD = 0.80). Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (mean age 21 years). Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, all P-values <0.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are were associated with higher levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Milestones: Critical Elements in Clinical Informatics Fellowship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Munger, Benson

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Milestones refer to points along a continuum of a competency from novice to expert. Resident and fellow assessment and program evaluation processes adopted by the ACGME include the mandate that programs report the educational progress of residents and fellows twice annually utilizing Milestones developed by a specialty specific ACGME working group of experts. Milestones in clinical training programs are largely unmapped to specific assessment tools. Residents and fellows are mainly assessed using locally derived assessment instruments. These assessments are then reviewed by the Clinical Competency Committee which assigns and reports trainee ratings using the specialty specific reporting Milestones. Methods and Results The challenge and opportunity facing the nascent specialty of Clinical Informatics is how to optimally utilize this framework across a growing number of accredited fellowships. The authors review how a mapped milestone framework, in which each required sub-competency is mapped to a single milestone assessment grid, can enable the use of milestones for multiple uses including individualized learning plans, fellow assessments, and program evaluation. Furthermore, such a mapped strategy will foster the ability to compare fellow progress within and between Clinical Informatics Fellowships in a structured and reliable fashion. Clinical Informatics currently has far less variability across programs and thus could easily utilize a more tightly defined set of milestones with a clear mapping to sub-competencies. This approach would enable greater standardization of assessment instruments and processes across programs while allowing for variability in how those sub-competencies are taught. Conclusions A mapped strategy for Milestones offers significant advantages for Clinical Informatics programs. PMID:27081414

  16. Early False-Belief Understanding.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Baillargeon, Renée

    2017-04-01

    Intense controversy surrounds the question of when children first understand that others can hold false beliefs. Results from traditional tasks suggest that false-belief understanding does not emerge until about 4 years of age and constitutes a major developmental milestone in social cognition. By contrast, results from nontraditional tasks, which have steadily accumulated over the past 10 years, suggest that false-belief understanding is already present in infants (under age 2 years) and toddlers (age 2-3 years) and thus forms an integral part of social cognition from early in life. Here we first present an overview of the findings from nontraditional tasks. We then return to traditional tasks and argue that processing difficulties, rather than limitations in false-belief understanding, account for young children's failure at these tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Children at risk for developmental delay can be recognised by stunting, being underweight, ill health, little maternal schooling or high gravidity.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Holding, Penny; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Newton, Charles; Van Baar, Anneloes

    2010-06-01

    To investigate markers of risk status that can be easily monitored in resource-limited settings for the identification of children in need of early developmental intervention. Eighty-five children in Kilifi, Kenya, aged between 2 and 10 months at recruitment, were involved in a 10-month follow-up. Data on developmental outcome were collected through parental report using a locally developed checklist. We tested for the unique and combined influence of little maternal schooling and higher gravidity, anthropometric status (being underweight and stunting) and poor health on the level of developmental achievement and the rate of acquisition of developmental milestones. A model with all five predictors showed a good fit to the data (chi(2)(21, N = 85) = 23.00, p = .33). Maternal schooling and gravidity and child's stunting were found to predict the rate of developmental achievements (beta = .24, beta = .31, and beta = .41, respectively). Being underweight, ill-health, stunting and gravidity predicted initial developmental status (beta = -.26, beta = -.27, beta = -.43, and beta = -.27). Slow rates of developmental achievement can be predicted using these easy-to-administer measures and the strongest relationship with risk was based on a combination of all measures.

  18. Children at risk for developmental delay can be recognized by stunting, being underweight, ill health, little maternal schooling or high gravidity

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Amina; Holding, Penny; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Newton, Charles; Van Baar, Anneloes

    2010-01-01

    Aims To investigate markers of risk status that can be easily monitored in resource limited settings for the identification of children in need of early developmental intervention. Methods Eighty-five children in Kilifi, Kenya, aged between 2–10 months at recruitment, were involved in a ten-month follow up. Data on developmental outcome were collected through parental report using a locally developed checklist. We tested for the unique and combined influence of little maternal schooling and higher gravidity, anthropometric status (being underweight and stunting) and poor health, on the level of developmental achievement and the rate of acquisition of developmental milestones. Results A model with all five predictors showed a good fit to the data (χ2(21, N = 85) = 23.00, p = .33). Maternal schooling and gravidity, and child’s stunting were found to predict the rate of developmental achievements (β = .24, β = .31, and β = .41, respectively). Being underweight, ill-health, stunting and gravidity predicted initial developmental status (β = −.26, β = −.27, β = −.43, and β = −.27). Conclusions Slow rates of developmental achievement can be predicted using these easy to administer measures and the strongest relationship with risk was based on a combination of all measures. PMID:19951363

  19. The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Developmental Psychopathology: A Systematic Review on Early Psychosis, Autism, and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Maria; Ciappolino, Valentina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Tesei, Alessandra; Turolo, Stefano; Crippa, Alessandro; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Altamura, Carlo A.; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field. Heterogeneity in study designs will be discussed in the light of differences in results and interpretation of studies carried out so far. PMID:29207548

  20. Is Music an Active Developmental Tool or Simply a Supplement? Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kemple, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines early childhood preservice teachers' beliefs about the importance of music in early childhood and explores factors influencing those beliefs. The study found that preservice teachers in this study held relatively strong beliefs about the importance of music, including aesthetic, quality-of-life, and social-emotional benefits.…

  1. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    Stephen Herring

    2017-12-09

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, lab

  2. Infant Development: Milestones from 7 to 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant development milestones for a 7- to 9-month-old include sitting, standing and laughing. By Mayo ... her own pace. From ages 7 to 9 months, your baby is likely to experience: Advancing motor ...

  3. Maturity-associated variation in change of direction and dribbling speed in early pubertal years and 5-year developmental changes in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Valente-Dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Vaz, V; Figueiredo, A J; Capranica, L; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the developmental changes in change of direction and dribbling speed in youth soccer players taking into account skeletal age (SA), maturity status, body size, estimated fat mass, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume of training. Eighty-three male soccer players aged 10-15 years (SA) at baseline were annually followed over 5 years, resulting in an average 4.4 observations per player. After testing for multicollinearity, multi-level regression modeling was used to examine the longitudinal developmental changes on change of direction and dribbling speed. Maturity-associated variability was significant in change of direction and also dribbling speed among young soccer players aged 12-14 years with better scores being performed by late maturers. Moreover, the predicted longitudinal scores for change of direction and dribbling speed improved with SA (P<0.01), SA2 (P<0.01) and skeletal maturity status entered as an additional developmental predictor (P<0.05). Estimated fat-free mass (P<0.01), aerobic endurance (P<0.01) and lower limb strength (P<0.01) were additional predictors in both models. The soccer-specific skill, dibbling speed, was also explained by annual volume of training (P<0.05). Skeletal maturity status explains inter-individual variability on maximal short-term run performances with and without the ball possession at early ages of participation in competitive soccer. The effects tend to persist across ages combined with longitudinal changes in body composition and functional fitness. In the particular case of the ball test, annual volume of training was also a longitudinal performance predictor.

  4. The pathology milestones and the next accreditation system.

    PubMed

    Naritoku, Wesley Y; Alexander, C Bruce; Bennett, Betsy D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen; Brissette, Mark D; Grimes, Margaret M; Hoffman, Robert D; Hunt, Jennifer L; Iezzoni, Julia C; Johnson, Rebecca; Kozel, Jessica; Mendoza, Ricardo M; Post, Miriam D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Procop, Gary W; Steinberg, Jacob J; Thorsen, Linda M; Nestler, Steven P

    2014-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education developed the Outcomes Project and the 6 general competencies with the intent to improve the outcome of graduate medical education in the United States. The competencies were used as the basis for developing learning goals and objectives and tools to evaluate residents' performance. By the mid-2000s the stakeholders in resident education and the general public felt that the Outcomes Project had fallen short of expectations. To develop a new evaluation method to track trainee progress throughout residency using benchmarks called milestones. A change in leadership at the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education brought a new vision for the accreditation of training programs and a radically different approach to the evaluation of residents. The Pathology Milestones Working Group reviewed examples of developing milestones in other specialties, the literature, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program requirements for pathology to develop pathology milestones. The pathology milestones are a set of objective descriptors for measuring progress in the development of competency in patient care, procedural skill sets, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. The milestones provide a national standard for evaluation that will be used for the assessment of all residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology training programs.

  5. Developmental Toxicity of the Organic Fraction from Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback and Produced Waters to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish ( Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    He, Yuhe; Sun, Chenxing; Zhang, Yifeng; Folkerts, Erik J; Martin, Jonathan W; Goss, Greg G

    2018-03-20

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major recovery method of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and concerns have been raised regarding the environmental impact of releases of Flowback and Produced Water (FPW) to aquatic ecosystems. To investigate potential effects of HF-FPW on fish embryo development, HF-FPW samples were collected from two different wells and the organic fractions were isolated from both aqueous and particle phases to eliminate the confounding effects of high salinity. Each organic extract was characterized by non-target analysis with HPLC-Orbitrap-MS, with targeted analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons provided as markers of petroleum-affected water. The organic profiles differed between samples, including PAHs and alkyl PAHs, and major substances identified by non-target analysis included polyethylene glycols, alkyl ethoxylates, octylphenol ethoxylates, and other high molecular weight (C 49-79 ) ethylene oxide polymeric material. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of FPW organic extracts to investigate acute (7-day) and developmental toxicity in early life stages. The acute toxicity (LD 50 ) of the extracted FPW fractions ranged from 2.8× to 26× the original organic content. Each extracted FPW fraction significantly increased spinal malformation, pericardial edema, and delayed hatch in exposed embryos and altered the expression of a suite of target genes related to biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine-mediation in developing zebrafish embryos. These results provide novel information on the variation of organic profiles and developmental toxicity among different sources and fractions of HF-FPWs.

  6. A new hynobiid-like salamander (Amphibia, Urodela) from Inner Mongolia, China, provides a rare case study of developmental features in an Early Cretaceous fossil urodele

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th–45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes. The new salamander appears to be closely related to hynobiids, although this inferred relationship awaits confirmation by research in progress by us on a morphological and molecular combined analysis of cryptobranchoid relationships. Comparison of adult with larval and postmetamorphic juvenile specimens provides insights into developmental patterns of cranial and postcranial skeletons in this fossil species, especially resorption of the palatine and anterior portions of the palatopterygoid in the palate and the coronoid in the mandible during metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic ossification of the mesopodium in both manus and pes. Thus, this study provides a rare case study of developmental features in a Mesozoic salamander. PMID:27761316

  7. Neural tube and other developmental anomalies in the guinea pig following maternal hyperthermia during early neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, J; Upfold, J; Edwards, M; Smith, M

    1992-01-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to hyperthermia for 1 hr once or twice on day 11, 12, 13, or 14 (E11-E14) of pregnancy. The mean rectal temperatures were elevated by 3.4 degrees C-4.0 degrees C. This treatment resulted in a marked elevation of rates of resorption and developmental defects in embryos examined at day E23. The defects observed were those affecting the neural tube (NTD) (exencephaly, encephaloceles, and microphthalmia), kyphosis/scoliosis, branchial arch defects, and pericardial edema. Embryos with NTD and kyphosis/scoliosis have not been found among newborn guinea pigs to date following maternal heat exposure on days E12-E14. It appears that embryos with these defects are filtered out by resorption or abortion by days E30-E35.

  8. Developmental consequences of early parenting experiences: self-recognition and self-regulation in three cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis; Borke, Joern; Kärtner, Joscha; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira

    2004-01-01

    This study relates parenting of 3-month-old children to children's self-recognition and self-regulation at 18 to 20 months. As hypothesized, observational data revealed differences in the sociocultural orientations of the 3 cultural samples' parenting styles and in toddlers' development of self-recognition and self-regulation. Children of Cameroonian Nso farmers who experience a proximal parenting style develop self-regulation earlier, children of Greek urban middle-class families who experience a distal parenting style develop self-recognition earlier, and children of Costa Rican middle-class families who experience aspects of both distal and proximal parenting styles fall between the other 2 groups on both self-regulation and self-recognition. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for culturally informed developmental pathways.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  10. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part I: adverse effects in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Morin, Bénédicte; Cousin, Xavier; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    A new gravel-contact assay using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, embryos was developed to assess the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrophobic compounds. Environmentally realistic exposure conditions were mimicked with a direct exposure of eyed rainbow trout embryos incubated onto chemical-spiked gravels until hatching at 10 °C. Several endpoints were recorded including survival, hatching delay, hatching success, biometry, developmental abnormalities, and DNA damage (comet and micronucleus assays). This bioassay was firstly tested with two model PAHs, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. Then, the method was applied to compare the toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures characterized by different PAH compositions: a pyrolytic extract from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two petrogenic extracts from Arabian Light and Erika oils, at two environmental concentrations, 3 and 10 μg g(-1) sum of PAHs. The degree and spectrum of toxicity were different according to the extract considered. Acute effects including embryo mortality and decreased hatching success were observed only for Erika oil extract. Arabian Light and pyrolytic extracts induced mainly sublethal effects including reduced larvae size and hemorrhages. Arabian Light and Erika extracts both induced repairable DNA damage as revealed by the comet assay versus the micronucleus assay. The concentration and proportion of methylphenanthrenes and methylanthracenes appeared to drive the toxicity of the three PAH fractions tested, featuring a toxic gradient as follows: pyrolytic < Arabian Light < Erika. The minimal concentration causing developmental defects was as low as 0.7 μg g(-1) sum of PAHs, indicating the high sensitivity of the assay and validating its use for toxicity assessment of particle-bound pollutants.

  11. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Oría, Reinaldo B.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Moore, Sean R.; Luna, Max A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the developmental origins of health and disease postulate that developing fetuses–and potentially young children—undergo adaptive epigenetic changes with longstanding effects on metabolism and other processes. Ongoing research explores whether these adaptations occur during early life following malnutrition. In the developing world there remains a high degree of nutritional stunting—linear growth failure due to inadequate calories that may be exacerbated by inflammation from ongoing infections. In areas with poor sanitation children experience vicious cycles of enteric infections and malnutrition, resulting in poor nutrient absorption from intestinal mucosa changes now termed “environmental enteropathy.” Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with increased CVD risk factors in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. The mechanisms for these associations remain poorly understood and may relate to epigenetic responses to poor nutrition, increased inflammation or both. Given increases in CVD in developing areas of the world, associations between childhood malnutrition, early life infections and increased CVD risk factors underscore further reasons to improve nutrition and infection-related outcomes for young children worldwide. PMID:23110643

  12. Shortening the Miles to the Milestones: Connecting EPA-Based Evaluations to ACGME Milestone Reports for Internal Medicine Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Choe, John H; Knight, Christopher L; Stiling, Rebekah; Corning, Kelli; Lock, Keli; Steinberg, Kenneth P

    2016-07-01

    The Next Accreditation System requires internal medicine training programs to provide the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) with semiannual information about each resident's progress in 22 subcompetency domains. Evaluation of resident "trustworthiness" in performing entrustable professional activities (EPAs) may offer a more tangible assessment construct than evaluations based on expectations of usual progression toward competence. However, translating results from EPA-based evaluations into ACGME milestone progress reports has proven to be challenging because the constructs that underlay these two systems differ.The authors describe a process to bridge the gap between rotation-specific EPA-based evaluations and ACGME milestone reporting. Developed at the University of Washington in 2012 and 2013, this method involves mapping EPA-based evaluation responses to "milestone elements," the narrative descriptions within the columns of each of the 22 internal medicine subcompetencies. As faculty members complete EPA-based evaluations, the mapped milestone elements are automatically marked as "confirmed." Programs can maintain a database that tallies the number of times each milestone element is confirmed for a resident; these data can be used to produce graphical displays of resident progress along the internal medicine milestones.Using this count of milestone elements allows programs to bridge the gap between faculty assessments of residents based on rotation-specific observed activities and semiannual ACGME reports based on the internal medicine milestones. Although potentially useful for all programs, this method is especially beneficial to large programs where clinical competency committee members may not have the opportunity for direct observation of all residents.

  13. Early PQQ supplementation has persistent long-term protective effects on developmental programming of hepatic lipotoxicity and inflammation in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jonscher, Karen R; Stewart, Michael S; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; DeFelice, Brian C; Wang, Xiaoxin X; Luo, Yuhuan; Levi, Moshe; Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Janssen, Rachel C; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Wiitala, Ellen; Florey, Garrett; Jonscher, Raleigh L; Potma, Eric O; Fiehn, Oliver; Friedman, Jacob E

    2017-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is widespread in adults and children. Early exposure to maternal obesity or Western-style diet (WD) increases steatosis and oxidative stress in fetal liver and is associated with lifetime disease risk in the offspring. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a natural antioxidant found in soil, enriched in human breast milk, and essential for development in mammals. We investigated whether a supplemental dose of PQQ, provided prenatally in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity during pregnancy, could protect obese offspring from progression of NAFLD. PQQ treatment given pre- and postnatally in WD-fed offspring had no effect on weight gain but increased metabolic flexibility while reducing body fat and liver lipids, compared with untreated obese offspring. Indices of NAFLD, including hepatic ceramide levels, oxidative stress, and expression of proinflammatory genes ( Nos2 , Nlrp3 , Il6 , and Ptgs2 ), were decreased in WD PQQ-fed mice, concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and decreased Pparg expression. Notably, these changes persisted even after PQQ withdrawal at weaning. Our results suggest that supplementation with PQQ, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, protects offspring from WD-induced developmental programming of hepatic lipotoxicity and may help slow the advancing epidemic of NAFLD in the next generation.-Jonscher, K. R., Stewart, M. S., Alfonso-Garcia, A., DeFelice, B. C., Wang, X. X., Luo, Y., Levi, M., Heerwagen, M. J. R., Janssen, R. C., de la Houssaye, B. A., Wiitala, E., Florey, G., Jonscher, R. L., Potma, E. O., Fiehn, O. Friedman, J. E. Early PQQ supplementation has persistent long-term protective effects on developmental programming of hepatic lipotoxicity and inflammation in obese mice. © FASEB.

  14. Guide to DCP Study Close-Out: Milestones and Tasks | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This guide assists Consortium Lead Organization (CLO) planning for DCP study close-out. Study close-out tasks are organized under milestones, which help mark progress toward completion of the close-out process. Once tasks associated with a milestone are underway, planning for the next milestone may begin. Click on a milestone to view the associated close-out tasks. |

  15. A brief history of hepatitis milestones.

    PubMed

    Trepo, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis has been a major plague of mankind. The history of the discovery of causative viruses is one of the most fascinating scientific adventures of this half century. Individualization of several types of hepatitis only emerged after world war two. Their identification has been associated with milestones which revolutionized medicine and public health. The discovery of HBV brought the first ever vaccine not prepared by tissue culture but initially directly from plasma and soon the first vaccine produced by genetic engineering. HBV vaccine proved to be the first "anti-cancer" vaccine by preventing hepatocellular carcinoma and practically eradicating it from childhood in Taiwan. Successful vaccines became also available for HAV and more recently HEV. The discovery of HCV in 1989 opened a new era since it was the first virus was identified by a direct molecular approach. Two billion people are infected with HBV and 350 million are chronic carriers of the virus. The extraordinary effectiveness of HBV vaccination was best illustrated in Taiwan and Singapore where in less than 2 decades HBs Ag carriers dropped from 9,1% to 2,7% and HCC from 27% to 17%. Successful development of nucleos(t)ides analogs make it now possible to fully control disease progression with a daily pill long term therapy. The progress in HCV therapy has been even more spectacular and successful treatment jumped from 6 % with interferon alone in 1986 to more than 80% in 2013 with triple combination therapies. Remarkably chronic hepatitis C is the only chronic disease which is curable. It will be soon possible to eradicate HCV infection with, an all oral, daily single pill (containing several molecules) for 3 to 6 months which will cure over 90% of patients. This unprecedented therapeutic victory benefiting hundred millions of people matches the triumphs over small pox, polio and tuberculosis. The next 10 years should undoubtedly witness cure or full control over all forms of acute and chronic

  16. Developmental Pathways from Childhood Aggression-Disruptiveness, Chronic Peer Rejection and Deviant Friendships to Early-Adolescent Rule Breaking

    PubMed Central

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood aggression-disruptiveness and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. PMID:25403544

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Child Behavioral Development Milestone Delays in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Higa Diez, Midory; Kado, Yoko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with unfavorable neurodevelopment in children. We examined associations between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and child behavioral development milestone delays, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where the participants were recruited in 2001 and followed. Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations during the 9 months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We analyzed data from singleton births with linked pollution data available (N = 33,911 at the maximum). We used responses to survey questions about age-appropriate behaviors at ages 2.5 and 5.5 years as indicators of behavioral development. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Air pollution exposure during gestation was positively associated with the risk of some developmental milestone delays at both ages. Specifically, air pollution was associated with verbal and fine motor development at age 2.5 years, and with behaviors related to inhibition and impulsivity at 5.5 years. In the fully-adjusted models, odds ratios following one-interquartile-range increase in nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.43) for inability to compose a two-phrase sentence at ages 2.5 and 1.10 (1.05, 1.16) for inability to express emotions at age 5.5 years, respectively. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with behavioral development milestone delays of children in a nationally representative sample in Japan.

  18. Racial Gaps in Early Childhood: Socio-Emotional Health, Developmental, and Educational Outcomes among African-American Boys. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Wight, Vanessa R.; Cooper, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (child-B) data, collected by the National Center for Education Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education. The EC LS-B is a nationally representative longitudinal study of approximately 11,000 children who were born in 2001. The children in the EC LS-B have been followed…

  19. "Dosage" Effects on Developmental Progress during Early Childhood Intervention: Accessible Metrics for Real-Life Research and Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Fevola, Antonio V.

    2011-01-01

    The accountability movement in education, in general, and early childhood intervention (ECI), specifically, have fueled the debate about the quality, benefits, and limitations of various types of publicly funded ECI and human service programs (PEW Charitable Trusts, 2008; National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences, 2009) not only in…

  20. Incorporating Family Assessment and Individualized Family Service Plans into Early Intervention Programs: A Developmental, Decision Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Thomas T.; Friedman, Donna Haig

    The monograph presents essential components of a decision making sequence used to incorporate formalized family assessment and service planning procedures into two existing early intervention programs in Massachusetts. The 1-year effort used a consultant to: (1) redefine screening and assessment processes to include both child and family centered…

  1. Potential Developmental and Early Life Health Effects of Nanomaterials: Data Gaps and Research Needs for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although research examining the toxicology of nanomaterials has been ongoing for many years, early studies largely focus on respiratory effects, and are limited by lack of appropriate dose metrics and a limited understanding of the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoma...

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Language-Minority and Monolingual-English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in…

  3. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  4. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. Materials and Methods One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child’s development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants’ motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child’s psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. Results After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Discussion Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children. PMID:27391482

  5. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; Larroque, Beatrice; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  6. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    PubMed

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  8. Prospective test of the developmental propensity model of antisocial behavior: from childhood and adolescence into early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Class, Quetzal A; Zald, David H; Rathouz, Paul J; Applegate, Brooks; Waldman, Irwin D

    2018-06-01

    The developmental propensity model of antisocial behavior posits that several dispositional characteristics of children transact with the environment to influence the likelihood of learning antisocial behavior across development. Specifically, greater dispositional negative emotionality, greater daring, and lower prosociality-operationally, the inverse of callousness- and lower cognitive abilities are each predicted to increase risk for developing antisocial behavior. Prospective tests of key predictions derived from the model were conducted in a high-risk sample of 499 twins who were assessed on dispositions at 10-17 years of age and assessed for antisocial personality disorder (APD) symptoms at 22-31 years of age. Predictions were tested separately for parent and youth informants on the dispositions using multiple regressions that adjusted for oversampling, nonresponse, and clustering within twin pairs, controlling demographic factors and time since the first assessment. Consistent with predictions, greater numbers of APD symptoms in adulthood were independently predicted over a 10-15 year span by higher youth ratings on negative emotionality and daring and lower youth ratings on prosociality, and by parent ratings of greater negative emotionality and lower prosociality. A measure of working memory did not predict APD symptoms. These findings support future research on the role of these dispositions in the development of antisocial behavior. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Behavior of carbonate and magnesium ions in the initial crystallites at the early developmental stages of the rat calvaria.

    PubMed

    Kakei, M; Nakahara, H; Tamura, N; Itoh, H; Kumegawa, M

    1997-08-01

    Analysis of the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphate, and carbonate ions in the mineral phase of rat calvaria specimens obtained at different developmental stages indicated that the mineral at the newborn stage contained a negligible amount of carbonate, but a high content of Mg. There was no significant difference in Ca and phosphate (as PO4) contents between the newborn material and that from later stages. A relatively large amount of carbonate was detected in the calvaria from 6-day-old rats, in which only immature crystals were observed, thus indicating the beginning of apatite formation. Furthermore, using laser Raman microprobe analysis we confirmed that the Raman peak at 1120 cm-1 band, indicative of a Mg-CO3 compound, appeared at the 6-day stage. We also observed that the Raman peak at 988 cm-1 found in the samples from the newborn seemed to have shifted to 963-962 cm-1 in the case of those obtained from 6-day-old rats, a shift which suggests the conversion from the non-apatitic to the apatitic form. These results indicate that carbonate ions might facilitate the initiation of crystal development by converting the inhibitory Mg ion into its inactive form (Mg-carbonate compound).

  10. Milestones for the Final Mile: Interspecialty Distinctions in Primary Palliative Care Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, John A; Herrel, Lindsey A; Healy, Mark A; Wancata, Lauren M; Perumalswami, Chithra R

    2016-09-01

    Primary palliative care (PPC) skills are useful in a wide variety of medical and surgical specialties, and the expectations of PPC skill training are unknown across graduate medical education. We characterized the variation and quality of PPC skills in residency outcomes-based Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. We performed a content analysis with structured implicit review of 2015 ACGME milestone documents from 14 medical and surgical specialties chosen for their exposure to clinical situations requiring PPC. For each specialty milestone document, we characterized the variation and quality of PPC skills in residency outcomes-based ACGME milestones. We identified 959 occurrences of 29 palliative search terms within 14 specialty milestone documents. Within these milestone documents, implicit review characterized 104 milestones with direct saliency to PPC skills and 196 milestones with indirect saliency. Initial interrater agreement of the saliency rating among the primary reviewers was 89%. Specialty milestone documents varied widely in their incorporation of PPC skills within milestone documents. PPC milestones were most commonly found in milestone documents for Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, Urology, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. PPC-relevant milestones were most commonly found in the Interpersonal and Communication Skills core competency with 108 (36%) relevant milestones classified under this core competency. Future revisions of specialty-specific ACGME milestone documents should focus on currently underrepresented, but important PPC skills. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of early developmental stages of Myxobolus cerebralis in fish and tubificid oligochaete hosts by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Antonio, D B; El-Matbouli, M; Hedrick, R P

    1999-11-01

    The myxosporean and actinosporean spores of Myxobolus cerebralis develop through many stages in their respective hosts, salmonid fishes and a tubificid oligochaete. Using a modified, non-radioactive in situ hybridization protocol, the parasite, which exhibits radically different structural forms during its development in each host, could be specifically detected in paraffin-embedded tissues of both fish and oligochaetes. Our study aims to demonstrate the application of the technique for detection of early stages of M. cerebralis in both hosts.

  12. Understanding Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Self-Stated Practices about Social Competence Instructional Strategies in the Context of Developmentally Appropriate Practice: A Comparison of Preservice and In-Service Teachers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hae Kyoung; Han, Heejeong Sophia

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an examination of early childhood preservice and in-service teachers' beliefs and self-stated practices about social competence instructional strategies, developmentally appropriate practices (DAP), and the relationship between the two. Teachers in this study generally believed that the social competence instructional…

  13. [Application of Vojta's method for early detection of developmental disturbances in very low birthweight infants with regard to Apgar score and asymmetric body positions].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the usefulness of assessment based on seven body positions according to Vojta for early detection of developmental abnormalities of the central nervous system. As additional factors, Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute of life, as well as asymmetry of head or of whole body at the time of investigation (usually third month of life) were analyzed in correlation with subsequent diagnosis of cerebral palsy usually established after the first year of life. The study group consisted of 57 children with birthweight lower than 1500 grams. Seven children were diagnosed with cerebral palsy at the age of one year. The following conclusions were drawn: Vojta's diagnostic method is very sensitive in detecting injury of the central nervous system early in life; high correlation was found between cerebral palsy and asymmetry of the body, but not of the head; low Apgar score at 5th but not at 1st minute is highly predictive for progression to cerebral palsy in infants with very low birthweight.

  14. Heavy Alcohol Use in Early Adulthood as a Function of Childhood ADHD: Developmentally-Specific Mediation by Social Impairment and Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Pedersen, Sarah; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Frequent heavy drinking in early adulthood, particularly prior to age 21, is associated with multiple health and legal consequences including continued problems with drinking later into adulthood. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at risk of alcohol use disorder in adulthood, but little is known about their frequency of underage drinking as young adults or about mediational pathways that might contribute to this risky outcome. The current study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to test social impairment and delinquency pathways from childhood ADHD to heavy drinking in early adulthood for individuals with (n=148) and without (n=117) childhood ADHD. Although ADHD did not predict heavy drinking, indirect mediating effects in opposing directions were found. A delinquency pathway from childhood ADHD to increased heavy drinking included adolescent and subsequently adult delinquent behavior. A social impairment pathway from childhood ADHD to decreased heavy drinking included adolescent, but not adult, social impairment. These findings help to explain the heterogeneity of results for alcohol use among individuals with ADHD and suggest that common ADHD-related impairments may operate differently from each other and distinctly across developmental periods. PMID:24611838

  15. Early-Life Exposure to Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and the Developmental Origins of Childhood Obesity: Global Evidence from Human and Rodent Studies.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Alyssa J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Azad, Meghan B

    2018-02-10

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are increasingly consumed by children and pregnant women around the world, yet their long-term health impact is unclear. Here, we review an emerging body of evidence suggesting that early-life exposure to NNS may adversely affect body composition and cardio-metabolic health. Some observational studies suggest that children consuming NNS are at increased risk for obesity-related outcomes; however, others find no association or provide evidence of confounding. Fewer studies have examined prenatal NNS exposure, with mixed results from different analytical approaches. There is a paucity of RCTs evaluating NNS in children, yielding inconsistent results that can be difficult to interpret due to study design limitations (e.g., choice of comparator, multifaceted interventions). The majority of this research has been conducted in high-income countries. Some rodent studies demonstrate adverse metabolic effects from NNS, but most have used extreme doses that are not relevant to humans, and few have distinguished prenatal from postnatal exposure. Most studies focus on synthetic NNS in beverages, with few examining plant-derived NNS or NNS in foods. Overall, there is limited and inconsistent evidence regarding the impact of early-life NNS exposure on the developmental programming of obesity and cardio-metabolic health. Further research and mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate these effects and inform dietary recommendations for expectant mothers and children worldwide.

  16. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  17. [Association between time of permanence at early education program (Estancias Infantiles) and developmental level for children in situation of poverty].

    PubMed

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Vargas-Carrillo, Laura Ibernia; Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; García-Aranda, José Alberto

    Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included. Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test was used to screen early development in every child. Normal early development prevalence odds ratio (OR) was calculated adjusted by gender, impairment and state, using as a reference those children with less than 30 days in the program. The study included 3,387 children from 177 EEP nurseries, from which 53% were male; age by group was divided in 12-24 months (22.3%), 25-36 months (37.6%) and 37-42 months (40.1%). Normal development adjusted OR by age was 1.9 (CI95%: 1.30-2.78) for 6-11 months, 2.36 (CI95%: 1.60-3.50) for 12-17 months, 2.78 (CI95%: 1.65-4.65) for 18-23 months and 3.46 (CI95%: 2.13-5.60) for >24 months. By area of development, a greater probability of having a normal result for language and social areas was observed after 6 months in the program, and for motor (both gross and fine) and knowledge areas after 12 months. The length of the stay in the EEP after 6 months significantly and progressively increases the probability of normal development regardless of gender and age. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlations Between Ratings on the Resident Annual Evaluation Summary and the Internal Medicine Milestones and Association With ABIM Certification Examination Scores Among US Internal Medicine Residents, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Karen E; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Hess, Brian; Lipner, Rebecca S; Holmboe, Eric S; Hood, Sarah; Iobst, William; Hamstra, Stanley J; McDonald, Furman S

    2016-12-06

    US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3). Program director ratings on the RAES and milestone ratings. Correlations of RAES and milestone ratings by training year; correlations of medical knowledge ratings with American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores; rating of unprofessional behavior using the 2 systems. Corresponding RAES ratings and milestone ratings showed progressively higher correlations across training years, ranging among competencies from 0.31 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.33) to 0.35 (95% CI, 0.33 to 0.37) for PGY-1 residents to 0.43 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.45) to 0.52 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.54) for PGY-3 residents (all P values <.05). Linear regression showed ratings differed more between PGY-1 and PGY-3 years using milestone ratings than the RAES (all P values <.001). Of the 6260 residents who attempted the certification examination, the 618 who failed had lower ratings using both systems for medical knowledge than did those who passed (RAES difference, -0.9; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.8; P < .001; milestone medical knowledge 1 difference, -0.3; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.3; P < .001; and medical knowledge 2 difference, -0.2; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.2; P < .001). Of the 26 PGY-3 residents with milestone ratings indicating deficiencies on either of the 2 medical knowledge subcompetencies, 12 failed the certification examination. Correlation of RAES ratings for professionalism with residents' lowest professionalism milestone ratings was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0

  19. A comparative study of RNA and DNA as internal gene expression controls early in the developmental cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Engström, Patrik; Bailey, Leslie; Onskog, Thomas; Bergström, Sven; Johansson, Jörgen

    2010-03-01

    Many microbial pathogens invade and proliferate within host cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this behavior is currently being revealed for several bacterial species. Testing clinically relevant antibacterial compounds and elucidating their effects on gene expression requires adequate controls, especially when studying genetically intractable organisms such as Chlamydia spp., for which various gene fusions cannot be constructed. Until now, relative mRNA levels in Chlamydia have been measured using different internal gene expression controls, including 16S rRNA, mRNAs, and DNA. Here, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of various internal expression controls during the early phase of Chlamydia pneumoniae development. The relative abundance of target mRNAs varied using the different internal control RNAs. This was partly due to variation in the transcript stability of the RNA species. Also, seven out of nine of the analyzed RNAs increased fivefold or more between 2 and 14 h postinfection, while the amount of DNA and number of cells remained essentially unaltered. Our results suggest that RNA should not be used as a gene expression control during the early phase of Chlamydia development, and that intrinsic bacterial DNA is preferable for that purpose because it is stable, abundant, and its relative amount is generally correlated with bacterial numbers.

  20. Neural competition as a developmental process: early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children's reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. PMID:23462239

  2. 'What's up, (R)DoC?'--can identifying core dimensions of early functioning help us understand, and then reduce, developmental risk for mental disorders?

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S. the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the main funder of mental health research in the world, has recently changed its funding model to promote a radically new perspective for mental health science. This bold, and for some controversial, initiative, termed the Research Diagnostic Criteria (or RDoC for short), intends to shift the focus of research, and eventually clinical practice, away from existing diagnostic categories, as recently updated in the DSM-5, towards 'new ways of classifying psychopathology based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures.' This reorientation from discrete categorical disorder manifestations to underlying cross-cutting dimensions of individual functioning has generated considerable debate across the community of mental health researchers and clinicians (with strong views voiced both pro and con). Given its pivotal role in defining the research agenda globally, there is little doubt that this US science funding initiative will also have ramifications for researchers and clinicians worldwide. In this Editorial we focus specifically on the translational potential of the dimensional RDoC approach, properly extended to developmental models of early risk, in terms of its value as a potential driver of early intervention/prevention models; in the current issue of the JCPP this is exemplified by a number of papers thata address the mapping of underlying dimensions of core functioning to disorder risk, providing evidence for their potential predictive power as early markers of later disorder processes. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Developmental relations between sympathy, moral emotion attributions, moral reasoning, and social justice values from childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Ella; Dys, Sebastian P; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the development of sympathy, moral emotion attributions (MEA), moral reasoning, and social justice values in a representative sample of Swiss children (N = 1273) at 6 years of age (Time 1), 9 years of age (Time 2), and 12 years of age (Time 3). Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that sympathy predicted subsequent increases in MEA and moral reasoning, but not vice versa. In addition, sympathy and moral reasoning at 6 and 9 years of age were associated with social justice values at 12 years of age. The results point to increased integration of affect and cognition in children's morality from middle childhood to early adolescence, as well as to the role of moral development in the emergence of social justice values. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue distribution and early developmental expression patterns of aldolase A, B, and C in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Fan, J J; Bai, J J; Ma, D M; Yu, L Y; Jiang, P

    2017-09-27

    Aldolase is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To establish the expression patterns of all three aldolase isozyme genes in different tissues and during early embryogenesis in lower vertebrates, as well as to explore the functional differences between these three isozymes, the grass carp was selected as a model owing to its relatively high glucose-metabolizing capability. Based on the cDNA sequences of the aldolase A, B, and C genes, the expression patterns of these three isozymes were analyzed in different tissues and during early embryogenesis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Sequence analysis of cDNAs indicated that aldolase A, B, and C (GenBank accession numbers: KM192250, KM192251, and KM192252) consist of 364, 364, and 363 amino acids, respectively. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of aldolase A, B, and C were highest in the muscle, liver, and brain, respectively. Aldolase A and C exhibited similar expression patterns during embryogenesis, with high levels observed in unfertilized and fertilized eggs and at the blastocyst stage, followed by a decline and then increase after organogenesis. In contrast, aldolase B transcript was not detected during the unfertilized egg stage, and appeared only from gastrulation; the expression increased markedly during the feeding period (72 h after hatching), at which point the level was higher than those of aldolase A and C. These data suggest that the glucose content of grass carp starter feed should be adjusted according to the metabolic activity of aldolase B.

  5. Short- and long-term consequences of early developmental conditions: a case study on wild and domesticated zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, B; Rutstein, A N; Postma, E; Mariette, M; Griffith, S C

    2009-02-01

    Divergent selection pressures among populations can result not only in significant differentiation in morphology, physiology and behaviour, but also in how these traits are related to each other, thereby driving the processes of local adaptation and speciation. In the Australian zebra finch, we investigated whether domesticated stock, bred in captivity over tens of generations, differ in their response to a life-history manipulation, compared to birds taken directly from the wild. In a 'common aviary' experiment, we thereto experimentally manipulated the environmental conditions experienced by nestlings early in life by means of a brood size manipulation, and subsequently assessed its short- and long-term consequences on growth, ornamentation, immune function and reproduction. As expected, we found that early environmental conditions had a marked effect on both short- and long-term morphological and life-history traits in all birds. However, although there were pronounced differences between wild and domesticated birds with respect to the absolute expression of many of these traits, which are indicative of the different selection pressures wild and domesticated birds were exposed to in the recent past, manipulated rearing conditions affected morphology and ornamentation of wild and domesticated finches in a very similar way. This suggests that despite significant differentiation between wild and domesticated birds, selection has not altered the relationships among traits. Thus, life-history strategies and investment trade-offs may be relatively stable and not easily altered by selection. This is a reassuring finding in the light of the widespread use of domesticated birds in studies of life-history evolution and sexual selection, and suggests that adaptive explanations may be legitimate when referring to captive bird studies.

  6. Developmental Injury to the Cerebellar Cortex Following Hydroxyurea Treatment in Early Postnatal Life: An Immunohistochemical and Electron Microscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Molina, Vanesa; Santa-Cruz, M C; Hervás, José P

    2017-02-01

    Postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex was studied in rats administered with a single dose (2 mg/g) of the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) on postnatal day (P) 9 and collected at appropriate times ranging from 6 h to 45 days. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, BrdU-positive, and vimentin-stained cells revealed that HU compromises the survival of the external granular layer (EGL) cells. Moreover, vimentin immunocytochemistry revealed overexpression and thicker immunoreactive glial processes in HU-treated rats. On the other hand, we also show that HU leads to the activation of apoptotic cellular events, resulting in a substantial number of dying EGL cells, as revealed by TUNEL staining and at the electron microscope level. Additionally, we quantified several features of the cerebellar cortex of rats exposed to HU in early postnatal life and collected in adulthood. Data analysis indicated that the analyzed parameters were less pronounced in rats administered with this agent. Moreover, we observed several alterations in the cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture of rats injected with HU. Anomalies included ectopic placement of Purkinje cells and abnormities in the dendritic arbor of these macroneurons. Ectopic granule cells were also found in the molecular layer. These findings provide a clue for investigating the mechanisms of HU-induced toxicity during the development of the central nervous system. Our results also suggest that it is essential to avoid underestimating the adverse effects of this hydroxylated analog of urea when administered during early postnatal life.

  7. Validity and reliability of a structured interview for early detection and risk assessment of parenting and developmental problems in young children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preventive child health care is well suited for the early detection of parenting and developmental problems. However, as far as the younger age group is concerned, there are no validated early detection instruments which cover both the child and its environment. Therefore, we have developed a broad-scope structured interview which assesses parents’ concerns and their need for support, using both the parental perspective and the experience of the child health care nurse: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). This study reports the psychometric characteristics of the SPARK. Method A cross-sectional study of 2012 18-month-old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Inter-rater reliability was assessed in 67 children. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing SPARK-domains with domains in self-report questionnaires on child development and parenting stress. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing different outcomes of the SPARK between groups with different levels of socio-economic status and by performing an extreme-groups comparison. The user experience of both parents and nurses was assessed with the aid of an online survey. Results The response rate was 92.1% for the SPARK. Self-report questionnaires were returned in the case of 66.9% of the remaining 1721 children. There was selective non-reporting: 33.1% of the questionnaires were not returned, covering 65.2% of the children with a high-risk label according to the SPARK (p < 0.001). Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent with intraclass correlations between 0.85 and 1.0 for physical topics; between 0.61 and 0.8 for social-emotional topics and 0.92 for the overall risk assessment. Convergent validity was unexpectedly low (all correlations ≤0.3) although the pattern was as expected. Discriminative validity was good. Users were satisfied with the SPARK and identified some topics for improvement. Conclusion The SPARK discriminates between

  8. Knockdown of Fanconi anemia genes in human embryonic stem cells reveals early developmental defects in the hematopoietic lineage.

    PubMed

    Tulpule, Asmin; Lensch, M William; Miller, Justine D; Austin, Karyn; D'Andrea, Alan; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Shimamura, Akiko; Daley, George Q

    2010-04-29

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pediatric bone marrow failure and congenital anomalies. The effect of FA gene deficiency on hematopoietic development in utero remains poorly described as mouse models of FA do not develop hematopoietic failure and such studies cannot be performed on patients. We have created a human-specific in vitro system to study early hematopoietic development in FA using a lentiviral RNA interference (RNAi) strategy in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We show that knockdown of FANCA and FANCD2 in hESCs leads to a reduction in hematopoietic fates and progenitor numbers that can be rescued by FA gene complementation. Our data indicate that hematopoiesis is impaired in FA from the earliest stages of development, suggesting that deficiencies in embryonic hematopoiesis may underlie the progression to bone marrow failure in FA. This work illustrates how hESCs can provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of genetic disease.

  9. New frontiers in developmental neuropharmacology: Can long-term therapeutic effects of drugs be optimized through carefully timed early intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Susan L.; Navalta, Carryl P.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to present a working model that may serve as a valuable heuristic to predict enduring effects of drugs when administered during development. Our primary tenet is that a greater understanding of neurodevelopment can lead to improved treatment that intervenes early in the progression of a given disorder and prevents symptoms from manifesting. The immature brain undergoes significant changes during the transitions between childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Such changes in innervation, neurotransmitter levels, and their respective signaling mechanisms have profound and observable changes on typical behavior, but also increase vulnerability to psychiatric disorders when the maturational process goes awry. Given the remarkable plasticity of the immature brain to adapt to its external milieu, preventive interventions may be possible. We intend for this review to initiate a discussion of how currently used psychotropic agents can influence brain development. Drug exposure during sensitive periods may have beneficial long-term effects, but harmful delayed consequences may be possible as well. Regardless of the outcome, this information needs to be used to improve or develop alternative approaches for the treatment of childhood disorders. With this framework in mind, we present what is known about the effects of stimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics on brain maturation (including animal studies that use more clinically-relevant dosing paradigms or relevant animal models). We endeavor to provocatively set the stage for altering treatment approaches for improving mental health in non-adult populations. PMID:21309771

  10. Historical milestones of a long pathway.

    PubMed

    Roy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hemodiafiltration (HDF), developed from the combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration, is considered to be the most effective current procedure to remove uremic toxins from the blood of kidney patients. Historically, the clinical use of HDF was for many years limited due to the cost burden related to the large amount of sterile volume replacement fluid needed. The solution offered was on-line preparation of replacement fluid from standard dialysate by means of membrane filtration. Industry opened to this concept quite early and worked on various technical solutions between the early 1980s and the late 1990s before real state-of-the-art systems became commercially available on a broad basis. This article reviews in particular the activities of initially Fresenius and later Fresenius Medical Care in this field and identifies major concepts and prototypes up to today's commercially available high-end product--the 5008 therapy system--where on-line HDF finally became integrated as a standard component. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Director Fred K.Y. Lo. "With this milestone behind us, we now can proceed with increased confidence toward completing ALMA," he added. ALMA, now under construction at an elevation of 16,500 feet in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. Scientists are eager to use this transformational capability to study the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early Universe, to learn long-sought details about how stars are formed, and will trace the motion of gas and dust as it whirls toward the surface of newly-formed stars and planets. "This was fantastic work. Using our two prototype antennas to observe Saturn was the first complete, end-to-end test of the advanced systems we are building for ALMA," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "ALMA is an extraordinary international endeavor, and the collaboration of partners from around the world is vital to the success of the project," Russell added. "The success of this test is fundamental proof that the hardware and software now under development for ALMA will work to produce a truly revolutionary astronomical tool," said Massimo Tarenghi, Director of the Joint ALMA Office. "This achievement results from the integration of many state-of-the-art components from Europe and North America and bodes well for the success of ALMA in Chile," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. In addition to the leading-edge electronic and electro-optical hardware and custom software that proved itself by producing ALMA's first fringes, the system's antennas are among the most advanced in the world. The stringent requirements for the antennas included extremely precise reflecting surfaces, highly accurate ability to point at desired locations in the

  12. Social Development and Feeding Milestones of Young Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cullen, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    The data revealed that young Down syndrome children attained significantly higher scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and achieved most feeding milestones much earlier if they had no or only mild congenital heart disease, if their parents followed through appropriately with furnished guidance, and if they had "good" muscle tone. (Author)

  13. University Facilitation of School Restructuring: Critical Milestones for Organization Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Betty M.; Allen-Haynes, Leetta

    Critical milestones in the university facilitation of meaningful school reform in schools serving at-risk students--schoolwide assessment, cadre-based planning, and pilot testing of new strategies--are examined in this paper. A training and facilitation mechanism developed by the University of New Orleans' (UNO) Louisiana Accelerated Schools…

  14. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  15. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  16. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  17. Learnings From the Pilot Implementation of Mobile Medical Milestones Application.

    PubMed

    Page, Cristen P; Reid, Alfred; Coe, Catherine L; Carlough, Martha; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Beste, Janalynn; Fagan, Blake; Steinbacher, Erika; Jones, Geoffrey; Newton, Warren P

    2016-10-01

    Implementation of the educational milestones benefits from mobile technology that facilitates ready assessments in the clinical environment. We developed a point-of-care resident evaluation tool, the Mobile Medical Milestones Application (M3App), and piloted it in 8 North Carolina family medicine residency programs. We sought to examine variations we found in the use of the tool across programs and explored the experiences of program directors, faculty, and residents to better understand the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing the new tool. Residents and faculty completed presurveys and postsurveys about the tool and the evaluation process in their program. Program directors were interviewed individually. Interviews and open-ended survey responses were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method, and responses were tabulated under themes. Common perceptions included increased data collection, enhanced efficiency, and increased perceived quality of the information gathered with the M3App. Residents appreciated the timely, high-quality feedback they received. Faculty reported becoming more comfortable with the tool over time, and a more favorable evaluation of the tool was associated with higher utilization. Program directors reported improvements in faculty knowledge of the milestones and resident satisfaction with feedback. Faculty and residents credited the M3App with improving the quality and efficiency of resident feedback. Residents appreciated the frequency, proximity, and specificity of feedback, and faculty reported the app improved their familiarity with the milestones. Implementation challenges included lack of a physician champion and competing demands on faculty time.

  18. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  19. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any particular year starting in the 10th lease year. Payments in lieu of production in year 10 of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diligent development milestones. 3930.30... 2 years of the lease issuance date, submit to the proper BLM office an initial POD that meets the...

  20. The developmental expression of the CDK inhibitor p57(kip2) (Cdkn1c) in the early mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ann Catherine Eugenia; McGonnigal, Bethany; Uzun, Alper; Padbury, James

    2016-05-01

    p57(kip2) (encoded by the Cdkn1c gene) is a member of the cip/kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors that mediates cell cycle arrest in G1, allowing cells to differentiate. In the placenta, p57(kip2) is involved in endoreduplication, formation of trophoblast giant cells, trophoblast invasion, and expansion of placental cell layers. Here, we quantitatively and qualitatively define the cell- and region-specific expression of mouse placental p57(kip2) using laser-capture microdissection, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Cdkn1c RNA was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Co-expression of Pl1 was used to identify trophoblast giant cells while Tbpba was used to identify spongiotrophoblast cells. Timed sacrifices were also carried out at embryonic days E7.5, E8.5, E9.5, and E12.5 to profile the expression in embryos and their placentas. At E8.5, intense expression of Cdkn1c was seen in invasive TGCs and the ectoplacental cone. Cdkn1c expression was more diffuse and more abundant in the labyrinth that in the junctional zone at both E9.5 and E12.5. Immunohistochemistry revealed robust p57(kip2) staining in trophoblast giant cells and in the ectoplacental cone at E8.5. p57(kip2) protein was seen in giant cells and throughout the labyrinth, although its abundance was reduced in the junctional zone at E9.5, and became more diffuse by E12.5. The early and intense expression in trophoblast giant cells is consistent with a role for p57(kip2) in the invasive phenotype of these cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 405-412, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.