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Sample records for early diagenetic silica

  1. Diagenetic silica enrichment and late-stage groundwater activity in Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frydenvang, Jens; Gasda, Patrick J.; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Wiens, Roger C.; Newsom, Horton E.; Edgett, Ken S.; Watkins, Jessica; Bridges, John C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Fisk, Martin R.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rapin, William; Stein, Nathan; Clegg, Sam M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Bedford, C.; Edwards, P.; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Anderson, Ryan; Payre, Valerie; Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Lanza, Nina L.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Van Beek, Jason; Sautter, Violaine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rice, Melissa; Milliken, Ralf; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy; Clark, Ben C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fraeman, Abigail A.; Kinch, Kjartan M; Madsen, Morten B.; Mitofranov, Igor; Jun, Insoo; Calef, Fred J.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2017-01-01

    Diagenetic silica enrichment in fracture-associated halos that crosscut lacustrine and unconformably overlying aeolian sedimentary bedrock is observed on the lower north slope of Aeolis Mons in Gale crater, Mars. The diagenetic silica enrichment is colocated with detrital silica enrichment observed in the lacustrine bedrock yet extends into a considerably younger, unconformably draping aeolian sandstone, implying that diagenetic silica enrichment postdates the detrital silica enrichment. A causal connection between the detrital and diagenetic silica enrichment implies that water was present in the subsurface of Gale crater long after deposition of the lacustrine sediments and that it mobilized detrital amorphous silica and precipitated it along fractures in the overlying bedrock. Although absolute timing is uncertain, the observed diagenesis likely represents some of the most recent groundwater activity in Gale crater and suggests that the timescale of potential habitability extended considerably beyond the time that the lacustrine sediments of Aeolis Mons were deposited.

  2. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica oxygen isotope values: implications for use as a paleoenvironmental proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. P.; Abbott, T.; Scherer, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) values of biogenic silica have enormous potential as paleoenvironmental proxies in marine and non-marine environments. Isotopic exchange and phase changes (opal-A to opal-CT) can overprint the initial δ18O values, but these diagenetic processes can also provide additional paleoenvironmental information. The timing and magnitude of isotopic exchange reactions are difficult to constrain in natural environments; however, experimental results of diatom aging indicate that changes in the δ18O values of the biogenic silca occur coincident with dehydroxylation of the silica prior to opal-CT formation. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica dramatically changes our interpretation of silica isotope data from sedimentary records. For example, diatom δ18O values from a Pliocene ( 4.68 to 3.44 Ma) age marine sediment core (AND-1B) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica range from +28 to +36‰. The silica-water fractionation relationship for marine diatoms of Juillet-Leclerc and Labeyrie (1987) and a standard marine δ18O water value of 0‰ results in unrealistic sea surface temperatures of >20°C. Conversely, if water temperatures of 0 to 10°C are used, the resulting water δ18O values range from -8 to -16‰. A plausible alternate scenario is that the diatom δ18O values are recording sediment pore-water conditions. Pore waters in the AND-2A core had δ18O values of -11‰, possibly as a result cryogenic brine formation (Frank et al., 2010). These low δ18O values are in close agreement with our calculated δ18O water values. Despite diagenetic overprinting of the diatom δ18O values, there is still good agreement between the measured diatom δ18O values and the stacked benthic δ18O record (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005); biogenic silica δ18O values in the AND-1B core likely record the composition of shallow sediment pore water and cryogenic brine formation. The agreement between our δ18O record and the benthic stack δ18O values suggests that brine

  3. Controls on Cyclic Formation of Quaternary Early Diagenetic Dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.

    2018-04-01

    The origin of sedimentary dolomite and the factors that control its formation within the geological record remain speculative. In most models, dolomite formation is linked to evaporative conditions, high water temperature, increasing Mg/Ca ratio, increasing alkalinity, and high amounts of biomass. Here we challenge these archetypal views, by documenting a case example of Quaternary dolomite which formed in Lake Van at constantly low temperature (<4°C) and without direct control of the latter conditions. Dolomite occurs within highstand sediments related to suborbital climate variability (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles). We propose that dolomite precipitation is a product of a microbially influenced process, triggered by ecological stress, resulting from reventilation of the water-sediment interface. Independently from the validity of this hypothesis, our results call for a reevaluation of the paleoenvironmental conditions often invoked for early diagenetic dolomite-rich intervals within sedimentary sequences and for caution when interpreting time series of subrecent lacustrine carbonates.

  4. Cyclic, Early Diagenetic Dolomite Formation in Alkaline Lake Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.

    2017-12-01

    rapid Northern Hemisphere temperature oscillation (i.e. Greenland Interstadials). Lake Vańs dolomite record thus provides compelling arguments suggesting that early diagenetic dolomite formation within an alkaline environment can be highly sensitive to hydrological changes even on centennial timescales.

  5. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  6. Early diagenetic microporosity in the Cotton Valley Limestone of east Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahr, Wayne M.

    1989-07-01

    dolomite, late leaching, and formation of authigenic sulfides. The microporosity is interpreted to have been formed in the near surface diagenetic environment, early in the burial history of the Cotton Valley. As there is no evidence of vadose diagenesis, the ooids on the crests of calcarenite shoals must have been placed is disequilibrium with their surroundings by a change in water chemistry, probably as a consequence of regression and an influx of fresh water. The introduction of hydrocarbons appears to be contemporaneous with such late diagenetic features as saddle dolomite and authigenic sulfides; however, the extent to which those fluids affected the micro-rhombic calcite crystals appears to be negligible.

  7. Silica phase changes: Diagenetic agent for oil entrapment, Lost Hills field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Julander, D.R.; Szymanski, D.L.

    1991-02-01

    The siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target at Lost Hills. Silica phase changes have influenced the distribution and entrapment of hydrocarbons. With increasing temperature, opal A phase diatomite is converted to opal CT and finally quartz phase rock. All phases are low in permeability. The opal A diatomite is characteristically high in oil saturation and productive saturation. Productivity from this phase is dependent on structural position and fieldwide variations in oil viscosity and biodegradation. The deeper chert reservoir coincides with the opal CT to quartz phase transition. Porosity is again reduced in this transition, butmore » saturations in the quartz phase rocks increase. Tests in the chert reservoir indicate a single, low-permeability system, suggesting the importance of matric contribution. resistivity and porosity in the diatomite, and resistivity and velocity in the chert, are the physical properties which best reflect saturation. Methods exploiting these properties (FMS, BHTV, borehole, and surface shear wave studies) should be helpful in further characterizing the reservoirs and identifying future pay.« less

  8. Compositional controls on early diagenetic pathways in fine-grained sedimentary rocks: Implications for predicting unconventional reservoir attributes of mudstones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Margaret A.; Macquaker, Joe H.S.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Polya, David

    2014-01-01

    Diagenesis significantly impacts mudstone lithofacies. Processes operating to control diagenetic pathways in mudstones are poorly known compared to analogous processes occurring in other sedimentary rocks. Selected organic-carbon-rich mudstones, from the Kimmeridge Clay and Monterey Formations, have been investigated to determine how varying starting compositions influence diagenesis.The sampled Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones are organized into thin homogenous beds, composed mainly of siliciclastic detritus, with some constituents derived from water-column production (e.g., coccoliths, S-depleted type-II kerogen, as much as 52.6% total organic carbon [TOC]) and others from diagenesis (e.g., pyrite, carbonate, and kaolinite). The sampled Monterey Formation mudstones are organized into thin beds that exhibit pelleted wavy lamination, and are predominantly composed of production-derived components including diatoms, coccoliths, and foraminifera, in addition to type-IIS kerogen (as much as 16.5% TOC), and apatite and silica cements.During early burial of the studied Kimmeridge Clay Formation mudstones, the availability of detrital Fe(III) and reactive clay minerals caused carbonate- and silicate-buffering reactions to operate effectively and the pore waters to be Fe(II) rich. These conditions led to pyrite, iron-poor carbonates, and kaolinite cements precipitating, preserved organic carbon being S-depleted, and sweet hydrocarbons being generated. In contrast, during the diagenesis of the sampled Monterey Formation mudstones, sulfide oxidation, coupled with opal dissolution and the reduced availability of both Fe(III) and reactive siliciclastic detritus, meant that the pore waters were poorly buffered and locally acidic. These conditions resulted in local carbonate dissolution, apatite and silica cements precipitation, natural kerogen sulfurization, and sour hydrocarbons generation.Differences in mud composition at deposition significantly influence subsequent

  9. Examining early-diagenetic processes as a chief sink for carbonate in the aftermath of the Triassic-Jurassic crisis: Hettangian concretions of Muller Canyon, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbush, K. A.; Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bottjer, D. J.; Berelson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic, climate, and biotic changes across the Triassic-Jurassic transition appear to have resulted in a "carbonate gap" in the rock record of many shallow marine environments. Ecological state changes documented in near-shore settings in both Tethys and Panthassa show an earliest Jurassic switch to sponge-dominated biosiliceous sedimentation regimes. The Sunrise Formation exposed in the Gabbs Valley Range of Nevada (USA) records a peculiar juxtaposition of Hettangian carbonate-rich strata that contain demosponge spicules as the primary bioclast. It is unclear 1) why biocalcifiers were not recorded in higher abundance in this near-shore back-arc basin setting; 2) why carbonates formed following a biosiliceous regime; and 3) what the lithology indicates about post-extinction marine geochemical dynamics. Detailed sedimentological, paleontological, and geochemical analyses were applied to a 20-m thick sequence of limestone and chert in the Muller Canyon area, which is the Auxiliary Stratotype for the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Concretion anatomy, bioclast microfacies, and oxygen and carbon isotopic signatures all indicate the Hettangian limestones are chiefly diagenetic concretions that all formed very shallowly, some essentially at the sediment-water interface. We infer that local bottom waters and/or pore waters were supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and that this contributed to widespread concretion sedimentation independent of biomineralization. Ecological incumbency of the demosponge meadows may have been supported by concurrent augmentation of marine silica concentration and this apparently proved inhospitable to re-colonization of benthic biocalcifying macrofauna. Together the biotic and lithologic consequences of the extinction represent million-year scale ecological restructuring and highlight early diagenetic precipitation as a major sink in long-term regional carbonate cycling. Perhaps the widespread 'carbonate gap' is actually a gap in

  10. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  11. Early-diagenetic processes in marine mangrove sediments from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crémière, Antoine; Sebilo, Mathieu; Strauss, Harald; Gros, Olivier; Laverman, Anniet M.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and pore-water geochemistry were investigated in two short sediment cores from the Manche-à-eau lagoon (Guadeloupe, French Caribbean island) surrounded by mangroves trees. These sediments present high total organic carbon content, ranging between 10 to 18 % wt, mainly originating from mangrove litter fall. Oxygen is depleted in the first few millimetres of the sediment indicating active organic carbon degradation. Seawater sulphate is entirely consumed within the first 20 cm of the sediments and total organic carbon content decreases with depth pointing out that early-diagenetic degradation of organic matter occurs with sulphate reduction. Sulphide produced as the results of sulphate reduction partly reacts with detrital iron-bearing minerals and precipitates as pyrite which is consistent with high amounts of sulphur in the sediments (4-5 % wt). The sulphur isotopic composition (δ34S) of both dissolved sulphate and sulphide in pore-water increases with depth displaying a large apparent isotopic fractionation (Δ34S) between both species of 65-80o as a result of bacterial sulphate reduction. Scanning electron microscopy investigation reveals that a part of the carbonate alkalinity produced either by organic matter oxidation or anaerobic methane oxidation leads to authigenic carbonates precipitation. These results provide straightforward evidence that carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles are intimately governed by sedimentary microbial activity.

  12. A biodetrital coral mound complex: Key to early diagenetic processes in the mississippian bangor limestone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haywick, D.W.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Bersch, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    diagenetic phase, dolomite, was the dominant event in the micrite/dolomicrite petrofacies, particularly just below an irregular surface overlain by a brecciated interval. The irregular surface is interpreted as an exposure surface. Three phases of dolomite occur below the exposure surface. The majority is finely crystalline, anhedral, and enriched in Si4+, criteria which support a supratidal or mixed hypersaline\\meteoric origin. Secondary phases of coarser euhedral non-ferroan and ferroan dolomite are restricted to fenestrae and other voids in the micrite/dolomicrite petrofacies and were precipitated during subsequent meteoric diagenesis. Diagenesis of the Bangor Limestone at the Moulton outcrop was dominated by synsedimentary and very early meteoric processes driven by periods of subaerial exposure. Large voids within the mound petrofacies were particularly important, as they remained open long enough to record a more detailed early meteoric cement stratigraphy that might not be evident in Bangor Limestone outcrops elsewhere in Alabama.

  13. Dehydroxylation and diagenetic variations in diatom oxygen isotope values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Justin P.; Wiedenheft, Wilson; Schwartz, Joshua M.

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented changes in the dissolution and reactivity of biogenic silica as it is transferred from the water column to sediment archives; here we present the first experimental data that demonstrate a physical mechanism by which the oxygen isotope (δ18Osil) values of biogenic silica (diatoms) are altered during early diagenesis. The δ18Osil value of diatom silica cultured at 19.3 °C was +31.9‰ ± 0.2‰ (n = 6); the same silica experimentally aged in an artificial seawater media at near silica saturation at 85 °C had an average δ18Osil value of +27.1‰ ± 0.6‰ (n = 20). The most significant change in the δ18Osil value was coincident with an initial reduction in the total silanol abundance, indicating that the timing of dehydroxylation reactions in natural sedimentary environments is associated with diagenetic changes in the recorded δ18Osil values. The rate of change in the experimental aging environment at 85 °C was rapid, with significant changes in both silanol abundance and δ18Osil values. Additionally, the silica-water fractionation relationship recorded by the experimentally-aged samples approaches the equilibrium quartz-water fractionation factor. The linear rate law was used to estimate the timing of these changes in low temperature environments; the initial and most significant change in silica reactivity and δ18Osil values is likely to occur on the order of 10's of years at 4 °C. Published silica-water fractionation factors for sedimentary diatoms most likely represent a combination of growth and diagenetic environments, and the δ18O value of diagenetic water needs to be addressed when using δ18Osil values to reconstruct paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental conditions.

  14. Paleoenvironmental implications of early diagenetic siderites of the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Amanda Goulart; De Ros, Luiz Fernando; Neumann, Reiner; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-06-01

    Abundant early diagenetic siderites occur as spherulites and rhombohedral microcrystalline and macrocrystalline crystals in the cores of the 2-MU-1-RJ well, drilled in the Paraíba do Sul Deltaic Complex, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The host sediments of the siderites are siliciclastic, hybrid, and carbonate deposits. Intense pedogenetic processes affected the siliciclastic sediments immediately after deposition, comprising clay illuviation, plants bioturbation, feldspar dissolution, and iron oxide/hydroxide precipitation. Siderite and pyrite are the main diagenetic constituents. The other diagenetic products are kaolinite, smectite, argillaceous and carbonate pseudomatrix, quartz overgrowths, diagenetic titanium minerals, jarosite, and iron oxides/hydroxides. Early diagenetic siderites were separated into four groups based on their elemental and stable isotopic composition, as well as on their paragenetic relationships with the other constituents and with the host sediments. Spherulitic to macrocrystalline siderites from group 1 are almost pure (average: 94.7 mol% FeCO3; 1.2 mol% MgCO3; 2.3 mol% CaCO3; 1.8 mol% MnCO3) and precipitated from meteoric porewaters in continental siliciclastic rocks under suboxic conditions (δ18Ovpdb values range in - 10.28 to - 5.57‰ and the δ13Cvpdb values in - 12.68 to - 4.33‰). Microcrystalline rhombohedral siderites from group 2 have zonation due to substantial Ca and Mg substitution (core average: 78.5 mol% FeCO3; 4.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.7 mol% CaCO3; 1.6 mol% MnCO3; edge average: 74.0 mol% FeCO3; 9.2 mol% MgCO3; 15.6 mol% CaCO3; 1.1 mol% MnCO3), and δ13Cvpdb and δ18Ovpdb values of + 0.17‰ and - 1.96‰, precipitated from marine porewaters in packstones/wackestones under methanogenic conditions. The group 3 is represented by irregular spherulitic siderites with moderate Ca and Mg substitutions (average: 80.2 mol% FeCO3; 7.9 mol% MgCO3; 11.3 mol% CaCO3; 0.6 mol% MnCO3), with δ18Ovpdb values ranging from - 5.96 to - 7.61‰ and

  15. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameil, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  16. Hg concentrations from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks: first order similarities and second order depositional and diagenetic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, J. A.; West, A. J.; Bergquist, B. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury concentrations in sediments have recently gained prominence as a potential tool for identifying large igneous province (LIP) volcanism in sedimentary records. LIP volcanism coincides with several mass extinctions during the Phanerozoic, but it is often difficult to directly tie LIP activity with the record of extinction in marine successions. Here, we build on mercury concentration data reported by Thibodeau et al. (Nature Communications, 7:11147, 2016) from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of New York Canyon, Nevada, USA. Increases in Hg concentrations in that record were attributed to Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We expand the measured section from New York Canyon and report new mercury concentrations from Levanto, Peru, where dated ash beds provide a discrete chronology, as well as St. Audrie's Bay, UK, a well-studied succession. We correlate these records using carbon isotopes and ammonites and find similarities in the onset of elevated Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC in association with changes in C isotopes. We also find second order patterns that differ between sections and may have depositional and diagenetic controls. We will discuss these changes within a sedimentological framework to further understand the controls on Hg concentrations in sedimentary records and their implications for past volcanism.

  17. Dynamic depositional and early diagenetic processes in a deep-water shelf setting, upper cretaceous Austin Chalk, North Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.; Nance, H.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Austin Chalk of north Texas was deposited on a deep-water shelf north of the Sea Marcos Platform during a worldwide Coniacian and Santonian sea-level highstand. Transgressive (lowermost lower Austin Chalk), highstand (uppermost lower Austin Chalk), and regressive (middle and upper Austin Chalk) phases of cyclic chalk and marl sedimentation are recognized in excavations and tunnels created in Ellis County for the Superconducting Super Collider provide new evidence of sediment transport during Austin Chalk deposition. During transgression, bottom currents syndepositionally reworked nannoplankton oozes, incising channels as much as 120 ft across and 8 ft deep. Weakly burrowed channel fills havingmore » preservation of fine lamination document rapid infilling. Channel fills are composed of pyritized and carbonized wood and Inoceramus lag deposits, pellets, echinoderm fragments, and globigerinid grainstones, and coccolith ooze. During maximum highstand, bottom reworking was suppressed. Detrital content of highstand marls is low (>20 percent); organic content is high (1.4 to 3.5 percent). Coccolith preservation is excellent because of minimal diagenetic alteration. Regression is marked by resumed channel cutting and storm-bed winnowing in the middle and upper Austin Chalk. Suppressed resistivity log response and recessive weathering characteristics of the middle Austin Chalk are not primarily related to depositional environment but rather to increased input of volcanic ash during the accumulation of this interval. Early stabilization of ash produced clay-coated microfabrics in sediments that are otherwise similar to the transgressive deposits.« less

  18. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    suggests that polysulfide-bound unsaturated thiols are intermediates formed during the first sulfurization steps occurring soon after deposition and that they are rapidly transformed by various processes taking place during early diagenesis, notably to yield their saturated counterparts.

  19. Early diagenetic processes of saline meromictic Lake Kai-ike, southwest Japan: III. Sulfur speciation and isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, N.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Oguri, K.

    2014-12-01

    ., 2010; Palaeo3). Geochemical characteristics of sulfur in the uppermost part of Lake Kai-ike sediment were significantly modified during early diagenesis. Such diagenetic modification for sulfur isotopes should be fully taken into account to better reconstruct past anoxic environment such as Cretaceous OAEs and Archean oceans.

  20. Groundwater dolocretes from the Upper Triassic of the Paris Basin, France: a case study of an arid, continental diagenetic facies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, S.; Wright, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of the dolomite consists of a finely crystalline groundmass of dolomicrospar and, less commonly, dolomicrite. Glaebules, irregular spar-filled cracks, spheroidal dolomite, silificiation and vuggy porosity are locally abundant in the massive dolomite. In contrast, biologically induced micromorphological features such as rhizocretions and alveolar-septal fabrics were observed in the thin, nodular dolomite beds. Petrographic observations argue in favour of primary (proto)dolomite precipitation, although early diagenetic replacement of calcite by (proto)dolomite cannot be ruled out. Strontium and carbon isotope data of early diagenetic dolocrete cements and oxygen isotope data of early diagenetic silica indicate an entirely non-marine, continental origin for the groundwaters. -from Authors

  1. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  2. Petrology and diagenetic history of the upper shale member of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil S. Fishman,; Sven O. Egenhoff,; Boehlke, Adam; Lowers, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The organic-rich upper shale member of the upper Devonian–lower Mississippian Bakken Formation (Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA) has undergone significant diagenetic alteration, irrespective of catagenesis related to hydrocarbon generation. Alteration includes precipitation of numerous cements, replacement of both detrital and authigenic minerals, multiple episodes of fracturing, and compaction. Quartz authigenesis occurred throughout much of the member, and is represented by multiple generations of microcrystalline quartz. Chalcedonic quartz fills radiolarian microfossils and is present in the matrix. Sulfide minerals include pyrite and sphalerite. Carbonate diagenesis is volumetrically minor and includes thin dolomite overgrowths and calcite cement. At least two generations of fractures are observed. Based on the authigenic minerals and their relative timing of formation, the evolution of pore waters can be postulated. Dolomite and calcite resulted from early postdepositional aerobic oxidation of some of the abundant organic material in the formation. Following aerobic oxidation, conditions became anoxic and sulfide minerals precipitated. Transformation of the originally opaline tests of radiolaria resulted in precipitation of quartz, and quartz authigenesis is most common in more distal parts of the depositional basin where radiolaria were abundant. Because quartz authigenesis is related to the distribution of radiolaria, there is a link between diagenesis and depositional environment. Furthermore, much of the diagenesis in the upper shale member preceded hydrocarbon generation, so early postdepositional processes were responsible for occlusion of significant original porosity in the member. Thus, diagenetic mineral precipitation was at least partly responsible for the limited ability of these mudstones to provide porosity for storage of hydrocarbons.

  3. Diagenetic effects of compaction on reservoir properties: The case of early callovian ``Dalle Nacrée'' formation (Paris basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Fadi H.; Champenois, France; Barbier, Mickaël; Adelinet, Mathilde; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Houel, Pascal; Delmas, Jocelyne; Swennen, Rudy

    2016-11-01

    The impact of compaction diagenesis on reservoir properties is addressed by means of observations made on five boreholes with different burial histories of the Early Callovian ;Dalle Nacrée; Formation in the Paris Basin. Petrographic analyses were carried out in order to investigate the rock-texture, pore space type and volume, micro-fabrics, and cement phases. Based on the acquired data, a chronologically ordered sequence of diagenetic events (paragenesis) for each borehole was reconstructed taking the burial history into account. Point counting and a segmentation algorithm (Matlab) were used to quantify porosity, as well as the amounts of grain constituents and cement phases on scanned images of studied thin sections. In addition, four key samples were analyzed by 3D imaging using microfocus X-ray computer tomography. Basin margin grainstones display a different burial diagenesis when compared to basin centre grainstones and wackestones. The former have been affected by considerable cementation (especially by blocky calcite) prior to effective burial, in contrast to the basin centre lithologies where burial and compaction prevailed with relatively less cementation. Fracturing and bed-parallel stylolitization, observed especially in basinal wackestone facies also invoke higher levels of mechanical and chemical compaction than observed in basin marginal equivalents. Compaction fluids may have migrated at the time of burial from the basin centre towards its margins, affecting hence the reservoir properties of similar rock textures and facies and resulting in cross-basin spatial diagenetic heterogeneities.

  4. Latent volcanic heat and further unique aspects of early diagenetic stratiform copper mineralization in the White Pine-Presque Isle District, northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alex C.

    2018-06-01

    The curious occurrence of copper-rich early diagenetic sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization in the finest-grained facies of Nonesuch greybeds in northern Michigan has been previously attributed to the warming of cupriferous brines in the footwall Copper Harbor Conglomerate by latent volcanic heat from the subjacent Porcupine Volcanics shield volcano. That anomalous footwall warming is employed here to explain other unique aspects of the White Pine-Presque Isle mineralization: the abrupt downward sulfide zoning from disseminated pyrite to chalcocite across the top of the cupriferous zone; the absence of bornite and chalcopyrite in the cupriferous zone proper; and the essential absence of pseudomorphs after pyrite euhedra and framboidal aggregates within the cupriferous zone proper, as well as the relatively coarse-grained character of disseminated chalcocite in the cupriferous zone.

  5. Bedded jaspers of the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite, Norway: seafloor deposition and diagenetic maturation of hydrothermal plume-derived silica-iron gels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The jaspers are interpreted to record colloidal fallout from one or more hydrothermal plumes, followed by maturation (ageing) of an Si-Fe-oxyhydroxide gel, on and beneath the Ordovician sea floor. Small hematitic filaments in the jaspers reflect bacteria-catalysed oxidation of Fe2+ within the plume. The larger tubular filaments resulted from either microbial activity or inorganic self-organized mineral growth of Fe-oxyhydroxide within the Si-Fe-oxyhydroxide gel after deposition on the sea floor, prior to more advanced maturation of the gel as represented by the spheroidal and botryoidal silica-hematite textures. Bleaching and hematite±epidote growth are interpreted to reflect heat and fluids generated during deposition of basaltic sheet flows on top of the gels.

  6. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulphur during early diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnen, M. E. L.; Damsté, J. S. Slnninghe; Kock-van Dalen, A. C.; Haven, H. L. Ten; Rullkötter, J.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    A number of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulphur compounds (E.G., thiolanes, 1-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo[ b]thiophenes) with 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)pentadecane and 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identified in sediments, ranging from Holocene to Upper Cretaceous. These identifications are based on mass spectral characterisation, desulphurisation, and, in some cases, by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with those of authentic standards. The presence of unsaturated C 25 and C 30 HBI thiolanes in a Recent sediment from the Black Sea (age 3-6 × 10 3 a) strongly supports their formation during early diagenesis. The co-occurrence of HBI polyenes (C 25 and C 30) and unsaturated HBI thiolanes (C 25 and C 30) possessing two double bonds less than the corresponding HBI polyenes, in this Recent sediment, testifies to the formation of unsaturated HBI thiolanes by a reaction of inorganic sulphur species with double bonds of the HBI polyenes. Furthermore, a diagenetic scheme for HBI sulphur compounds is proposed based on the identification of HBI sulphur compounds in sediment samples with different maturity levels.

  7. Hydrothermal and Diagenetic Mineralization on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Quinn, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Predicted by geophysical modeling, the mineraolgic record of early Mars groundwater has only recently been discovered. First, rover exploration in sedimentary basins reveals diagenesis. At Meridiani, sandstone porosity is occluded by precipitation of secondary sulfates, hematite, and silica. Multiple alteration episodes are indicated by crystal vugs, disruption of preexisting textures by hematite concretions, and grain coatings (e.g. McLennan et al., 2005). At Gale crater, raised ridges in mudstones, interpreted to be early diagenetic features, are crossed by later-emplaced hydrated calcium sulfate veins (e.g. Grotzinger et al., 2014). Waters in Gale were likely circumneutral while jarosite mineralogy at Meridiani implies acidic waters. Second, systems of raised ridges at 100-m scale are observed from orbit in multiple Martian sedimentary rock units. An outstanding example is sulfate-bearing sediments exhumed at the northern margin of the Syrtis Major lavas (e.g. Quinn & Ehlmann, 2015). Polygonal and with no clearly preferred orientation, the ridges rise 5-30 m above the surrounding terrain. Parallel light-toned grooves with dark interiors (indicative of isopachous fills) and jarosite in ridge mineralogy point to mineralization by acidic waters. Third, some mineral assemblages observed from orbit represent the products of subsurface aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures (Ehlmann et al., 2011). These are globally distributed, exposed in scarps and by impact cratering. Mineral assemblages variously include (a) serpentine and carbonate; (b) prehnite and chlorite, and (c) zeolites. Collectively, these datasets indicate that groundwaters were spatially widespread on ancient Mars, contributing to the sustenance of lakes and to the alteration of bedrock to >1 km depths. While the Martian surface may have always been relatively inhospitable, a warmer, wetter subsurface provided a long-term potentially habitable environment. Key outstanding questions remaining include

  8. Experimental evidence for an effect of early-diagenetic interaction between labile and refractory marine sedimentary organic matter on nitrogen dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Domeyer, Bettina; Graf, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    In most natural sedimentary systems labile and refractory organic material (OM) occur concomitantly. Little, however, is known on how different kinds of OM interact and how such interactions affect early diagenesis in sediments. In a simple sediment experiment, we investigated how interactions of OM substrates of different degradability affect benthic nitrogen (N) dynamics. Temporal evolution of a set of selected biogeochemical parameters was monitored in sandy sediment over 116 days in three experimental set-ups spiked with labile OM (tissue of Mytilus edulis), refractory OM (mostly aged Zostera marina and macroalgae), and a 1:1 mixture of labile and refractory OM. The initial amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) were identical in the three set-ups. To check for non-linear interactions between labile and refractory OM, the evolution of the mixture system was compared with the evolution of the simple sum of the labile and refractory systems, divided by two. The sum system is the experimental control where labile and refractory OM are virtually combined but not allowed to interact. During the first 30 days there was evidence for net dissolved-inorganic-nitrogen (DIN) production followed by net DIN consumption. (Here 'DIN' is the sum of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate.) After ˜ 30 days a quasi steady state was reached. Non-linear interactions between the two types of OM were reflected by three main differences between the early-diagenetic evolutions of nitrogen dynamics of the mixture and sum (control) systems: (1) In the mixture system the phases of net DIN production and consumption commenced more rapidly and were more intense. (2) The mixture system was shifted towards a more oxidised state of DIN products [as indicated by increased (nitrite + nitrate)/(ammonium) ratios]. (3) There was some evidence that more OM, POC and particulate nitrogen were preserved in the mixture system. That is, in the mixture system more particulate OM was preserved while a higher

  9. Early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents, northern Midcontinent region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Leventhal, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process of early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides has altered the chemical composition of the Middle Pennsylvanian Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents in the northern Midcontinent region. This process was identified by comparison of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval hydrogen indices, organic carbon ??13C and element compositions of core and surface mine samples of the Excello Shale Member with analyses of three other underlying and overlying organic-matter-rich marine shales (offshore shale lithofacies) from southern Iowa, northern Missouri, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The end product of the partial oxidation process is shale with relatively low contents of hydrogen-poor, C13-enriched organic matter, lower contents of sulfur and sulfide-forming elements, and relatively unchanged contents of phosphorus and many trace elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, and V). However, because of lower organic carbon contents, element/organic carbon ratios are greatly increased. The partial oxidation process apparently took place during subaerial exposure of the overlying marine carbonate member (Blackjack Creek Member of the Fort Scott Limestone) following a marine regression when meteoric waters percolated down to the level of the Excello muds allowing oxidation of organic matter and sulfides. This hypothesis is supported by earlier workers, who have identified meteoric carbonate cements within, and soil horizons at the top of the Blackjack Creek Member. The period of oxidation is constrained in that organic matter and sulfides in the Little Osage Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents (immediately overlying the Blackjack Creek Member) appear unaltered. Similar alteration of other shales in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian sections may be local to regional in extent and would depend on the extent and duration of the marine regression and be influenced by local variations in permeability and topography

  10. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  11. PEaCH4 v.2.0: A modelling platform to predict early diagenetic processes in marine sediments with a focus on biogenic methane - Case study: Offshore Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arning, Esther T.; Häußler, Steffen; van Berk, Wolfgang; Schulz, Hans-Martin

    2016-07-01

    The modelling of early diagenetic processes in marine sediments is of interest in marine science, and in the oil and gas industry, here, especially with respect to methane occurrence and gas hydrate formation as resources. Early diagenesis in marine sediments evolves from a complex web of intertwining (bio)geochemical reactions. It comprises microbially catalysed reactions and inorganic mineral-water-gas interactions. A model that will describe and consider all of these reactions has to be complex. However, it should be user-friendly, as well as to be applicable for a broad community and not only for experts in the field of marine chemistry. The presented modelling platform PeaCH4 v.2.0 combines both aspects, and is Microsoft Excel©-based. The modelling tool is PHREEQC (version 2), a computer programme for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. The conceptual PEaCH4 model is based on the conversion of sediment-bound degradable organic matter. PEaCH4 v.2.0 was developed to quantify and predict early diagenetic processes in marine sediments with the focus on biogenic methane formation and its phase behaviour, and allows carbon mass balancing. In regard to the irreversible degradation of organic matter, it comprises a "reaction model" and a "kinetic model" to predict methane formation. Both approaches differ in their calculations and outputs as the "kinetic model" considers the modelling time to integrate temperature dependent biogenic methane formation in its calculations, whereas the "reaction model" simply relies on default organic matter degradation. With regard to the inorganic mineral-water-gas interactions, which are triggered by irreversible degradation of organic matter, PEaCH4 v.2.0 is based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics, appropriate mass-action laws, and their temperature dependent equilibrium constants. The programme is exemplarily presented with the example of upwelling sediments off Namibia

  12. Early regimes of water capillary flow in slit silica nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Mejía, Andrés; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2015-06-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the initial stages of spontaneous imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels surrounded by air. An analysis is performed for the effects of nanoscopic confinement, initial conditions of liquid uptake and air pressurization on the dynamics of capillary filling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes: an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by a constant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus formation process plays a central role in the imbibition rate. Thereafter, a transitional regime takes place, in which, the force balance has significant contributions from both inertia and viscous friction. Subsequently, a regime wherein viscous forces dominate the capillary force balance is attained. Flow velocity profiles identify the passage from an inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicate a transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling rates computed for higher air pressures reveal a significant retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus.

  13. Diagenetic Crystal Growth in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Schieber, J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Edgett, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump region (Gale Crater, Mars) marks a critical transition between sedimentary environments dominated by alluvial-to-fluvial materials associated with the Gale crater rim, and depositional environments fundamentally linked to the crater's central mound, Mount Sharp. At Pahrump, the Murray formation consists of an approximately 14-meter thick succession dominated by massive to finely laminated mudstone with occasional interbeds of cross-bedded sandstone, and is best interpreted as a dominantly lacustrine environment containing tongues of prograding fluvial material. Murray formation mudstones contain abundant evidence for early diagenetic mineral precipitation and its subsequent removal by later diagenetic processes. Lenticular mineral growth is particularly common within lacustrine mudstone deposits at the Pahrump locality. High-resolution MAHLI images taken by the Curiosity rover permit detailed morphological and spatial analysis of these features. Millimeter-scale lenticular features occur in massive to well-laminated mudstone lithologies and are interpreted as pseudomorphs after calcium sulfate. The distribution and orientation of lenticular features suggests deposition at or near the sediment-water (or sediment-air) interface. Retention of chemical signals similar to host rock suggests that original precipitation was likely poikilotopic, incorporating substantial amounts of the primary matrix. Although poikilotopic crystal growth is common in burial environments, it also occurs during early diagenetic crystal growth within unlithified sediment where high rates of crystal growth are common. Loss of original calcium sulfate mineralogy suggests dissolution by mildly acidic, later-diagenetic fluids. As with lenticular voids observed at Meridiani by the Opportunity Rover, these features indicate that calcium sulfate deposition may have been widespread on early Mars; dissolution of depositional and early diagenetic minerals is a likely source for both calcium

  14. Integrated diagenetic and sequence stratigraphy of a late Oligocene-early Miocene, mixed-sediment platform (Austral Basin, southern Patagonia): Resolving base-level and paleoceanographic changes, and paleoaquifer characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, George R.; Parras, Ana

    2014-06-01

    A condensed (~ 20-m-thick) marine transgressive-highstand succession comprises the upper San Julián Formation (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) of the northern retroarc Austral Basin, southern Patagonia. Mixed-sediment facies identify a shelf-interior setting, part of an overall warm-temperate regional platform of moderate energy. Giant oyster-dominated skeletal-hiatal accumulations along the maximum flooding surface and forming high-energy event beds in the highstand succession preserve relict micrite in protected shelter porosity, and identify periods of reduced sediment accumulation. The stratigraphic distribution of marine-derived glaucony and diagenetic carbonates is spatially related to sequence development. Depositional siderite coincides with prominent marine transgression, defining transient mixing of marine and meteoric waters across coastal-plain deposits. Chemically evolved autochthonous glaucony coincides with periods of extended seafloor exposure and transgressions that bracket the marine succession, and within the oyster-dominated skeletal accumulations. Seafloor cement, likely once magnesian calcite, formed in association with an encrusting/boring biota along the maximum flooding surface in concert with incursion of cool (11-13 °C) water. The cement is present locally in skeletal event beds in the highstand succession suggesting a possible association with high-order base-level change and cooler water. As the highstand succession coincides with elevated global sea level in the late Oligocene-early Miocene, the locally marine-cemented glauconitic skeletal event beds in the highstand succession may identify higher order glacio-eustatic control. Local stratal condensation, however, is best explained by regional differences in basement subsidence. In the burial realm, carbonate diagenesis produced layers of phreatic calcrete coincident with skeletal-rich deposits. Zeolite (clinoptilolite-K) cement is restricted to the lowermost marine transgressive

  15. Early Diagenetic Changes of Sediment Pore Properties Beneath the Seafloor and Their Contributions to Gas Hydrate Concentration in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Horiuchi, S.; Kato, Y.; Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently many of the chimney-shape gas hydrate concentrated beneath the seafloor have been confirmed off Shimane and off Akita as well as off Joetsu in the eastern margin of Japan Sea, which are quite different from the occurrences of pore space hydrate filling the intergranular pore system of sands recognized in Nankai Trough, Mallik and other sites. Sediment samples below the seafloor were retrieved in 2010 up to 40 m long at the Umitaka Spur, Joetsu Channel, Toyama Trough, Japan Basin, Nishi Tsugaru and Okushiri Ridge areas. Small amounts of sandy sediment have been retrieved as thin intercalations in Pleistocene and Holocene muddy layers transported approximately around 3 to 30 ka according to the tephra ages, where supplying sediments might have not been abundant due to sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene ice age. It is important to clarify the relationship between burial depths and absolute porosities of the argillaceous sediments in relation to early diagenesis. Macroscopic observations and descriptions, measurements of porosity and permeability, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations, and X-ray diffraction analyses have been performed. They consist of silt- to clay-grained particles, and they sometimes contain very fine- to medium-grained thin sandy layers. Average porosities of these fine-grained sediments are 50 % in all study areas, which quickly reduce from 60% to less than 50% within 10 meters and gradually decrease to the depth. However, mean pore sizes in the Nishi Tsugaru are around 1000 nm while 100 nm in the other areas, which tend to decrease with depth. It is suggested that repacking of the muddy particles gradually advances by mechanical compaction, which may crucially influence permeability. They usually contain much opal-A, quartz, feldspar, illite and smectite that do not change definitely with depth. By optical and microscopic observations, diatom tests, foraminifers and framboidal pyrites are commonly observed, and, in

  16. New insights into the early stages of silica-controlled barium carbonate crystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiblmeier, Josef; Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Gebauer, Denis; Kunz, Werner; Kellermeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures resembling those typically displayed by biogenic minerals. These so-called biomorphs were shown to be composed of uniform elongated carbonate nanoparticles that are arranged according to a specific order over mesoscopic scales. In the present study, we have investigated the circumstances leading to the continuous formation and stabilisation of such well-defined nanometric building units in these inorganic systems. For this purpose, in situ potentiometric titration measurements were carried out in order to monitor and quantify the influence of silica on both the nucleation and early growth stages of barium carbonate crystallisation in alkaline media at constant pH. Complementarily, the nature and composition of particles occurring at different times in samples under various conditions were characterised ex situ by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The collected data clearly evidence that added silica affects carbonate crystallisation from the very beginning (i.e. already prior to, during, and shortly after nucleation), eventually arresting growth on the nanoscale by cementation of BaCO3 particles within a siliceous matrix. Our findings thus shed light on the fundamental processes driving bottom-up self-organisation in silica-carbonate materials and, for the first time, provide direct experimental proof that silicate species are responsible for the miniaturisation of carbonate crystals during growth of biomorphs, hence confirming previously discussed theoretical models for their formation mechanism.Recent work has demonstrated that the dynamic interplay between silica and carbonate during co-precipitation can result in the self-assembly of unusual, highly complex crystal architectures with morphologies and textures

  17. Development of diagenetic seals in carbonates and sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, V.; Almon, W.

    1983-03-01

    Diagenetic seals effectively block the movement of reservoir hydrocarbons in many sandstone and carbonate rock units. Diagenetic seals in sandstones and carbonate rocks encase reservoir rocks with either depositional or diagenetic porosity. Diagenetic reservoir porosity may originate before or after the establishment of an effective diagenetic seal. Hydrocarbon traps with diagenetic seals may conform in their geometry as well to structure or stratigraphy as to diagenetic facies. Therefore, some structural and stratigraphic traps may, in part or entirely, depend on diagenetic seals. Detailed analysis of diagenetic seals in sandstones and carbonate rocks can considerably improve our ability to predict theirmore » occurrence and to recognize their spatial and temporal relationship to reservoir rocks and hydrocarbon migration.« less

  18. Chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Warren, R.G.; Hagan, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    The chemistry of diagenetically altered tuffs at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada is described. These tuffs contain substantial amounts of zeolites that are highly sorptive of certain radionuclides. Because of their widespread distribution, the zeolitic tuffs could provide important barriers to radionuclide migration. Physical properties of these tuffs and of their constituent zeolites are influenced by their chemical compositions. This study defines the amount of chemical variability within diagenetically altered tuffs and within diagenetic minerals at Yucca Mountain. Zeolitic tuffs at Yucca Mountain formed by diagenetic alteration of rhyolitic vitric tuffs. Despite their similar starting compositions, thesemore » tuffs developed compositions that vary both vertically and laterally. Widespread chemical variations were the result of open-system chemical diagenesis in which chemical components of the tuffs were mobilized and redistributed by groundwaters. Alkalies, alkaline earths, and silica were the most mobile elements during diagenesis. The zeolitic tuffs can be divided into three compositional groups: (1) calcium- and magnesium-rich tuffs associated with relatively thin zones of alteration in the unsaturated zone; (2) tuffs in thick zones of alteration at and below the water table that grade laterally from sodic compositions on the western side of Yucca Mountain to calcic compositions on the eastern side; and (3) potassic tuffs at the north end of Yucca Mountain. Physical properties of tuffs and their consistuent zeolites at Yucca Mountain may be affected by variations in compositions. Properties important for assessment of repository performance include behavior and ion exchange.« less

  19. Compaction bands in high temperature/pressure diagenetically altered unconventional shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Veveakis, M.; Poulet, T.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy and mineral resources are typically trapped in a low porosity/permeability environment and are difficult to produce. An extreme end-member is the shale gas reservoir in the Cooper Basin (Australia) that is located at 3500-4000 m depth and ambient temperature conditions around 200oC. Shales of lacustrine origin (with high clay content) are diagenetically altered. Diagenesis involves fluid release mineral reactions of the general type Asolid ↔ Bsolid +Cfluid and switches on suddenly in the diagenetic window between 100-200oC. Diagenetic reactions can involve concentrations of smectite, aqueous silica compound, illite, potassium ions, aqueous silica, quartz, feldspar, kerogen, water and gas . In classical petroleum engineering such interlayer water/gas release reactions are considered to cause cementation and significantly reduce porosity and permeability. Yet in contradiction to the expected permeability reduction gas is successfully being produced. We propose that the success is based on the ductile equivalent of classical compaction bands in solid mechanics. The difference being that that the rate of the volumetric compaction is controlled by the diagenetic reactions. Ductile compaction bands are forming high porosity fluid channels rather than low porosity crushed grains in the solid mechanical equivalent. We show that this new type of volumetric instability appears in rate-dependent heterogenous materials as Cnoidal waves. These are nonlinear and exact periodic stationary waves, well known in the shallow water theory of fluid mechanics. Their distance is a direct function of the hydromechanical diffusivities. These instabilities only emerge in low permeability environment where the fluid diffusivity is about an order of magnitude lower than the mechanical loading. The instabilities are expected to be of the type as shown in the image below. The image shows a CT-scan of a laboratory experiment kindly provided by Papamichos (pers

  20. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maliva, R. G.; Knoll, A. H.; Siever, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them.

  1. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  2. Influx of Dissolved Silica in Shallow Marine Environments in the Early Rhaetian (Late Triassic): Implications for Timing of Supercontinental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Rhaetian Stage of the Late Triassic terminated with a mass extinction, but the late Norian-early Rhaetian paleoecological and geochemical transitions and their relationship to events leading up to the End-Triassic mass extinction are poorly understood. To address this issue, presented here is a multi-proxy dataset from New York Canyon, Nevada (USA) relating isotope chemostratigraphy (Sr, C, O), shallow marine benthic macrofossils, and microfossils. At this Panthalassan locality the Norian-Rhaetian boundary is characterized by a negative strontium isotope excursion that facilitates correlation with Tethyan deposits. In sedimentary horizons immediately below and above this excursion, siliceous demosponge spicules (desmids) are abundant components of the microfossil populations, and silicification of calcareous microfossils becomes common. In the sedimentary beds marking the main excursion, hexactinellid sponge spicules are abundant. These results indicate a large input of dissolved silica in shallow marine environments, while the negative strontium values are consistent with increased seafloor spreading and hydrothermal vent activity or basalt weathering, either scenario being a plausible silica source for the typically silica-limited sponges that proliferated during this interval. The biosedimentary features observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary are similar to those observed in the earliest Jurassic in marine sections around the world following the End-Triassic mass extinction, but no clear biotic turnover is observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary in this succession. Thus, biosedimentary shifts across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary may add important geochemical context to the end-Triassic mass extinction event.

  3. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William

    2015-01-01

    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  4. A morphogram for silica-witherite biomorphs and its application to microfossil identification in the early earth rock record.

    PubMed

    Rouillard, J; García-Ruiz, J-M; Gong, J; van Zuilen, M A

    2018-05-01

    Archean hydrothermal environments formed a likely site for the origin and early evolution of life. These are also the settings, however, were complex abiologic structures can form. Low-temperature serpentinization of ultramafic crust can generate alkaline, silica-saturated fluids in which carbonate-silica crystalline aggregates with life-like morphologies can self-assemble. These "biomorphs" could have adsorbed hydrocarbons from Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis processes, leading to metamorphosed structures that resemble carbonaceous microfossils. Although this abiogenic process has been extensively cited in the literature and has generated important controversy, so far only one specific biomorph type with a filamentous shape has been discussed for the interpretation of Archean microfossils. It is therefore critical to precisely determine the full distribution in morphology and size of these biomorphs, and to study the range of plausible geochemical conditions under which these microstructures can form. Here, a set of witherite-silica biomorph synthesis experiments in silica-saturated solutions is presented, for a range of pH values (from 9 to 11.5) and barium ion concentrations (from 0.6 to 40 mmol/L BaCl 2 ). Under these varying conditions, a wide range of life-like structures is found, from fractal dendrites to complex shapes with continuous curvature. The size, spatial concentration, and morphology of the biomorphs are strongly controlled by environmental parameters, among which pH is the most important. This potentially limits the diversity of environments in which the growth of biomorphs could have occurred on Early Earth. Given the variety of the observed biomorph morphologies, our results show that the morphology of an individual microstructure is a poor criterion for biogenicity. However, biomorphs may be distinguished from actual populations of cellular microfossils by their wide, unimodal size distribution. Biomorphs grown by diffusion in silica gel can

  5. Diagenetic Changes in Common Hot Spring Microfacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinman, N. W.; Kendall, T. A.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Cady, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    The friable nature of silica hot spring deposits makes them susceptible to mechanical weathering. Rapid diagenesis must take place for these rocks to persist in the geologic record. The properties of two microfacies at two deposits were compared.

  6. Limestone and Silica Powder Replacements for Cement: Early-Age Performance.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Dale P; Ferraris, Chiara F; Jones, Scott Z; Lootens, Didier; Zunino, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Developing functional concrete mixtures with less ordinary portland cement (OPC) has been one of the key objectives of the 21 st century sustainability movement. While the supplies of many alternatives to OPC (such as fly ash or slag) may be limited, those of limestone and silica powders produced by crushing rocks seem virtually endless. The present study examines the chemical and physical influences of these powders on the rheology, hydration, and setting of cement-based materials via experiments and three-dimensional microstructural modeling. It is shown that both limestone and silica particle surfaces are active templates (sites) for the nucleation and growth of cement hydration products, while the limestone itself is also somewhat soluble, leading to the formation of carboaluminate hydration products. Because the filler particles are incorporated as active members of the percolated backbone that constitutes initial setting of a cement-based system, replacements of up to 50 % of the OPC by either of these powders on a volumetric basis have minimal impact on the initial setting time, and even a paste with only 5 % OPC and 95 % limestone powder by volume achieves initial set within 24 h. While their influence on setting is similar, the limestone and silica powders produce pastes with quite different rheological properties, when substituted at the same volume level. When proceeding from setting to later age strength development, one must also consider the dilution of the system due to cement removal, along with the solubility/reactivity of the filler. However, for applications where controlled (prompt) setting is more critical than developing high strengths, such as mortar tile adhesives, grouts, and renderings, significant levels of these powder replacements for cement can serve as sustainable, functional alternatives to the oft-employed 100 % OPC products.

  7. Role of phase instabilities in the early response of bulk fused silica during laser-induced breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, P.; Negres, R. A.; Raman, R. N.; Colvin, J. D.; Demos, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the experimental and hydrocode modeling investigation of the early material response to localized energy deposition via nanosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica. A time-resolved microscope system was used to acquire transient images with adequate spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the material behavior from the onset of the process. These images revealed a high-pressure shock front propagating at twice the speed of sound at ambient conditions and bounding a region of modified material at delays up to one nanosecond. Hydrocode simulations matching the experimental conditions were also performed and indicated initial pressures of ˜40 GPa and temperatures of ˜1 eV at the absorption region. Both the simulations and the image data show a clear boundary between distinct material phases, a hot plasma and solid silica, with a suggestion that growth of perturbations at the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the two phases is the seed mechanism for the growth of cracks into the stressed solid.

  8. Promoting early exposure monitoring for respirable crystalline silica: Taking the laboratory to the mine site

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele; Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    The exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in the mining industry is a recognized occupational hazard. The assessment and monitoring of the exposure to RCS is limited by two main factors: (1) variability of the silica percent in the mining dust and (2) lengthy off-site laboratory analysis of collected samples. The monitoring of respirable dust via traditional or real-time techniques is not adequate. A solution for on-site quantification of RCS in dust samples is being investigated by the Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The use of portable Fourier transform infrared analyzers in conjunction with a direct-on-filter analysis approach is proposed. The progress made so far, the necessary steps in progress, and the application of the monitoring solution to a small data set is presented. When developed, the solution will allow operators to estimate RCS immediately after sampling, resulting in timelier monitoring of RCS for self-assessment of compliance at the end of the shift, more effective engineering monitoring, and better evaluation of control technologies. PMID:26558490

  9. Diagenetic Features in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for Substrate Rheology and Potential Gas Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kah, L. C.; Stack, K; Siebach, K.; Grotzinger, J.; Summer, D.; Farien, A.; Oehler, D.; Schieber, J.; Leville, R.; Edgar, L; hide

    2014-01-01

    Multiple diagenetic features have been observed in clay­-bearing mudstone exposed within Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars. These features occurred during at least two separate episodes: an early generation of spheroidal concretions that co-­occur with a dense networks of mineralized fractures, and a later generation of mineralized veins. Concretions consist of mm-sized spheroids (0.4 to 8.0 mm, mean diameter of 1.2 mm) that are distinctly more resistant than the encompassing mudstone. Dissected spheroids suggest an origin via compaction and incipient lithification of the substrate at the perimeter of syndepositional void space. Concretions are generally patchy in their distribution within clay--bearing mudstone, but in places can be the dominant fabric element. Locally dense networks of mineralized fractures occur in regions of low concretion abundance. These consist of short (< 50 cm), curvilinear to planar mineralized voids that occur across a range of orientations from vertical to subhorizontal. Fractures are filled by multi-phase cement consisting of two isopachous, erosionally resistant outer bands, and a central less resistant fill. Physical relationships suggests that original fractures may have formed as both interconnected voids and as discrete cross--cutting features. Co--occurrence of early diagenetic concretions and fracture networks suggests a common origin via gas release within a subaqueous, shallow substrate. We suggest that gas release within weakly cohesive subsurface sediments resulted in substrate dewatering and an increase in the cohesive strength of the substrate. Local differences in substrate strength and rate of gas production would have result in formation of either discrete voids or fracture networks. A second generation of mineralized veins is characterized by a regionally low spatial density, predominantly vertical or horizontal orientations, and a single phase of Ca--sulfate mineral fill. These veins cross-cut the early diagenetic

  10. A subtle diagenetic trap in the Cretaceous Glauconite Sandstone of Southwest Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meshri, I.D.; Comer, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the long history of research which documents many studies involving extensive diagenesis, there are a few examples of a fully documented diagenetic trap. In the context of this paper, a trap is a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a seal; because a reservoir without a seal acts as a carrier bed. The difficulty in the proper documentation of diagenetic traps is often due to the lack of: (a) extensive field records on the perforation and production histories, which assist in providing the depth of separation between hydrocarbon production and non-hydrocarbon or water production; and (b) the simultaneous availability of core data from these intervals, which could be studied for the extent and nature of diagenesis. This paper provides documentation for the existence of a diagenetic trap, based on perforation depths, production histories and petrologic data from the cored intervals, in the context of the geologic and stratigraphic setting. Cores from 15 wells and SP logs from 45 wells were carefully correlated and the data on perforated intervals was also acquired. Extensive petrographic work on the collected cores led to the elucidation of a diagenetic trap that separates water overlying and updip from gas downdip. Amoco's Berrymore-Lobstick-Bigoray fields, located near the northeastern edge of the Alberta Basin, are prolific gas producers. The gas is produced from reservoir rock consisting of delta platform deposits formed by coalescing distributary mouth bars. The overlying rock unit is composed of younger distributary channels; although it has a good reservoir quality, it contains and produces water only. The total thickness of the upper, water-bearing and lower gas-bearing sandstone is about 40 ft. The diagenetic seal is composed of a zone 2 to 6 ft thick, located at the base of distributary channels. This zone is cemented with 20-30% ankerite cement, which formed the gas migration and is also relatively early compared to other cements formed in the water

  11. The diagenetic fate of taraxer-14-ene and oleanene isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Haven, H. L.; Rullkötter, J.

    1988-10-01

    The extractable organic matter in Holocene to early Miocene deep-sea sediments from Site 645 (ODP Leg 105) in Baffin Bay contains almost exclusively biological markers of terrigenous origin. Pentacyclic triterpenoids of the α-(ursene) and β-amyrin (oleanene) type often occur as the most abundant compounds in the aliphatic hydrocarbon, ketone and alcohol fractions of the sediment extract. A specific diagenetic reaction involves the conversion of taraxer-14-ene into olean-12-ene in the upper 700 metres of the sedimentary sequence. The taraxerene-to-oleanene conversion is complete before the onset of isomerisation of diasterenes at C-20. In the sediment as well as in laboratory simulation experiments, olean-12-ene further isomerises to olean-13(18)-ene and olean-18-ene, the latter of which may be the direct precursor of 18β(H)- and 18α(H)-oleanane found in sediments containing more mature organic matter and in crude oils. The subsurface interconversion of these triterpenoid skeletons indicate that oleanane does not necessarily start life as an oleanoid.

  12. Reactive transport and mass balance modeling of the Stimson sedimentary formation and altered fracture zones constrain diagenetic conditions at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T. S.; Rampe, E. B.

    2018-06-01

    On a planet as cold and dry as present-day Mars, evidence of multiple aqueous episodes offers an intriguing view into very different past environments. Fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian depositional environments are being investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity in Gale crater, Mars. Geochemical and mineralogical observations of these sedimentary rocks suggest diagenetic processes affected the sediments. Here, we analyze diagenesis of the Stimson formation eolian parent material, which caused loss of olivine and formation of magnetite. Additional, later alteration in fracture zones resulted in preferential dissolution of pyroxene and precipitation of secondary amorphous silica and Ca sulfate. The ability to compare the unaltered parent material with the reacted material allows constraints to be placed on the characteristics of the altering solutions. In this work we use a combination of a mass balance approach calculating the fraction of a mobile element lost or gained, τ, with fundamental geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow to examine the characteristics of multiple stages of aqueous alteration at Gale crater, Mars. Our model results indicate that early diagenesis of the Stimson sedimentary formation is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit by a near-neutral solution, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with a very acidic, high sulfate solution containing Ca, P and Si. These results indicate a range of past aqueous conditions occurring at Gale crater, Mars, with important implications for past martian climate and environments.

  13. Geochemistry of Early Frasnian (Late Devonian) pyrite-ammonoid level in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland, and a new proxy parameter for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic and diagenetic pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarzowska, Agnieszka; Berner, Zsolt A.; Racki, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    Pyrite geochemistry (isotope and trace element composition, degree of pyritization, S/Corg ratio) was used in context of selected lithogeochemical parameters (major and trace elements, including sulphur, organic carbon, and δ13C of carbonate carbon) to constrain fluctuations in depositional conditions during the Early to Middle Frasnian carbon isotopic perturbation (punctata Event) in the Kostomłoty Basin, Poland. Based on the ratio between the sum of oxyanionic elements and transition metals in pyrite, a new proxy parameter (index of syngenetic pyrite, ISYP) is proposed for assessing the relative amount of syngenetic pyrite in a sample. The distribution of the ISYP along the Kostomłoty - Małe Górki section (upper Szydłówek to the basal Kostomłoty beds) is in concert with conclusions inferred from paleoecologic data and other geochemical parameters (degree of pyritization, S/Corg, δ34Spyrite). According to these, the lower segment of the Szydłówek Beds was deposited in a normally oxygenated environment, but undergoing increasing primary productivity in surface water, as indicated by an increase in δ13Ccarb and in Cu/Zr ratio in bulk rock, which triggered the periodic deposition of sediments slightly enriched in organic matter, notably within the pyrite-ammonoid level (= Goniatite Level). Fluctuating, but in general high S/Corg ratios, DOPR values and ISYP values suggest that during this time - against the background of a generally dysoxic environment - shorter or longer lasting episodes of more restricted (anoxic and possibly even euxinic) bottom water conditions developed. Low sedimentation rates enabled a continuous and practically unlimited supply of sulphate during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR), which in turn led to a strong depletion of pyrite sulphur in 34S in this interval (constantly around -29‰). In contrast, below and above the Goniatite Level, higher δ34S values (up to + 3‰), are compatible with closed system conditions and higher

  14. Investigating Interactions between the Silica and Carbon Cycles during Precipitation and Early Diagenesis of Authigenic Clay/Carbonate-Mineral Associations in the Carbonate Rock Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Francisca Martinez Ruiz, F.; Sanchez-Roman, M.; Anjos, S.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Nascimento, G. S.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2017-12-01

    The study of authigenic clay/carbonate-mineral associations within carbonate sequences has important implications for the interpretation of scientific problems related with rock reservoir properties, such as alteration of potential porosity and permeability. More specifically, when clay minerals are randomly distributed within the carbonate matrix, it becomes difficult to predict reservoir characteristics. In order to understand this mineral association in the geological record, we have undertaken a comparative study of specially designed laboratory experiments with modern environments, where clay minerals have been shown to precipitate together with a range of carbonate minerals, including calcite, Mg-calcite and dolomite. Two modern dolomite-forming environments, the Coorong lakes, South Australia and Brejo do Espinho Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were selected for this investigation. For comparative evaluation, enrichment microbial culture experiments, using natural pore water from Brejo do Espinho as the growth medium to promote mineral precipitation, were performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To establish the environmental parameters and biological processes facilitating the dual mineral association, the experimental samples have been compared with the natural minerals using HRTEM measurements. The results demonstrate that the clay and carbonate minerals apparently do not co-precipitate, but the precipitation of the different minerals in the same sample has probably occurred under different environmental conditions with variable chemistries, e.g., hypersalinity versus normal salinity resulting from the changing ratio of evaporation versus precipitation. Thus, the investigated mineral association is not a product of diagenetic processes but of sequential in situ precipitation processes related to changes in the silica and carbon availability. Implications for ancient carbonate formations will be presented and discussed in the context of a specific

  15. The accelerating effect of chitosan-silica hybrid dressing materials on the early phase of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Ung; Jung, Hyun-Do; Song, Eun-Ho; Choi, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha; Kim, Sukwha

    2017-10-01

    Commercialized dressing materials with or without silver have played a passive role in early-phase wound healing, protecting the skin defects from infections, absorbing exudate, and preventing dehydration. Chitosan (CTS)-based sponges have been developed in pure or hybrid forms for accelerating wound healing, but their wound-healing capabilities have not been extensively compared with widely used commercial dressing materials, providing limited information in a practical aspect. In this study, we have developed CTS-silica (CTS-Si) hybrid sponges with water absorption, flexibility, and mechanical behavior similar to those of CTS sponges. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed to compare the CTS-Si sponges with three commercial dressing materials [gauze, polyurethane (PU), and silver-containing hydrofiber (HF-Ag)] in addition to CTS sponges. Both in vitro and in vivo tests showed that CTS-Si sponges promoted fibroblast proliferation, leading to accelerated collagen synthesis, whereas the CTS sponges did not exhibit significant differences in fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis from gauze, PU, and HF-Ag sponges. In case of CTS-Si, the inflammatory cells were actively recruited to the wound by the influence of the released silicon ions from CTS-Si sponges, which, in return, led to an enhanced secretion of growth factors, particularly TGF-β during the early stage. The higher level of TGF-β likely improved the proliferation of fibroblasts, and as a result, collagen synthesis by fibroblasts became remarkably productive, thereby increasing collagen density at the wound site. Therefore, the CTS-Si hybrid sponges have considerable potential as a wound-dressing material for accelerating wound healing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1828-1839, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Diagenetic Crystal Clusters and Dendrites, Lower Mount Sharp, Gale Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R.; Van Beek, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Thompson, L.; Wiens, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Farmer, J.; Minitti, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Since approximately Sol 753 (to sol 840+) the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been investigating the Pahrump locality. Mapping of HiRise images suggests that the Pahrup locality represents the first occurrence of strata associated with basal Mount Sharp. Considerable efforts have been made to document the Pahrump locality in detail, in order to constrain both depositional and diagenetic facies. The Pahrump succession consists of approximately 13 meters of recessive-weathering mudstone interbedded with thin (decimeter-scale) intervals of more erosionally resistant mudstone, and crossbedded sandstone in the upper stratigraphic levels. Mudstone textures vary from massive, to poorly laminated, to well-laminated. Here we investigate the distribution and structure of unusual diagenetic features that occur in the lowermost portion of the Pahrump section. These diagenetic features consist of three dimensional crystal clusters and dendrites that are erosionally resistant with respect to the host rock.

  17. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    -rich formations; a low-salinity fluid likely of meteoric origin migrating through the granitic basement; mineralizing fluids resulting from the mixing of fluids 1 and 3; high-temperature fluids resulting from the natural nuclear reactor environment (Mathieu et al., 2000). The present paper attempts to characterize the succession of alteration events that have affected the top of the basement below the Palaeoproterozoic sediment unconformity. Are these alterations related to early post-magmatic to hydrothermal events, to palaeoweathering, or to late infiltration of diagenetic brines from the overlying basin? Our study, carried out on drill core samples from Kiéné, is supported by petrographic investigation, new fluid inclusion data and U-Pb geochronology on monazite.

  18. Morphological recognition of Globigerinoides ruber morphotypes and their susceptibility to diagenetic alteration in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontakiotis, G.; Antonarakou, A.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Anastasakis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Möbius, J.

    2017-10-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal geochemistry presents a valuable archive for paleoceanographic reconstructions. However in high salinity and carbonate super-saturated settings, precipitation of inorganic calcite onto foraminiferal tests can potentially alter the primary geochemical signal, biasing Mg/Ca ratios and ensuing paleoceanographic reconstructions. Here we utilize test biometrics (specifically related to the compression and elongation of the last chambers) to identify four distinct morphotypes (labelled A-D) of the paleoceanographically important planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber, and further evaluate their susceptibility to diagenetic alteration from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The three distinguished morphotypes (A-C) correspond to previously recognized morphotypes ("Normal", "Platys", "Elongate" respectively) in the Mediterranean Sea, while the remaining (D or "Twin") was designated for the first time. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations performed on four distinguished morphotypes, indicative of potential diagenetic alteration influence. We identified 3 different overgrowth stages (OGA1-OGA3), as a function of geography in the study area. The early diagenesis degrees (involving all the morphotypes) are only geographically distinct along the eastern Mediterranean (increasing to the south), since the morphology does not play a role in the likelihood of diagenetic alteration. Particularly, in the north Aegean Sea, SEM analyses reveal the absence or limited presence of an overgrowth imprint in all recognized morphotypes, while in the central-south Aegean and Levantine Seas they show higher amplitudes of diagenetic overprint supporting the general trend to advanced diagenetic alteration. The semi-enclosed oligotrophic nature and high salinity of this setting, in combination with the different degree of carbonate precipitation and calcite super-saturation between the sub-basins, could

  19. Early colonization of thermal niches in a silica-depositing hot spring in central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Lau, C Y; Aitchison, J C; Pointing, S B

    2008-03-01

    Thermophilic microbial mats dominated by the anoxygenic phototroph Roseiflexus castenholzii commonly develop around sinter-depositing geysers in the Daggyai Tso geothermal field of central Tibet. In this study we used morphological and molecular genetic techniques to reveal a diverse pioneer biofilm community including both archaea and bacteria involved in early colonization of such thermal niches at temperatures ranging from 46 to 77 degrees C. Sinter precipitation and biomineralization were evident at all locations, but the latter was selective between taxa and most evident on filamentous cells. Evidence for possible indirect biosignatures from biofilms overwhelmed by sinter deposition was found. Succession to a mature community appeared to relate to the growth rate for key taxa outpacing that of silicification within an optimum temperature range of 54-61 degrees C. The thin surface layer of silicification-resistant cyanobacteria that developed on the surface of mature mats may play a role in preventing biomineralization of the susceptible R. castenholzii beneath within these communities.

  20. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  1. Diagenetic alteration of impact spherules in the Neoarchean Monteville layer, South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohl, I.; Simonson, B.M.; Berke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Intercontinental correlation of distal Archean impact ejecta layers can be used to help create a global time-stratigraphic framework for early Earth events. For example, an impact spherule layer in the Neoarchean Monteville Formation (Griqualand West Basin, South Africa) may be correlated with layers in one or more formations in Western Australia. To help assess the degree to which diagenetic alteration would hinder such correlations, we performed a petrographic study of spherules in the Monteville layer. Most of the spherules in the Monteville layer have botryoidal rims composed of radial-fibrous K-feldspar, but compaction and replacement have greatly altered their appearance and mineralogy. Moreover, the Monteville spherule layer consists of three main subunits, and spherule compaction varies between subunits as well as across the Griqualand West region. Compaction is about three times greater in a medial spherulerich subunit as compared to a basal subunit rich in large intraclasts, resulting in better preservation of the shapes of melt particles in the latter. However, spherule rims have omparable numbers of fractures in both subunits, indicating the melt particles were fractured prior to compaction. Some spherules contain mica ribbons with a septarian geometry. Fracturing via rapid thermal quenching could help explain all of these features. f hot spherules possessing crystalline rims were thermally shocked when they hit the ocean, fractures would have the observed geometries and provide pathways for fluid infiltration and local replacement of glass by mica. Although heavily distorted, impact spherules in the Monteville layer are very similar to those in the Hesta occurrence of the Neoarchean Jeerinah spherule layer of the Hamersley Basin, even showing similar diagenetic histories. In this instance, diagenetic alteration may actually help rather than hinder intercontinental correlation of impact spherule layers. ??2006 Geological Society of America.

  2. Structural and diagenetic evolution of deformation bands in contractional and extensional tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.; O'Brien, C. M.; Elliott, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanisms of brittle deformation of sediments and sedimentary rock change with burial because of increasing confining stress, change in pore fluid chemical and temperature conditions, and diagenetic state. In the field, these changes are observed in a transition from early non-cataclastic to later cataclastic deformation bands and to joint-based structures. Jurassic eolian sandstones in the San Rafael monocline and adjacent San Rafael Desert region, Utah, allow comparison of deformation band structures and their diagenetic attributes in contractional and extensional tectonic settings in close proximity. In the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones, we observe up to six generations of deformation bands, with earliest non-cataclastic bands having diffuse boundaries to host rock, and short and irregular traces. Later bands are cataclastic, more sharply defined, with long and straight traces. Cataclastic bands in the San Rafael monocline are interpreted to form as reverse faults during progressive rotation of the steeply dipping fold limb, resulting in an array of bands of varying dip. Bands in the San Rafael Desert form as normal faults with a narrower dip range. Although structural characteristics of bands differ in extensional and contractional tectonic regimes, cataclastic bands in either regime have comparable amount of porosity loss and quartz cementation indicating that tectonic regime does not influence band diagenesis. Abundance of quartz cement in bands, determined by point counting of SEM images, increases from earlier to later generations of bands and, within a single generation, with increasing slip along the band, reaching up to 24% of band volume. This trend is attributed to an increase in cataclasis with increasing host rock cementation and confining stress during burial, and, within the same generation, with increasing slip. Porosity loss by cementation tends to dominate over porosity loss by mechanical compaction. These findings demonstrate that quartz

  3. Chemistry of diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nachon, Marion; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Kah, Linda C.; Cousin, Agnes; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Blank, Jen G.; Calef, Fred J.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, Martin R.; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Kronyak, Rachel; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Oehler, D. Z.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Stack, Katherine M.; Sumner, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    The Curiosity rover's campaign at Pahrump Hills provides the first analyses of lower Mount Sharp strata. Here we report ChemCam elemental composition of a diverse assemblage of post-depositional features embedded in, or cross-cutting, the host rock. ChemCam results demonstrate their compositional diversity, especially compared to the surrounding host rock: (i) Dendritic aggregates and relief enhanced features, characterized by a magnesium enhancement and sulfur detection, and interpreted as Mg-sulfates; (ii) A localized observation that displays iron enrichment associated with sulfur, interpreted as Fe-sulfate; (iii) Dark raised ridges with varying Mg- and Ca-enriched compositions compared to host rock; (iv) Several dark-toned veins with calcium enhancement associated with fluorine detection, interpreted as fluorite veins. (v) Light-toned veins with enhanced calcium associated with sulfur detection, and interpreted as Ca-sulfates. The diversity of the Pahrump Hills diagenetic assemblage suggests a complex post-depositional history for fine-grained sediments for which the origin has been interpreted as fluvial and lacustrine. Assessment of the spatial and relative temporal distribution of these features shows that the Mg-sulfate features are predominant in the lower part of the section, suggesting local modification of the sediments by early diagenetic fluids. In contrast, light-toned Ca-sulfate veins occur in the whole section and cross-cut all other features. A relatively late stage shift in geochemical conditions could explain this observation. The Pahrump Hills diagenetic features have no equivalent compared to targets analyzed in other locations at Gale crater. Only the light-toned Ca-sulfate veins are present elsewhere, along Curiosity's path, suggesting they formed through a common late-stage process that occurred at over a broad area.

  4. Chemistry of diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.

    The Curiosity rover's campaign at Pahrump Hills provides the first analyses of lower Mount Sharp strata. We report ChemCam elemental composition of a diverse assemblage of post-depositional features embedded in, or cross-cutting, the host rock. ChemCam results demonstrate their compositional diversity, especially compared to the surrounding host rock: (i) Dendritic aggregates and relief enhanced features, characterized by a magnesium enhancement and sulfur detection, and interpreted as Mg-sulfates; (ii) A localized observation that displays iron enrichment associated with sulfur, interpreted as Fe-sulfate; (iii) Dark raised ridges with varying Mg- and Ca-enriched compositions compared to host rock; (iv) Several dark-toned veins withmore » calcium enhancement associated with fluorine detection, interpreted as fluorite veins. (v) Light-toned veins with enhanced calcium associated with sulfur detection, and interpreted as Ca-sulfates. The diversity of the Pahrump Hills diagenetic assemblage suggests a complex post-depositional history for fine-grained sediments for which the origin has been interpreted as fluvial and lacustrine. Assessment of the spatial and relative temporal distribution of these features shows that the Mg-sulfate features are predominant in the lower part of the section, suggesting local modification of the sediments by early diagenetic fluids. Conversely, light-toned Ca-sulfate veins occur in the whole section and cross-cut all other features. A relatively late stage shift in geochemical conditions could explain this observation. The Pahrump Hills diagenetic features have no equivalent compared to targets analyzed in other locations at Gale crater. Only the light-toned Ca-sulfate veins are present elsewhere, along Curiosity's path, suggesting they formed through a common late-stage process that occurred at over a broad area.« less

  5. Chemistry of diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, Mars

    DOE PAGES

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; ...

    2017-09-01

    The Curiosity rover's campaign at Pahrump Hills provides the first analyses of lower Mount Sharp strata. We report ChemCam elemental composition of a diverse assemblage of post-depositional features embedded in, or cross-cutting, the host rock. ChemCam results demonstrate their compositional diversity, especially compared to the surrounding host rock: (i) Dendritic aggregates and relief enhanced features, characterized by a magnesium enhancement and sulfur detection, and interpreted as Mg-sulfates; (ii) A localized observation that displays iron enrichment associated with sulfur, interpreted as Fe-sulfate; (iii) Dark raised ridges with varying Mg- and Ca-enriched compositions compared to host rock; (iv) Several dark-toned veins withmore » calcium enhancement associated with fluorine detection, interpreted as fluorite veins. (v) Light-toned veins with enhanced calcium associated with sulfur detection, and interpreted as Ca-sulfates. The diversity of the Pahrump Hills diagenetic assemblage suggests a complex post-depositional history for fine-grained sediments for which the origin has been interpreted as fluvial and lacustrine. Assessment of the spatial and relative temporal distribution of these features shows that the Mg-sulfate features are predominant in the lower part of the section, suggesting local modification of the sediments by early diagenetic fluids. Conversely, light-toned Ca-sulfate veins occur in the whole section and cross-cut all other features. A relatively late stage shift in geochemical conditions could explain this observation. The Pahrump Hills diagenetic features have no equivalent compared to targets analyzed in other locations at Gale crater. Only the light-toned Ca-sulfate veins are present elsewhere, along Curiosity's path, suggesting they formed through a common late-stage process that occurred at over a broad area.« less

  6. Diagenetic susceptibility of carbonate archives - an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, C.; Purgstaller, B.; Mavromatis, V.; Dietzel, M.; Jöns, N.; Buhl, D.; Neuser, R. D.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Hoffmann, R.; Kwiecien, O.; Riechelmann, S.; Immenhauser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate sediments and biominerals can record environmental conditions during both deposition and subsequent diagenesis, making them important archives of within the geologic record. Therefore, the alteration processes of these paleoenvironmental proxies are important to understand if one is to deduce environmental conditions based on their petrographic and geochemical signature. This study uses an experimental approach in order to best indicate the controls and effects of the diagenesis of various carbonate archives. Samples are hydrothermally altered at known conditions including pore water chemistry (meteoric and brine fluids), and temperature (100-200°C), and are directly compared to an unaltered subsample (same specimen) for petrographic and geochemical alteration, allowing for reduced heterogeneity, and a quantitative and systematic approach to determine the type, extent, and controls of diagenesis. Initial results indicate little-no alteration at the lower temperature experiments (100°C), and almost complete alteration observed at higher temperatures (175-200°C), while intermediate temperature ranges (130-160°C) prove promising for the evaluation of both diagenetic mechanisms, as well as rate limiting factors controlling alteration. Initial results indicate partial recrystallization of the bivalve A. Islandica, as well as other carbonates (corals, bivalves, gastropods, ammonites, and speleothems), with a visually distinct recrystallization front for select specimens. Results indicate that the diagenetic pathway preferentially follows organic distribution, and internal structures within the organo-sediments and minerals, possibly formed during initial formation. Alteration also suggests preferential movement of intercrystalline organics in some sample types, where they appear to be pushed away from the diagenetic front, causing concentration of the water insoluble organics, and the production of visually darker areas surrounding diagenetic fluid pathways.

  7. Texture-specific Si isotope variations in Barberton Greenstone Belt cherts record low temperature fractionations in early Archean seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefurak, Elizabeth J. T.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lowe, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Sedimentary cherts are unusually abundant in early Archean (pre-3.0 Ga) sequences, suggesting a silica cycle that was profoundly different than the modern system. Previously applied for the purpose of paleothermometry, Si isotopes in ancient cherts can offer broader insight into mass fluxes and mechanisms associated with silica concentration, precipitation, diagenesis, and metamorphism. Early Archean cherts contain a rich suite of sedimentological and petrographic textures that document a history of silica deposition, cementation, silicification, and recrystallization. To add a new layer of insight into the chemistry of early cherts, we have used wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and then secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to produce elemental and Si and O isotope ratio data from banded black-and-white cherts from the Onverwacht Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. This geochemical data is then interpreted in the framework of depositional and diagenetic timing of silica precipitation provided by geological observations. SIMS allows the comparison of Si and O isotope ratios of distinct silica phases, including black carbonaceous chert beds and bands (many including well-defined sedimentary grains), white relatively pure chert bands including primary silica granules, early cavity-filling cements, and later quartz-filled veins. Including all chert types and textures analyzed, the δ30Si dataset spans a range from -4.78‰ to +3.74‰, with overall mean 0.20‰, median 0.51‰, and standard deviation 1.30‰ (n = 1087). Most samples have broadly similar δ30Si distributions, but systematic texture-specific δ30Si differences are observed between white chert bands (mean +0.60‰, n = 750), which contain textures that represent primary and earliest diagenetic silica phases, and later cavity-filling cements (mean -1.41‰, n = 198). We observed variations at a ∼100 μm scale indicating a lack of Si isotope homogenization at this scale during

  8. Diagenetic overprinting of the sphaerosiderite palaeoclimate proxy: are records of pedogenic groundwater δ18O values preserved?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzkes, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Meteoric sphaerosiderite lines (MSLs), defined by invariant ??18O and variable ??13C values, are obtained from ancient wetland palaeosol sphaerosiderites (millimetre-scale FeCO3 nodules), and are a stable isotope proxy record of terrestrial meteoric isotopic compositions. The palaeoclimatic utility of sphaerosiderite has been well tested; however, diagenetically altered horizons that do not yield simple MSLs have been encountered. Well-preserved sphaerosiderites typically exhibit smooth exteriors, spherulitic crystalline microstructures and relatively pure (> 95 mol% FeCO3) compositions. Diagenetically altered sphaerosiderites typically exhibit corroded margins, replacement textures and increased crystal lattice substitution of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ for Fe2+. Examples of diagenetically altered Cretaceous sphaerosiderite-bearing palaeosols from the Dakota Formation (Kansas), the Swan River Formation (Saskatchewan) and the Success S2 Formation (Saskatchewan) were examined in this study to determine the extent to which original, early diagenetic ??18O and ??13C values are preserved. All three units contain poikilotopic calcite cements with significantly different ??18O and ??13C values from the co-occurring sphaerosiderites. The complete isolation of all carbonate phases is necessary to ensure that inadvertent physical mixing does not affect the isotopic analyses. The Dakota and Swan River samples ultimately yield distinct MSLs for the sphaerosiderites, and MCLs (meteoric calcite lines) for the calcite cements. The Success S2 sample yields a covariant ??18O vs. ??13C trend resulting from precipitation in pore fluids that were mixtures between meteoric and modified marine phreatic waters. The calcite cements in the Success S2 Formation yield meteoric ??18O and ??13C values. A stable isotope mass balance model was used to produce hyperbolic fluid mixing trends between meteoric and modified marine end-member compositions. Modelled hyperbolic fluid mixing curves for the

  9. Crystalline Silica

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about crystalline silica (quartz dust), which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Crystalline silica is present in certain construction materials such as concrete, masonry, and brick and also in commercial products such as some cleansers, cosmetics, pet litter, talcum powder, caulk, and paint.

  10. An AEM-TEM study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: II. Diagenetic modification of the sedimentary assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Jones, B.F.; Veblen, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares the mineralogy and chemistry of clay minerals in sediments from various depths and positions in Abert Lake and surrounding playa with those of the weathered materials entering the lake in order to reveal the nature and extent of post-depositional mineralogical modification. Analytical electron microscope (AEM) data from individual clay particles reveal that each sample is comprised of a highly inhomogeneous smectite assemblage. The thin clay flakes (commonly less than 10 nm wide) display a complete range in octahedral sheet compositions from nearly dioctahedral to nearly trioctahedral. The very abundant Mg-rich lake smectites with an estimated composition K0.29(Al0.23-Mg2.16Fe0.30)Si3.80Al0.20O10(OH)2 are not formed by weathering. This confirms the importance of diagenetic Mg uptake. Lattice-fringe imaging failed to reveal distinct brucite-like or vermiculite-like layers, suggesting that interstratifications of this type are rare or absent. Siliceous coatings on clay particles (identified by silica excess in smectite analyses) seem to favor topotactic overgrowth of stevensite rather than addition of brucite-like layers to the dioctahedral nuclei. The growth of K-stevensite dilutes the Al content of the crystal, and thus the increasing diagenetic modification reduces rather than supplements its illite component. Smectite compositions within individual samples were highly variable, yet source-related characteristics such as the abundance of Fe-rich smectite were apparent. Little evidence for systematic K or Mg enrichment with depth was identified in samples from depths of down to 16 feet below the sediment-water interface. The most magnesian assemblages are associated both with weathering sources of Mg-rich smectite and playa environments subjected to repeated wetting and drying cycles. Thus, the observations suggest that clay compositions primarily reflect changes in lake levels, brine composition, and source characteristics, rather than time and

  11. Diagenetic changes in the elemental composition of unrecrystallized mollusk shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, P.C.; Pilkey, O.H.; Blackwelder, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe, Na and K contents were determined for 230 apparently unrecrystallized mollusk shells (gastropods and bivalves) ranging in age from late Cretaceous to Holocene. Consistent differences between the Holocene and fossil shells with respect to concentrations of all these elements are attributed to postburial diagenetic changes. Fossil-Holocene shell comparisons are made on the intergeneric level, a more severe test of compositional differences than was previous work involved with few species. The observed differences re-emphasize the need for extreme caution in the use of the many geochemical tools which assume that no compositional changes have taken place prior to recrystallization of calcareous materials. ?? 1979.

  12. Serpentinization processes: Influence of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Sun, W.; Ding, X.; Song, M.; Zhan, W.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization systems are highly enriched in molecular hydrogen (H2) and hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane and propane). The production of hydrocarbons results from reactions between H2 and oxidized carbon (carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide), which possibly contribute to climate changes during early history of the Earth. However, the influence of silica on the production of H2 and hydrocarbons was poorly constrained. We performed experiments at 311-500 °C and 3.0 kbar using mechanical mixtures of silica and olivine in ratios ranging from 0 to 40%. Molecular hydrogen (H2), methane, ethane and propane were formed, which were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that silica largely decreased H2 production. Without any silica, olivine serpentinization produced 94.5 mmol/kg H2 after 20 days of reaction time. By contrast, with the presence of 20% silica, H2 concentrations decreased largely, 8.5 mmol/kg. However, the influence of silica on the production of hydrocarbons is negligible. Moreover, with the addition of 20%-40% silica, the major hydrous minerals are talc, which was quantified according to an established standard curve calibrated by infrared spectroscopy analyses. It shows that silica greatly enhances olivine hydration, especially at 500 °C. Without any addition of silica, reaction extents were <5% at 17 days during olivine serpentinization at 500 °C and 3.0 kbar. By contrast, with the presence of 50% silica, olivine was completely transformed to talc within 9 days. This study indicates that silica impedes the oxidation of ferrous iron into ferric iron, and that rates of olivine hydration in natural geological settings are much faster with silica supply.

  13. Making a black shale shine: the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Sarah; Magnall, Joe; Reynolds, Merilie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids are important agents of mass and thermal transfer in the upper crust. This is exemplified by shale-hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS), which are anomalous accumulations of Zn and Pb sulphides (± barite) in sedimentary basins created by hydrothermal fluids. These deposits occur in passive margin settings and, typically, there is no direct evidence of magmatic input. Recent studies of Paleozoic deposits in the North American Cordillera (MacMillan Pass and Red Dog Districts) have shown that the deposits are formed in a sub-seafloor setting, where the potential for thermal and chemical gradients is high. Mineralization is characterized by the replacement and displacement of unconsolidated, partially lithified and lithified biosiliceous mudstones (± carbonates), and commonly the sulphide mineralization post-dates, and replaces, bedded barite units in the sediments. The Red Dog District (Alaska, USA) contain some of the largest Zn-Pb deposits ever discovered. The host-rocks are dominantly carbonaceous mudstones, with carbonate units and some radiolarites. The ore forms massive sulphide bodies that replace pyritized mudstones, barite and carbonate units. Lithological and textural relationships provide evidence that much of the ore formed in bioturbated, biosiliceous zones that may have had high primary porosity and/or permeability. Sediment permeability may have been further modified by aging of the silica rich sediments and the dissolution/replacement of carbonate and barite beds. At the Tom and Jason deposits (MacMillan Pass, Yukon) the fault-controlled hydrothermal upflow zone is uniquely preserved as an unequivocal vent complex. Here, the metal bearing fluids are hot (300°C), low salinity (6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and acidic (pH < 4.5). These fluids were initially in thermal and chemical disequilibrium with a partially lithified organic rich host-rock but cooled rapidly during fluid rock interaction and the input of diagenetic pore fluids

  14. Diagenetic Iron Cycling in Ancient Alkaline Saline Lacustrine Sedimentary Rocks: A Case Study on the Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter-McIntyre, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.

    2014-12-01

    The upper part of the Brushy Basin Member in the Four Corners region of the U.S. was deposited in an ephemeral alkaline saline lake system with copious input of volcanic ash. The variegated shale formation provides a setting for the study of early diagenetic iron cycling that records the action of alkaline saline fluid chemistries reacting with volcaniclastic sediments in the presence of microbes. A bull's-eye pattern of authigenic minerals with increasing alteration towards the basinal center similar to modern alkaline saline lakes provides evidence for an extreme paleoenvironmental interpretation. The purpose of this research is to document specific factors, such as reactive sediments, microbial influences, and grain size that affect concretion formation and iron cycling in an ancient extreme environment. Three broad diagenetic facies are interpreted by color and associated bioturbation features: red, green and intermediate. Diagenetic facies reflect meter-scale paleotopography: red facies represent shallow water to subaerial, oxidizing conditions; green facies reflect saturated conditions and reducing pore water chemistry shortly after deposition, and intermediate facies represent a combination of the previous two conditions. Evidence of biotic influence is abundant and trace fossils exhibit patterns associated with the diagenetic facies. Red diagenetic facies typically contain burrows and root traces and green diagenetic facies exhibit restricted biotic diversity typically limited to algal molds (vugs). Microbial fossils are well-preserved and are in close proximity to specific iron mineral textures suggesting biotic influence on the crystal morphology. Three categories of concretions are characterized based on mineralogy: carbonate, iron (oxyhydr)oxide and phosphate concretions. Concretion mineralogy and size vary within an outcrop and even within a stratigraphic horizon such that more than one main category is typically present in an outcrop. Variation in

  15. Raman hyperspectral imaging as an effective and highly informative tool to study the diagenetic alteration of fossil bones.

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Gregorio; Angelini, Ivana; Maritan, Lara; Artioli, Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Retrieving the pristine chemical or isotopic composition of archaeological bones is of great interest for many studies aiming to reconstruct the past life of ancient populations (i.e. diet, mobility, palaeoenvironment, age). However, from the death of the individual onwards, bones undergo several taphonomic and diagenetic processes that cause the alteration of their microstructure and composition. A detailed study on bone diagenesis has the double purpose to assess the preservation state of archaeological bones and to understand the alteration pathways, thus providing evidence that may contribute to evaluate the reliability of the retrieved information. On these bases, this research aims to explore the effectiveness of Raman hyperspectral imaging to detect types, extent and spatial distribution of diagenetic alteration at the micro-scale level. An early-Holocene bone sample from the Al Khiday cemetery (Khartoum, Sudan) was here analysed. Parameters related to the collagen content, bioapatite crystallinity and structural carbonate content, and to the occurrence of secondary mineral phases were calculated from Raman spectra. The acquired data provided spatially-resolved information on both the preservation state of bone constituents and the diagenetic processes occurring during burial. Given the minimal sample preparation, the easy and fast data acquisition and the improvement of system configurations, micro-Raman spectroscopy can be extensively applied as a screening method on a large set of samples in order to characterise the preservation state of archaeological bones. This technique can be effectively applied to identify suitable and well preserved portions of the analysed sample on which perform further analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sedimentological and diagenetic patterns of anhydrite deposits in the Badenian evaporite basin of the Carpathian Foredeep, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, Alicja

    2003-05-01

    Anhydrite deposits are widely distributed in the Middle Miocene Badenian evaporite basin of Poland, including the marginal sulphate platform and adjacent salt depocenter. Particular sedimentological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of these anhydrite deposits and especially common pseudomorphic features, inherited from the precursor gypsum deposits, allow the interpretation of the original sedimentary facies. The observed facies distribution and succession (lower and upper members) reveal three distinct facies associations that record a range of depositional environments from nearshore to deeper basinal settings. Platform sulphates were deposited in subaerial and shallow-marine environments (shoreline and inner platform-lagoon system) mainly as autochthonous selenitic gypsum. This was reworked and redistributed into deeper waters (outer platform-lagoon, slope and the proximal basin floor system) to form resedimented facies composed mostly of allochthonous clastic gypsum and minor anhydrite. The general variation in petrographic and geochemical compositions of anhydrite lithofacies of the lower and upper members reflects the brine evolution, as the result of interactions between seawater, meteoric runoff and highly saline, residual pore fluids. The results indicate the importance of synsedimentary and diagenetic anhydritisation processes in formation of the Badenian anhydrite lithofacies, all of which preserve the original depositional features of the former gypsum. This also applies to the basinal anhydrite previously interpreted to have a depositional genesis. Two different genetic patterns of anhydrite have been reinforced by this study: (1) synsedimentary anhydritisation of gypsum deposits by highly concentrated brines or elevated temperatures in surficial to shallow-burial environments (lower member), and (2) successive phases (syndepositional de novo growth, early diagenetic to late diagenetic replacement of former gypsum) of anhydrite formation

  17. Magnetic core mesoporous silica nanoparticles doped with dacarbazine and labelled with 99mTc for early and differential detection of metastatic melanoma by single photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Portilho, Filipe Leal; Helal-Neto, Edward; Cabezas, Santiago Sánchez; Pinto, Suyene Rocha; Dos Santos, Sofia Nascimento; Pozzo, Lorena; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2018-02-27

    Cancer is responsible for more than 12% of all causes of death in the world, with an annual death rate of more than 7 million people. In this scenario melanoma is one of the most aggressive ones with serious limitation in early detection and therapy. In this direction we developed, characterized and tested in vivo a new drug delivery system based on magnetic core-mesoporous silica nanoparticle that has been doped with dacarbazine and labelled with technetium 99 m to be used as nano-imaging agent (nanoradiopharmaceutical) for early and differential diagnosis and melanoma by single photon emission computed tomography. The results demonstrated the ability of the magnetic core-mesoporous silica to be efficiently (>98%) doped with dacarbazine and also efficiently labelled with 99mTc (technetium 99 m) (>99%). The in vivo test, using inducted mice with melanoma, demonstrated the EPR effect of the magnetic core-mesoporous silica nanoparticles doped with dacarbazine and labelled with technetium 99 metastable when injected intratumorally and the possibility to be used as systemic injection too. In both cases, magnetic core-mesoporous silica nanoparticles doped with dacarbazine and labelled with technetium 99 metastable showed to be a reliable and efficient nano-imaging agent for melanoma.

  18. Genesis of late Early Cretaceous high-silica rhyolites in eastern Zhejiang Province, southeast China: A crystal mush origin with mantle input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Heng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Wilde, Simon A.

    2018-01-01

    Voluminous Mesozoic felsic volcanic rocks and granites in southeastern China provide a unique opportunity for studying the role of crustal magmatism in the evolution and modification of the crust in the eastern Cathaysia Block. The high-silica rhyolites of the upper volcanic sequence in eastern Zhejiang Province were investigated, focusing on their genesis and their relationship with contemporaneous granites. Rhyolites in the Tiantai, Yongkang and Liucheng basins were dated as late Early Cretaceous (from 111 Ma to 106 Ma in age). These rocks contain a large proportion of inherited zircons of ca. 130 Ma, corresponding to the age of the lower volcanic sequence in the area. However, the zircons of different ages have similar ranges of oxygen and Hf isotopes, implying similarities in the magmas from which they were generated. The rhyolites of the upper sequence also resemble those of the lower sequence in terms of their geochemistry. It is concluded that the former were derived by reworking of magma mush formed during the earlier magmatic episode via fractionation of feldspars and accessory minerals, e.g., zircon. Fractionation took place within the magma crystal mush by extraction of interstitial melts and accumulation of residual mineral phases, aided by the emplacement of contemporaneous basaltic magmas at the base of the crust. Overall, the geochemical features of the volcanic rocks in southeastern China indicate that episodic magmatism and reworking of crystal mush were essential mechanisms that drove the evolution of the igneous rocks and the hence crustal architecture in this area.

  19. Diagenetic history of the Surma Group sandstones (Miocene) in the Surma Basin, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. Julleh Jalalur; McCann, Tom

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the various diagenetic controls of the Miocene Surma Group sandstones encountered in petroleum exploration wells from the Surma Basin, which is situated in the northeastern part of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. The principal diagenetic minerals/cements in the Surma Group sandstones are Fe-carbonates (with Fe-calcite dominating), quartz overgrowths and authigenic clays (predominantly chlorite, illite-smectite and minor kaolin). The isotopic composition of the carbonate cement revealed a narrow range of δ 18O values (-10.3‰ to -12.4‰) and a wide range of δ 13C value (+1.4‰ to -23.1‰). The δ 13C VPDB and δ 18O VPDB values of the carbonate cements reveal that carbon was most likely derived from the thermal maturation of organic matter during burial, as well as from the dissolution of isolated carbonate clasts and precipitated from mixed marine-meteoric pore waters. The relationship between the intergranular volume (IGV) versus cement volume indicates that compaction played a more significant role than cementation in destroying the primary porosity. However, cementation also played a major role in drastically reducing porosity and permeability in sandstones with poikilotopic, pore-filling blocky cements formed in early to intermediate and deep burial areas. In addition to Fe-carbonate cements, various clay minerals including illite-smectite and chlorite occur as pore-filling and pore-lining authigenic phases. Significant secondary porosity has been generated at depths from 2500 m to 4728 m. The best reservoir rocks found at depths of 2500-3300 m are well sorted, relatively coarse grained; more loosely packed and better rounded sandstones having good porosities (20-30%) and high permeabilities (12-6000 mD). These good quality reservoir rocks are, however, not uniformly distributed and can be considered to be compartmentalized as a result of interbedding with sandstone layers of low to moderate porosities, low permeabilities owing to poor

  20. Effect of laser irradiation on the early-stage seed formation of laser-induced submicrometer-scale silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Ha, S. Y.; Hong, Y. J.; Nam, S.; Oh, S. Y.; Lim, C.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the effect of irradiation on the early-stage seed formation of submicrometer-scale (SS) SiO2 spheres by a laser-induced process. A quartz cell containing chemical reagents was exposed to a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, 532 nm) tuned to various energy densities, while SiO2 SS spheres are synthesized in the quartz cell by the Stöber, Fink, and Bohn method. Higher laser energy densities typically produce wider size distributions. In particular, bidisperse SiO2 spheres were obtained when the laser energy density was 1.15 J/cm2. The size distributions were widest with 1.15 J/cm2 and narrowest with 0.33 J/cm2 laser energy density. However, the compositions of the SiO2 SS spheres were not affected by laser irradiation, and we observed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that the compositions of the irradiated and nonirradiated SiO2 SS spheres were the same.

  1. Fatty acids in sparry calcite fracture fills and microsparite cement of septarian diagenetic concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, M. J.; Hendry, J. P.; Taylor, C. W.; Russell, M. A.

    2005-04-01

    Sparry calcite fracture fills and concretion body cements in concretions from the Flodigarry Shale Member of the Staffin Shale Formation, Isle of Skye, Scotland, entrap and preserve mineral and organic materials of sedimentary and diagenetic origin. Fatty acids are a major component of the lipids recovered by decarbonation and comprise mainly n-alkanoic and α-ω dicarboxylic acids. Two generations of fracture-fill calcite (early brown and later yellow) and the concretion body microspar yield significantly different fatty acid profiles. Early brown calcites yield mainly medium-chain n-alkanoic acids with strong even predominance; later yellow calcites are dominated by α-ω dicarboxylic acids with no even predominance. Both fracture fills lack the long-chain n-alkanoic and α-ω dicarboxylic acids additionally recovered from the concretion bodies. The absence of longer chain acids in the calcite spar fracture fills is inferred to result from the transport of fatty acids by septarian mineralising fluids whereby low-aqueous solubility of longer chain acids or their salts accounts for their relative immobility. Comparative experiments have been carried out using conventional solvent extraction on the concretion body and associated shales, both decarbonated and untreated. Extracted lipid yields are higher, but the fatty acids probably derive from mixed locations in the rock including both kerogen- and carbonate-associated lipid pools. Only experiments involving decarbonation yielded α-ω dicarboxylic acids in molecular distributions probably controlled mainly by fluid transport. Alkane biomarker ratios indicate very low thermal maturity has been experienced by the concretions and their host sediments. Septarian cracks lined by brown calcite formed during early burial. Microbial CO 2 from sulphate-reducing bacteria was probably the main source of mineralising carbonate. Emplacement of the later septarian fills probably involved at least one episode of fluid invasion.

  2. Insights into the diagenetic environment of fossil marine vertebrates of the Pisco Formation (late Miocene, Peru) from mineralogical and Sr-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioncada, A.; Petrini, R.; Bosio, G.; Gariboldi, K.; Collareta, A.; Malinverno, E.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Di Celma, C.; Pasero, M.; Urbina, M.; Bianucci, G.

    2018-01-01

    The late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru is an outstanding example of richness and high-quality preservation of fossil marine vertebrates. In order to reconstruct the fossilization path, we present new textural, mineralogical and Sr-isotope data of diagenetic minerals formed in correspondence of fossil specimens such as marine vertebrates and mollusks. These fossil specimens were found at Cerro los Quesos, in the Ica Desert, within the diatomaceous strata of the Pisco Formation. Dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite and Mn minerals are the main phases found, while the calcium carbonate originally forming the mollusk valves is replaced by gypsum. An early formation of dolomite and of Mn minerals, triggered by the modifications of the geochemical environment due to organic matter degradation, is suggested by the textural relationships and is confirmed by the Sr isotopic ratio of dolomite, which agrees with that of seawater at the time of sedimentation. Instead, gypsum Sr isotopic ratios indicate a pre-Miocene seawater-derived brine circulating within the sedimentary sequence as a source for Sr. Oxidation of diagenetic sulfide causing a lowering of the pH of porewater is proposed as an explanation for Ca-carbonate dissolution. The diagenetic chemical environment was, nevertheless, favorable to bone preservation.

  3. Bacterially mediated diagenetic origin for chert-hosted manganese deposits in the Franciscan Complex, California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, James R.; Koski, Randolph A.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous manganese deposits in the Franciscan Complex, California, occur as conformable lenses within bedded radiolarian chert-argillite sequences that are, in turn, intercalated within thicker sections of sandstone and shale. The field relations, composition, and petro-graphic and isotopic characteristics indicate that the manganese was concentrated by diagenetic reconstitution of siliceous and hemipelagic sediment during burial. The ore lenses are Mn-rich and Fe-poor assemblages consisting largely of rhodochrosite, manganese silicates, opal-CT (disordered cristobalite-tridymite), and quartz. Highly negative δ13C values for the carbonate carbon in rhodochrosite indicate that CO2 likely originated from oxidation of methane; less negative values result from mixing of methanogenic carbon and CO2 derived from bacterial degradation of organic matter. The δ18O values for the carbonate of rhodochrosite indicate temperatures of formation between 12 and 100 °C. The oxidation of methane prior to carbonate precipitation may have used the minor (0.4% 0.5%) Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides and oxides deposited with the sediment. The mobilization of manganese from biogenic and terrigenous sources in the sediment column into discrete horizons and the fractioriation of manganese from iron reflect the presence of oxidation-reduction boundaries and gradients in the sediment column. Fluids derived from compaction and silica-dehydration reactions in the transformation of opal-A (X-ray amorphous biogenic silica) to quartz were involved in transportation of principal components. Sedimentary and geochemical attributes suggest that the deposits formed in a deep-water environment in a zone of oceanic upwelling near a continental margin.

  4. Zinc and germanium in the sedimentary rocks of Gale Crater on Mars indicate hydrothermal enrichment followed by diagenetic fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeff A.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Gellert, Ralf; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Desouza, Elstan D.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Ming, Douglas W.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Thompson, Lucy M.; VanBommel, Scott J. V.; Yen, Albert S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc and germanium enrichments have been discovered in sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the rover Curiosity. Concentrations of Zn (910 ± 840 ppm) and Ge (65 ± 58 ppm) are tens to hundreds of times greater than in Martian meteorites and estimates for average silicate Mars. Enrichments occur in diverse rocks including minimally to extensively altered basaltic and alkalic sedimentary rocks. The magnitude of the enrichments indicates hydrothermal fluids, but Curiosity has not discovered unambiguous hydrothermal mineral assemblages. We propose that Zn- and Ge-rich hydrothermal deposits in the source region were dispersed in siliciclastic sediments during transport into the crater. Subsequent diagenetic mobilization and fractionation of Zn and Ge is evident in a Zn-rich sandstone (Windjana; Zn 4000 ppm, Ge 85 ppm) and associated Cl-rich vein (Stephen; Zn 8000 ppm, Ge 60 ppm), in Ge-rich veins (Garden City; Zn 2200 ppm, Ge 650 ppm), and in silica-rich alteration haloes leached of Zn (30-200 ppm). In moderately to highly altered silica-rich rocks, Ge remained immobile relative to leached elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, and Ca), consistent with fluid interaction at pH ≪ 7. In contrast, crosscutting Ge-rich veins at Garden City suggest aqueous mobilization as Ge-F complexes at pH < 2.5. Multiple jarosite detections by the CheMin X-ray diffractometer and variable Zn concentrations indicate diagenesis of lower Mount Sharp bedrock under acidic conditions. The enrichment and fractionation of Zn and Ge constrains fluid events affecting Gale sediments and can aid in unraveling fluid histories as Curiosity's traverse continues.

  5. Diagenetic evidence for an epigenetic origin of the Courtbrown Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Christopher P.; Wallace, Malcolm W.

    2001-08-01

    Mineralisation at the Courtbrown deposit in south-western Ireland is concentrated in the basal section of the Chadian Waulsortian Limestone, immediately above the Courceyan Ballysteen Limestone. Two episodes of sulphide deposition have been identified: an early stage of minor pyrite precipitation, and a later base-metal-rich mineralisation event. Sphalerite, galena and pyrite of the later mineralisation event occur predominantly as replacement phases along stylolites, dissolution seams, and within the micritic matrix of the host limestone. These sulphide minerals also occur as cements within late stage fractures. The following diagenetic phases are present in the Waulsortian and Ballysteen Limestones in the Courtbrown area (from oldest to youngest): non-luminescent synsedimentary calcite cements, non-luminescent equant calcite cements, bright luminescent calcite cement, dull luminescent calcite cement, planar dolomite cement and replacement dolomite (regional dolomite), saddle dolomite cement, and fibrous dull luminescent calcite cement filling pressure-shadows around the sulphide minerals. Homogenisation temperatures for primary fluid inclusions within dull luminescent calcite cements (precipitated penecontemporaneously with base-metal mineralisation) range from 160 to 200 °C, with a mode at 170-180 °C. These values are unlikely to be representative of mineralisation temperatures as the fluid inclusions may have been significantly affected by heating and/or deformation during late burial (maximum paleotemperatures from Ro and CAI data around 310 °C). The observed paragenetic sequence indicates that mineralisation is completely epigenetic. As the earliest mineralisation is hosted by macro-stylolites, the sequence must have obtained a minimum burial depth of around 800 m prior to the onset of mineralisation. A burial depth of 800 m would correspond to an approximate early Chadian age for the Courtbrown area. Pressure-shadows around sphalerite further indicate

  6. Diagenetic patterns and pore space distribution along a platform to outer-shelf transect (Urgonian limestone, Barremian-Aptian, SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonide, Philippe; Fournier, François; Reijmer, John J. G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Borgomano, Jean; Dijk, Jurrien; Rosenthal, Maelle; van Goethem, Manon; Cochard, Jean; Meulenaars, Karlien

    2014-06-01

    The Urgonian limestones of Late Barremian/Early Aptian from Provence (SE, France) are characterized by the occurrence of microporous limestones at regional scale alternating with tight carbonates. This study, based on petrographical (sediment texture, facies) and diagenetical analyses (cement stratigraphy, porosity and isotope geochemistry) of more than 800 limestone samples provides insight into the parameters controlling the genesis, preservation or occlusion of microporosity along an inner platform to outer shelf transect. The tight and microporous Urgonian limestones from Provence can be grouped into 5 rock-types based on textures, associated depositional environments, porosity and pore-type, being: (1) tight inner-platform: TIP; (2) porous inner platform: PIP; (3) tight outer platform: TOP; (4) porous outer platform: POP and (5) tight outer shelf: TOS. In tight (TIP, TOP and TOS types) limestones intergranular and intragranular pore spaces were entirely occluded by early marine and/or early meteoric cementation, whereas in microporous (PIP, POP) limestones a significant fraction of the intergranular macroporosity was preserved during early and shallow burial diagenesis. Micrite neomorphism (hybrid Ostwald ripening process) occurred during meteoric shallow burial diagenesis in PIP and POP limestones during the regional Durancian Uplift event (Albian-Lower Cenomanian). This process resulted in microporosity enhancement and preservation. Circulation of meteoric fluids during exhumation produces intercrystalline microporosity enhancement and moldic porosity development. The present study documents the important role that both early diagenetic and depositional cycles and long-term tectonic processes have on pore space evolution and distribution in Mesozoic platform carbonates.

  7. Diagenetic contrast of sandstones in hydrocarbon prospective Mesozoic rift basins (Ethiopia, UK, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A.

    2014-11-01

    Diagenetic studied in hydrocarbon-prospective Mesozoic rift basins were carried out in the Blue Nile Basin (Ethiopia), Ulster Basin (United Kingdom) and Hartford Basin (United States of America). Alluvial fan, single and amalgamated multistorey meandering and braided river, deep and shallow perennial lake, shallow ephemeral lake, aeolian and playa mud-flat are the prominent depositional environments. The studied sandstones exhibit red bed diagenesis. Source area geology, depositional environments, pore-water chemistry and circulation, tectonic setting and burial history controlled the diagenetic evolution. The diagenetic minerals include: facies-related minerals (calcrete and dolocrete), grain-coating clay minerals and/or hematite, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, carbonate cements, hematite, kaolinite, illite-smectite, smectite, illite, chlorite, actinolite, laumontite, pyrite and apatite. Diversity of diagenetic minerals and sequence of diagenetic alteration can be directly related to depositional environment and burial history of the basins. Variation in infiltrated clays, carbonate cements and clay minerals observed in the studied sandstones. The alluvial fan and fluviatile sandstones are dominated by kaolinite, illite calcite and ferroan calcite, whereas the playa and lacustrine sandstones are dominated by illite-smectite, smectite-chlorite, smectite, chlorite, dolomite ferroan dolomite and ankerite. Albite, pyrite and apatite are predominantly precipitated in lacustrine sandstones. Basaltic eruption in the basins modified mechanically infiltrated clays to authigenic clays. In all the studied sandstones, secondary porosity predominates over primary porosity. The oil emplacement inhabited clay authigenesis and generation of secondary porosity, whereas authigenesis of quartz, pyrite and apatite continued after oil emplacement.

  8. Cryogenic brines as diagenetic fluids: Reconstructing the diagenetic history of the Victoria Land Basin using clumped isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, Philip T.; Murray, Sean; Dunham, Daniel P.; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.; Swart, Peter K.

    2018-03-01

    The isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ18O, and Δ47) of carbonate phases recovered from a core in McMurdo Sound by ANtarctic geologic DRILLing (ANDRILL-2A) indicate that the majority of secondary carbonate mineral formation occurred at cooler temperatures than the modern burial temperature, and in the presence of fluids with δ18Owater values ranging between -11 and -6‰ VSMOW. These fluids are interpreted as being derived from a cryogenic brine formed during the freezing of seawater. The Δ47 values were converted to temperature using an in-house calibration presented in this paper. Measurements of the Δ47 values in the cements indicate increasingly warmer crystallization temperatures with depth and, while roughly parallel to the observed geothermal gradient, consistently translate to temperatures that are cooler than the current burial temperature. The difference in temperature suggests that cements formed when they were ∼260 ± 100 m shallower than at the present day. This depth range corresponds to a period of minimal sediment accumulation from 3 to 11 Myr; it is therefore interpreted that the majority of cements formed during this time. This behavior is also predicted by time-integrated modeling of cementation at this site. If this cementation had occurred in the presence of these fluids, then the cryogenic brines have been a longstanding feature in the Victoria Land Basin. Brines such as those found at this site have been described in numerous modern high-latitude settings, and analogous fluids could have played a role in the diagenetic history of other ice-proximal sediments and basins during glacial intervals throughout geologic history. The agreement between the calculated δ18Owater value and the measured values in the pore fluids shows how the Δ47 proxy can be used to identify the origin of negative δ18O values in carbonate rocks and that extremely negative values do not necessarily need to be a result of the influence of meteoric fluids or reaction at

  9. Giant calcite concretions in aeolian dune sandstones; sedimentological and architectural controls on diagenetic heterogeneity, mid-Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Maria Eugenia; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Meléndez, Nieves; Soria, Ana Rosa; de Boer, Poppe L.

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian dune sandstones of the Iberian erg system (Cretaceous, Spain) host giant calcite concretions that constitute heterogeneities of diagenetic origin within a potential aeolian reservoir. The giant calcite concretions developed in large-scale aeolian dune foresets, at the transition between aeolian dune toeset and damp interdune elements, and in medium-scale superimposed aeolian dune sets. The chemical composition of the giant concretions is very homogeneous. They formed during early burial by low Mg-calcite precipitation from meteoric pore waters. Carbonate components with yellow/orange luminescence form the nuclei of the poikilotopic calcite cement. These cements postdate earlier diagenetic features, characterized by early mechanical compaction, Fe-oxide cements and clay rims around windblown quartz grains resulting from the redistribution of aeolian dust over the grain surfaces. The intergranular volume (IGV) in friable aeolian sandstone ranges from 7.3 to 15.3%, whereas in cemented aeolian sandstone it is 18.6 to 25.3%. The giant-calcite concretions developed during early diagenesis under the influence of meteoric waters associated with the groundwater flow of the desert basin, although local (e.g. activity of fluid flow through extensional faults) and/or other regional controls (e.g. variations of the phreatic level associated with a variable water influx to the erg system and varying sea level) could have favoured the local development of giant-calcite concretions. The spatial distribution pattern of carbonate grains and the main bounding surfaces determined the spatial distribution of the concretions. In particular, the geometry of the giant calcite concretions is closely associated with main bounding aeolian surfaces. Thus, interdune, superimposition and reactivation surfaces exerted a control on the concretion geometries ranging from flat and tabular ones (e.g. bounded by interdunes) to wedge-shaped concretions at the dune foresets (e.g. bounded by

  10. A porous silica rock ("tripoli") in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polgari, Marta; Szabo, Zoltan; Szabo-Drubina, Magda; Hein, James R.; Yeh, Hsueh-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions were determined for a white tripoli from the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút Mn-oxide ore deposit in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary. The tripoli consists of quartz and chalcedony, with SiO2 contents up to 100 wt.%; consequently, trace-element contents are very low. Oxygen isotopes and quartz crystallinity indicate a low-temperature diagenetic origin for this deposit. The tripoli was formed by dissolution of the carbonate portion of the siliceous (sponge spicules) Isztimér Limestone. Dissolution of the carbonate was promoted by inorganic and organic acids generated during diagensis and left a framework composed of diagenetic silica that preserved the original volume of the limestone layer. The relative enrichment of silica and high porosity is the result of that carbonate dissolution. The silty texture of this highly friable rock is due to the structurally weak silica framework.

  11. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (<10 m below seafloor; mbsf) hemipelagic sediment. The contrasting clastic and diagenetic lithologies should be apparent in side scan images. However, sonar also responds to variations in bottom slope, so unprocessed images mix topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  12. Cement Distribution and Diagenetic Pathway of the Miocene Sediments on Kardiva Platform, Maldives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laya, J. C.; Prince, K.; Betzler, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Blättler, C. L.; Swart, P. K.; Reolid, J.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Reijmer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Maldives archipelago is an ideal example for understanding the dynamics of isolated carbonate platforms. While previous sedimentological studies have focused on oceanographic and climatic controls on deposition, there have been limited studies on the diagenetic evolution of the Maldives archipelago. This project seeks to establish a relationship between the facies, cement distribution, and diagenetic evolution of the Kardiva Platform and associated diagenetic fluids. Samples from cores of IODP Expedition 359 at Sites U1645, U1469, and U1470 were analyzed for stable isotope geochemistry and detailed petrography including SEM, confocal and CL microscopy to investigate variations in facies, cements, porosity and diagenetic products. The facies analyzed consist mainly of planktonic and benthic foraminifers, red coralline algae, echinoderm, coral and skeletal fragments. The main facies include foraminifera grain/packstone, red algae rich grain/packstone, algal floatstone and coral floatstone. Those facies present a cyclic and general shallowing upwards trend. These facies are interpreted as shallow platform deposits on proximal areas to the margin associated with the oligophotic zone. Cement volume varies between 5% and 48%, and they have been classified as isopachous, bladed to fibrous (dog tooth), drusy and equant. Equant and drusy show recognizable growth bands with CL and confocal. Evidence of intense dissolution is shown by extensive moldic porosity within phreatic and limited vadose zones. In addition, dolomite appears as a replacement phase associated with red-algae-rich horizons and as cement on pore walls and voids. These deposits experienced a variety of diagenetic processes driven by the evolution of diagenetic fluid chemistry and by the nature of the skeletal components. Those processes can be tied to external controls such as climate (monsoonal effects), sea-level and currents.

  13. Diagenetic gypsum related to sulfur deposits in evaporites (Libros Gypsum, Miocene, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortí, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Anadón, Pere

    2010-07-01

    The Libros Gypsum is the thickest evaporite unit of the Miocene infill of the Teruel Basin in NE Spain. During the deposition of this unit, intense bacterial sulfate-reducing (BSR) activity in the lake depocenter generated a native sulfur deposit. Diagenetic gypsum resulted from subsequent sulfur oxidation. The different processes involved in these transformations were first investigated by Anadón et al. (1992). The present paper is concerned with this diagenetic gypsum from the stratigraphic, petrographic, isotopic and genetic points of view. Diagenetic gypsum occurs mainly as continuous or discontinuous layers, individual levels or lenses, irregular masses, nodules and micronodules, and veins. Its main textures are coarse-crystalline anhedral and fine-grained (alabastrine), both of which can replace any former lithology (carbonate, gypsum, and sulfur). The following sequence of processes and mineral/textural transformations is deduced: primary gypsum deposition — BSR and biodiagenetic carbonate/H 2S production — growth of native sulfur — growth of diagenetic gypsum — partial recrystallization of the diagenetic gypsum textures. The gypsification of the native sulfur generated two types of banded structures in the diagenetic gypsum: (1) concentric structures of centripetal growth, and (2) expansive, roughly concentric structures. In the first type, the gypsification operated from the outer boundaries towards the inner parts. In the second type, part of the carbonate hosting the sulfur was also gypsified (replaced/cemented). In the diagenetic gypsum, the δ34S values are in agreement with a native sulfur and H 2S provenance. The δ18O sulfate values, however, enable us to differentiate two main groups of values: one with positive values and the other with negative values. In the group of positive values, interstitial (evaporated) solutions participated in the sulfur oxidation; this process presumably occurred in a first oxidation stage during shallow

  14. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    MedlinePlus

    ... silica, and requires a repirator protection program until engineering controls are implemented. Additionally, OSHA has a National ... silica materials with safer substitutes, whenever possible. ■ Provide engineering or administrative controls, where feasible, such as local ...

  15. Multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Victor Shang-Yi; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Pruski, Marek; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides bifunctional silica mesoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles ("MSN"), having pores modified with diarylammonium triflate and perfluoroaryl moieties, that are useful for the acid-catalyzed esterification of organic acids with organic alcohols.

  16. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    DOEpatents

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  17. Characterization of diagenetic siderites formed in recent and ancient ferruginous sediments of Lake Towuti, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillemin, Aurele; Kallmeyer, Jens; Wagner, Dirk; Kemnitz, Helga; Wirth, Richard; Luecke, Andreas; Mayr, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Authigenic minerals in lacustrine settings can be formed in the water column and within the sediment, abiotically and/or triggered by biological activity. Such minerals have been used as paleosalinity and paleoproductivity proxies, reflecting trophic state, and/or early diagenetic conditions. They have also been considered as potential biosignatures of past and present microbial activity. Here we present a study from Lake Towuti, a deep tectonic basin in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its geographic position makes it a prime location to record paleoclimatic changes in the tropical Western Pacific warm pool in its sedimentary sequence. The ultramafic rocks and surrounding lateritic soils in the catchment area supply considerable amounts of iron and other metals to the lake. These elements further restrain primary productivity along with the development of specific microbial metabolic pathways involved in early diagenesis. Lake Towuti is stratified with anoxic conditions below 130 m, allowing metal reduction processes to take place in the hypolimnion. The extreme scarcity of sulphate and nitrate/nitrite make Lake Towuti's bottom waters a modern analogue for the Archaean Ocean. It was therefore chosen as a drilling target by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). In May to July 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project recovered a total >1000 m of sediment core from three drilling sites, including a 114 m long core drilled with a contamination tracer dedicated to geomicrobiological studies. Heavy mineral fractions were extracted from core catcher samples and siderite crystals (FeCO3) were selected from different depths. Characterization of their habitus was achieved via SEM and TEM imaging. Preliminary results show that siderites grow from amorphous into nanocrystalline phases and form twinned aggregates developing into mosaic monocrystals with depth. Gradual filling of vugs and microporosity were observed along with inclusions of magnetite nanocrystals. Work in

  18. Overview of the diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam onboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Blaney, D. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Le Deit, L.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P. Y.; Rapin, W.; Newsom, H. E.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Curiosity rover has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks with significant variations in both texture and composition. Most of the sandstones and mudstones are interpreted as having been deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, as analyzed in details in the waypoints named Yellowknife Bay, Kimberley and Pahrump. All of these sediments have been crossed by diagenetic features of different composition. Light-toned Ca-sulfate veins observed initially at Yellowknife Bay were observed along the traverse, and in high density at the Pahrump location. As they appear in all sediments and show straight fractures, they correspond to late-stage diagenetic features, due to fluid circulation, with fractures probably due to hydraulic stress at depth. In contrast to light-toned veins, earlier-stage diagenetic features have shown variable composition in the three areas. At Yellowknife Bay, raised ridges display enriched Mg proportion, probably linked to Mg-clay whereas outcrops at Kimberley display fracture fills enriched in Mn and Zn. Pahrump displays a large variety of diagenetic features distinct from these previous examples. Mg-enriched concretions contain S and abundant Ni. Mg enrichments have also been observed in resistant zones along fractures and in resistant layers. Locally concretions also display high Fe, S-bearing material interpreted as Fe-sulfate, probably jarosite. A special location named Garden City at the top of the Parhump sequence displays a complex area with light-toned veins surrounded by darker veins. The latter display strong Ca signatures correlated with F, interpreted as fluorite. No C or S emissions were observed that could alternatively explain the high Ca abundance by carbonates or sulfates. The dark tone of the F-bearing minerals may be due to the presence of Fe. These specific dark veins could derive from the leaching of F-apatite, a mineral that has been observed both in the sandstones and in some of the igneous clasts analyzed by Chem

  19. Diagenetic trends of a tertiary low-rank coal series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Durand, Bernard; Oudin, Jean-Louis

    1984-10-01

    The Mahakam delta (Kalimantan, Indonesia) coals represent all the evolution stages between freshly-deposited plant/peat material, lignites and bituminous coals. The geochemical techniques used to study this coal series included elemental analysis, extraction of humic compounds, infrared spectroscopy and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance of the total coal. The main mechanisms of early maturation in this series are loss of oxygenated compounds, aromatisation and condensation of the organic matter. These changes, which have already been suggested for other coal series and partially reported for sedimentary organic matter, were confirmed and described in more detail for the Mahakam coal series.

  20. Diagenetic controls on reservoir heterogeneity in St. Peter Sandstone, deep Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.A.; Turmelle, T.M.; Adam, R.

    1989-03-01

    The St. Peter Sandstone is a highly productive gas and condensate reservoir throughout the central part of the Michigan basin. Production occurs in several intervals: a laterally continuous zone at the top of the formation typified in the Woodville, Falmouth, and Rose City fields and less continuous intervals lower in the formation typified in the Ruwe Gulf zone of the Reed City field. Porosity is not limited to hydrocarbon productive zones, however. Diagenesis has dramatically modified primary mineralogy and textures in the formation. Dominant diagenetic components are quartz, dolomite, and clay authigenic cements, extensive chemical compaction, and pervasive mineral leaching.more » Their model for sandstone diagenesis is consistent throughout the basin. Variation in the significance of these diagenetic components is strongly templated by stratigraphically predictable facies variations within the St. Peter Sandstone.« less

  1. Depositional and diagenetic variability within the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone: Implications for carbon dioxide sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.B.; Ochoa, R.I.; Wilkens, N.D.; Brophy, J.; Lovell, T.R.; Fischietto, N.; Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is the major target reservoir for ongoing geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations throughout the midwest United States. The potential CO2 reservoir capacity, reactivity, and ultimate fate of injected CO2 depend on textural and compositional properties determined by depositional and diagenetic histories that vary vertically and laterally across the formation. Effective and efficient prediction and use of the available pore space requires detailed knowledge of the depositional and diagenetic textures and mineralogy, how these variables control the petrophysical character of the reservoir, and how they vary spatially. Here, we summarize the reservoir characteristics of the Mount Simon Sandstone based on examination of geophysical logs, cores, cuttings, and analysis of more than 150 thin sections. These samples represent different parts of the formation and depth ranges of more than 9000 ft (>2743 m) across the Illinois Basin and surrounding areas. This work demonstrates that overall reservoir quality and, specifically, porosity do not exhibit a simple relationship with depth, but vary both laterally and with depth because of changes in the primary depositional facies, framework composition (i.e., feldspar concentration), and diverse diagenetic modifications. Diagenetic processes that have been significant in modifying the reservoir include formation of iron oxide grain coatings, chemical compaction, feldspar precipitation and dissolution, multiple generations of quartz overgrowth cementation, clay mineral precipitation, and iron oxide cementation. These variables provide important inputs for calculating CO2 capacity potential, modeling reactivity, and are also an important baseline for comparisons after CO2 injection. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  2. Parameterization of biogeochemical sediment-water fluxes using in-situ measurements and a steady-state diagenetic model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diagenetic processes are important drivers of water column biogeochemistry in coastal areas. For example, sediment oxygen consumption can be a significant contributor to oxygen depletion in hypoxic systems, and sediment–water nutrient fluxes support primary productivity in ...

  3. Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruff, S.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Calvin, W.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, M.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of outcrops and soil (regolith) rich in opaline silica (???65-92 wt % SiO2) in association with volcanic materials adjacent to the "Home Plate" feature in Gusev crater is evidence for hydrothermal conditions. The Spirit rover has supplied a diverse set of observations that are used here to better understand the formation of silica and the activity, abundance, and fate of water in the first hydrothermal system to be explored in situ on Mars. We apply spectral, chemical, morphological, textural, and stratigraphic observations to assess whether the silica was produced by acid sulfate leaching of precursor rocks, by precipitation from silica-rich solutions, or by some combination. The apparent lack of S enrichment and the relatively low oxidation state of the Home Plate silica-rich materials appear inconsistent with the originally proposed Hawaiian analog for fumarolic acid sulfate leaching. The stratiform distribution of the silica-rich outcrops and their porous and brecciated microtextures are consistent with sinter produced by silica precipitation. There is no evidence for crystalline quartz phases among the silica occurrences, an indication of the lack of diagenetic maturation following the production of the amorphous opaline phase. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  5. Silica sol as grouting material: a physio-chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sögaard, Christian; Funehag, Johan; Abbas, Zareen

    2018-01-01

    At present there is a pressing need to find an environmentally friendly grouting material for the construction of tunnels. Silica nanoparticles hold great potential of replacing the organic molecule based grouting materials currently used for this purpose. Chemically, silica nanoparticles are similar to natural silicates which are essential components of rocks and soil. Moreover, suspensions of silica nanoparticles of different sizes and desired reactivity are commercially available. However, the use of silica nanoparticles as grouting material is at an early stage of its technological development. There are some critical parameters such as long term stability and functionality of grouted silica that need to be investigated in detail before silica nanoparticles can be considered as a reliable grouting material. In this review article we present the state of the art regarding the chemical properties of silica nanoparticles commercially available, as well as experience gained from the use of silica as grouting material. We give a detailed description of the mechanisms underlying the gelling of silica by different salt solutions such as NaCl and KCl and how factors such as particle size, pH, and temperature affect the gelling and gel strength development. Our focus in this review is on linking the chemical properties of silica nanoparticles to the mechanical properties to better understand their functionality and stability as grouting material. Along the way we point out areas which need further research.

  6. Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants.

    PubMed

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jonathan Paul; McGlynn, Shawn E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2015-04-28

    Biomineralization plays a fundamental role in the global silicon cycle. Grasses are known to mobilize significant quantities of Si in the form of silica biominerals and dominate the terrestrial realm today, but they have relatively recent origins and only rose to taxonomic and ecological prominence within the Cenozoic Era. This raises questions regarding when and how the biological silica cycle evolved. To address these questions, we examined silica abundances of extant members of early-diverging land plant clades, which show that silica biomineralization is widespread across terrestrial plant linages. Particularly high silica abundances are observed in lycophytes and early-diverging ferns. However, silica biomineralization is rare within later-evolving gymnosperms, implying a complex evolutionary history within the seed plants. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy show that the most common silica-mineralized tissues include the vascular system, epidermal cells, and stomata, which is consistent with the hypothesis that biomineralization in plants is frequently coupled to transpiration. Furthermore, sequence, phylogenetic, and structural analysis of nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins from diverse plant genomes points to a plastic and ancient capacity for silica accumulation within terrestrial plants. The integration of these two comparative biology approaches demonstrates that silica biomineralization has been an important process for land plants over the course of their >400 My evolutionary history.

  7. Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jonathan Paul; McGlynn, Shawn E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomineralization plays a fundamental role in the global silicon cycle. Grasses are known to mobilize significant quantities of Si in the form of silica biominerals and dominate the terrestrial realm today, but they have relatively recent origins and only rose to taxonomic and ecological prominence within the Cenozoic Era. This raises questions regarding when and how the biological silica cycle evolved. To address these questions, we examined silica abundances of extant members of early-diverging land plant clades, which show that silica biomineralization is widespread across terrestrial plant linages. Particularly high silica abundances are observed in lycophytes and early-diverging ferns. However, silica biomineralization is rare within later-evolving gymnosperms, implying a complex evolutionary history within the seed plants. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy show that the most common silica-mineralized tissues include the vascular system, epidermal cells, and stomata, which is consistent with the hypothesis that biomineralization in plants is frequently coupled to transpiration. Furthermore, sequence, phylogenetic, and structural analysis of nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins from diverse plant genomes points to a plastic and ancient capacity for silica accumulation within terrestrial plants. The integration of these two comparative biology approaches demonstrates that silica biomineralization has been an important process for land plants over the course of their >400 My evolutionary history. PMID:25825729

  8. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  9. Diagenetic pathways in deposits of cool- and cold-water carbonate factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, T. D.; James, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation integrates sedimentological, petrographic, and geochemical observations from modern and ancient heterozoan carbonate deposits that formed at temperate to polar latitudes with the aim of evaluating diagenetic pathways characteristic of these systems. These factories operate under conditions distinct from those of photozoan counterparts. Lower temperatures, higher trophic resources, lower carbonate saturation states, and strong seasonality govern not only the nature of carbonate communities, but also how deposits translate into the rock record. In these settings, carbonate production is entirely biogenic, assemblages are of low diversity, and there are no significant calcareous phototrophs. Aragonitic taxa may be present in living communities, but allochems rapidly disappear via dissolution. Carbonate producers are not capable of building rigid frameworks, so their deposits accumulate as sands and gravels and are prone to winnowing and reworking. Low production rates lead to long seafloor residence times (1000s of years) for grains, which undergo physical reworking, dissolution, and repeated infestation by endolithic borers. Microborings remain empty, increasing grain susceptibility to disintegration. Intergranular cementation on the seafloor is rare and restricted to hardgrounds. Periods of subaerial exposure do not leave traces of meteoric alteration. Results show that the deposits of heterozoan carbonate factories tend enter the geologic record as taphonomic remnants, namely reworked, unconsolidated sands and gravels with low diagenetic potential. During burial, physical and chemical compaction produce limestones with tightly packed, grain-supported fabrics, often with grains in sutured contact. Significant cementation is associated with the deep burial realm. Results reveal a dramatically different diagenetic pathway than is typical for deposits of tropical photozoan factories, in which significant recrystallization and lithification occur on

  10. Evaporite geometries and diagenetic traps, lower San Andres, Northwest shelf, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.R.

    An east-west-trending belt of lower San Andres oil fields extends 80 mi across southeastern New Mexico from the Pecos River near Roswell to the Texas-New Mexico border. These fields are along a porosity pinch-out zone where porous carbonates grade laterally into bedded anhydrite and halite. The lower San Andres traps are associated with pre-Tertiary structural or stratigraphic traps. Oil and water production relationships from these fields are not consistent with present-day structure. These fields have been commonly interpreted to be hydrodynamic traps created by the eastern flow of fresh surface water that enters the lower San Andres outcrops west ofmore » Pecos River. There is no evidence, however, that surface water has moved through the lower San Andres in this area. This conclusion is supported by the fact that formation-water resistivities are uniform throughout the producing trend, no significant dissolution of carbonates or evaporites has occurred, and there has been no increase in biogradation of oils adjacent to the lower San Andres outcrops. These fields actually are diagenetic traps created by porosity occlusion in the water column beneath the oil accumulations. Hydrocarbons originally were trapped in pre-Tertiary structural and structural-stratigraphic traps. Bedded evaporites were effective barriers to vertical and lateral hydrocarbon migration. Eastward tilting of the Northwest shelf during the Tertiary opened these traps, but the oil remained in these structurally unfavorable positions because of the diagenetic sealing. The gas-solution drive in these reservoirs is a result of this sealing. The sequence of events leading to diagenetic entrapment include (1) Triassic and Jurassic migration of hydrocarbons into broad, low-relief post-San Andres structural and structural-stratigraphic traps; (2) rapid occlusion of porosity in the water column beneath oil reservoirs, and (3) Tertiary tilt-out traps.« less

  11. Photochemical dissolution of organic matter from resuspended sediments: Impact of source and diagenetic state on photorelease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, J. R.; Glinski, D. A.; Mead, R. N.; Southwell, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Skrabal, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Resuspended sediments exposed to simulated solar radiation release dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, it is unclear how the provenance of sedimentary organic matter (OM) impacts this photorelease. In the first geographically extensive study of this phenomenon, twenty three size fractionated, fine grained sediments (< ca. 10-20 μm) from a variety of drainage basins were resuspended (at suspended solid loading of 29- 255 mg/l) and exhibited a net photochemical DOC release ranging from 2 to 178 μmol/g/h. There was a logarithmic increase in photoreleased DOC vs. the proportion of sedimentary OC (%), most likely due to photon limitation at high sedimentary OC loading (i.e. high mass-specific absorption limiting light penetration). Sediment source and quality - determined using lipid biomarkers - had a significant effect on DOC photorelease. The fatty acid terrestrial aquatic ratio (TARFA) indicated that terrestrially derived sediments exhibited relatively greater DOC photorelease. The long chain carbon preference index (CPI24-34) indicated that diagenetically unaltered terrestrial OM photoreleased more DOC than diagenetically altered terrestrial OM. The short chain carbon preference index (CPI14-22) demonstrated that sediments containing diagenetically altered planktonic or algal derived OM had a greater photorelease rate of DOC than fresh algal OM. This suggests that humic substances (humus and/or adsorbed humic and fulvic acids) play an important role in the photochemical dissolution of OC regardless of whether or not they are imported from upstream (i.e. terrestrial humics) or generated within the depositional or sedimentary environment (i.e. humification of algal dissolved OM).

  12. Diagenetic evaluation of Pannonian lacustrine deposits in the Makó Trough, southeastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőcs, Emese; Milovský, Rastislav; Gier, Susanne; Hips, Kinga; Sztanó, Orsolya

    2017-04-01

    The Makó Trough is the deepest sub-basin of the Pannonian Basin. As a possible shale gas and tight gas accumulation the area was explored by several hydrocarbon companies. In this study, we present the preliminary results on the diagenetic history and the porosity evolution of sandstones and shales. Petrographic (optical microscopy, CL, blue light microscopy) and geochemical methods (SEM-EDX, WDX, O and C stable isotopes) were applied on core samples of Makó-7 well (3408- 5479 m). Processes which influenced the porosity evolution of the sandstones were compaction, cementation, mineral replacement and dissolution. The most common diagenetic minerals are carbonates (non-ferroan and Fe-bearing calcite, dolomite and ankerite), clay minerals (kaolinite, mixed layer illite-smectite and chlorite) and other silicates (quartz and feldspar). Initial clay mineral and ductile grain content also influences reservoir quality. The volumetrically most significant diagenetic minerals are calcite and clay minerals. The petrography of calcite is variable (bright orange to dull red luminescence color, pore-filling cement, replacive phases which are occasionally scattered in the matrix). The δ13 C-PDB values of calcite range from 1.7 ‰ to -5.5 ‰, while δ18 O-PDB values range from 0.5 ‰ to -9.1 ‰, no depth related trend was observed. These data suggest that calcite occurs in more generations, i.e. eogenetic pre-compactional and mesogenetic post-compactional. Kaolinite is present in mottles in size similar to detrital grains, where remnants of feldspars can be seen. This indicates feldspar alteration via influx of water rich in organic derived carbon dioxide. Secondary porosity can be observed in carbonates and feldspars at some levels, causing the improvement of the reservoir quality.

  13. Study of the pluronic-silica interaction in synthesis of mesoporous silica under mild acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sundblom, Andreas; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2010-02-02

    The interaction between silica and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in water may appear trivial and it is generally stated that hydrogen bonding is responsible for the attraction. However, a literature search shows that there is not a consensus with respect to the mechanism behind the attractive interaction. Several papers claim that only hydrogen bonding is not sufficient to explain the binding. The silica-PEO interaction is interesting from an academic perspective and it is also exploited in the preparation of mesoporous silica, a material of considerable current interest. This study concerns the very early stage of synthesis of mesoporous silica under mild acidic conditions, pH 2-5, and the aim is to shed light on the interaction between silica and the PEO-containing structure directing agent. The synthesis comprises two steps. An organic silica source, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), is first hydrolyzed and Pluronic P123, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer, is subsequently added at different time periods following the hydrolysis of TEOS. It is shown that the interaction between the silica and the Pluronic is dependent both on the temperature and on the time between onset of TEOS hydrolysis and addition of the copolymer. The results show that the interaction is mainly driven by entropy. The effect of the synthesis temperature and of the time between hydrolysis and addition of the copolymer on the final material is also studied. The material with the highest degree of mesoorder was obtained when the reaction was performed at 20 degrees C and the copolymer was added 40 h after the start of TEOS hydrolysis. It is claimed that the reason for the good ordering of the silica is that whereas particle formation under these conditions is fast, the rate of silica condensation is relatively low.

  14. An Overview of Orbital Detections of Hydrated Silica and Silica-Rich Rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, V. Z.; Milliken, R.

    2016-12-01

    Early predictions of high-silica phases on Mars have been confirmed by numerous orbital observations throughout the past 15 years and supported by recent rover and meteorite investigations. Orbital spectroscopy at visible-near-IR (CRISM/OMEGA) and thermal IR (TES/THEMIS) wavelengths has established the presence of aqueously formed hydrated silica across the planet as well as regional silica-rich rocks of igneous origin. TES data provided the first indications of widespread silica enrichment in the northern lowlands, which were debated to represent either andesite or altered basalt on the basis of spectral and geologic arguments. Since then, more localized occurrences of primary silicic lithologies have suggested that igneous processes on Mars may have been more diverse and complex than previously recognized. CRISM and OMEGA data also reveal numerous occurrences of hydrated silica on the Martian surface, likely reflecting primary chemical precipitates or secondary processes such as aqueous alteration or diagenesis. These detections have been associated with fluvial landforms, volcanic settings, uplifted central peak rocks, and mobile sediments, suggesting a variety of formation mechanisms. These silica phases and their colocation with other alteration products such as clays and sulfates reveal aqueous environments that may have been acidic, alkaline, or alternatingly both through space and time. Although there is an apparent prevalence of geochemically immature silica (e.g., glass or opal-A) indicating limited aqueous alteration, several instances of more mature silica (e.g., opal-CT or quartz) point to locales that may have experienced periods of prolonged water-rock interaction. This presentation will give an overview of the distribution and variety of these high-silica phases as seen from orbital datasets and discuss their implications for the magmatic and aqueous history of Mars.

  15. Pozzolanic activity and durability of nano silica, micro silica and silica gel contained concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ghabban, Ahmed; Al Zubaidi, Aseel B.; Fakhri, Zahraa

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of replacement of cement with nano silica, micro silica and silica gel admixtures on pozzolanic activity, the replacement ratio was10% for all admixture, silica gel used in two forms (beads and crushed powder). Also, the water absorption test was investigated for obtaining the durability properties of concrete, in specimens for this test admixtures were added in four different dosages 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% by weight of the cementitious material into the concrete mixture. Experimental investigations of modified concrete were conducted after 28 days of water curing. Results showed that mixes of nano silica and crushed silica gel showed a higher pozzolanic activity index. For the water absorption test, all mixes incorporating nano silica, micro silica and silica gel showed lower absorption than control mixes best result were noticed with crushed silica gel and nano silica mixes. DTA analysis confirms the results for both poisonous activity and water absorption.

  16. Chemical Composition of Diagenetic Features at Lower Aeolis Mons, Mars as Measured by Curiosity's APXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; Desouza, E.; Fisk, M. R.; Perrett, G. M.; Thompson, L. M.; VanBommel, S.; Yen, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity's APXS investigation of the Murray Fm. (sols 755 - 950) at lower Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) in Gale Crater, Mars has revealed (Mg, Ni)-sulfate diagenetic features and dark gray Ca-rich veins. The (Mg, Ni)-sulfate features occur as ~2 cm wide dendritic and botryoidal concretions that stand out in relief ~1 cm above the mudstone surface. APXS rasters over the features (Moenkopi, Mammoth, Morrison, Rosamond, Potatoe; sols 758 - 810) resulted in 1:1 molar variation of S and Mg consistent with a MgSO4 phase. The sulfate is not pure; the features are a mixture of 10 - 15% MgSO4 with the host mudstone. This mixture suggests the sulfates precipitated within pre-existing pore spaces, or were partially dissolved and replaced by sediment, preserving the crystal morphology. The sulfate features are enriched in Ni (2000 - 4250 ppm), indicating Ni-sulfate. The Murray Fm. mudstones that host the diagenetic features range to high SiO2 (60-73 wt%) and have bulk elemental signatures that are consistent with alteration by acid leaching. Low MgO (3.0 wt%) and low Ni (100 - 300 ppm) in the most apparently altered (highest SiO2) mudstones may link the acidic alteration with the fluids that formed the (Mg, Ni)-sulfates. Diagenetic Ca-sulfate-bearing veins that were abundant across Aeolis Palus persist at lower Aeolis Mons. A new vein type containing dark gray material as a separate crystalline phase within white Ca-sulfate veins was discovered in a cluster of veins in the Murray Fm. (Coalville, Alvord Mt., Amboy; sols 930 - 948). APXS rasters of the dark-toned material indicate high CaO (20 - 30 wt%) without concomitant increases in SO3. Ge (up to 650 ppm; 6.5X surrounding bedrock) and MnO (up to 1.0 wt%; 4X surrounding bedrock) are both enriched in the dark veins. These chemical observations are consistent with fluorite, although F (L.O.D. >5%) is not detectable in APXS spectra. The diagenetic features indicate that Ca, Mg, and Ni were mobilized with S in aqueous fluids, and that

  17. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  18. Formation pathways of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with dodecagonal tiling

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yao; Ma, Kai; Kao, Teresa

    Considerable progress in the fabrication of quasicrystals demonstrates that they can be realized in a broad range of materials. However, the development of chemistries enabling direct experimental observation of early quasicrystal growth pathways remains challenging. Here, we report the synthesis of four surfactant-directed mesoporous silica nanoparticle structures, including dodecagonal quasicrystalline nanoparticles, as a function of micelle pore expander concentration or stirring rate. We demonstrate that the early formation stages of dodecagonal quasicrystalline mesoporous silica nanoparticles can be preserved, where precise control of mesoporous silica nanoparticle size down to <30 nm facilitates comparison between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and simulated single-particle growthmore » trajectories beginning with a single tiling unit. Our results reveal details of the building block size distributions during early growth and how they promote quasicrystal formation. This work identifies simple synthetic parameters, such as stirring rate, that may be exploited to design other quasicrystal-forming self-assembly chemistries and processes.« less

  19. Formation pathways of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with dodecagonal tiling

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yao; Ma, Kai; Kao, Teresa; ...

    2017-08-15

    Considerable progress in the fabrication of quasicrystals demonstrates that they can be realized in a broad range of materials. However, the development of chemistries enabling direct experimental observation of early quasicrystal growth pathways remains challenging. Here, we report the synthesis of four surfactant-directed mesoporous silica nanoparticle structures, including dodecagonal quasicrystalline nanoparticles, as a function of micelle pore expander concentration or stirring rate. We demonstrate that the early formation stages of dodecagonal quasicrystalline mesoporous silica nanoparticles can be preserved, where precise control of mesoporous silica nanoparticle size down to <30 nm facilitates comparison between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and simulated single-particle growthmore » trajectories beginning with a single tiling unit. Our results reveal details of the building block size distributions during early growth and how they promote quasicrystal formation. This work identifies simple synthetic parameters, such as stirring rate, that may be exploited to design other quasicrystal-forming self-assembly chemistries and processes.« less

  20. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils.

    PubMed

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F; Currano, Ellen D; Jacobs, Louis L; Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng; Gabbott, Sarah E; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-10-13

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns.

  1. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils

    PubMed Central

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F.; Currano, Ellen D.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns. PMID:26417094

  2. Influences of Sedimentary Environments and Volcanic Sources on Diagenetic Alteration of Volcanic Tuffs in South China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Nina; Hong, Hanlie; Huff, Warren D; Fang, Qian; Bae, Christopher J; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Chen, Shuling

    2018-05-16

    Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) altered volcanic ashes (tuffs) are widely distributed within the P-Tr boundary successions in South China. Volcanic altered ashes from terrestrial section-Chahe (CH) and marine section-Shangsi (SS) are selected to further understand the influence of sedimentary environments and volcanic sources on diagenetic alterarion on volcanic tuffs. The zircon 206 Pb/ 238 U ages of the corresponding beds between two sections are almost synchronous. Sedimentary environment of the altered tuffs was characterized by a low pH and did not experience a hydrothermal process. The dominant clay minerals of all the tuff beds are illite-smectite (I-S) minerals, with minor chlorite and kaolinite. I-S minerals of CH (R3) are more ordered than SS (R1), suggesting that CH also shows a higher diagenetic grade and more intensive chemical weathering. Besides, the nature of the volcanism of the tuff beds studied is derived from different magma sources. The clay mineral compositions of tuffs have little relation with the types of source volcanism and the depositional environments. Instead, the degree of the mixed-layer clay minerals and the REE distribution are mainly dependent upon the sedimentary environments. Thus, the mixed-layer clay minerals ratio and their geochemical index can be used as the paleoenvironmental indicator.

  3. Diagenetic variation at the lamina scale in lacustrine organic-rich shales: Implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chao; Cao, Yingchang; Liu, Keyu; Jiang, Zaixing; Wu, Jing; Hao, Fang

    2018-05-01

    Lacustrine carbonate-rich shales are well developed within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata of the Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) of eastern China and across southeast Asia. Developing an understanding of the diagenesis of these shales is essential to research on mass balance, diagenetic fluid transport and exchange, and organic-inorganic interactions in black shales. This study investigates the origin and distribution of authigenic minerals and their diagenetic characteristics, processes, and pathways at the scale of lacustrine laminae within the Es4s-Es3x shale sequence of the BBB. The research presented in this study is based on thin sections, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and SEM-catholuminescence (CL) observations of well core samples combined with the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses performed using a laser microprobe mass spectrometer. The dominant lithofacies within the Es4s-Es3x sequence are a laminated calcareous shale (LCS-1) and a laminated clay shale (LCS-2). The results of this study show that calcite recrystallization1 is the overarching diagenetic process affecting the LCS-1, related to acid generation from organic matter (OM) thermal evolution. This evolutionary transition is the key factor driving the diagenesis of this lithofacies, while the transformation of clay minerals is the main diagenetic attribute of the LCS-2. Diagenetic differences occur within different laminae and at variable locations within the same lamina level, controlled by variations in mineral composition and the properties of laminae interfaces. The diagenetic fluid migration scale is vertical and responses (dissolution and replacement) are limited to individual laminae, between zero and 100 μm in width. In contrast, the dominant migration pathway for diagenetic fluid is lateral, along the abrupt interfaces between laminae boundaries, which leads to the vertical

  4. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  5. Silica, hybrid silica, hydride silica and non-silica stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Borges, Endler M

    2015-04-01

    Free silanols on the surface of silica are the "villains", which are responsible for detrimental interactions of those compounds and the stationary phase (i.e., bad peak shape, low efficiency) as well as low thermal and chemical stability. For these reasons, we began this review describing new silica and hybrid silica stationary phases, which have reduced and/or shielded silanols. At present, in liquid chromatography for the majority of analyses, reversed-phase liquid chromatography is the separation mode of choice. However, the needs for increased selectivity and increased retention of hydrophilic bases have substantially increased the interest in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Therefore, stationary phases and this mode of separation are discussed. Then, non-silica stationary phases (i.e., zirconium oxide, titanium oxide, alumina and porous graphitized carbon), which afford increased thermal and chemical stability and also selectivity different from those obtained with silica and hybrid silica, are discussed. In addition, the use of these materials in HILIC is also reviewed. © Crown copyright 2014.

  6. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.

    2016-02-01

    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  7. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    to a combination of factors, including a lack of sources of cement components and lack of pervasive early cement, so that fluid-flow pathways remained open during burial. Below the dominantly quartz-cemented tight zone near the top of the Norphlet, pyrobitumen is a major contributor to reduction in reservoir quality in offshore Alabama. The highest reservoir quality occurs in those wells where the present gas-water contact is below the paleohydrocarbon-water contact. Thiz zone of highest reservoir quality is between the lowermost occurrence of pyrobitumen and the present gas-water contact.The Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in undip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition resulted in reworking of the upper part of the formation. he present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex.

  8. Quantifying the effect of diagenetic recrystallization on the Mg isotopic composition of marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Piyali; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-05-01

    The Mg and Sr isotopic compositions (δ26Mg and 87Sr/86Sr) of pore fluids and bulk carbonates from Ocean Drilling Project Site 1171 (South Tasman Rise; 2148.2 m water depth) are reported, in order to evaluate the potential of diagenesis to alter carbonate-based geochemical proxies in an open marine system. Given the trace amounts of Mg in marine carbonates relative to coexisting pore fluids, diagenesis can alter carbonate δ26Mg, a promising proxy for seawater δ26Mg that may help elucidate long-term changes in the global Mg cycle. Constraints on the effect of diagenetic recrystallization on carbonate δ26Mg are therefore critical for accurate proxy interpretations. This study provides context for assessing the fidelity of geochemical proxy-reconstructions using the primary components (i.e., foraminiferal tests and nannofossils) of bulk carbonate sediments. We find that pore fluid δ26Mg values (on the DSM3 scale) at Site 1171 increase systematically with depth (from -0.72‰ to -0.39‰ in the upper ∼260 m), while the δ26Mg of bulk carbonates decrease systematically with depth (from -2.23‰ to -5.00‰ in the upper ∼260 m). This variability is ascribed primarily to carbonate recrystallization, with a small proportion of the variability due to down-hole changes in nannofossil and foraminiferal species composition. The inferred effect of diagenesis on bulk carbonate δ26Mg correlates with down-core changes in Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Na/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr. A depositional reactive-transport model is employed to validate the hypothesis that calcite recrystallization in this system can generate sizeable shifts in carbonate δ26Mg. Model fits to the data suggest a fractionation factor and a partition coefficient that are consistent with previous work, assuming calcite recrystallization rates of ⩽7%/Ma constrained by Sr geochemistry. In addition, either partial dissolution or a distinctly different previous diagenetic regime must be invoked in order to explain aspects of the

  9. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1991-01-01

    Ce/Ce* profiles at all three sites increase monotonically with depth, and record progressive diagenetic LREE fractionation. The observed Ce/Ce* record does not respond to changes in oxygenation state of the overlying water, and Ce/Ce* correlated slightly better with depth than with age. The downhole increase in Ce/Ce* at Site 794 and Site 797 is a passive response to diagenetic transfer of LREE (except Ce) from sediment to interstitial water. At Site 795, the overall lack of correlation between Ce/Ce* and L(ln/Ybnsuggests that other processes are occurring which mask the diagenetic behavior of all LREEs. First-order calculations of the Ce budget in Japan Sea waters and sediment indicate that ~20% of the excess Ce adsorbed by settling particles is recycled within the water column, and that an additional ~38% is recycled at or near the seafloor (data from Masuzawa and Koyama, 1989). Thus, because the remaining excess Ce is only ~10% of the total Ce, there is not a large source of Ce to the deeply buried sediment, further suggesting that the downhole increase in Ce/Ce* is a passive response to diagenetic behavior of the other LREEs. The REE chemistry of Japan Sea sediment therefore predicts successive downhole addition of LREEs to deeply-buried interstitial waters.

  10. Diagenetically altered fossil micrometeorites suggest cosmic dust is common in the geological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttle, Martin D.; Genge, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery of fossil micrometeorites from Late Cretaceous chalk. Seventy-six cosmic spherules were recovered from Coniacian (87 ± 1 Ma) sediments of the White Chalk Supergroup. Particles vary from pristine silicate and iron-type spherules to pseudomorphic spherules consisting of either single-phase recrystallized magnetite or Fe-silicide. Pristine spherules are readily identified as micrometeorites on the basis of their characteristic mineralogies, textures and compositions. Both magnetite and silicide spherules contain dendritic crystals and spherical morphologies, testifying to rapid crystallisation of high temperature iron-rich metallic and oxide liquids. These particles also contain spherical cavities, representing weathering and removal of metal beads and irregular cavities, representing vesicles formed by trapped gas during crystallization; both features commonly found among modern Antarctic Iron-type (I-type) cosmic spherules. On the basis of textural analysis, the magnetite and Fe-silicide spherules are shown to be I-type cosmic spherules that have experienced complete secondary replacement during diagenesis (fossilization). Our results demonstrate that micrometeorites, preserved in sedimentary rocks, are affected by a suite of complex diagenetic processes, which can result in disparate replacement minerals, even within the same sequence of sedimentary beds. As a result, the identification of fossil micrometeorites requires careful observation of particle textures and comparisons with modern Antarctic collections. Replaced micrometeorites imply that geochemical signatures the extraterrestrial dust are subject to diagenetic remobilisation that limits their stratigraphic resolution. However, this study demonstrates that fossil, pseudomorphic micrometeorites can be recognised and are likely common within the geological record.

  11. Some chemical aspects of diagenetic carbonates from the Miocene of Sitakund, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Akhter, S.H.; Chowdhury, S.Q.; Kandaker, N.I.

    1990-05-01

    A preliminary chemical and petrological study was done of the Miocene limestone and its comparison with surrounding and overlying marine shales. The material for these studies was obtained from the Miocene Surma sediments exposed in Sitakund region, Cluttagong, Bangladesh. These limestones occur in a predominantly marine shale sequence and show an apparent angular structural relationship with respect to the host marine shales. Three types of carbonates are recognized: banded limestone, dark laminated limestone, and argillaceous limestone. These are devoid of any skeletal remains and often show recrystallization phenomena. Carbonate mineral phases included calcite, aragonite, dolomite, and more rarely magnesite andmore » ankerite. Noncarbonate fraction shows quartz, although very fine grained, is intricately intergrown, indicating that it is at least recrystallized, if not authigenic. Petrographic study of these carbonates show a great variability in terms of texture and composition and suggest a complex multistep and presumably continuous diagenesis. Relatively high REE (rare earth elements) abundances in these carbonates are most likely due to diagenesis and incorporation of mobile REE from local detrital phases into diagenetic carbonates. The anomalously low abundances of cerium in all the carbonates indicates a predominantly marine source for the REE. Recrystallization of carbonate resulted in the extensive exchange of Sr and O between carbonate and diagenetic fluid, the latter being low in REE/Ca ratios. Associated marine shales have quite dissimilar trace-element signatures. This may reflect uncommon crustal sources of REE for the carbonates and clastics. The enrichment of Ni and Zn in marine shales are related to the proximality of local bedrock source areas and clay minerals in the marine sediments.« less

  12. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments.

    PubMed

    Mõtlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2010-12-15

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  14. Phosphorus retention and internal loading in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, using diagenetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Doan, Phuong T K; Watson, Sue B; Markovic, Stefan; Liang, Anqi; Guo, Jay; Mugalingam, Shan; Stokes, Jonathan; Morley, Andrew; Zhang, Weitao; Arhonditsis, George B; Dittrich, Maria

    2018-04-24

    Internal phosphorus (P) loading significantly contributes to hysteresis in ecosystem response to nutrient remediation, but the dynamics of sediment P transformations are often poorly characterized. Here, we applied a reaction-transport diagenetic model to investigate sediment P dynamics in the Bay of Quinte, a polymictic, spatially complex embayment of Lake Ontario, (Canada). We quantified spatial and temporal variability of sediment P binding forms and estimated P diffusive fluxes and sediment P retention in different parts of the bay. Our model supports the notion that diagenetic recycling of redox sensitive and organic bound P forms drive sediment P release. In the recent years, summer sediment P diffusive fluxes varied in the range of 3.2-3.6 mg P m -2  d -1 in the upper bay compared to 1.5 mg P m -2  d -1 in the middle-lower bay. Meanwhile sediment P retention ranged between 71% and 75% in the upper and middle-lower bay, respectively. The reconstruction of temporal trends of internal P loading in the past century, suggests that against the backdrop of reduced external P inputs, sediment P exerts growing control over the lake nutrient budget. Higher sediment P diffusive fluxes since mid-20th century with particular increase in the past 20 years in the shallower upper basins, emphasize limited sediment P retention potential and suggest prolonged ecosystem recovery, highlighting the importance of ongoing P control measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  16. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  17. Epoxy Grout With Silica Thickener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Grout cures quickly, even in presence of hydraulic oil. Grout is mixture of aggregate particles, finely-divided silica, epoxy resin, and triethylenetetramine curing agent, with mixture containing about 85 percent silica and aggregate particle sand 15 percent resin and curing agent. Silica is thickening agent and keeps grout from sagging.

  18. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  19. Bacterial and Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction in Diagenetic Settings - Old and New Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machel, H.

    2006-12-01

    The association of dissolved sulfate and hydrocarbons is thermodynamically unstable in virtually all diagenetic environments. Hence, redox-reactions occur, whereby sulfate is reduced by hydrocarbons either bacterially (bacterial sulfate reduction = BSR) or inorganically (thermochemical sulfate reduction = TSR). Based on empirical evidence, BSR and TSR occur in two mutually exclusive thermal regimes, i.e., low-T and high-T diagenetic environments, respectively. BSR is common in diagenetic settings at T = 0 - 80 ° C. Above this T range, almost all sulfate reducers cease to metabolize. Those few types of hyperthermophiles that can form H2S at higher T appear to be very rare and do not normally occur and/or metabolize in geologic settings that are otherwise conducive to BSR. TSR appears to be common in geologic settings at T = 100 - 140 ° C, but in some settings T up to 180 ° C appears to be necessary. TSR does not have a sharply defined, generally valid minimum T because the onset and rate of TSR are governed by several factors that vary from place to place, i.e., the composition of the available organic reactants, kinetic inhibitors and/or catalysts, anhydrite dissolution rates, wettability, as well as migration and diffusion rates of the major reactants. A well- defined, specific minimum T for TSR can be expected only where the reservoir conditions are fairly homogeneous on the scale of a field or a play. BSR is geologically instantaneous in most geologic settings. Rates of TSR are much lower, but still geologically significant. TSR may form sour gas reservoirs and/or MVT deposits in several tens of thousands to a few million years at T = 100 - 140 ° C. BSR and TSR may be exothermic or endothermic, depending mainly on the presence or absence of specific organic reactants. The main organic reactants for BSR are organic acids and other products of aerobic or fermentative biodegradation, and those for TSR are branched and n-alkanes, followed by cyclic and mono

  20. Diagenetic effects on magnetic minerals in a Holocene lacustrine sediment core from Huguangyan maar lake, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xudong; Wang, Yong; Bian, Liu; Shen, Ji

    2016-09-01

    strong Asian summer monsoon intensity during the early Holocene are accountable for intensive diagenesis in the lowermost subsection. Complete erasing of detrital magnetic input signal at certain positions of the lowermost subsection, and considerable formation of authigenic siderite indicate that palaeomagnetic records of the studied core have been significantly compromised. The studied core has relatively higher TOC content, lower detrital matter content, calmer sedimentary environments, and less DO available at its water-sediment interface than the cores retrieved at relatively shallower water depths, which all contribute to its relatively stronger diagenesis. Progressive thickening of the upper two subsections with increasing water depth is owing to progressive increase in sedimentation rate with increasing water depth, which is the key factor in determining the thickness of each diagenetic subsection of cores from HGY. It would be better that lake sediments for palaeomagnetic investigations collected at a water depth shallower than the depth of its thermocline.

  1. Mineralogy of Nicobar Fan turbidites (IODP Leg 362): Himalayan provenance and diagenetic control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, M.; Garzanti, E.; Ando, S.; Carter, A.; Milliken, K. L.; Pickering, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we use quantitative petrographic and heavy-mineral data on silt-sized and sand-sized sediments from the Nicobar Fan turbiditic depositional system to unravel their provenance and discriminate between pre-depositional and post-depositional processes controlling sediment mineralogy. Eighteen samples from the two drill sites U1480 e U1481, collected down to a depth of 1400 m during International Ocean Discovery Expedition 362, were selected for analysis. A complete section of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basaltic basement was recovered at the U1480 drill site, whereas the U1481 drill site, located 35 km to the southeast, focused on the deeper interval of the sedimentary section overlying oceanic basement. Here we illustrate the compositional trends observed throughout the recovered succession, and compare heavy-mineral suites characterizing sediments drilled at the two U1480 and U1481 sites to check for potential differences in sediment provenance over a relatively short distance in trench settings. Diagenetic control with increasing burial depth was also specifically investigated. In Pleistocene sediments at depths of a few tens of meters only, rich heavy-mineral assemblages include mainly hornblende, epidote, and garnet, associated with apatite, clinopyroxene, tourmaline, sillimanite, kyanite, zircon, titanite, and rare staurolite and rutile, testifying to long-distance provenance from the Himalayan range via the Ganga-Brahmaputra fluvio-deltaic-turbiditic system. Heavy-mineral concentration shows a progressive decrease with burial depth, pointing to selective diagenetic dissolution of less durable detrital minerals. Clinopyroxene becomes rare below 400 m depth and was not recorded below 500 m depth, where amphibole decreases notably in relative abundance. More durable heavy minerals, including zircon, tourmaline, apatite, garnet and epidote, consequently tend to be relatively enriched with increasing age and burial depth. Petrographic and

  2. Thallium isotope variations in seawater and hydrogenetic, diagenetic, and hydrothermal ferromanganese deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehkamper, M.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Porcelli, D.; Halliday, A.; Ingri, J.; Liebetrau, V.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented for the first in-depth investigation of TI isotope variations in marine materials. The TI isotopic measurements were conducted by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for a comprehensive suite of hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts, diagenetic Fe-Mn nodules, hydrothermal manganese deposits and seawater samples. The natural variability of TI isotope compositions in these samples exceeds the analytical reproducibility (?? 0.05???) by more than a factor of 40. Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts have ??205TI of + 10 to + 14, whereas seawater is characterized by values as low as -8 (??205TI represents the deviation of the 205TI/203TI ratio of a sample from the NIST SRM 997 TI isotope standard in parts per 104). This ~ 2??? difference in isotope composition is thought to result from the isotope fractionation that accompanies the adsorption of TI onto ferromanganese particles. An equilibrium fractionation factor of ?? ~ 1.0021 is calculated for this process. Ferromanganese nodules and hydrothermal manganese deposits have variable TI isotope compositions that range between the values obtained for seawater and hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. The variability in ??205TI in diagenetic nodules appears to be caused by the adsorption of TI from pore fluids, which act as a closed-system reservoir with a TI isotope composition that is inferred to be similar to seawater. Nodules with ??205TI values similar to seawater are found if the scavenging of TI is nearly quantitative. Hydrothermal manganese deposits display a positive correlation between ??205TI and Mn/Fe. This trend is thought to be due to the derivation of TI from distinct hydrothermal sources. Deposits with low Mn/Fe ratios and low ??205TI are produced by the adsorption of TI from fluids that are sampled close to hydrothermal sources. Such fluids have low Mn/Fe ratios and relatively high temperatures, such that only minor isotope fractionation occurs during adsorption. Hydrothermal

  3. Contrasting diagenetic histories of concretions vs. host rocks, Lion Mountain Member, Riley formation (upper Cambrian), Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, E.F.

    1988-02-01

    White, elliptical, calcite-cemented concretion nuclei up to 1 m long contrast markedly in color, composition, and diagenetic history from more glauconite-rich concretion rinds and from dark-green glaucarenite host rocks. Concretion nuclei are loosely packed deposits of trilobite carapaces and minor quartz and glauconite that have intergranular volumes of 58%. The nuclei are shell-lag deposits that were cemented by calcite at the sea floor or after burial of a few meters. Concretion rinds, composed of subequal amounts of quartz and compactionally deformed glauconite, have an intergranular volume of only 32% and minor quartz overgrowths that preceded pore-occluding calcite cement. The rindsmore » underwent burial for several million years to tens of millions of years to depths of several hundred meters before they were cemented. The host rock is predominately glauconite with very minor quartz and calcite cement. Strontium isotopic ratios of host-rock calcite cement are variable (0.7084 to 0.7093), but the lowest value suggests precipitation during the Middle Ordovician. In the absence of significant amounts of carbonate cement, the host rock underwent complete dissolution of trilobite carapaces and maximum compaction with total loss of porosity through squashing of glauconite grains. Maximum burial during this stage was completed by the end of Ordovician time.« less

  4. Evolution of Morphology and Crystallinity of Silica Minerals Under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.

    2011-12-01

    Silica minerals are quite common mineral species in surface environment of the terrestrial planets. They are good indicator of terrestrial processes including hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis and soil formation. Hydrothermal quartz, metastable low temperature cristobalite and amorphous silica show characteristic morphology and crystallinity depending on their formation processes and kinetics under wide range of temperature, pressure, acidity and thermal history. In this study, silica minerals produced by acidic hydrothermal alteration related to volcanic activities and hydrothermal crystallization experiments from diatom sediment are examined with crystallographic analysis and morphologic observations. Low temperature form of cistobalite is a metastable phase and a common alteration product occured in highly acidic hydrothermal environment around fumaroles in geothermal / volcanic areas. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree of whole rock is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Detailed powder XRD analysis show that the primary diffraction peak of cristobalite composed with two or three phases with different d-spacing and FWHM by peak profile fitting analysis. Shorter d-spacing and narrower FWHM cristobalite crystallize from precursor materials with less-crystallized, longer d-spacing and wider FWHM cristobalite. Textures of hydrothermal cristobalite in altered rock shows remnant of porphylitic texture of the host rock, pyroxene-amphibole andesite. Diatom has amorphous silica shell and makes diatomite sediment. Diatomite found in less diagenetic Quarternary formation keeps amorphous silica diatom shells. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of amorphous silica diatomite sediment are carried out from 300 °C to 550 °C. Mineral composition of run products shows crystallization of cristobalite and quartz progress depending on temperature and run durations. Initial crystallization product, cristobalite grains occur as characteristic lepispheres and

  5. Amorphous silica maturation in chemically weathered clastic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesegang, Moritz; Milke, Ralf; Berthold, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    A detailed understanding of silica postdepositional transformation mechanisms is fundamental for its use as a palaeobiologic and palaeoenvironmental archive. Amorphous silica (opal-A) is an important biomineral, an alteration product of silicate rocks on the surface of Earth and Mars, and a precursor material for stable silica phases. During diagenesis, amorphous silica gradually and gradationally transforms to opal-CT, opal-C, and eventually quartz. Here we demonstrate the early-stage maturation of several million year old opal-A from deeply weathered Early Cretaceous and Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the Great Artesian Basin (central Australia). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalyses show that the mineralogical maturation of the nanosphere material is decoupled from its chemical properties and begins significantly earlier than micromorphology suggests. Non-destructive and locally highly resolved X-ray microdiffraction (μ-XRD2) reveals an almost linear positive correlation between the main peak position (3.97 to 4.06 Å) and a new asymmetry parameter, AP. Heating experiments and calculated diffractograms indicate that nucleation and growth of tridymite-rich nanodomains induce systematic peak shifts and symmetry variations in diffraction patterns of morphologically juvenile opal-A. Our results show that the asymmetry parameter traces the early-stage maturation of amorphous silica, and that the mineralogical opal-A/CT stage extends to smaller d-spacings and larger FWHM values than previously suggested.

  6. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    postdepositional magnetite and maghemite that formed in rocks in which most or all detrital megnetic iron oxide was destroyed. Incipient oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite may have normal polarity Snowshoe Mountain Tuff (26.89 ± 0.0 Ma, 1 δ) and on the normal polarity postcaldera Fisher lava flows (as young as 26.23 ± 0.05 Ma, 1 δ) indicate that deposition of the Creede Formation spanned about 340-660 k.y. The intermittently defined normal polarity magnetization for the caldera-fill sequence, compared with different versions of the geomagnetic polarity time scale, is consistent with the shorter time span.

  7. Geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from DOMES site a, Northern Equatorial Pacific: Multiple diagenetic metal sources in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The major and minor element composition of ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by X-ray fluorescence methods. Three phases appear to control the bulk compositions: Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides and aluminosilicates. Relatively wide compositional variations are evident throughout the area. Nodules with high Mn/Fe ratios, high Cu, Mg, Mo, Ni and Zn concentrations and high todorokite/??-MnO2 ratios have granular surface textures and are confined to an east-west trending depression with thin Quaternary sediment cover. Nodules with low Mn/Fe ratios, high concentrations of As, Ca, Ce, Co, La, P, Sr, Ti, V, Y and Zr and low todorokite/??-MnO2 ratios have smooth surfaces and are confined to shallower areas with relatively thick Quaternary sediment to the north and south of the depression. All nodules in the area have compositions which are influenced by diagenesis, but those with the most marked diagenetic signature (high Mn/Fe and Cu/Ni ratios, low Ce/La ratios and more todorokite) are found in areas of very slow or non-existent sedimentation; many of these nodules are actually in contact with outcropping Tertiary sediment. This paradox may be resolved by postulating, by analogy with some shallow-water occurrences, that the nodules accrete from bottom waters which have enhanced particulate and dissolved metal contents derived from diagenetic reaction in areas remote from the site of nodule formation. The metals are supplied in a bottom flow (probably Antarctic Bottom Water) which also erodes, or prevents modern sedimentation in, the depression. Nodules on the flanks of the depression are not evidently affected by this flow and derive at least pan of their constituent metals from diagenetic reaction in the underlying Quaternary sediment. Apparently, abyssal diagenetic nodules can have an immediate and a remote diagenetic metal source. Metal fluxes derived from pore water dissolved metal gradients may not be relevant to particular accreting nodules if a

  8. Seismic Characterization of Silica Diagenesis in the Northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.

    2017-12-01

    We use seismic reflection data to investigate the silica diagenesis that converted siliceous ooze into the widespread chert/porcellanite layer in the northwestern Pacific. In particular, we investigate whether this process is currently ongoing in the oldest lithosphere of the Pacific. We present images of seismic reflection data collected during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN272 and processed using a velocity model constructed from concurrently collected sonobuoy refraction data, applying a normal moveout correction and stack, post-stack Kirchhoff time migration, and predictive gap deconvolution. We compare our seismic observations of the chert/porcellanite layer with nearby drill holes and analogous studies of silica diagenesis around the world. In the processed seismic data, we identify a previously unobserved short-wavelength depth variation to a prominent reflector representing the top of the chert/porcellanite layer, with a vertical change in this horizon of 20 m. This short-wavelength character is in contrast to the flat, seafloor parallel character more typical of the regional chert/porcellanite reflector and may be indicative of the active transformation of siliceous ooze to chert/porcellanite. Drill results in the northwestern Pacific document little to no siliceous ooze above the chert/porcellanite layer; however, they have extremely low recovery rates that could have failed to sample this sediment. No folding or reflector offsets indicative of faulting are observed above or below the short-wave character of the chert/porcellanite reflector, suggesting a structural origin is unlikely, nor are the surrounding reflectors disturbed, as would be expected if these features were caused by fluid expulsion. Instead, the short-wavelength depth variation in the chert/porcellanite layer may be the result of differential advancement of the silica diagenetic front where the siliceous ooze to chert/porcellanite reaction locally occurs in shallower sediments, as

  9. The Missing Silica Sink: Revisiting the Marine Sedimentary Si Cycle Using Cosmogenic 32Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S.; Aller, R. C.; Cochran, J. K.

    2017-10-01

    Burial of biogenic silica (bSitotal) in high sedimentation rate continental margins remains highly uncertain. Cosmogenic 32Si (t1/2 140 years) can be used to trace the fates of bSitotal postdeposition, including as opal (bSiopal) and diagenetically altered opal (bSialtered), the latter dominantly authigenic clay (bSiclay). To determine the magnitude and form of bSitotal storage in coastal sediments, conventional operational leaches targeting bSiopal and bSialtered (including bSiclay) were modified for large-scale samples necessary for measurement of 32Si. The 32Si activity was used to estimate total biogenic silica burial (bSitotal = bSiopal + bSialtered) in several depositional settings: Gulf of Papua, Gulf of Mexico, Long Island Sound, and in the previously studied Amazon-Guianas deltaic system. In subtropical and temperate regions, 32Si was detected in both traditional biogenic silica leaches (bSiopal) and residual authigenic clays. Traditional bSiopal and modified operational leaches designed to target the most reactive authigenic silicates ( bSialtered) consistently underestimate authigenic clay formation (bSiclay) and thus the magnitude of bSitotal burial in temperate coastal zones and subtropical deltas by 2-4-fold. In tropical deltas, 32Si activities in the residual fraction after removal of bSiopal demonstrate rapid and almost complete alteration of initial bSiopal to new forms, most likely bSiclay. Globally, 4.5-4.9 Tmol/yr Si may be trapped in marine nearshore deposits as rapidly formed clay (bSiclay), 100% of the "missing silica sink" in the marine silica budget.

  10. Diagenetic fate of organic contaminants on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Pontolillo, J.; Leiker, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Municipal wastes discharged through deepwater submarine outfalls since 1937 have contaminated sediments of the Palos Verdes Shelf. A site approximately 6-8 km downcurrent from the outfall system was chosen for a study of the diagenetic fate of organic contaminants in the waste-impacted sediments. Concentrations of three classes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (DDT + metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) were determined in sediment cores collected at the study site in 1981 and 1992. Differences between the composition of effluent from the major source of DDT (Montrose Chemical) and that found in sediments suggests that parent DDT was transformed by hydrolytic dehydrochlorination during the earliest stages of diagenesis. As a result, p,p'-DDE is the dominant DDT metabolite found in shelf sediments, comprising 60-70% of ??DDT. The p,p-DDE/p,p'-DDMU concentration ratio decreases with increasing sub-bottom depth in sediment cores, indicating that reductive dechlorination of p,p'-DDE is occurring. Approximately 9-23% of the DDE inventory in the sediments may have been converted to DDMU since DDT discharges began ca. 1953. At most, this is less than half of the decline in p,p'-DDE inventory that has been observed at the study site for the period 1981-1995. Most of the observed decrease is attributable to remobilization by processes such as sediment mixing coupled to resuspension, contaminant desorption, and current advection. Existing field data suggest that the in situ rate of DDE transformation is 102-103 times slower than rates determined in recent laboratory microcosm experiments (Quensen, J.F., Mueller, S.A., Jain, M.K., Tiedje, J.M., 1998. Reductive dechlorination of DDE to DDMU in marine sediment microcosms. Science, 280, 722-724.). This explains why the DDT composition (i.e. o,p'-, p,p'-isomers of DDE, DDD, DDT) of sediments from this site have not changed significantly since at least 1972. Congener-specific PCB

  11. Detection of diagenetic processes in bones: the case of Arkoudospilia cave, N. Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisi, Nikoleta; Dotsika, Elissavet; Tsoukala, Evangelia; Psomiadis, David

    2010-05-01

    Diagenesis of bone material over geological time is a highly complex phenomenon involving the physical, chemical, histological and mechanical alterations that occur at different time scales from the time of death to present and depend on the local geochemical conditions. The significance of diagenesis and the information that can provide its decoding, led to its study by a variety of physicochemical techniques. Despite serious research efforts, a detailed scenario of bone diagenesis remains elusive. The δ18O of the carbonate material of hydroxyapatite of the bones is though to be a good indicator of the δ18O of the local water precipitation and therefore can be used for palaeoclimatic reconstraction, while δ13C is used for definition of palaeodiet habits. The study of isotopic composition requires the detection of the diagenetic degree, because both δ18O and δ13C can be contaminated by these processes. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope values (δ13C, δ18O) were obtained for structural carbonate in the hydroxy-apatite of bear bones from Arkoudospilia Cave, Pella, N. Greece. The age range of the fossil layers is from 32ka BP to a maximum of 38ka BP (radiocarbon dating). The findings belong to Ursus ingressus, an extinct cave bear. The difficulty in studying an extinct species lies to the fact that it cannot be easily correlated with a present one, so it is impossible to determine the diagenesis by the analytical deviation. However, in order to include the environmental and climatic differences of the past and modern bear habitats, the isotopic composition of the water should be also included in the study. Cave bears are considered to be endemic in Europe. The shortage of data in literature concerning cave bears isotopic analyses in combination with the burden of the difficulties in spotting and sampling such rare materials makes difficult to compare the results of a study. The diet and the physiology of this species are not well known. However the morphology of

  12. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John

    2013-04-01

    In tight gas reservoirs, understanding the characteristics, orientation and distribution of natural open fractures, and how these relate to the structural and stratigraphic setting are important for exploration and production. Outcrops provide the opportunity to sample fracture characteristics that would otherwise be unknown due to the limitations of sampling by cores and well logs. However, fractures in exhumed outcrops may not be representative of fractures in the reservoir because of differences in burial and exhumation history. Appropriate outcrop analogs of producing reservoirs with comparable geologic history, structural setting, fracture networks, and diagenetic attributes are desirable but rare. The Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation from the Alberta Foothills produces gas at commercial rates where it contains a network of open fractures. Fractures from outcrops have the same diagenetic attributes as those observed in cores <100 km away, thus offering an ideal opportunity to 1) evaluate the distribution and characteristics of opening mode fractures relative to fold cores, hinges and limbs, 2) compare the distribution and attributes of fractures in outcrop vs. core samples, 3) estimate the timing of fracture formation relative to the evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt, and 4) estimate the degradation of fracture porosity due to postkinematic cementation. Cathodoluminescence images of cemented fractures in both outcrop and core samples reveal several generations of quartz and ankerite cement that is synkinematic and postkinematic relative to fracture opening. Crack-seal textures in synkinematic quartz are ubiquitous, and well-developed cement bridges abundant. Fracture porosity may be preserved in fractures wider than ~100 microns. 1-D scanlines in outcrop and core samples indicate fractures are most abundant within small parasitic folds within larger, tight, mesoscopic folds. Fracture intensity is lower away from parasitic folds; intensity

  13. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, E.; Eichhubl, P.; Fall, A.; Hooker, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    In tight gas reservoirs, understanding the characteristics, orientation and distribution of natural open fractures, and how these relate to the structural and stratigraphic setting are important for exploration and production. Outcrops provide the opportunity to sample fracture characteristics that would otherwise be unknown due to the limitations of sampling by cores and well logs. However, fractures in exhumed outcrops may not be representative of fractures in the reservoir because of differences in burial and exhumation history. Appropriate outcrop analogs of producing reservoirs with comparable geologic history, structural setting, fracture networks, and diagenetic attributes are desirable but rare. The Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation from the Alberta Foothills produces gas at commercial rates where it contains a network of open fractures. Fractures from outcrops have the same diagenetic attributes as those observed in cores <100 km away, thus offering an ideal opportunity to 1) evaluate the distribution and characteristics of opening mode fractures relative to fold cores, hinges and limbs, 2) compare the distribution and attributes of fractures in outcrop vs. core samples, 3) estimate the timing of fracture formation relative to the evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt, and 4) estimate the degradation of fracture porosity due to postkinematic cementation. Cathodoluminescence images of cemented fractures in both outcrop and core samples reveal several generations of quartz and ankerite cement that is synkinematic and postkinematic relative to fracture opening. Crack-seal textures in synkinematic quartz are ubiquitous, and well-developed cement bridges abundant. Fracture porosity may be preserved in fractures wider than ~100 microns. 1-D scanlines in outcrop and core samples indicate fractures are most abundant within small parasitic folds within larger, tight, mesoscopic folds. Fracture intensity is lower away from parasitic folds; intensity

  14. Formation of hollow silica nanospheres by reverse microemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Han; Chang, Jen-Hsuan; Yeh, Yi-Qi; Wu, Si-Han; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Uniform hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) synthesized with reverse microemulsion have great application potential as nanoreactors because enzymes or nanocatalysts can be easily encapsulated de novo in synthesis. Water-in-oil (w/o) reverse microemulsions comprising the polymeric surfactant polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether (Igepal CA-520), ammonia and water in a continuous oil phase (alkanes) coalesce into size-tunable silica nanoparticles via diffusion aggregation after the introduction of silica precursors. Here, we elucidate in detail the growth mechanism for silica nanoparticles via nucleation of ammonium-catalyzed silica oligomers from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and nanoporous aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (APTS) in the reverse microemulsion system. The formation pathway was studied in situ with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We find a four-stage process showing a sigmoidal growth behavior in time with a crossover from the induction period, early nucleation stage, coalescence growth and a final slowing down of growth. Various characterizations (TEM, N2 isotherm, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, NMR, elemental analysis) reveal the diameters, scattering length density (SLD), mesoporosity, surface potentials and chemical compositions of the HSNs. Oil phases of alkanes with different alkyl chains are systematically employed to tune the sizes of HSNs by varying oil molar volumes, co-solvent amounts or surfactant mixture ratios. Silica condensation is incomplete in the core region, with the silica source of TEOS and APTS leading to the hollow silica nanosphere after etching with warm water.Uniform hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) synthesized with reverse microemulsion have great application potential as nanoreactors because enzymes or nanocatalysts can be easily encapsulated de novo in synthesis. Water-in-oil (w/o) reverse microemulsions comprising the polymeric surfactant polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether (Igepal CA-520), ammonia and

  15. Late Diagenetic Cements in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for Postdepositional Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Van Beek, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Thompson, L. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Schieber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Murray formation in its type section at Pahrump Hills, consists of approximately 14 meters of recessive-weathering mudstone interbedded with decimeter-scale cross-bedded sandstone in the upper portions of the exposed section. Mudstone textures vary from massive, to poorly laminated, to well laminated. Unusual 3-dimensional crystal clusters and dendrites occur in the lowermost part of the section and are erosionally resistant with respect to the host rock. Crystal clusters consist of elongate lathes that occur within individual blocks of the fractured substrate. Individual lathes show tabular morphologies with a pseudo-rectangular cross-section and the three dimensional morphology of the crystal clusters cross-cut host rock lamination with little or no deformation. Dendritic structures are typically larger and show predominantly planar growth aligned with bedding planes. Individual lathes within the dendrites are elongate and pseudo-rectangular in cross-section. Unlike crystal clusters, dendritic morphologies appear to nucleate at bedrock fractures and near mineralized veins. Here we show evidence that crystal clusters and dendrites are post-depositional, potentially burial diagenetic features. Association of features with through-going fractures suggests that fractures may have been a primary transport pathway for ions responsible for dendrite growth. Even where dendrites do not occur, enhanced cementation suggests that fluids permeated the rock matrix. We suggest that growth of clusters proceeded as inter-particle crystal growth, wherein mineral growth within inter-particle spaces resulted in cementation and porosity loss, with little further effect on the rock matrix. Crystal clusters and dendrites are most likely to form when mineral saturation states are highest, for instance with initial intrusion of fracture-borne fluids and mixing with ambient pore fluids, and thus emphasize the importance of fractures in ion transport during late diagenesis.

  16. Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.

    2010-09-01

    The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

  17. Depositional and diagenetic models of some miocene evaporites on the Red Sea coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed A. A., Youssef

    1986-06-01

    The Miocene evaporites on the Red Sea coast, Egypt, are interpreted as a sabkha-chenier complex, which includes deposition in shallow water as well as in supratidal environments Costal sabkhas and shallow subaqueous evaporite sequences are recognised. The subaqueous sequence is represented by nodular mosaic and massive crystalline gypsum covered by a surface layer of nodular, white, dense powdery anhydrite. The sabkha sequences are represented by (a) small mounds overlying the older rock unit (Gebel El Rusas Formation) composed of fenestral stromatolitic and nodular dolomites overlain by a dolomitic limestone layer, (b) thin layer overlying the subaqueous evaporite sequence and composed of fenestral stromatolitic dolomite overlain by a nodular anhydrite layer. The nodular structure in the subaqueous as well as the sabkha sequences is formed diagenetically by transformation and recrystallization process. The dolomites in both sabkha sequences (a and b) are characterised by low Na + concentrations (143 to 755 ppm) and low values of δ 18O (- 1.85 to -8.7‰ PDB). This indicates that the dolomites were formed from saline water mixed with fresh water. These dolomites are also characterised by a low δ 13C (-12.95 to -27.1‰ PDB). This shows that the light carbon produced by the degradation of organic matter through the sulphate reduction process has played a significant role in the formation of these dolomites. Both microcrystalline and megacrystalline white dolomites are recognised in sabkha sequences. Relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and copper are associated with the high percent of megacrystalline white dolomite.

  18. Silica waveguide devices and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. J.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Lin, Wenhua

    2005-03-01

    Silica waveguide technology transitioned from laboratories to commercial use in early 1990. Since then, various applications have been exploited based on this technology. Tens of thousands of array waveguide grating (AWG) devices have been installed worldwide for DWDM Mux and Demux. The recent FTTH push in Japan has renewed the significance of this technology for passive optical network (PON) application. This paper reviews the past development of this technology, compare it with competing technologies, and outline the future role of this technology in the evolving optical communications.

  19. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Carolin C.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed. PMID:26295401

  20. Unravelling the Paleoenvironmental and Diagenetic History of Fluviolacustrine Sediments from a Northern Kenya Rift Basin Through Analysis of HSPDP West Turkana-Kaitio Core Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideaux, N. M.; Chaudhary, M. S.; Deocampo, D.; Feibel, C. S.; Cohen, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) collected sediment cores from six rift basins in Ethiopia and Kenya. The goal of HSPDP is to construct high-resolution records of environmental change, and to understand how those changes relate to early human evolution and cultural adaptations. The West Turkana-Kaitio (WTK) site was targeted due to the abundant archeological and paleontological artifacts and fossils discovered around the basin. We conducted XRD and XRF analyses on HSPDP-WTK core material to construct a high-resolution record of paleoenvironmental conditions in the Kenya Rift during the Early Pleistocene ( 1.9-1.35 Ma). Mineralogical and geochemical trends were also used to identify the diagenetic history of fluviolacustrine sediments in the basin. The bulk mineralogy is comprised of mostly detrital feldspars, muscovite, α-quartz, and carbonates. Zeolites are present in intervals throughout the core, possibly suggesting pulses of increased salinity. Oxides and S-bearing minerals are abundant from 100-170 mbs, which may be indicative of redox and or hydrothermal processes in that interval. The lowermost portion of the core contains α- and β-quartz, pyrite and zeolites, suggesting either low-oxygen saline conditions or hydrothermal activity. Oriented clay analysis indicated multiple intervals of diagenesis, with the illitization of smectite related to hydrothermal and or microbial activity. Clay analysis provided evidence for a low degree of illitization in the upper portion of the core, whereas mixed-layered illite-smectite (I/S) contained 30-50% illite proximal to fault breccia and up to 70% illite below the faulted section, indicative of significant alteration in the lowermost portion of the core. Coupled mineralogical and geochemical analysis revealed a complex alteration history in the basin indicated by: 1) the presence of mixed-layer I/S throughout the 216 m core; 2) pronounced alteration proximal to faulting; and 3) authigenic

  1. A Perspective on Diagenetic Geometries and Patterns of Iron Oxide Cement and Coloration: Understanding Challenges and Complexities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Diagenetic records of fluid flow are underutilized proxies of water and environmental conditions in sedimentary rocks on Earth as well as Mars. The terrestrial iron-oxide records can be highly varied from faint wisps of coloration, to heavily cemented masses and layers. Other than vein cements, concretionary forms are some of the most prominent, yet enigmatic records. Concretions can have various mineral cement compositions with sizes that can span three orders of magnitude from mm, to cm, and m scales, in remarkably consistent, common spheroidal forms. Concretion geometries and banding may indicate directions and timings of fluid flow and precipitation, but deciphering the origins can be difficult with limited analytical tools. Definite complexities are the possibilities of: 1) overprinted events in an open system; 2) the role of organics in the nucleation and precipitation of authigenic minerals; and 3) multiple fluids, pathways, or processes that may produce similar-looking end products. In near-surface environments, likely any water since the Proterozoic has contained microbial life, and thus it seems highly probable that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation of diagenetic minerals due to the interactions of the biosphere and geosphere. However, recognition of ancient biosignatures that may have poor preservation potential remains a challenge. Iron oxides are particularly common, valuable indicators of near-surface iron cycling and are recognizable because the visual coloration. Our recent studies in Jurassic sandstones indicate preserved records of fingering at the interface of two immiscible fluids. The integration of geochemical self-organization models and field data provides new insights to understanding diagenetic fluid compositions, their relative densities, and flow direction flux and movement. These studies can have valuable implications and applications for understanding past fluid flow history, and reservoir characterization for CO2

  2. What do we really know about early diagenesis of non-marine carbonates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Eva; Brasier, Alexander T.; Foubert, Anneleen; Kele, Sándor

    2017-11-01

    Non-marine carbonate rocks including cave, spring, stream, calcrete and lacustrine-palustrine sediments, are susceptible to early diagenetic processes. These can profoundly alter the carbonate fabric and affect paleoclimatic proxies. This review integrates recent insights into diagenesis of non-marine carbonates and in particular the variety of early diagenetic processes, and presents a conceptual framework to address them. With ability to study at smaller and smaller scales, down to nanometers, one can now observe diagenesis taking place the moment initial precipitates have formed, and continuing thereafter. Diagenesis may affect whole rocks, but it typically starts in nano- and micro-environments. The potential for diagenetic alteration depends on the reactivity of the initial precipitate, commonly being metastable phases like vaterite, Ca-oxalates, hydrous Mg-carbonates and aragonite with regard to the ambient fluid. Furthermore, organic compounds commonly play a crucial role in hosting these early transformations. Processes like neomorphism (inversion and recrystallization), cementation and replacement generally result in an overall coarsening of the fabric and homogenization of the wide range of complex, primary microtextures. If early diagenetic modifications are completed in a short time span compared to the (annual to millennial) time scale of interest, then recorded paleoenvironmental signals and trends could still acceptably reflect original, depositional conditions. However, even compact, non-marine carbonate deposits may behave locally and temporarily as open systems to crystal-fluid exchange and overprinting of one or more geochemical proxies is not unexpected. Looking to the future, relatively few studies have examined the behaviour of promising geochemical records, such as clumped isotope thermometry and (non-conventional) stable isotopes, in well-constrained diagenetic settings. Ongoing and future in-vitro and in-situ experimental approaches will

  3. Flavins in Coastal Marine Sediments: New Perspectives on Diagenetic Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marine sediments play a critical role in the global cycling of metals and nutrients, many of which undergo diagenetic alteration. Central to these transformations are redox reactions where electron-rich organic matter is oxidized via transfer to terminal electron acceptors (NO3-, MnOx, FeOx, SO42-). The flavins (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD], flavin mononucleotide [FMN], and riboflavin [B2]) are microbially synthesized organic coenzymes that perform both single and double electron transfer and are known to mediate reduction of insoluble metal oxides. Culture experiments have found high rates of flavin excretion in metal-reducing Shewanella and Geobacter species, however environmental measurements of these highly labile molecules have not been previously reported. Here we present porewater measurements of FAD, FMN, and B2 from San Pedro Basin. This California Borderland basin is silled, suboxic, 900 m deep, and experiences high sedimentation. Flavin concentrations ranged from pico- (FAD: 0- 60 pM; B2: 40 - 90 pM) to nanomolar (FMN: 0.4 - 1.2 nM). The concentration cascade of FMN>B2>FAD fits well within culture experiments. Interestingly, profiles of all three flavins show a near linear increase with depth from 0-30 cm and a relatively steady concentration from 30-45 cm, supporting likely in situ production. Additionally, the flavins showed a negative correlation with dissolved Fe (R2 = 0.7 for FMN, 0.8 for FAD, and 0.9 for B2), which decreased linearly with depth from 160µM to 65µM. We discuss hypothesized mechanisms controlling flavin concentrations based on a suite of sediment geochemical parameters (dissolved Fe, Mn, TCO2, δ13C, NH3, DOM, and SO42-) as well as implications for microbial redox syntrophy. These data provide a critical link between the extensive culture-based mechanistic understanding of flavin function and the sedimentary environment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that flavins likely serve as a significant electron transfer

  4. Silica aerogel core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Grogan, M D W; Leon-Saval, S G; England, R; Birks, T A

    2010-10-11

    We have selectively filled the core of hollow photonic crystal fibre with silica aerogel. Light is guided in the aerogel core, with a measured attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 1540 nm comparable to that of bulk aerogel. The structure guides light by different mechanisms depending on the wavelength. At long wavelengths the effective index of the microstructured cladding is below the aerogel index of 1.045 and guidance is by total internal reflection. At short wavelengths, where the effective cladding index exceeds 1.045, a photonic bandgap can guide the light instead. There is a small region of crossover, where both index- and bandgap-guided modes were simultaneously observed.

  5. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having...

  7. Diagenetic and compositional controls of wettability in siliceous sedimentary rocks, Monterey Formation, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kristina M.

    Modified imbibition tests were performed on 69 subsurface samples from Monterey Formation reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley to measure wettability variation as a result of composition and silica phase change. Contact angle tests were also performed on 6 chert samples from outcrop and 3 nearly pure mineral samples. Understanding wettability is important because it is a key factor in reservoir fluid distribution and movement, and its significance rises as porosity and permeability decrease and fluid interactions with reservoir grain surface area increase. Although the low permeability siliceous reservoirs of the Monterey Formation are economically important and prolific, a greater understanding of factors that alter their wettability will help better develop them. Imbibition results revealed a strong trend of decreased wettability to oil with increased detrital content in opal-CT phase samples. Opal-A phase samples exhibited less wettability to oil than both opal-CT and quartz phase samples of similar detrital content. Subsurface reservoir samples from 3 oil fields were crushed to eliminate the effect of capillary pressure and cleansed of hydrocarbons to eliminate wettability alterations by asphaltene, then pressed into discs of controlled density. Powder discs were tested for wettability by dispensing a controlled volume of water and motor oil onto the surface and measuring the time required for each fluid to imbibe into the sample. The syringe and software of a CAM101 tensiometer were used to control the amount of fluid dispensed onto each sample, and imbibition completion times were determined by high-speed photography for water drops; oil drop imbibition was significantly slower and imbibition was timed and determined visually. Contact angle of water and oil drops on polished chert and mineral sample surfaces was determined by image analysis and the Young-Laplace equation. Oil imbibition was significantly slower with increased detrital composition and faster

  8. Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Danny; Stepanian, Christopher J.; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels that consist, variously, of neat silica/polymer alloys and silica/polymer alloy matrices reinforced with fibers have been developed as materials for flexible thermal-insulation blankets. In comparison with prior aerogel blankets, these aerogel blankets are more durable and less dusty. These blankets are also better able to resist and recover from compression . an important advantage in that maintenance of thickness is essential to maintenance of high thermal-insulation performance. These blankets are especially suitable as core materials for vacuum- insulated panels and vacuum-insulated boxes of advanced, nearly seamless design. (Inasmuch as heat leakage at seams is much greater than heat leakage elsewhere through such structures, advanced designs for high insulation performance should provide for minimization of the sizes and numbers of seams.) A silica/polymer aerogel of the present type could be characterized, somewhat more precisely, as consisting of multiply bonded, linear polymer reinforcements within a silica aerogel matrix. Thus far, several different polymethacrylates (PMAs) have been incorporated into aerogel networks to increase resistance to crushing and to improve other mechanical properties while minimally affecting thermal conductivity and density. The polymethacrylate phases are strongly linked into the silica aerogel networks in these materials. Unlike in other organic/inorganic blended aerogels, the inorganic and organic phases are chemically bonded to each other, by both covalent and hydrogen bonds. In the process for making a silica/polymer alloy aerogel, the covalent bonds are introduced by prepolymerization of the methacrylate monomer with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate, which serves as a phase cross-linker in that it contains both organic and inorganic monomer functional groups and hence acts as a connector between the organic and inorganic phases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the silanol groups of the inorganic phase and the

  9. Paleozoic and Mesozoic silica-rich seawater: Evidence from hematitic chert (jasper) deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenne, Tor; Slack, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Laterally extensive beds of highly siliceous, hematitic chert (jasper) are associated with many volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits of Late Cambrian to Early Cretaceous age, yet are unknown in analogous younger (including modern) settings. Textural studies suggest that VMS-related jaspers in the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite of Norway were originally deposited as Si- and Fe-rich gels that precipitated from hydrothermal plumes as colloidal silica and iron-oxyhydroxide particles. Rare earth element patterns and Ge/Si ratios of the jaspers reflect precipitation from plumes having seawater dilution factors of 103 to 104, similar to modern examples. We propose that silica in the ancient jaspers is not derived from submarine hydrothermal fluids-as suggested by previous workers-but instead was deposited from silic-rich sea-water. Flocculation and precipitation of the silica were triggered inorganically by the bridging effect of positively charged iron oxyhydroxides in the hydrothermal plume. A model involving amorphous silica (opal-A) precursors to the jaspers suggests that silica contents of Cambrian-Early Cretaceous oceans were at least 110 mg/L SiO2, compared to values of 40-60 mg/L SiO2 estimated in other studies. The evolution of ancient silica-rich to modern Fe-rich precipitates in submarine-hydrothermal plumes reflects a changeover from silica-saturated to silica-depleted seawater through Phanerozoic time, due mainly to ocean-wide emergence of diatoms in the Cretaceous.

  10. Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic and Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Richard D.; Engel, Michael H.

    2005-03-10

    Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. While geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses)more » and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas.« less

  11. Impact of diagenetic alteration on sea urchin (Echinodermata) magnesium isotope signatures: Comparison of experimental and fossil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Buhl, Dieter; Dietzel, Martin; Hoffmann, René; Jöns, Niels; Eisenhauer, Anton; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Due to their thermodynamically instable high-Mg calcite mineralogy, the skeletal elements of echinoderms are often regarded as unreliable archives of Phanerozoic marine climate dynamics. Nevertheless, traditional and non-traditional isotope and elemental proxy data from echinoderms have been used to reconstruct global changes in palaeoseawater composition (Sandberg-cycles). Recently, these data and the interpretation have been controversially discussed in context with ancient seawater properties. This paper tests the sensitivity of echinoderm skeletal hardparts, specifically sea urchin spines to diagenetic alteration based on magnesium isotope data. We apply a dual approach by: (i) performing hydrothermal alteration experiments using meteoric, marine, and burial reactive fluids; and (ii) comparing these data with fossil sea urchin hardparts. The degree of alteration of experimentally altered and fossil sea urchin hardparts is assessed by a combination of optical (fluorescence, cathodoluminescence (CL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) and geochemical tools (elemental distribution, carbon, oxygen and magnesium isotopes). Although initial fluid chemistry of the experiments did not allow the detection of diagenetic overprint by elemental distribution (Fe, Mn) and cathodoluminescence, other tools such as fluorescence, SEM, delta18O, Mg concentration and delta26Mg display alteration effects, which respond to differential fluid temperature, chemistry, and experiment duration time. At experiments run under meteoric conditions with no Mg in the initial fluid, the solid is enriched in the heavier Mg isotopomer due to preferential dissolution of the lighter isotope. In contrast, initial burial and marine fluids have medium to high Mg concentrations. There, the Mg concentration and the delta26Mg values of the altered sea urchin spines increase. Fossil sea urchin hardparts display partly very strong diagenetic overprint as observed by their elemental distribution

  12. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: Results from ODP Leg 127

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Richard W.; Buchholtzten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans J.; Gerlach, David C.; Russ, G. Price

    1991-09-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127. REE total abundances (ΣREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 (Yamato Basin) overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the late Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu∗ values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu∗ with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. ΣREE at Site 795 (Japan Basin) also is affiliated strongly with aluminosilicate phases, yet is diluted only slightly by siliceous input. At Site 797 (Yamato Basin), REE is not as clearly associated with the aluminosilicate fraction, is correlated moderately to siliceous input, and may be sporadically influenced by detrital heavy minerals originating from the nearby rifted continental fragment composing the Yamato Rise. The biogenic influence is largest at Site 794, moderately developed at Site 797, and of only minor importance at Site 795, reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity such that the Yamato Basin records greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin, while the most productive waters overlie the easternmost sequence of Site 794. Ce/Ce∗ profiles at all three sites increase monotonically with depth, and record progressive diagenetic LREE fractionation. The observed Ce/Ce∗ record does not respond to changes in oxygenation state of the overlying water, and Ce/Ce∗ correlates slightly better with depth than with age. The downhole increase in Ce

  13. Calcium isotopes in fossil bones and teeth — Diagenetic versus biogenic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuser, Alexander; Tütken, Thomas; Gussone, Nikolaus; Galer, Stephen J. G.

    2011-06-01

    primary δ44/40Ca is actually preserved in most of the fossil teeth is a difference in δ44/40Ca of about 0.35 ± 0.10‰ (1SD) between dentin and enamel, based upon 11 of 16 analyzed dentin-enamel pairs. This difference is close to that found in modern reptiles (0.28 ± 0.05‰), and strongly suggests that this tell-tale signature is a primary feature of the fossilized dinosaur material as well. Furthermore, simple mass balance calculations show that changes of the original δ44/40Ca in bones and teeth by diagenetically-formed calcium-bearing minerals are either small or would require implausible high original δ44/40Ca values in the skeletal apatite.

  14. Fluid inclusions in calcite filled opening fractures of the Serra Alta Formation reveal paleotemperatures and composition of diagenetic fluids percolating Permian shales of the Paraná Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. A. S.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Bello, R. M. S.; Nomura, S. F.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Chamani, M. A. C.

    2018-07-01

    The thermal and diagenetic evolution of shale units has received renewed focus because of their emergence as unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Serra Alta Formation (SAF) is a Permian shale unit of the Paraná Basin, which is the largest South American cratonic basin. The SAF stands out as a pathway for aqueous fluids and hydrocarbon migration from the Irati organic-rich shales to the Pirambóia fluvial-eolian sandstone reservoirs. Vertical NNW and NNE opening fractures would be the main pathways for the migration of buried pore waters and aqueous fluids, besides the input of meteoric water. These fractures would be associated to the reactivation of basement discontinuities such as the Jacutinga (NE) and Guapiara (NW) faults. Thus, vertical NNE and NNW associated fractures would represent the main pathways for fluid migration in the studied area. The vertical calcite filled opening fractures from SAF record moderately low salinity (0-4.5 wt % of NaCl eq.) aqueous fluids, suggesting the input of meteoric water in the buried fracture system. Eutectic melting temperatures at -52±5 °C indicate an H2O + NaCl + CaCl2 system with CaCl2 or MgCl2 in solution. Homogenization temperatures recorded in fluid inclusion assemblages (FIAs) of calcite filled opening fractures indicate that the SAF in the studied area reached temperatures above 200 °C, suitable for generation of gaseous hydrocarbons. The recorded paleotemperatures point to a thermal peak associated with Serra Geral volcanic event during the Early Cretaceous, with the thermal effect of volcanic rock cap possibly overcoming the effect of intrusive igneous bodies. The detection of methane in SAF shale pores indicates conditions for hydrocarbon generation. However, additionally studies are necessary to confirm the thermogenic and/or biogenic origin of the methane within the SAF.

  15. Development and Application of a Paleomagnetic/Geochemical Method for Constraining the Timing of Burial Diagenetic Events

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Richard D.; Engel, Michael H.

    2006-01-05

    Studies of diagenesis caused by fluid migration or other events are commonly hindered by a lack of temporal control. Our results to date demonstrate that a paleomagnetic/geochemical approach can be used to date fluid migration as well as burial diagenetic events. Our principal working hypothesis is that burial diagenetic processes (e.g., maturation of organic-rich sediments and clay diagenesis) and the migration of fluids can trigger the authigenesis of magnetic mineral phases. The ages of these events can be constrained by comparing chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs) to independently established Apparent Polar Wander Paths. Whilst geochemical (e.g. stable isotope and organic analyses)more » and petrographic studies provide important clues for establishing these relationships, the ultimate test of this hypothesis requires the application of independent dating methods to verify the paleomagnetic ages. Towards this end, we have used K-Ar dating of illitization as an alternative method for constraining the ages of magnetic mineral phases in our field areas. We have made significant progress toward understanding the origin and timing of chemical remagnetization related to burial diagenetic processes. For example, a recently completed field study documents a relationship between remagnetization and the maturation of organic matter (Blumstein et al., 2004). We have tested the hypothesized connection between clay diagenesis and remagnetization by conducting K-Ar dating of authigenic illites in units in Scotland and Montana with CRMs (e.g., Elliott et al., 2006a; Elliott et al., 2006b). We have also developed a fluid related model for alteration and remagnetization of Appalachian red beds that involves reduction and mobilization of iron phases by hydrocarbons and precipitation of authigenic hematite as a result of the introduction of meteoric fluid recharge (Cox et al., 2005). In addition, our recent studies of fluid-related CRMs along faults in Scotland provide

  16. Pumping Iron and Silica Bodybuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcnair, H.; Brzezinski, M. A.; Krause, J. W.; Parker, C.; Brown, M.; Coale, T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-02-01

    The availability of dissolved iron influences the stoichiometry of nutrient uptake by diatoms. Under nutrient replete conditions diatoms consume silicic acid and nitrate in a 1:1 ratio, this ratio increases under iron stress. Using the tracers 32Si and PDMPO, the total community and group-specific silica production rates were measured along a gradient of dissolved iron in an upwelling plume off the California coast. At each station, a control (ambient silicic acid) and +20 µM silicic acid treatment were conducted with each tracer to determine whether silicic acid limitation controlled the rate of silica production. Dissolved iron was 1.3 nmol kg-1 nearshore and decreased to 0.15 nmol kg-1 offshore. Silicic acid decreased more rapidly than nitrate, it was nearly 9 µM higher in the nearshore and 7 µM lower than nitrate in the middle of the transect where the iron concentration had decreased. The rate of diatom silica production decreased in tandem with silicic acid concentration, and silica production limitation by low silicic acid was most pronounced when iron concentrations were >0.4 nmol kg-1. The composition of the diatom assemblage shifted from Chaetoceros spp. dominated nearshore to a more sparse pennate-dominated assemblage offshore. Changes in taxa-specific silica production rates will be reported based on examination of PDMPO labeled cells using confocal microscopy.

  17. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  18. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2) g(-1) and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  19. Lipidic biosignatures in diagenetically stabilized ironstones terraces of Rio Tinto, an acidic environment with analogies to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Carrizo, D.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Parro, V.

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of extreme environments with analogies to Mars is important for understanding if/how life may have thrived in the Red Planet. Río Tinto in SW Spain is an extreme environment with constant acidic waters (mean pH of 2.3) and high concentration of heavy metals, which are direct consequence of the active metabolism of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich polymetallic sulfides present in the massive Iberian Pyritic Belt. Abundant minerals rich in ferric iron and sulfates, which result from the pyrite metabolism (e.g. jarosite, goethite, hematites, etc.) are of special interest for their potential for organics preservation [1]. Here, we investigate the occurrence and preservation of biological signatures in diagenetically stabilized ironstone deposits in Río Tinto, by using geolipidic markers.

  20. Fine-grained rutile in the Gulf of Maine: Diagenetic origin, source rocks, and sedimentary environment of deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Commeau, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine, an embayment of the New England margin, is floored by shallow, glacially scoured basins that are partly filled with late Pleistocene and Holocene silt and clay containing 0.7 to 1.0 wt percent TiO2 chiefly in the form of silt-size rutile. Much of the rutile in the Gulf of Maine mud probably formed diagenetically in poorly cemented Carboniferous and Triassic coarse-grained sedimentary rocks of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick after the dissolution of titanium-rich detrital minerals (ilmenite, ilmenomagnetite). The diagenesis of rutile in coarse sedimentary rocks (especially arkose and graywacke) followed by erosion, segregation, and deposition (and including recycling of fine-grained rutile from shales) can serve as a model for predicting and prospecting for unconsolidated deposits of fine-grained TiO2. -from Authors

  1. Origin of limestone-marlstone cycles: Astronomic forcing of organic-rich sedimentary rocks from the Cenomanian to early Coniacian of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldrett, James S.; Ma, Chao; Bergman, Steven C.; Ozkan, Aysen; Minisini, Daniel; Lutz, Brendan; Jackett, Sarah-Jane; Macaulay, Calum; Kelly, Amy E.

    2015-08-01

    We present an integrated multidisciplinary study of limestone-marlstone couplets from a continuously cored section including parts of the upper Buda Limestone, the entire Eagle Ford Group (Boquillas Formation) and lower Austin Chalk from the Shell Iona-1 research borehole (Texas, USA), which provides a >8 million year (myr) distal, clastic sediment-starved, intrashelf basin record of the early Cenomanian to the earliest Coniacian Stages. Results show that despite variable yet minimal diagenetic overprints, several unambiguous primary environmental signals are preserved and support greater water-mass ventilation and current activity promoting increased silica/carbonate productivity during the deposition of limestone beds compared to deposition of marlstone beds which reflect greater organic matter productivity and preservation. Furthermore, our astronomical analyses demonstrate that the limestone-marlstone couplets in the Iona-1 core reflect climatic forcing driven by solar insolation resulting from integrated Milankovitch periodicities. In particular, we propose that obliquity and precession forcing on the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation may have been responsible for the observed lithological and environmental variations through the Cenomanian, Turonian and Coniacian in this mid-latitude epicontinental sea setting. Our data also suggests that rhythmic lithological alternations deposited in Greenhouse periods, in general, may simply reflect climate-driven cycles related to Earth-Sun dynamics without the need to invoke significant sea-level variations.

  2. Diagenetic Carbonates Related to Hydrocarbon-rich Fluid Seepage in the Nile Deep Sea Fan (East Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Gontharet, S.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Bayon, G.; Dupré, S.; Mascle, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the NAUTINIL (September-October 2003), MIMES (July 2004), BIONIL (October 2006) and MEDECO2 (November 2007) cruises, coring and submersible dives were realized in the Nile Deep Sea Fan (NDSF) area. Active fluid venting sites were identified by the presence of living benthic organisms and by methane plumes in the bottom waters above the seeping structures. At all sites, hard carbonate crusts cover irregularly the sea floor. The sediments from the venting areas are organic-rich, contain sometimes carbonate concretions and have a strong H2S smell indicative of active sulfate reduction. The mineralogy of carbonate crusts is dominated by aragonite and Mg-calcite; the mineralogy of concretions is more complex, with mixtures of Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the carbonate from crusts and concretions exhibit large variations (-2.8< δ18O ‰ VPDB <+9.5; -42.6< δ13C ‰ VPDB <+22.4). The wide range of δ18O values reflects variable sources of fluids. Most of the authigenic carbonates from the NDSF were precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with the Mediterranean bottom water. The carbonate crusts and concretions from the brine seeps of the north-western NDSF are enriched in 18O indicating that a source of 18O-rich fluids originated from depth. Differently, a few crusts and concretions from the eastern NDSF exhibit relatively low δ18O values, which are due to precipitation at warm temperatures. The very low δ13C values of the diagenetic carbonates indicate that methane and possibly other heavier hydrocarbons were the major source of carbon that was oxidized as bicarbonate mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction coupled with anaerobic methane oxidation within the anoxic sediment. The very positive δ13C values of the diagenetic carbonates from many carbonate concretions are related to the production of 13C-rich CO2 during methanogenesis within the sub-seafloor sediments.

  3. Mesoporous silica templated zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballem, Mohamed A.; Córdoba, José M.; Odén, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were synthesized by infiltration of a zirconia precursor (ZrOCl2·8H2O) into a SBA-15 mesoporous silica mold using a wet-impregnation technique. X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show formation of stable ZrO2 nanoparticles inside the silica pores after a thermal treatment at 550 °C. Subsequent leaching out of the silica template by NaOH resulted in well-dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4 nm. The formed single crystal nanoparticles are faceted with 110 surfaces termination suggesting it to be the preferred growth orientation. A growth model of these nanoparticles is also suggested.

  4. Living bacteria in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

    2002-09-01

    The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

  5. Silica nanoparticle stability in biological media revisited.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seon-Ah; Choi, Sungmoon; Jeon, Seon Mi; Yu, Junhua

    2018-01-09

    The stability of silica nanostructure in the core-silica shell nanomaterials is critical to understanding the activity of these nanomaterials since the exposure of core materials due to the poor stability of silica may cause misinterpretation of experiments, but unfortunately reports on the stability of silica have been inconsistent. Here, we show that luminescent silver nanodots (AgNDs) can be used to monitor the stability of silica nanostructures. Though relatively stable in water and phosphate buffered saline, silica nanoparticles are eroded by biological media, leading to the exposure of AgNDs from AgND@SiO 2 nanoparticles and the quenching of nanodot luminescence. Our results reveal that a synergistic effect of organic compounds, particularly the amino groups, accelerates the erosion. Our work indicates that silica nanostructures are vulnerable to cellular medium and it may be possible to tune the release of drug molecules from silica-based drug delivery vehicles through controlled erosion.

  6. Silica Materials for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vallet-Regí, María; Balas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The two main applications of silica-based materials in medicine and biotechnology, i.e. for bone-repairing devices and for drug delivery systems, are presented and discussed. The influence of the structure and chemical composition in the final characteristics and properties of every silica-based material is also shown as a function of the both applications presented. The adequate combination of the synthesis techniques, template systems and additives leads to the development of materials that merge the bioactive behavior with the drug carrier ability. These systems could be excellent candidates as materials for the development of devices for tissue engineering. PMID:19662110

  7. Removal of dissolved and colloidal silica

    DOEpatents

    Midkiff, William S.

    2002-01-01

    Small amorphous silica particles are used to provide a relatively large surface area upon which silica will preferentially adsorb, thereby preventing or substantially reducing scaling caused by deposition of silica on evaporative cooling tower components, especially heat exchange surfaces. The silica spheres are contacted by the cooling tower water in a sidestream reactor, then separated using gravity separation, microfiltration, vacuum filtration, or other suitable separation technology. Cooling tower modifications for implementing the invention process have been designed.

  8. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica...

  14. U-Pb Geochronology of Hydrous Silica (Siebengebirge, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Frank; Nemchin, Alexander; Geisler, Thorsten; Heuser, Alexander; Merle, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Low-temperature, hydrous weathering eventually leads to characteristic products such as silica indurations. Elevated U concentrations and the ability of silica to maintain a closed system permits silica to be dated by the U-Pb method, which, in turn, will potentially allow constraining the timing of near-surface processes. To test the feasibility of silica U-Pb geochronology, we sampled opal and chalcedony from the Siebengebirge, Germany. This study area is situated at the terminus of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin on the Rhenish Massif. The investigated samples include silicified gravels from the Mittelbachtal locality, renowned for the embedded wood opal. Structural characterization of the silica phases (Raman spectroscopy) was combined with in situ isotopic analyses, using ion microprobe and LA-ICPMS techniques. In the Siebengebirge area fluviatile sediments of Upper Oligocene age were covered by an extended trachyte tuff at around 25 Ma. Silica is known to indurate some domains within the tuff and, in particular, certain horizons within the subjacent fluviatile sediments ('Tertiärquarzite'). Cementation of the gravels occurred during at least three successive growth stages: early paracrystalline silica (opal-CT), fibrous chalcedony, and late microcrystalline quartz. It has traditionally been assumed that this silica induration reflects intense weathering, more or less synchronous with the deposition of the volcanic ashes. Results from U-Pb geochronology returned a range of discrete 206Pb-238U ages, recording a protracted silicification history. For instance, we obtained 22 ± 1 Ma for opal-CT cement from a silicified tuff, 16.6 ± 0.5 Ma for silicified wood and opal-CT cement in the fluviatile gravels, as well as 11 ± 1 Ma for texturally late chalcedony. While silicification of the sampled tuff might be contemporaneous with late-stage basalts, opaline silicification of the subjacent sediments and their wood in the Mittelbachtal clearly postdates active

  15. The Phagocytosis and Toxicity of Amorphous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Knecht, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhalation of crystalline silica is known to cause an inflammatory reaction and chronic exposure leads to lung fibrosis and can progress into the disease, silicosis. Cultured macrophages bind crystalline silica particles, phagocytose them, and rapidly undergo apoptotic and necrotic death. The mechanism by which particles are bound and internalized and the reason particles are toxic is unclear. Amorphous silica has been considered to be a less toxic form, but this view is controversial. We compared the uptake and toxicity of amorphous silica to crystalline silica. Methodology/Principal Findings Amorphous silica particles are phagocytosed by macrophage cells and a single internalized particle is capable of killing a cell. Fluorescent dextran is released from endo-lysosomes within two hours after silica treatment and Caspase-3 activation occurs within 4 hours. Interestingly, toxicity is specific to macrophage cell lines. Other cell types are resistant to silica particle toxicity even though they internalize the particles. The large and uniform size of the spherical, amorphous silica particles allowed us to monitor them during the uptake process. In mCherry-actin transfected macrophages, actin rings began to form 1-3 minutes after silica binding and the actin coat disassembled rapidly following particle internalization. Pre-loading cells with fluorescent dextran allowed us to visualize the fusion of phagosomes with endosomes during internalization. These markers provided two new ways to visualize and quantify particle internalization. At 37°C the rate of amorphous silica internalization was very rapid regardless of particle coating. However, at room temperature, opsonized silica is internalized much faster than non-opsonized silica. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that amorphous and crystalline silica are both phagocytosed and both toxic to mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. The pathway leading to apoptosis appears to be similar in both

  16. The phagocytosis and toxicity of amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Lindsey M; Gilberti, Renée M; Knecht, David A

    2011-02-02

    Inhalation of crystalline silica is known to cause an inflammatory reaction and chronic exposure leads to lung fibrosis and can progress into the disease, silicosis. Cultured macrophages bind crystalline silica particles, phagocytose them, and rapidly undergo apoptotic and necrotic death. The mechanism by which particles are bound and internalized and the reason particles are toxic is unclear. Amorphous silica has been considered to be a less toxic form, but this view is controversial. We compared the uptake and toxicity of amorphous silica to crystalline silica. Amorphous silica particles are phagocytosed by macrophage cells and a single internalized particle is capable of killing a cell. Fluorescent dextran is released from endo-lysosomes within two hours after silica treatment and Caspase-3 activation occurs within 4 hours. Interestingly, toxicity is specific to macrophage cell lines. Other cell types are resistant to silica particle toxicity even though they internalize the particles. The large and uniform size of the spherical, amorphous silica particles allowed us to monitor them during the uptake process. In mCherry-actin transfected macrophages, actin rings began to form 1-3 minutes after silica binding and the actin coat disassembled rapidly following particle internalization. Pre-loading cells with fluorescent dextran allowed us to visualize the fusion of phagosomes with endosomes during internalization. These markers provided two new ways to visualize and quantify particle internalization. At 37 °C the rate of amorphous silica internalization was very rapid regardless of particle coating. However, at room temperature, opsonized silica is internalized much faster than non-opsonized silica. Our results indicate that amorphous and crystalline silica are both phagocytosed and both toxic to mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. The pathway leading to apoptosis appears to be similar in both cases. However, the result suggests a mechanistic difference

  17. High-Silica Lamoose Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-23

    A rock fragment dubbed "Lamoose" is shown in this picture taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on NASA's Curiosity rover. Like other nearby rocks in a portion of the "Marias Pass" area of Mt. Sharp, Mars, it has unusually high concentrations of silica. The high silica was first detected in the area by the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) laser spectrometer. This rock was targeted for follow-up study by the MAHLI and the arm-mounted Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Silica is a rock-forming compound containing silicon and oxygen, commonly found on Earth as quartz. High levels of silica could indicate ideal conditions for preserving ancient organic material, if present, so the science team wants to take a closer look. The rock is about 4 inches (10 centimeters) across. It is fine-grained, perhaps finely layered, and etched by the wind. The image was taken on the 1,041st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2015). MAHLI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19828

  18. Construction of homogenous/heterogeneous hollow mesoporous silica nanostructures by silica-etching chemistry: principles, synthesis, and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hang-Rong; Shi, Jian-Lin

    2014-01-21

    Colloidal hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are aspecial type of silica-based nanomaterials with penetrating mesopore channels on their shells. HMSNs exhibit unique structural characteristics useful for diverse applications: Firstly, the hollow interiors can function as reservoirs for enhanced loading of guest molecules, or as nanoreactors for the growth of nanocrystals or for catalysis in confined spaces. Secondly, the mesoporous silica shell enables the free diffusion of guest molecules through the intact shell. Thirdly, the outer silica surface is ready for chemical modifications, typically via its abundant Si-OH bonds. As early as 2003, researchers developed a soft-templating methodto prepare hollow aluminosilicate spheres with penetrating mesopores in a cubic symmetry pattern on the shells. However, adapting this method for applications on the nanoscale, especially for biomedicine, has proved difficult because the soft templating micelles are very sensitive to liquid environments, making it difficult to tune key parameters such as dispersity, morphology and structure. In this Account, we present the most recent developments in the tailored construction of highly dispersive and monosized HMSNs using simple silica-etching chemistry, and we discuss these particles' excellent performance in diverse applications. We first introduce general principles of silica-etching chemistry for controlling the chemical composition and the structural parameters (particle size, pore size, etching modalities, yolk-shell nanostructures, etc.) of HMSNs. Secondly, we include recent progress in constructing heterogeneous, multifunctional, hollow mesoporous silica nanorattles via several methods for diverse applications. These elaborately designed HMSNs could be topologically transformed to prepare hollow mesoporous carbon nanoparticles or functionalized to produce HMSN-based composite nanomaterials. Especially in biomedicine, HMSNs are excellent as carriers to deliver

  19. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagenetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, USA) is unlike that of most marine and other lacustrine rocks. Distinctive chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides strikingly enriched in 34S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and ??34S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in ??34S values. Analyses that identified and quantified these characteristics include carbonate-free abundance of organic carbon (0.13-47 wt%), total iron (0.31-13 wt%), reactive iron (>70% of total iron), total sulfur (0.02-16 wt%), acid-volatile monosulfide (SAv), disulfide (SDi > 70% of total sulfur), sulfate (SSO4) and organosulfur (SOrg); isotopic composition of separated sulfur phases (??34SDi,Av up to +49???); and mineralogy, morphology and paragenesis of sulfide minerals. Mineralogy, morphology, ??34SDi,Av, and ??34SOrg have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H2S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H2S:SO4 ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H2S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to ??34S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is estimated to have

  20. The diagenetic behavior of cutin acids in buried conifer needles and sediments from a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Whole green, litter, and sedimentary fir, hemlock, and cedar needles and bulk sediments collected from the Dabob Bay region in Washington state were analyzed for their cutin-derived CuO reaction products. All samples yielded dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid isomers (x,ω-C 16), 16-hydroxyhexa-decanoic acid (ω-C 16), 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (ω-C 14), and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (ω-C 18: 1) as the major cutin acids. Fir/hemlock needle mixtures were characterized by a high abundance of the 9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid positional isomer, while cedar needles produced primarily the 10,16-dihydroxy counterpart. Cutin acids accounted for ~3% of tissue C in green needles, ~4% in needle litter, 0.5-1.5% in sedimentary needles, and about 0.1% of the organic carbon (OC) in bulk sediments. Approximately 80% of the original cutin acids in fresh green needles were lost from the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary tissues. Cutin was more reactive than lignin and polysaccharides, but more stable than the cyclitol components of the same needles. Comparative diagenetic losses of the individual cutin acids were not uniform and suggest that additional hydroxy groups and the presence of C double bonds both increase overall reactivity. The relative stability series derived for all the molecular constituents measured is: total vanillyl phenols > total P- hydroxy phenols, ferulic acid, most aldoses, bulk organic matter > mannose, ω-C 14, ω-C 16 ⩾ ω-C 18:1 > glucose, p- coumaric acid, x, ω-C 16 > all cyclitols. Diagenetically induced changes in the various cutin parameters used to characterize nonwoody vascular plant tissues were not large enough to confuse degraded conifer tissues with other cutin sources. Based on these trends, the finely disseminated cutin-bearing tissues in Dabob Bay sediments appear to be comprised approximately of equal amounts of highly degraded fir/hemlock and cedar needle fragments. According to this estimate, nonwoody vascular plant debris

  1. A Paleomagnetic and Diagenetic Study of the Woodford Shale, Oklahoma, U.S.A.: The Timing of Hydrothermal Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Elmore, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    An oriented Woodford Shale core from the Ardmore Basin near the Ouachita thrust zone (Core B) was sampled to identify diagenetic events and interpret their origin, and to test if a magnetization was present that can be used to date the altering event(s). The shale is extensively altered, exhibiting a complex paragenesis with multiple fractures and brecciated intervals. Multiple hydrothermal minerals, including biotite, magnesite, norsethite, witherite, gorceixite, potassium feldspar, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and saddle dolomite, are present in and around fractures and in the matrix. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance measurements indicate VRo values of 1.82% ( 230°C). Two other Woodford Shale cores (A and C) from the Anadarko Basin also contain hydrothermal minerals. Vitrinite and bitumen reflectance data reveal trends between thermal maturity and the level of hydrothermal alteration, with Core A (0.80% VRo ( 125°C) displaying the lowest alteration, and Core C ( 1.5% VRo ( 210°C) displaying intermediate alteration compared to core B. Paleomagnetic analysis of Core B reveals the presence of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with south-southeasterly declinations and shallow inclinations that is unblocked by 450°C and is interpreted to reside in magnetite. This ChRM is interpreted to be either a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) or a thermochemical remanent magnetization (TCRM) acquired during the Late Permian based on the pole position. The presence of specimens with the CRM/TCRM in altered rock and high thermal maturities suggests that this CRM/TCRM originated from alteration by hydrothermal fluids. These results suggest that the Woodford Shale evolved into an open diagenetic system. In addition to causing heightened thermal maturities, these hydrothermal fluids both increased porosity through dissolution and decreased porosity through precipitation of minerals. The Late Permian timing agrees with the dating of hydrothermal alteration found

  2. Diagenetic Microcrystalline Opal Varieties from the Monterey Formation, CA: HRTEM Study of Structures and Phase Transformation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, Sherry L.; Wenk, H.-R.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Microcrystalline opal varieties form as intermediary precipitates during the diagenetic transformation of biogenically precipitated non-crystalline opal (opal-A) to microquartz. With regard to the Monterey Formation of California, X-ray powder diffraction studies have shown that a decrease in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT toward that of cristobalite occurs with increasing diagenesis. The initial timing of opal-CT/quartz formation and the value of the primary opal-CT d-spacing, are influenced by the sediment. lithology. Transmission electron microscopy methods (CTEM/HRTEM) were used to investigate the structure of the diagenetic phases and establish transformation mechanisms between the varieties of microcrystalline opals in charts and porcelanites from the Monterey Formation. HRTEM images revealed that the most common fibrous varieties of microcrystalline opals contain varying amounts of structural disorder. Finite lamellar units of cristobalite-and tridymite-type. layer sequences were found to be randomly stacked in a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis. Disordered and ordered fibers were found to have coprecipitated within the same radial fiber bundles that formed within the matrix of the Most siliceous samples. HRTEM images, which reveal that the fibers within radial and lepispheric fiber bundles branch non-crystallographically, support an earlier proposal that microspheres in chert grow via a spherulitic growth mechanism. A less common variety of opal-CT was found to be characterized by non-parallel (low-angle) stacking sequences that often contain twinned lamellae. Tabular-shaped crystals of orthorhombic tridymite (PO-2) were also identified in the porcelanite samples. A shift in the primary d-spacing of opal-CT has been interpreted as an indication of solid-state ordering g toward a predominantly cristobalite structure, (opal-C). Domains of opal-C were identified as topotactically-oriented overgrowths on discrete Sections of opal-CT fibers and as

  3. Biomimetic mineral self-organization from silica-rich spring waters.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Nakouzi, Elias; Kotopoulou, Electra; Tamborrino, Leonardo; Steinbock, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    Purely inorganic reactions of silica, metal carbonates, and metal hydroxides can produce self-organized complex structures that mimic the texture of biominerals, the morphology of primitive organisms, and that catalyze prebiotic reactions. To date, these fascinating structures have only been synthesized using model solutions. We report that mineral self-assembly can be also obtained from natural alkaline silica-rich water deriving from serpentinization. Specifically, we demonstrate three main types of mineral self-assembly: (i) nanocrystalline biomorphs of barium carbonate and silica, (ii) mesocrystals and crystal aggregates of calcium carbonate with complex biomimetic textures, and (iii) osmosis-driven metal silicate hydrate membranes that form compartmentalized, hollow structures. Our results suggest that silica-induced mineral self-assembly could have been a common phenomenon in alkaline environments of early Earth and Earth-like planets.

  4. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  5. Regional cement stratigraphy and diagenetic history of Waulsortian Limestones, eastern Midlands, Republic of Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.E.; Meyers, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Waulsortian Limestones, eastern Midlands, Republic of Ireland, contain 7 distinct luminescent zones in clear calcite cements that overlie inclusion-rich, marine cements in cavities and also fill fractures and aragonite-skeleton molds. The luminescent sequence, which records precipitation from increasingly reducing pore waters, is regionally and stratigraphically consistent over an interval more than 1200 ft thick. Zone 1 cements are nonluminescent; zone 2 cements are brightly luminescent; and zones 3-7 cements are ferroan with a moderate to dull luminescence. Zone 1 cements (mean -2.6% delta/sup 18/O/ +3.3% delta/sup 13/C PDB) are slightly depleted in oxygen relative to radiaxial-fibrous cementsmore » (mean -1.8% delta/sup 18/O/ +3.5% delta/sup 13/C PDB) which have a composition that reflects Lower Carboniferous seawater. Zone 4 cements (mean -4.1% delta/sup 18/O/ +3.1% delta/sup 13/C PDB) are depleted in oxygen relative to zone 1, whereas zone 5 cements (mean -11.8% delta/sup 18/O/ +1.1 delta/sup 13/C PDB) are extremely depleted in oxygen and somewhat in carbon. Locally intense dolomitization includes 2 regionally extensive generations of ferroan saddle dolomite. Petrographic relationships demonstrate these dolomite generations were replaced by zone 5 cement. Sulfide mineralization, principally pyrite and sphalerite, occurred after the precipitation of zone 5 cement. Much of diagenesis occurred during a brief period in the Lower Carboniferous. Zones 1-6 and saddle dolomites are contained in Chadian (upper Osagean), shallow-marine facies overlying the Waulsortian. Fractures filled by zone 5 cements are truncated at the margins of Waulsortian clasts contained in a conglomerate overlying an early Arundian (early Meramecian) unconformity.« less

  6. Biogeochemistry of silica in Devils Lake: Implications for diatom preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.; Lyons, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diatom-salinity records from sediment cores have been used to construct climate records of saline-lake basins. In many cases, this has been done without thorough understanding of the preservation potential of the diatoms in the sediments through time. The purpose of this study was to determine the biogeochemistry of silica in Devils Lake and evaluate the potential effects of silica cycling on diatom preservation. During the period of record, 1867-1999, lake levels have fluctuated from 427 m above sea level in 1940 to 441.1 m above sea level in 1999. The biogeochemistry of silica in Devils Lake is dominated by internal cycling. During the early 1990s when lake levels were relatively high, about 94% of the biogenic silica (BSi) produced in Devils Lake was recycled in the water column before burial. About 42% of the BSi that was incorporated in bottom sediments was dissolved and diffused back into the lake, and the remaining 58% was buried. Therefore, the BSi accumulation rate was about 3% of the BSi assimilation rate. Generally, the results obtained from this study are similar to those obtained from studies of the biogeochemistry of silica in large oligotrophic lakes and the open ocean where most of the BSi produced is recycled in surface water. During the mid 1960s when lake levels were relatively low, BSi assimilation and water-column dissolution rates were much higher than when lake levels were high. The BSi assimilation rate was as much as three times higher during low lake levels. Even with the much higher BSi assimilation rate, the BSi accumulation rate was about three times lower because the BSi water-column dissolution rate was more than 99% of the BSi assimilation rate compared to 94% during high lake levels. Variations in the biogeochemistry of silica with lake level have important implications for paleolimnologic studies. Increased BSi water-column dissolution during decreasing lake levels may alter the diatom-salinity record by selectively removing the

  7. Silica Nanofiber Combat Hemostat (SINCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-13

    1.5mg 0.6 65 205 High aspect ratio silica fibers (30um x 60nm) 9mg 0.63 58.9 140 Kaolin (TEG control) 0.2mg n/a 59.8 155 TiO2 high aspect ratio...high surface area to volume ratio and thus the material is difficult to handle in an uncontrolled environment. It is easily dispersed and is not easy

  8. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain Silica-IMERs 10 and is the mode of action of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen .[61] Serotonin...supports and using the enantiomeric selectivity of the enzyme to resolve racemic mixtures.[100] Immobilization onto supports with various pore sizes and...activity (~37%) and used as a packed- bed IMER to catalyze the racemic resolution of (S)-ketoprofen from its constituent enantiomers . The optically pure (S

  9. Examining the diagenetic alteration of human bone material from a range of archaeological burial sites using nuclear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, T. A.; Grime, G. W.

    1993-05-01

    The inorganic analysis of archaeological bone material can potentially provide a wealth of information about the chronology, diet and palaeoenvironment of past populations: for example, strontium and uranium levels are used in palaeodietary and dating studies, respectively. However, the extent to which the chemical composition of bone is subject to diagenetic change during burial is open to controversy due, in part, to differences in analytical technique, bone types and burial conditions. To investigate this problem, archaeological human bone material from a number of different geological environments including Pompeii and a 12th century British ecclesiastical site, together with material from two seawater burials (The "Mary Rose" and a 6th century Mediterranean wreck) have been studied using the nuclear microprobe facility at the University of Oxford. Results using microbeam PIXE show that bone is subject to contamination from a wide range of trace elements depending on the burial conditions. Elemental maps are presented to demonstrate the distribution of trace element accumulation under different burial conditions, and the significance of this work to future trace element studies is discussed.

  10. Silica exposure and systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Karen B

    2003-01-01

    Work in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities has exposed workers to multiple toxic agents leading to acute and chronic diseases. Many exposures were common to numerous work sites. Exposure to crystalline silica was primarily restricted to a few facilities. I present the case of a 63-year-old male who worked in DOE facilities for 30 years as a weapons testing technician. In addition to silica, other workplace exposures included beryllium, various solvents and heavy metals, depleted uranium, and ionizing radiation. In 1989 a painful macular skin lesion was biopsied and diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. By 1992 he developed gross hematuria and dyspnea. Blood laboratory results revealed a serum creatinine concentration of 2.1 mg/dL, ethrythrocyte sedimentation rate of 61 mm/hr, negative cANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody cytoplasmic pattern), positive pANCA (ANCA perinuclear pattern), and antiglomerular basement membrane negative. Renal biopsy showed proliferative (crescentric) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. The patient's diagnoses included microscopic polyangiitis, systemic necrotizing vasculitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis. Environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of an idiopathic expression of systemic autoimmune disease. Crystalline silica exposure has been linked to rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and some of the small vessel vasculitides. DOE workers are currently able to apply for compensation under the federal Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program (EEOICP). However, the only diseases covered by EEOICP are cancers related to radiation exposure, chronic beryllium disease, and chronic silicosis. PMID:14644669

  11. Silica passivated conjugated polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, Struan; Urbano, Laura; Olona, Antoni; Valderrama, Ferran; Dailey, Lea Ann; Green, Mark A.

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal and prostate cancers are major causes of cancer-related death, with early detection key to increased survival. However, as symptoms occur during advanced stages and current diagnostic methods have limitations, there is a need for new fluorescent probes that remain bright, are biocompatible and can be targeted. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles have shown great promise in biological imaging due to their unique optical properties. We have synthesised small, bright, photo-stable CN-PPV, nanoparticles encapsulated with poloxamer polymer and a thin silica shell. By incubating the CN-PPV silica shelled cross-linked (SSCL) nanoparticles in mammalian (HeLa) cells; we were able to show that cellular uptake occurred. Uptake was also shown by incubating the nanoparticles in RWPE-1, WPE1-NB26 and WPE1- NA22 prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, HEK cells were used to show the particles had limited cytotoxicity.

  12. Process for preparing polymer reinforced silica aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Capadona, Lynn A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Process for preparing polymer-reinforced silica aerogels which comprises a one-pot reaction of at least one alkoxy silane in the presence of effective amounts of a polymer precursor to obtain a silica reaction product, the reaction product is gelled and subsequently subjected to conditions that promotes polymerization of the precursor and then supercritically dried to obtain the polymer-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels.

  13. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulfmore » some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to

  14. Repeated occurrences of methanogenic zones, diagenetic dolomite formation and linked silicate alteration in southern Bering Sea sediments (Bowers Ridge, IODP Exp. 323 Site U1341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrmann, L. M.; Ockert, C.; Mix, A. C.; Gussone, N.; Teichert, B. M. A.; Meister, P.

    2016-03-01

    Diagenetic precipitates, such as dolomite, and the chemistry of residual deeply buried porewater often represent the only traces of past biogeochemical activity in marine sediments. A 600 m thick sedimentary section, recently drilled at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1341 on Bowers Ridge (southern Bering Sea), provides insight into such a 4.3 Ma old paleo-diagenetic archive. Hard-lithified calcite-dolomite layers, and laminae of disseminated carbonate, were recovered in diatom-rich sediments over a depth range of 400 m. Carbon isotope values of the diagenetic carbonates between -16.6 and -14.4‰ (VPDB) and strontium isotope ratios of dolomites close to past seawater values suggest carbonate precipitation induced by the production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during elevated rates of organic carbon mineralization, primarily via sulfate reduction, at shallow sediment depth below the paleo-seafloor. Diagenetic carbonates at 280-440 m below seafloor were likely also produced by the intermittent onset of sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at sulfate-methane transition zones (SMTZ). These microbially mediated processes do not occur in the sediment at this site at present but were likely connected to the presence of a methanogenic zone at 2.58-2.51 Ma. A minimum in sulfate concentrations in modern porewaters and low sedimentary Ba/Al ratios resulting from former sulfate depletion are reminiscent of the presence of this large methanogenic zone. The minimum in sulfate concentrations is reflected in a minimum in magnesium concentrations, less radiogenic strontium and isotopically light calcium in the porewater. It is proposed that magnesium was removed from the porewater during carbonate precipitation and volcanic ash alteration which occurred in the former methanogenic zone and also released strontium with a less radiogenic isotope ratio and isotopically light calcium into the porewater. The isotopic composition of

  15. (S, C, O, Sr) isotopic constraints on the diagenetic evolution of the COX clay formations at the Bure URL site, Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Agrinier, P.; Widory, D.; Guerrot, C.; Buschaert, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Underground Research Laboratory of Bure, located in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin, was selected by ANDRA (French Agency for Nuclear Management) in order to study the feasibility of a nuclear waste disposal in the Callovian-Oxfordian thick clayey formation at 400 meters depth. Since 1994's, numerous investigations have been initiated to understand and predict the behaviour of the clay formation in time and in space, by constraining its stability, the chemical evolution of the porewaters, and solution transfers between the clayey formation and its adjacent limestone sequences during geological times (ANDRA, 2005). In that way, this study presents combined new mineralogical and isotopic data of the diagenetic mineral sequence to constrain the porewater chemistry of the rock at different stages of the sedimentary then burial history of the clayey formation. The petrological study of Callovian-Oxfordian claystones provided evidence of the following diagenetic mineral sequence: 1) Framboïdal pyrite ± micritic calcite in replacement of carbonate bioclasts and in bioturbations, 2) Iron-rich euhedral carbonates (ankerite, sideroplesite), Glauconite, 3) Sparry dolomite, celestite in residual porosity, 4) Chalcedony 5) quartz/calcite. Pyrite in bioturbations shows a wide range of δ34S (-38 to +74 permil/CDT), providing evidence of bacterial sulphate reduction processes. The lowest negative values (-38 to -22 permil) indicate precipitation of pyrite in a marine environment with a permanent recharge in sulphate, whereas the higher pyrite δ34S values (-14 up to +74 permil) show that pyrite precipitated in a system that closed for sulphate. Consequently the variations of pyrite δ34S in bioturbations along the lithostratigraphic profil indicate a change of sedimentation conditions from a deep marine environment to an environment with alternative recharge of marine sulphates; that is consistent with the transgression/regression cycle observed in the middle sequence

  16. Origin of the diagenetic carbonate crusts and concretions from the mud volcanoes of the Nile deep-sea fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontharet, S.; Pierre, C.; Blanc Valleron, M.; Rouchy, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Bayon, G.

    2004-12-01

    sources of diagenetic fluids. Typically, the very low \\delta13C values of the authigenic carbonates indicate that CH4 was the major source of carbon which was oxidized as CO2, either through bacterial sulfate reduction within the sediment, or via bacterial aerobic oxidation at the sea floor. Similar isotopic values were previously measured in the diagenetic carbonate crusts from the mud volcanoes of the Mediterranean Ridge area (Aloisi et al., 2000) as well as in other areas of cold seeps outside the Mediterranean sea (for instance Gulf of Mexico, Cascadia margin, Barbados prism). References: Aloisi G., Pierre C., Rouchy J.M., Foucher J.P., Woodside J. and the Medinaut Scientific Party, 2000. E.P.S.L., 184, 321-338. Loncke L., Gaullier V., Bellaiche G., and Mascle J., 2004. A.A.P.G. Bull

  17. Pyrolytic indices of diagenetic transformation of lignin as biogeochemical proxies for soil organic matter quality and C storage potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; Almendros, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Ana M.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors involved in soil organic carbon sequestration remain unclear. The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) and its resilience has been a constant in classical biogeochemical models. Other more recent hypotheses have postulated that preservation by soil minerals may play a chief role in the accumulation of stable SOM forms. However, additional experimental data are required to demonstrate a cause-to-effect relationship between preservation and stabilization. Some authors might consider that models neglecting the role of macromolecular structure are swapping cause and effect i.e., that SOM structurally flexible, weakly condensed and having 'open' structures is the one with high potential to interact with the soil mineral matrix, leading to stable microaggregates. In this study up to 35 topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected from different Spanish soils with contrasted values of organic C (the dependent variable), geological substrate and vegetation type. A wide array of uni- and multivariate chemometric models were applied to independent variables consisting of total abundances of the major aromatic compounds, i.e., alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols released from whole soil samples using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These two families of compounds were selected since they are classically considered to inform on the degree of microbial reworking of lignins, which is an important precursor of the aromatic moiety of the SOM. A series of pyrolytic surrogate indices (aiming to express SOM diagenetic transformation in relation to the original biogenic molecular composition) were especially successful in forecasting SOC, viz: a) ratio between alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols, b) ratio between short-chain (C0-C4) and long-chain (>C4) alkylbenzenes, c) ratio between methoxyphenols and short-chain alkylbenzenes, and d) ratios between methoxyphenols with different side

  18. Assessing past and present P Retention in Sediments in Lake Ontario (Bay of Quinte) by Reaction-Transport Diagenetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Phuong; Berry, Sandra; Markovic, Stefan; Watson, Sue; Mugalingam, Shan; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient that can limit aquatic primary production and the risk of harmful algal blooms. Although there is considerable evidence that P release from sediments can represent a significant source of P and burial in sediments returns P to the geological sink; these processes have been poorly characterised. In this study, we applied a non-steady state reactive transport diagenetic model to gain insights into the dynamics of phosphorus binding forms in sediments and the phosphorus cycling of the Bay of Quinte, an embayment of Lake Ontario, Canada. The three basins of the bay (Belleville, Hay Bay and Napanee) that we investigated had differences in their phosphorus binding forms and phosphorus release, reflecting the distinct spatial temporal patterns of land use and urbanization levels in the watershed. Sediment cores from the three stations were collected during summer and under ice cover in 2013-14. Oxygen, pH and redox potential were monitored by microsensors; porewater and sediment solid matter were analyzed for P content, and a sequential extraction was used to analyze P binding forms. In the reaction-transport model, total phosphorus was divided into adsorbed phosphorus, phosphorus bound with aluminium, organic phosphorus, redox sensitive and apatite phosphorus. Using the fluxes of organic and inorganic matter as dynamic boundary conditions, we simulated the depth profiles of solute and solid components. The model closely reproduced the fractionation data of phosphorus binding forms and soluble reactive phosphorus. The past and present P fluxes were calculated and estimated; they related to geochemical conditions, and P binding forms in sediments. Our results show that P release from sediments is dominated by the redox-sentive P fraction accounting for higher percentage at Napanee station. The main P binding form that can be immobilized through diagenesis is apatite P contributing highest P retention at HayBay station. The mass

  19. Magnetic Hysteresis Parameters and Day-Plot Analysis to Delineate Diagenetic Alteration in Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Baker, J.; Nourgaliev, D.; Iassonov, P.

    2005-12-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring cage structures of ice found in continental slope and permafrost sediments. They contain vast quantities of methane which is important both as a climate driver and an energy resource. Hydrate formation alters the redox potential of interstitial fluids which can in turn alter magnetic minerals. Thus magnetic methods can help delineate diagenetic pathways, provide a proxy method to map out past hydrate occurrences, and eventually lead to new remote sensing methods in prospecting for gas hydrates. We present data acquired using a J-Meter Coercivity Spectrometer. Induced and remanent magnetism are simultaneously measured on 1.5 cc samples as they spin on a 50 cm diameter disk, 20 times per second. The applied field ramps between ± 500 mT to produce a hysteresis loop in 7 minutes. Sub-second viscous decay is measured to provide a proxy for the amount of superparamagnetism present. The rapid and simple measurements made possible by this robust machine are ideal for core logging. Measurements made on frozen core from the Mallik permafrost gas hydrate field in Canada's Northwest Territories demonstrates that the magnetic properties are dependent on the concentration of gas hydrate present. Day-plots of magnetic hysteresis parameter ratios distinguish the magnetic carriers in gas hydrate rich sediments. The original magnetite is often reduced to sulphide when gas hydrate concentration exceeds 40%. In other high-concentration gas hydrate horizons, fine single-domain (SD) grains of magnetite apparently dissolve leaving nothing but large multi-domain (MD) magnetite grains. Independently measured superparamagnetism is shown to push hysteresis ratios off the hyperbola expected for SD-MD mixtures, as predicted by Dunlop [JGR, 10.10291/2001JB000486, 2002]. Magnetic study of host sediments in gas hydrate systems provides a powerful core-logging tool, offers a window into the processes of gas hydrate formation, and forms the basis for

  20. The Amorphous Composition of Three Mudstone Samples from Gale Crater: Implications for Weathering and Diagenetic Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Bristow, T. F.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Sutter, B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is exploring the lowermost formation of Gale crater's central mound. Within this formation, three samples named Marimba, Quela, and Sebina have been analyzed by the CheMin X-ray diffractometer and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) to determine mineralogy and bulk elemental chemistry, respectively. Marimba and Quela were also analyzed by the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) instrument to characterize the type and abundance of volatile phases detected in evolved gas analyses (EGA). CheMin data show similar proportions of plagioclase, hematite, and Ca-sulfates along with a mixture of di- and trioctahedral smectites at abundances of approximately 28, approximately 16, and approximately 18 wt% for Marimba, Quela, and Sebina. Approximately 50 wt% of each mudstone is comprised of X-ray amorphous and trace crystalline phases present below the CheMin detection limit (approximately 1 wt%). APXS measurements reveal a distinct bulk elemental chemistry that cannot be attributed to the clay mineral variation alone indicating a variable amorphous phase assemblage exists among the three mudstones. To explore the amorphous component, the calculated amorphous composition and SAM EGA results are used to identify amorphous phases unique to each mudstone. For example, the amorphous fraction of Marimba has twice the FeO wt% compared to Quela and Sebina yet, SAM EGA data show no evidence for Fe-sulfates. These data imply that Fe must reside in alternate Fe-bearing amorphous phases (e.g., nanophase iron oxides, ferrihydrite, etc.). Constraining the composition, abundances, and proposed identity of the amorphous fraction provides an opportunity to speculate on the past physical, chemical, and/or diagenetic processes which produced such phases in addition to sediment sources, lake chemistry, and the broader geologic history of Gale crater.

  1. DNA adsorption to and elution from silica surfaces: influence of amino acid buffers.

    PubMed

    Vandeventer, Peter E; Mejia, Jorge; Nadim, Ali; Johal, Malkiat S; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-09-19

    Solid phase extraction and purification of DNA from complex samples typically requires chaotropic salts that can inhibit downstream polymerase amplification if carried into the elution buffer. Amino acid buffers may serve as a more compatible alternative for modulating the interaction between DNA and silica surfaces. We characterized DNA binding to silica surfaces, facilitated by representative amino acid buffers, and the subsequent elution of DNA from the silica surfaces. Through bulk depletion experiments, we found that more DNA adsorbs to silica particles out of positively compared to negatively charged amino acid buffers. Additionally, the type of the silica surface greatly influences the amount of DNA adsorbed and the final elution yield. Quartz crystal microbalance experiments with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) revealed multiphasic DNA adsorption out of stronger adsorbing conditions such as arginine, glycine, and glutamine, with DNA more rigidly bound during the early stages of the adsorption process. The DNA film adsorbed out of glutamate was more flexible and uniform throughout the adsorption process. QCM-D characterization of DNA elution from the silica surface indicates an uptake in water mass during the initial stage of DNA elution for the stronger adsorbing conditions, which suggests that for these conditions the DNA film is partly dehydrated during the prior adsorption process. Overall, several positively charged and polar neutral amino acid buffers show promise as an alternative to methods based on chaotropic salts for solid phase DNA extraction.

  2. DNA Adsorption to and Elution from Silica Surfaces: Influence of Amino Acid Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Vandeventer, Peter E.; Mejia, Jorge; Nadim, Ali; Johal, Malkiat S.; Niemz, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Solid phase extraction and purification of DNA from complex samples typically requires chaotropic salts that can inhibit downstream polymerase amplification if carried into the elution buffer. Amino acid buffers may serve as a more compatible alternative for modulating the interaction between DNA and silica surfaces. We characterized DNA binding to silica surfaces, facilitated by representative amino acid buffers, and the subsequent elution of DNA from the silica surfaces. Through bulk depletion experiments, we found that more DNA adsorbs to silica particles out of positively compared to negatively charged amino acid buffers. Additionally, the type of the silica surface greatly influences the amount of DNA adsorbed, and the final elution yield. Quartz crystal microbalance experiments with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) revealed multiphasic DNA adsorption out of stronger adsorbing conditions such as arginine, glycine, and glutamine, with DNA more rigidly bound during the early stages of the adsorption process. The DNA film adsorbed out of glutamate was more flexible and uniform throughout the adsorption process. QCM-D characterization of DNA elution from the silica surface indicates an uptake in water mass during the initial stage of DNA elution for the stronger adsorbing conditions, which suggests that for these conditions the DNA film is partly dehydrated during the prior adsorption process. Overall, several positively charged and polar neutral amino acid buffers show promise as an alternative to methods based on chaotropic salts for solid phase DNA extraction. PMID:23931415

  3. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    PubMed

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Biomimetic silica encapsultation of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroch, David Benjamin

    Living cells perform complex chemical processes on size and time scales that artificial systems cannot match. Cells respond dynamically to their environment, acting as biological sensors, factories, and drug delivery devices. To facilitate the use of living systems in engineered constructs, we have developed several new approaches to create stable protective microenvironments by forming bioinspired cell-membrane-specific silica-based encapsulants. These include vapor phase deposition of silica gels, use of endogenous membrane proteins and polysaccharides as a site for silica nucleation and polycondensation in a saturated environment, and protein templated ordered silica shell formation. We demonstrate silica layer formation at the surface of pluripotent stem-like cells, bacterial biofilms, and primary murine and human pancreatic islets. Materials are characterized by AFM, SEM and EDS. Viability assays confirm cell survival, and metabolite flux measurements demonstrate normal function and no major diffusion limitations. Real time PCR mRNA analysis indicates encapsulated islets express normal levels of genetic markers for β-cells and insulin production. The silica glass encapsulant produces a secondary bone like calcium phosphate mineral layer upon exposure to media. Such bioactive materials can improve device integration with surrounding tissue upon implantation. Given the favorable insulin response, bioactivity, and long-term viability observed in silica-coated islets, we are currently testing the encapsulant's ability to prevent immune system recognition of foreign transplants for the treatment of diabetes. Such hybrid silica-cellular constructs have a wide range of industrial, environmental, and medical applications.

  5. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product....

  6. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product....

  7. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m2 g-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates. PMID:24349573

  8. Sample Desorption/Onization From Mesoporous Silica

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Srinivas; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.

    2005-10-25

    Mesoporous silica is shown to be a sample holder for laser desorption/ionization of mass spectrometry. Supported mesoporous silica was prepared by coating an ethanolic silicate solution having a removable surfactant onto a substrate to produce a self-assembled, ordered, nanocomposite silica thin film. The surfactant was chosen to provide a desired pore size between about 1 nanometer diameter and 50 nanometers diameter. Removal of the surfactant resulted in a mesoporous silica thin film on the substrate. Samples having a molecular weight below 1000, such as C.sub.60 and tryptophan, were adsorbed onto and into the mesoporous silica thin film sample holder and analyzed using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  9. High purity silica reflecting heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, W.

    1974-01-01

    A reflecting heat shield composed of fused silica in which the scattering results from the refractive index mismatch between silica particles and the voids introduced during the fabrication process is developed. Major considerations and conclusions of the development are: the best material to use is Type A, which is capable of ultra-high-purity and which does not show the 0.243 micrometer absorption band; the reflection efficiency of fused silica is decreased at higher temperatures due to the bathochromic shift of the ultraviolet cut-off; for a given silica material, over the wavelength region and particle sizes tested, the monodisperse particle size configurations produce higher reflectances than continuous particle size configurations; and the smaller monodisperse particle size configurations give higher reflectance than the larger ones. A reflecting silica configuration that is an efficient reflector of shock layer radiation at high ablation temperatures is achieved by tailoring the matrix for optimum scattering and using an ultra-high-purity material.

  10. Cutting Silica Aerogel for Particle Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Glesias, R.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.; Weschler, M.

    2005-01-01

    The detailed laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial particles have revolutionized our knowledge of planetary bodies in the last three decades. This knowledge of chemical composition, morphology, mineralogy, and isotopics of particles cannot be provided by remote sensing. In order to acquire these detail information in the laboratories, the samples need be intact, unmelted. Such intact capture of hypervelocity particles has been developed in 1996. Subsequently silica aerogel was introduced as the preferred medium for intact capturing of hypervelocity particles and later showed it to be particularly suitable for the space environment. STARDUST, the 4th NASA Discovery mission to capture samples from 81P/Wild 2 and contemporary interstellar dust, is the culmination of these new technologies. In early laboratory experiments of launching hypervelocity projectiles into aerogel, there was the need to cut aerogel to isolate or extract captured particles/tracks. This is especially challenging for space captures, since there will be many particles/tracks of wide ranging scales closely located, even collocated. It is critical to isolate and extract one particle without compromising its neighbors since the full significance of a particle is not known until it is extracted and analyzed. To date, three basic techniques have been explored: mechanical cutting, lasers cutting and ion beam milling. We report the current findings.

  11. Recent Compositional Trends within the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by APXS: Implications for Sedimentary, Diagenetic and Alteration History.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Yen, A.; Spray, J. G.; Johnson, J. R.; Fraeman, A. A.; Berger, J. A.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Desouza, E.; O'Connell-Cooper, C.; VanBommel, S.

    2017-12-01

    The >230 m thick Murray Formation is the lower-most unit of the Mount Sharp Group, and interpreted as primarily lacustrine. Representative mudstone, siltstone and fine sandstone targets, encountered above -4330 m elevation, trend to lower Si, Al, Ti, Cr and Ca, and higher Fe, Mn, Zn, P and Mg than the Murray below. Less common, distinctive, coarser grained sandstone lenses tend to exhibit slightly different compositions to the more typical Murray but, overall, show similar elemental trends with elevation, albeit exaggerated. This suggests that the variations observed with elevation in Al, Ti, Cr, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and P within both the coarser sandstones and finer grained Murray are the result of diagenetic and/or alteration processes rather than provenance or physical sedimentary processes such as sorting. This is supported by the chemistry of obvious diagenetic, dark grey nodules, and other potential diagenetic/alteration features within this section, which show variations in the same element concentrations (i.e., P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca and S), distinct from diagenetic features lower down in the stratigraphy, indicating mobility of these elements within this section and changing fluid chemistry. Trends in FeO/MnO generally mimic the presence of ferric absorption features observed in visible/near infrared passive spectra from the ChemCam instrument and from CRISM orbital data, which may be consistent with changes in redox conditions as we climb up section towards Vera Rubin Ridge (Hematite Ridge). Layer-parallel CaSO4 is also common, and not observed below -4330 m. This may represent syndepositional evaporite layers, or late bedding/laminae parallel veins emplaced after lithification, in conjunction with cross-cutting veins. The overall differences in composition between the sandstone targets and finer grained Murray are attributed to distinct provenances and/or sorting during transport. We will discuss the implications of the trends and composition of the Murray above

  12. Paleo-fluid flow in folded, poorly lithified Quaternary sediments revealed by diagenetic concretions developed during the growth of Quattro Castella Anticline (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Iacumin, Paola; Swennen, Rudy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    Diagenetic concretions and mineral masses may provide a useful tool to better understand paleo-fluid flows in transforming porous media. Moreover, the selective cementation responsible of diagenetic alterations formation, plays a key role in diminishing sediments porosity and permeability and hence reservoir quality. In compressive settings of a fold-and-thrust-belt, the presence of deep or blind thrusts could lead to the generation of folds which may influence syn-kinematic sedimentation, deep fluids migration and shallow fluid flow pattern. In this contribution we present a multidisciplinary field and laboratory study on carbonate concretions developed in Quaternary poorly lithified, shallow marine syn-kinematic sediments of the Quattro Castella Anticline in Northern Apennines (Italy). The study site is located along the Enza River, where shallow marine to continental sediments are exposed along the forelimb of the fold nucleated during Late Miocene and still active today. Field mapping was aimed to link bedding attitude of syn-kinematic sediments with the geometry, arrangement, shape and size of concretionary bodies. The studied concretions are both tabular (i.e. parallel to sediment bedding) and elongate single or coalescent concretionary bodies (i.e. plunging at different angle to bedding dip throughout the stratigraphic section). Concretions dimensions range from a few centimeters in single elongate concretions, up to a few meters in tabular and coalescent ones. In situ permeability measurements and laboratory grain size analyses were performed along the studied section to constrain the petrophysical properties of sediments hosting carbonate concretions. Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes analyses on carbonate concretions (performed both on hand specimens and also on thin sections), together with petrographic and cathodoluminescence observations, were used to better constrain the diagenetic environment in which calcite precipitation occurred. Our results

  13. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  14. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Silica Aerogel Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qifeng; Wang, Hui; Sun, Luyi

    2017-01-01

    Silica aerogel microspheres based on alkali silica sol were synthesized using the emulsion method. The experimental results revealed that the silica aerogel microspheres (4–20 µm in diameter) were mesoporous solids with an average pore diameter ranging from 6 to 35 nm. The tapping densities and specific surface areas of the aerogel microspheres are in the range of 0.112–0.287 g/cm3 and 207.5–660.6 m2/g, respectively. The diameter of the silica aerogel microspheres could be tailored by varying the processing conditions including agitation rate, water/oil ratio, mass ratio of Span 80: Tween 80, and emulsifier concentration. The effects of these parameters on the morphology and textural properties of the synthesized silica aerogel microspheres were systematically investigated. Such silica aerogel microspheres can be used to prepare large-scale silica aerogels at an ambient pressure for applications in separation and high efficiency catalysis, which requires features of high porosity and easy fill and recovery. PMID:28772795

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Silica Aerogel Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qifeng; Wang, Hui; Sun, Luyi

    2017-04-20

    Silica aerogel microspheres based on alkali silica sol were synthesized using the emulsion method. The experimental results revealed that the silica aerogel microspheres (4-20 µm in diameter) were mesoporous solids with an average pore diameter ranging from 6 to 35 nm. The tapping densities and specific surface areas of the aerogel microspheres are in the range of 0.112-0.287 g/cm³ and 207.5-660.6 m²/g, respectively. The diameter of the silica aerogel microspheres could be tailored by varying the processing conditions including agitation rate, water/oil ratio, mass ratio of Span 80: Tween 80, and emulsifier concentration. The effects of these parameters on the morphology and textural properties of the synthesized silica aerogel microspheres were systematically investigated. Such silica aerogel microspheres can be used to prepare large-scale silica aerogels at an ambient pressure for applications in separation and high efficiency catalysis, which requires features of high porosity and easy fill and recovery.

  17. Silica based hybrid materials for drug delivery and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Elnaz; Ansari, Legha; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Charbgoo, Fahimeh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Alibolandi, Mona

    2018-05-10

    Silica hybrid materials play an important role in improvement of novel progressive functional nanomaterials. Study in silica hybrid functional materials is supported by growing interest in providing intelligent materials that combine best of the inorganic silica structure along with organic or biological realms. Hybrid silica materials do not only provide fantastic opportunities for the design of novel materials for research but their represented unique properties open versatile applications specifically in nanomedicine since it was recognized by US FDA as a safe material for human trials. By combining various materials with different characteristics along with silica NPs as building blocks, silica-based hybrid vehicles were developed. In this regard, silica-based hybrid materials have shown great capabilities as unique carriers for bioimaging and/or drug delivery purposes. In the aforementioned hybrid systems, silica was preferred as a main building block of the hybrid structure, which is easily functionalized with different materials, bio-molecules and targeting ligands while providing biocompatibility for the system. This review will cover a full description of different hybrids of silica nanoparticles including silica-polymer, silica-protein, silica-peptide, silica-nucleic acid, silica-gold, silica-quantum dot, and silica-magnetic nanoparticles and their applications as therapeutic or imaging systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bending Rigidity of 2D Silica.

    PubMed

    Büchner, C; Eder, S D; Nesse, T; Kuhness, D; Schlexer, P; Pacchioni, G; Manson, J R; Heyde, M; Holst, B; Freund, H-J

    2018-06-01

    A chemically stable bilayers of SiO_{2} (2D silica) is a new, wide band gap 2D material. Up till now graphene has been the only 2D material where the bending rigidity has been measured. Here we present inelastic helium atom scattering data from 2D silica on Ru(0001) and extract the first bending rigidity, κ, measurements for a nonmonoatomic 2D material of definable thickness. We find a value of κ=8.8  eV±0.5  eV which is of the same order of magnitude as theoretical values in the literature for freestanding crystalline 2D silica.

  19. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  20. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  1. The formation of helical mesoporous silica nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaobing; Pei, Xianfeng; Zhao, Huanyu; Chen, Yuanli; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Baozong; Hanabusa, Kenji; Yang, Yonggang

    2008-08-01

    Three chiral cationic gelators were synthesized. They can form translucent hydrogels in pure water. These hydrogels become highly viscous liquids under strong stirring. Mesoporous silica nanotubes with coiled pore channels in the walls were prepared using the self-assemblies of these gelators as templates. The mechanism of the formation of this hierarchical nanostructure was studied using transmission electron microscopy at different reaction times. The results indicated that there are some interactions between the silica source and the gelator. The morphologies of the self-assemblies of gelators changed gradually during the sol-gel transcription process. It seems that the silica source directed the organic self-assemblies into helical nanostructures.

  2. Bending Rigidity of 2D Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchner, C.; Eder, S. D.; Nesse, T.; Kuhness, D.; Schlexer, P.; Pacchioni, G.; Manson, J. R.; Heyde, M.; Holst, B.; Freund, H.-J.

    2018-06-01

    A chemically stable bilayers of SiO2 (2D silica) is a new, wide band gap 2D material. Up till now graphene has been the only 2D material where the bending rigidity has been measured. Here we present inelastic helium atom scattering data from 2D silica on Ru(0001) and extract the first bending rigidity, κ , measurements for a nonmonoatomic 2D material of definable thickness. We find a value of κ =8.8 eV ±0.5 eV which is of the same order of magnitude as theoretical values in the literature for freestanding crystalline 2D silica.

  3. Ultrafast laser-induced birefringence in various porosity silica glasses: from fused silica to aerogel.

    PubMed

    Cerkauskaite, Ausra; Drevinskas, Rokas; Rybaltovskii, Alexey O; Kazansky, Peter G

    2017-04-03

    We compare a femtosecond laser induced modification in silica matrices with three different degrees of porosity. In single pulse regime, the decrease of substrate density from fused silica to high-silica porous glass and to silica aerogel glass results in tenfold increase of laser affected region with the formation of a symmetric cavity surrounded by the compressed silica shell with pearl like structures. In multi-pulse regime, if the cavity produced by the first pulse is relatively large, the subsequent pulses do not cause further modifications. If not, the transition from void to the anisotropic structure with the optical axis oriented parallel to the incident polarization is observed. The maximum retardance value achieved in porous glass is twofold higher than in fused silica, and tenfold greater than in aerogel. The polarization sensitive structuring in porous glass by two pulses of ultrafast laser irradiation is demonstrated, as well as no observable stress is generated at any conditions.

  4. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has beenmore » used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and

  5. Investigation of concrete containing condensed silica fume.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    The properties of hydraulic cement concretes containing silica fume were investigated to assess their suitability for use in overlays with s minimum thickness of 1 1/4 in. The properties studied were compressive and flexural strengths, bond strength,...

  6. Waveguide bends from nanometric silica wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Limin; Lou, Jingyi; Mazur, Eric

    2005-02-01

    We propose to use bent silica wires with nanometric diameters to guide light as optical waveguide bend. We bend silica wires with scanning tunneling microscope probes under an optical microscope, and wire bends with bending radius smaller than 5 μm are obtained. Light from a He-Ne laser is launched into and guided through the wire bends, measured bending loss of a single bend is on the order of 1 dB. Brief introductions to the optical wave guiding and elastic bending properties of silica wires are also provided. Comparing with waveguide bends based on photonic bandgap structures, the waveguide bends from silica nanometric wires show advantages of simple structure, small overall size, easy fabrication and wide useful spectral range, which make them potentially useful in the miniaturization of photonic devices.

  7. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  8. Alkali-silica reactivity in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-01-01

    This project examined occurrences in Virginia of alkali-silica reactivity, which is a major cause of the deterioration of concrete. Concretes were studied to determine the mineral aggregates being affected, and test methods for identifying such aggre...

  9. Silica Aerogel Captures Cosmic Dust Intact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mesostructure of silica aerogel resembles stings of grapes, ranging in size from 10 to 100 angstrom. This fine mesostructure transmits nearly 90 percent of incident light in the visible, while providing sufficiently gentle dissipation of the kinetric energy of hypervelocity cosmic dust particles to permit their intact capture. We introduced silica aerogel in 1987 as capture medium to take advantage of its low density, fine mesostruicture and most importantly, its transparency, allowing optical location of captured micron sized particles.

  10. Agmatine attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    El-Agamy, D S; Sharawy, M H; Ammar, E M

    2014-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence that nitric oxide (NO) formation is implicated in mediating silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. As a reactive free radical, NO may not only contribute to lung parenchymal tissue injury but also has the ability to combine with superoxide and form a highly reactive toxic species peroxynitrite that can induce extensive cellular toxicity in the lung tissues. This study aimed to explore the effect of agmatine, a known NO synthase inhibitor, on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with agmatine for 60 days following a single intranasal instillation of silica suspension (50 mg in 0.1 ml saline/rat). The results revealed that agmatine attenuated silica-induced lung inflammation as it decreased the lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration, and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Agmatine showed antifibrotic activity as it decreased total hydroxyproline content of the lung and reduced silica-mediated lung inflammation and fibrosis in lung histopathological specimen. In addition, agmatine significantly increased superoxide dismutase (p < 0.001) and reduced glutathione (p < 0.05) activities with significant decrease in the lung malondialdehyde (p < 0.001) content as compared to the silica group. Agmatine also reduced silica-induced overproduction of pulmonary nitrite/nitrate as well as tumor necrosis factor α. Collectively, these results demonstrate the protective effects of agmatine against the silica-induced lung fibrosis that may be attributed to its ability to counteract the NO production, lipid peroxidation, and regulate cytokine effects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Optical shock waves in silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, S; Ghajeri, F; Ghofraniha, N; Di Falco, A; Conti, C

    2014-01-27

    Silica aerogels are materials well suited for high power nonlinear optical applications. In such regime, the non-trivial thermal properties may give rise to the generation of optical shock waves, which are also affected by the structural disorder due to the porous solid-state gel. Here we report on an experimental investigation in terms of beam waist and input power, and identify various regimes of the generation of wave-breaking phenomena in silica aerogels.

  12. Synthesis of nanostructured porous silica coatings on titanium and their cell adhesive and osteogenic differentiation properties.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, Débora; Covarrubias, Cristian; Von Marttens, Alfredo; Leighton, Yerko; Carvajal, Juan Carlos; Valenzuela, Francisco; Díaz-Dosque, Mario; Méndez, Nicolás; Martínez, Constanza; Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Cáceres, Mónica; Smith, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silica coatings were synthesized on titanium by the combined sol-gel and evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The silica-coating structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen sorptometry. The effect of the nanoporous surface on apatite formation in simulated body fluid, protein adsorption, osteoblast cell adhesion behavior, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) is reported. Silica coatings with highly ordered sub-10 nm porosity accelerate early osteoblast adhesive response, a favorable cell response that is attributed to an indirect effect due to the high protein adsorption observed on the large-specific surface area of the nanoporous coating but is also probably due to direct mechanical stimulus from the nanostructured topography. The nanoporous silica coatings, particularly those doped with calcium and phosphate, also promote the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs with spontaneous mineral nodule formation in basal conditions. The bioactive surface properties exhibited by the nanostructured porous silica coatings make these materials a promising alternative to improve the osseointegration properties of titanium dental implants and could have future impact on the nanoscale design of implant surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  13. Analysing diagenetic effects of flood basalts on sedimentary basins during Gondwanan break-up: case studies from NW Namibia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, G. A.; Jerram, D. A.; Harris, C.; Pearson, D. G.

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The eruption of large volumes of lava associated with the break-up and dispersal of the Gondwana Supercontinent is a phenomenon that has been well documented in literature. The Etendeka Flood Basalt Province of NW Namibia is correlated with the Paraná Flood Basalt Province of South America and was extruded between 139Ma for the earliest flows and 130Ma for the most recent. The passive, inflated pahoehoe lava flows have preserved bedforms within sand dunes found in the Huab Basin without significant deformation. This allows the internal structures of the palaeo-dunes to be analysed with great accuracy; a phenomenon rarely seen within the geological record. The sediments directly beneath, and interbedded with, the Etendeka Flood Basalt are lithostratigraphically similar to those in the Kudu Gas Province, offshore Namibia, where gas-bearing aeolian sands are interspersed with lava flows. Research by the authors is focussed on the diagenetic effects, both direct and indirect, of the emplacement of the lava, and the associated sills and dykes, on the aeolian sands. Specific interests include: the compartmentalisation of the basin by sills/dykes/lava: how does this affect fluid flow paths? Diagenesis along hot contacts: is the dramatic reduction in porosity/permeability along such contacts the result of the igneous bodies alone or do they need ground water present? Can large igneous events trigger the movement of hot fluids through the basin and to what extent does this cause alteration to sediments? To address these issues we have identified a number of outcrop case studies within the Huab Basin in NW Namibia. Here, excellent 3 dimensional outcrop coupled with almost 100 percent exposure allows detailed sampling strategies to be employed on locations of interest. In some cases igneous dykes have acted as flow barriers to pore fluids and have therefore altered the type and degree of cementation either side of the dyke. Geochemical analysis of the cement can

  14. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  15. Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha−1 y−1). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C–Si diatom interactions. PMID:24107532

  16. Impact of Colloidal Silica on Silicone Oil-Silica Mixed Antifoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zheng

    Antifoams are utilized as an industrial additive to control undesired foam during processing. This study focuses on the impact of silica on the antifoam stability. Antifoam stability refers to the ability to maintain efficiency in foam destruction after prolonged shelf storage. Common antifoams are a mixture of hydrophobic silica particles and silicone oil. Based on the general mechanisms of antifoam action discussed in Chapter 1, silica particles play a significant role in foam destruction. Silica particles contribute to foam control by facilitating the entry and the penetration depth of oil-silica globules into surfactant-water films (foam bubble walls). The size, morphology and hydrophobicity of silica can be manipulated to generate optimal antifoam globules. For example, the two silicas with good shelf life performance (8375 and 9512) had the largest silica particles and both showed a tendency to aggregate in toluene solution. We conclude that improved shelf life is related to the propensity of PDMS oil to adsorb on silica, which leads to aggregation and particle size increase. We measured the time-evolution of dynamic light scattering (DLS) from 3-vol% antifoam dissolved in toluene (Chapter 2). For the sample with the largest hydrodynamic radius (9512) the scattered intensity decreased significantly after applying ultrasonic dispersion. Decreasing intensity also occurred for 8375 albeit at later times. The decrease of intensity is attributed to the growth and precipitation of oil-silica globules. The concentration dependence of light scattering confirmed the growth-precipitation hypothesis. FT-IR (Chapter 3) was consistent with precipitation due to oil adsorption, but the data were not definitive. Chapter 4 examines the time-evolution of silica structures by static light scattering and X-ray scattering. The combined data are consistent with a hierarchical structure for silica. Agglomeration occurred fastest for 9512, which is consistent with DLS observations

  17. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-06-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system.

  19. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-01-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system. PMID:27264916

  20. Relating Silica Scaling in Reverse Osmosis to Membrane Surface Properties.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Song; Boo, Chanhee; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-04-18

    We investigated the relationship between membrane surface properties and silica scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). The effects of membrane hydrophilicity, free energy for heterogeneous nucleation, and surface charge on silica scaling were examined by comparing thin-film composite polyamide membranes grafted with a variety of polymers. Results show that the rate of silica scaling was independent of both membrane hydrophilicity and free energy for heterogeneous nucleation. In contrast, membrane surface charge demonstrated a strong correlation with the extent of silica scaling (R 2 > 0.95, p < 0.001). Positively charged membranes significantly facilitated silica scaling, whereas a more negative membrane surface charge led to reduced scaling. This observation suggests that deposition of negatively charged silica species on the membrane surface plays a critical role in silica scale formation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms governing silica scaling in reverse osmosis and highlight the potential of membrane surface modification as a strategy to reduce silica scaling.

  1. The Management of Silica in Los Alamos National Laboratory Tap Water - A Study of Silica Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, C.; Worland, V.P.; Kozubal, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    Well water at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 60 to 100 mg/L, with 4 mg/L of magnesium, 13 mg/L calcium and lesser concentrations of other ions. On evaporation in cooling towers, when the silica concentration reaches 150 to 220 mg/L, silica deposits on heat transfer surfaces. When the high silica well water is used in the reprocessing of plutonium, silica remains in solution at the end of the process and creates a problem of removal from the effluent prior to discharge or evaporation. The work described in this Report is divided into twomore » major parts. The first part describes the behavior of silica when the water is evaporated at various conditions of pH and in the presence of different classes of anions: inorganic and organic. In the second part of this work it was found that precipitation (floccing) of silica was a function of solution pH and mole ratio of metal to silica.« less

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bionanoparticle-Silica Composites and Mesoporous Silica with Large Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Z.; Yang, L.; Kabisatpathy, S.

    2009-03-24

    A sol-gel process has been developed to incorporate bionanoparticles, such as turnip yellow mosaic virus, cowpea mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, and ferritin into silica, while maintaining the integrity and morphology of the particles. The structures of the resulting materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles are largely preserved after being embedded into silica. After removal of the bionanoparticles by calcination, mesoporous silica with monodisperse pores, having the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles replicated inside the silica,more » was produced,. This study is expected to lead to both functional composite materials and mesoporous silica with structurally well-defined large pores.« less

  3. Comparative Investigation on Thermal Insulation of Polyurethane Composites Filled with Silica Aerogel and Hollow Silica Microsphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyuan; Kim, Jin Seuk; Kwon, Younghwan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on thermal conductivity of PU composites containing open-cell nano-porous silica aerogel and closed-cell hollow silica microsphere, respectively. The thermal conductivity of PU composites is measured at 30 degrees C with transient hot bridge method. The insertion of polymer in pores of silica aerogel creates mixed interfaces, increasing the thermal conductivity of resulting composites. The measured thermal conductivity of PU composites filled with hollow silica microspheres is estimated using theoretical models, and is in good agreement with Felske model. It appears that the thermal conductivity of composites decreases with increasing the volume fraction (phi) when hollow silica microsphere (eta = 0.916) is used.

  4. pH-Dependent silica nanoparticle dissolution and cargo release.

    PubMed

    Giovaninni, Giorgia; Moore, Colin J; Hall, Andrew J; Byrne, Hugh J; Gubala, Vladimir

    2018-05-16

    The dissolution of microporous silica nanoparticles (NP) in aqueous environments of different biologically relevant pH was studied in order to assess their potential as drug delivery vehicles. Silica NPs, loaded with fluorescein, were prepared using different organosilane precursors (tetraethoxysilane, ethyl triethoxysilane or a 1:1 molar ratio of both) and NP dissolution was evaluated in aqueous conditions at pH 4, pH 6 and pH 7.4. These conditions correspond to the acidity of the intracellular environment (late endosome, early endosome, cytosol respectively) and gastrointestinal tract ('fed' stomach, duodenum and jejunum respectively). All NPs degraded at pH 6 and pH 7.4, while no dissolution was observed at pH 4. NP dissolution could be clearly visualised as mesoporous hollows and surface defects using electron microscopy, and was supported by UV-vis, fluorimetry and DLS data. The dissolution profiles of the NPs are particularly suited to the requirements of oral drug delivery, whereby NPs must resist degradation in the harsh acidic conditions of the stomach (pH 4), but dissolve and release their cargo in the small intestine (pH 6-7.4). Particle cores made solely of ethyl triethoxysilane exhibited a 'burst release' of encapsulated fluorescein at pH 6 and pH 7.4, whereas NPs synthesised with tetraethoxysilane released fluorescein in a more sustained fashion. Thus, by varying the organosilane precursor used in NP formation, it is possible to modify particle dissolution rates and tune the release profile of encapsulated fluorescein. The flexible synthesis afforded by silica NPs to achieve pH-responsive dissolution therefore makes this class of nanomaterial an adaptable platform that may be well suited to oral delivery applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sedimentary Carbon, Sulfur, and Iron Relationships in Modern and Ancient Diagenetic Environments of the Eel River Basin (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommerfield, C.K.; Aller, R.C.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Depositional and diagenetic controls on the distributions of carbon, sulfur, and iron (C-S-Fe) in modern sediments and upper Pleistocene mudrocks of the Eel River Basin (ERB), northern California continental margin, were investigated using a combination of geochemical, radioisotopic, and sedimentological methods. A mass balance based on down-core profiles of porewater and solid-phase constituents and diagenetic modeling suggests that only 12-30% of the pyrite-S produced via SO4-2 reduction during burial is retained in modern shelf and upper slope deposits of the ERB. Bioturbational reoxidation of initially reduced S is inferred to be the major control on S preservation, on the basis of an observed inverse relationship between pyrite-S retention and biological mixing intensity, estimated from profiles of excess 234Th. Importantly, these findings argue that massive depositional episodes on the shelf following floods of the Eel River have a negligible long-term impact on bioturbating macrofauna and the potential to affect geochemical properties of the sediments. Down-core profiles of reactive Fe3+and Py-Fe(II) for the modern deposits suggest that highly reactive Fe phases are sulfidized well within ∼ 500-2000 years of burial, thereby limiting later pyritization, which could occur through sulfidation of less reactive phases. This result explains the low (≤ 0.4) degree of pyritization (DOP) values exhibited by both modern and ancient deposits of the ERB and lends support to the notion that pyritization in aerobic continental-margin sediments is largely associated with highly reactive detrital Fe oxides. Comparable mean C/S weight ratios for modern sediments (5.4 ± 3.3, 1σ) and mudrocks (6.9 ± 4.5) of the ERB suggest that the upper Pleistocene strata reflect a geochemical environment analogous to that of the modern margin. Specifically, the C-S-Fe signatures shared by the modern and ancient deposits are a consequence of similar detrital Fe mineralogies, initial

  6. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could

  7. Silica-Rich Soil in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    Spirit's panoramic camera imaged the bright patch through various filters on Sol 1,158 (April 6). This approximately true-color image combines images taken through three different filters. The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid silica crystallization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Haiyang; Piaggi, Pablo M; Invernizzi, Michele; Parrinello, Michele

    2018-05-07

    Silica is one of the most abundant minerals on Earth and is widely used in many fields. Investigating the crystallization of liquid silica by atomic simulations is of great importance to understand the crystallization mechanism; however, the high crystallization barrier and the tendency of silica to form glasses make such simulations very challenging. Here we have studied liquid silica crystallization to [Formula: see text]-cristobalite with metadynamics, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensities as collective variables. The frequent transitions between solid and liquid of the biased runs demonstrate the highly successful use of the XRD peak intensities as collective variables, which leads to the convergence of the free-energy surface. By calculating the difference in free energy, we have estimated the melting temperature of [Formula: see text]-cristobalite, which is in good agreement with the literature. The nucleation mechanism during the crystallization of liquid silica can be described by classical nucleation theory. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Chitosan-silica hybrid porous membranes.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Christos; Madeira, Sara; Matos, Joana; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Mano, João F; Ribelles, José Luis Gómez

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan-silica porous hybrids were prepared by a novel strategy in order to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan (CHT) in the hydrogel state. The inorganic silica phase was introduced by sol-gel reactions in acidic medium inside the pores of already prepared porous scaffolds. In order to make the scaffolds insoluble in acidic media chitosan was cross-linked by genipin (GEN) with an optimum GEN concentration of 3.2 wt.%. Sol-gel reactions took place with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) acting as silica precursors. GPTMS served also as a coupling agent between the free amino groups of chitosan and the silica network. The morphology study of the composite revealed that the silica phase appears as a layer covering the chitosan membrane pore walls. The mechanical properties of the hybrids were characterized by means of compressive stress-strain measurements. By immersion in water the hybrids exhibit an increase in elastic modulus up to two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Astronomical pacing of the global silica cycle recorded in Mesozoic bedded cherts

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Tada, Ryuji; Ozaki, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    The global silica cycle is an important component of the long-term climate system, yet its controlling factors are largely uncertain due to poorly constrained proxy records. Here we present a ∼70 Myr-long record of early Mesozoic biogenic silica (BSi) flux from radiolarian chert in Japan. Average low-mid-latitude BSi burial flux in the superocean Panthalassa is ∼90% of that of the modern global ocean and relative amplitude varied by ∼20–50% over the 100 kyr to 30 Myr orbital cycles during the early Mesozoic. We hypothesize that BSi in chert was a major sink for oceanic dissolved silica (DSi), with fluctuations proportional to DSi input from chemical weathering on timescales longer than the residence time of DSi (<∼100 Kyr). Chemical weathering rates estimated by the GEOCARBSULFvolc model support these hypotheses, excluding the volcanism-driven oceanic anoxic events of the Early-Middle Triassic and Toarcian that exceed model limits. We propose that the Mega monsoon of the supercontinent Pangea nonlinearly amplified the orbitally paced chemical weathering that drove BSi burial during the early Mesozoic greenhouse world. PMID:28589958

  11. Astronomical pacing of the global silica cycle recorded in Mesozoic bedded cherts.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Tada, Ryuji; Ozaki, Kazumi

    2017-06-07

    The global silica cycle is an important component of the long-term climate system, yet its controlling factors are largely uncertain due to poorly constrained proxy records. Here we present a ∼70 Myr-long record of early Mesozoic biogenic silica (BSi) flux from radiolarian chert in Japan. Average low-mid-latitude BSi burial flux in the superocean Panthalassa is ∼90% of that of the modern global ocean and relative amplitude varied by ∼20-50% over the 100 kyr to 30 Myr orbital cycles during the early Mesozoic. We hypothesize that BSi in chert was a major sink for oceanic dissolved silica (DSi), with fluctuations proportional to DSi input from chemical weathering on timescales longer than the residence time of DSi (<∼100 Kyr). Chemical weathering rates estimated by the GEOCARBSULFvolc model support these hypotheses, excluding the volcanism-driven oceanic anoxic events of the Early-Middle Triassic and Toarcian that exceed model limits. We propose that the Mega monsoon of the supercontinent Pangea nonlinearly amplified the orbitally paced chemical weathering that drove BSi burial during the early Mesozoic greenhouse world.

  12. Astronomical pacing of the global silica cycle recorded in Mesozoic bedded cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Tada, Ryuji; Ozaki, Kazumi

    2017-06-01

    The global silica cycle is an important component of the long-term climate system, yet its controlling factors are largely uncertain due to poorly constrained proxy records. Here we present a ~70 Myr-long record of early Mesozoic biogenic silica (BSi) flux from radiolarian chert in Japan. Average low-mid-latitude BSi burial flux in the superocean Panthalassa is ~90% of that of the modern global ocean and relative amplitude varied by ~20-50% over the 100 kyr to 30 Myr orbital cycles during the early Mesozoic. We hypothesize that BSi in chert was a major sink for oceanic dissolved silica (DSi), with fluctuations proportional to DSi input from chemical weathering on timescales longer than the residence time of DSi (<~100 Kyr). Chemical weathering rates estimated by the GEOCARBSULFvolc model support these hypotheses, excluding the volcanism-driven oceanic anoxic events of the Early-Middle Triassic and Toarcian that exceed model limits. We propose that the Mega monsoon of the supercontinent Pangea nonlinearly amplified the orbitally paced chemical weathering that drove BSi burial during the early Mesozoic greenhouse world.

  13. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile - implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, N.; Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Denis, A.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-02-01

    Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene) shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  14. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile - implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, N.; Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Denis, A.; Ortlieb, L.

    2008-02-01

    Variations on chemical composition in fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusk shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Therefore, it is of primary importance to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Pleistocene and Holocene) shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusk shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to attest shell sample conservation state should not be considered as sufficient.

  15. Comparison of the diagenetic and reservoir quality evolution between the anticline crest and flank of an Upper Jurassic carbonate gas reservoir, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Daniel; Nader, Fadi H.; Gasparrini, Marta; Morad, Sadoon; Rossi, Carlos; Marchionda, Elisabetta; Al Darmaki, Fatima; Martines, Marco; Hellevang, Helge

    2018-05-01

    This petrographic, stable isotopic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study of the Upper Jurassic limestones of an onshore field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) compares diagenesis in flanks and crest of the anticline. The results revealed that the diagenetic and related reservoir quality evolution occurred during three phases, including: (i) eogenesis to mesogenesis 1, during which reservoir quality across the field was either deteriorated or preserved by calcite cementation presumably derived from marine or evolved marine pore waters. Improvement of reservoir quality was due to the formation of micropores by micritization of allochems and creation of moldic/intragranular pores by dissolution of peloids and skeletal fragments. (ii) Obduction of Oman ophiolites and formation of the anticline of the studied field was accompanied by cementation by saddle dolomite and blocky calcite. High homogenization temperatures (125-175 °C) and high salinity (19-26 wt% NaCl eq) of the fluid inclusions, negative δ18OVPDB values (-7.7 to -2.9‰), saddle shape of dolomite, and the presence of exotic cements (i.e. fluorite and sphalerite) suggest that these carbonates were formed by flux of hot basinal brines, probably related to this tectonic compression event. (iii) Mesogenesis 2 during subsidence subsequent to the obduction event, which resulted in extensive stylolitization and cementation by calcite. This calcite cement occluded most of the remaining moldic and inter-/intragranular pores of the flank limestones (water zone) whereas porosity was preserved in the crest. This study contributes to: (1) our understanding of differences in the impact of diagenesis on reservoir quality evolution in flanks and crests of anticlines, i.e. impact of hydrocarbon emplacement on diagenesis, and (2) relating various diagenetic processes to burial history and tectonic events of foreland basins in the Arabian Gulf area and elsewhere.

  16. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Monnin, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates very reducing conditions capable of destabilizing other molecules (notably reduction of deep CO2 being transformed into CH4 by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions). Nitrogen is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids. H2 flows are associated with the expulsion of hyperalkaline waters rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal thrust plane of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Within the fracture networks, gas and water separate probably at shallow depth, i.e. close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically through fracture pathways and they are able to inflame spontaneously on the surface. Aqueous fluids tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. This water circulation induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting in the fracture systems and continuing at the surface where it leads to the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, brucite and more rarely portlandite. This chain of diagenetic reactions is associated with the capture of the atmospheric CO2 during the precipitation of carbonates.

  17. Isomorphic introduction of d(0) transition metals to mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Mark Sanson

    1998-12-01

    Early transition metals (Ti, V, Zr, Mo, W) have been incorporated in the mesoporous silicate system by hydrothermal and post-synthesis treatments. The materials were studied by diffraction, adsorption and spectroscopic techniques and were found to have catalytic, halogenation activity toward organic substrates at neutral pH. Intense interest has been shown in the new class of silica-based, mesoporous materials due to their high potential for catalytic applications. Their synthesis occurs via a cooperative self-assembly of surfactant/silicate pairs to form numerous, extended network structures upon silicate condensation based on liquid crystal phases of surfactant/water systems. Surfactant micelle removal by calcination generates a well defined pore system with a narrow pore size distribution. Of these phases, the cubic MCM-48 form possesses a high surface area (1200-1500msp2/g), a 3-D array of pores, and a large pore diameter (20-100A) so that selectivity for large (>10A kinetic diameter) molecules is possible. For this work, the MCM-48 phase was chosen since its branched, bi-continuous pore array would be less likely to clog during use than a one dimensional array. Two techniques for transition metal incorporation are compared consisting of hydrothermal and post-synthesis treatment. A brief description of an attempt to synthesize mesoporous molybdena will be included. The first approach consists of combining various metal and Si precursors in the starting gel, while exploring a broad region of the multi-component phase diagram. The second pathway involves grafting metal species on a pure silica, MCM-48 support by anchoring them to surface silanols using reactive metal alkoxides. Bulk structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction and nitrogen adsorption shows that the pore structure is maintained after incorporation of metal species by both methods. Spectroscopic methods (FTIR/RAMAN and UV/VIS) are used to gain insight into the local metal/silica

  18. Mechanics of Nanostructured Porous Silica Aerogel Resulting from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep P; Rege, Ameya; Sagardas; Itskov, Mikhail; Markert, Bernd

    2017-06-08

    Silica aerogels are nanostructured, highly porous solids which have, compared to other soft materials, special mechanical properties, such as extremely low densities. In the present work, the mechanical properties of silica aerogels have been studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The aerogel model of 192 000 atoms was created with different densities by direct expansion of β-cristobalite and subjected to series of thermal treatments. Because of the high number of atoms and improved modeling procedure, the proposed model was more stable and showed significant improvement in the smoothness of the resulting stress-strain curves in comparison to previous models. Resulting Poisson's ratio values for silica aerogels lie between 0.18 and 0.21. The elasticity moduli display a power law dependence on the density, with the exponent estimated to be 3.25 ± 0.1. These results are in excellent agreement with reported experimental as well as computational values. Two different deformation scenarios have been discussed. Under tension, the low-density aerogels were more ductile while the denser ones behaved rather brittle. In the compression simulations of low-density aerogels, deformation occurred without significant increase in stress. However, for high densities, atoms offer a higher resistance to the deformation, resulting in a more stiff response and an early densification. The relationship between different mechanical parameters has been found in the cyclic loading simulations of silica aerogels with different densities. The residual strain grows linearly with the applied strain (≥0.16) and can be approximated by a phenomenological relation ϵ p = 1.09ϵ max - 0.12. The dissipation energy also varies with the compressive strain according to a power law with an exponent of 2.31 ± 0.07. Moreover, the tangent modulus under cyclic loading varies exponentially with the compressive strain. The results of the study pave the way toward multiscale modeling of silica

  19. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  20. Multifunctional nanomedicine with silica: Role of silica in nanoparticles for theranostic, imaging, and drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Hableel, Ghanim; Zhao, Eric Ruike; Jokerst, Jesse V

    2018-07-01

    The idea of multifunctional nanomedicine that enters the human body to diagnose and treat disease without major surgery is a long-standing dream of nanomaterials scientists. Nanomaterials show incredible properties that are not found in bulk materials, but achieving multi-functionality on a single material remains challenging. Integrating several types of materials at the nano-scale is critical to the success of multifunctional nanomedicine device. Here, we describe the advantages of silica nanoparticles as a tool for multifunctional nano-devices. Silica nanoparticles have been intensively studied in drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, degradability, tunable morphology, and ease of modification. Moreover, silica nanoparticles can be integrated with other materials to obtain more features and achieve theranostic capabilities and multimodality for imaging applications. In this review, we will first compare the properties of silica nanoparticles with other well-known nanomaterials for bio-applications and describe typical routes to synthesize and integrate silica nanoparticles. We will then highlight theranostic and multimodal imaging application that use silica-based nanoparticles with a particular interest in real-time monitoring of therapeutic molecules. Finally, we will present the challenges and perspective on future work with silica-based nanoparticles in medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  2. Cellular complexity captured in durable silica biocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Kalinich, Robin M.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Dunphy, Darren R.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-derived cultured cells exhibit a remarkable range of morphological features in vitro, depending on phenotypic expression and environmental interactions. Translation of these cellular architectures into inorganic materials would provide routes to generate hierarchical nanomaterials with stabilized structures and functions. Here, we describe the fabrication of cell/silica composites (CSCs) and their conversion to silica replicas using mammalian cells as scaffolds to direct complex structure formation. Under mildly acidic solution conditions, silica deposition is restricted to the molecularly crowded cellular template. Inter- and intracellular heterogeneity from the nano- to macroscale is captured and dimensionally preserved in CSCs following drying and subjection to extreme temperatures allowing, for instance, size and shape preserving pyrolysis of cellular architectures to form conductive carbon replicas. The structural and behavioral malleability of the starting material (cultured cells) provides opportunities to develop robust and economical biocomposites with programmed structures and functions. PMID:23045634

  3. High purity silica reflective heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtscheim, P. R.; Blome, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A hyperpure vitreous silica material is being developed for use as a reflective and ablative heat shield for planetary entry. Various purity grades and forms of raw materials were evaluated along with various processing methods. Slip casting of high purity grain was selected as the best processing method, resulting in a highly reflective material in the wavelength bands of interest (the visible and ultraviolet regions). The selected material was characterized with respect to optical, mechanical and physical properties using a limited number of specimens. The process has been scaled up to produce a one-half scale heat shield (18 in. dia.) (45.72 cm) for a Jupiter entry vehicle. This work is now being extended to improve the structural safety factor of the heat shield by making hyperpure silica material tougher through the addition of silica fibers.

  4. Preparation and characterization of oriented silica nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. H.; Meng, G. W.; Zhang, M. G.; Tian, Y. T.; Xie, T.; Zhang, L. D.

    2003-11-01

    Large-scale of oriented closely packed silica nanowire bunches have been synthesized by using large size (1-10 μm in diameter), low melting point tin droplets as catalyst on silicon wafers at 980 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses show that the amorphous silica nanowires have lengths of 50-100 μm and diameters of 100-200 nm. Unlike any previous observed results using high melting point metal (such as gold and iron) as catalyst, the Sn catalyst growth exhibits many interesting phenomena. Each Sn ball can simultaneously catalyze the growth of many silica nanowires, which is quite different from the conventional vapor-liquid-solid process.

  5. Stimuli-responsive polyaniline coated silica microspheres and their electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dae Eun; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Vu, Cuong Manh

    2016-05-01

    Silica/polyaniline (PANI) core-shell structured microspheres were synthesized by coating the surface of silica micro-beads with PANI and applied as a candidate inorganic/polymer composite electrorheological (ER) material. The silica micro-beads were initially modified using N-[(3-trimethoxysilyl)-propyl] aniline to activate an aniline functional group on the silica surface for a better PANI coating. The morphology of the PANI coating on the silica surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the silica/PANI core-shell structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The chemical structure of the particles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Rotational rheometry was performed to confirm the difference in the ER properties between pure silica and silica/PANI microsphere-based ER fluids when dispersed in silicone oil.

  6. Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy of Porous Silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiton, Theresa Anne

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) specular reflectance spectroscopy was used to examine the fundamental phonon behavior of a series of porous silicas including porous Vycor, xerogels, aerogels, and colloidal solids. The spectra were deconvoluted using Kramers-Kronig analysis techniques, and the corresponding optical constants were determined via the Fresnel equations. The resulting spectra represent the first compilation of such data for low density silicas. The porous silicas revealed unique resonance modes for the imaginary dielectric function and energy loss function. A key distinction amongst the spectra was the change in the band shape of the antisymmetric Si-O-Si stretching modes. For instance, as the porosity level of the particulate systems increased, the peak maxima of the imaginary dielectric functions shifted to higher frequencies while the peak maxima of the associated energy loss function shifted to lower frequencies. In essence, with increasing porosity, the peak maxima of the imaginary dielectric functions and the energy loss functions were converging towards frequencies intermediate to the transverse optical and longitudinal optical modes of fused silica. A similar trend was not observed for the semi-continuous silica matrices. Maxwell Garnett effective medium modeling verified that these modes were a function of the porous microstructure and can be attributed to surface phonon modes. The effect of surface phonon modes was also evident in the absorption coefficient data. However, contrary to the traditional view that changes in the absorption spectra of porous silicas are strictly due to molecular structure, this study has demonstrated that variations can be attributed--both qualitatively and quantitatively--to electrostatic screening effects of finite particles.

  7. Formation of Uniform Hollow Silica microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huan; Kim, Chanjoong

    2012-02-01

    Microcapsules are small containers with diameters in the range of 0.1 -- 100 μm. Mesoporous microcapsules with hollow morphologies possess unique properties such as low-density and high encapsulation capacity, while allowing controlled release by permeating substances with a specific size and chemistry. Our process is a one-step fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica capsules with a hierarchical pore structure and high size uniformity using double emulsion templates obtained by the glass-capillary microfluidic technique to encapsulate various active ingredients. These hollow silica microcapsules can be used as biomedical applications such as drug delivery and controlled release.

  8. Formation of Uniform Hollow Silica microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huan; Kim, Chanjoong

    2013-03-01

    Microcapsules are small containers with diameters in the range of 0.1 - 100 μm. Mesoporous microcapsules with hollow morphologies possess unique properties such as low-density and high encapsulation capacity, while allowing controlled release by permeating substances with a specific size and chemistry. Our process is a one-step fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica capsules with a hierarchical pore structure and high size uniformity using double emulsion templates obtained by the glass-capillary microfluidic technique to encapsulate various active ingredients. These hollow silica microcapsules can be used as biomedical applications such as drug delivery and controlled release.

  9. Devitrification and shrinkage behavior of silica fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    Devitrification and shrinkage of three batches of silica fibers were investigated in the temperature range of 1200 to 1350 C. Fibers with high water and impurity content devitrified rapidly to cristobalite and quartz and exhibited rapid, but the least amount of, shrinkage. A batch with low water and impurity content devitrified more slowly to cristobalite only and underwent severe shrinkage by the mechanism of viscous flow. A third batch of intermediate purity level and low water content devitrified at a moderate rate mainly to cristobalite but shrunk very rapidly. Completely devitrified silica fibers did not exhibit any further shrinkage.

  10. Noachian-Age Silica Deposits on Mars with Features Resembling Modern Hot Spring Biosignatures at El Tatio, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits of silica (sinter) have long been targets in the search for fossil life on Mars and early Earth because of their ability to capture and preserve biosignatures. In 2007, the Spirit rover observed exposures of opaline silica (amorphous SiO2-*nH2O) adjacent to "Home Plate" in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. The presence of opaline silica in the context of a succession of volcanic rocks is interpreted as evidence of past volcanic hydrothermal activity. The silica occurs most commonly in nodular masses that have a rubbly appearance but are considered outcrops because of their stratiform expression and resistance to deformation by the rover wheels. An origin via either fumarole-related acid-sulfate leaching or precipitation from hot spring fluids was suggested previously. However, the potential significance of the characteristic nodular and mm-scale digitate opaline silica structures was not recognized. Our new observations of silica sinter deposits from the active volcanic hydrothermal system at El Tatio in northern Chile provide a basis for scale-integrated comparisons to the silica features at Home Plate, including geologic context, mesoscale structures in outcrops, mm-scale textures, and spectral signatures. The physical environment of El Tatio presents a rare combination of high elevation ( 4300 m), low precipitation rate (<100 mm/yr), high mean annual evaporation rate (132 mm), common diurnal freeze-thaw, and extremely high UV irradiance. Such conditions provide a better environmental analog for Mars than those of Yellowstone National Park (USA) and other well-known geothermal sites on Earth. Our results demonstrate that the more Mars-like conditions of El Tatio produce unique deposits with characteristics that compare favorably with the Home Plate silica outcrops. Halite (NaCl) encrusts the silica at El Tatio yielding thermal infrared spectra that are the best match yet to spectra from Spirit. Furthermore, the

  11. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. Solution blow spun spinel ferrite and highly porous silica nanofibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The novelty of this work is the production of nano- and submicrometric silica and spinel-ferrite fibers using the solution blow spinning (SBS) method. A pseudo-core-shell method for the production of large surface area silica fibers is also reported. Silica fibers present mean diameters and specific...

  17. New Silica Magnetite Sorbent: The Influence of Variations of Sodium Silicate Concentrations on Silica Magnetite Character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmiyawati, C.; Pratiwi, P. I.; Darmawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption capacity of an adsorbent is determined by the adsorbent and the adsorbate properties. The character of the adsorbent will play a major role in its ability to adsorb the corresponding adsorbate. Therefore, in this study we looked at the effects of variations of sodium silicate concentrations on the resulting magnetite silica adsorbent properties. The application of silica coating on the magnetite was carried out through a sol-gel process with sodium silicate and HCl precursors. Based on the characterization data obtained, it was found that the silica coating on magnetite can increase the resistance to acid leaching, increase the particle size, but decrease the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Based on Gas Sorption Analyzer (GSA) and X-ray Difraction (XRD) data it can successively be determined that increase in concentration of sodium silicate will increase the surface area and amorphous structure of the Silica Magnetie.

  18. Use of fly ash, slag, or silica fume to inhibit alkali-silica reactivity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of particular mineral admixtures when combined with portland cements of varying alkali content in preventing expansion due to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR), and (2) to determine if set...

  19. Mid-Mesozoic (Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) evolution of the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf: Sedimentology of the Conoco 145-1 well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Stanton, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Conoco 145-1 exploratory well, located in the southeastern portion of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4303 m below the sea floor. The oldest sedimentary rocks sampled are of Middle Jurassic age (Late Bathonian-Callovian). A dolomite-limestone-evaporite sequence dominates the section below 3917 m; limestone is the predominant lithology in the intervals of 3271-3774 m, 2274-3158 m, and 1548-1981 m. Siliciclastics dominate the remainder of the drilled section. Calcite tightly cements most of the rocks below 1548 m; dolomite, silica, siderite, and diagenetic clay cements are locally important. Restricted inner marine environments, representing lagoonal and tidal flat conditions, prevailed at the wellsite during much of the deposition recorded by the Callovian-Bathonian age Iroquois Formation. These environments gave way to a carbonate platform, which formed part of the > 5,000 km long Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform that lasted through the end of the Late Jurassic (encompassing the uppermost portion of the Iroquois Formation and the Scatarie Limestone and Bacarro Limestone Members of the Abenaki Formation). The absence of a skeletal-reef association and the dominance of muddy limestone fabrics are evidence that the 145-1 wellsite was located on the platform interior. Major periods of siticiclastic deposition interrupted carbonate deposition, and they are recorded by stratigraphic equivalents of the Mohican Formation, Misaine Shale Member of the Abenaki Formation, and the Mohawk and Mic Mac Formations. A series of sustained prograding delta systems, the earliest of which is preserved as the Missisauga Formation, buried the carbonate platform following its drowning in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian). The sparser, primarily allochthonous lignite content and better-sorted, glauconite-bearing sands of the Missisauga strata at the 145-1 wellsite suggest that shallow marine or barrier-bar environments were more prevalent than the low

  20. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Merget, R; Bauer, T; Küpper, H U; Philippou, S; Bauer, H D; Breitstadt, R; Bruening, T

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic ("thermal" or "fumed") silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physicochemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or emphysema cannot be excluded. There is no study

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect.

  2. Silica nanoparticles with a substrate switchable luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkova, O. D.; Mustafina, A. R.; Fedorenko, S. V.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2011-04-01

    Silica nanoparticles with visible (Tb and Ru doped), near IR (Yb doped) and dual visible-near IR luminescence (Ru-Yb doped) were obtained by reverse w/o microemulsion procedure. Plenty of luminescent complexes (from 4900 to 10000) encapsulated into each nanoparticle ensures the intensive luminescence of nanoparticles and their applicability as biomarkers. The silica surface decoration by definite anchor groups is the required step for the gaining to these nanoparticles marking and sensing functions. Thus covalent and non-covalent surface modification of these nanoparticles was developed to provide the binding with biotargets and sensing of anions. The dicationic surfactant coating of negatively charged Tb(III)-TCAS doped silica nanoparticles was chosen as the basis for the anion responsible system. The reversible insertion of the quenching anions (namely phenol red) into the surfactant based layer at the surface of luminescent nanoparticles switches off the Tb-centered luminescence. In turn the reversible reestablishment of the luminescence results from the competitive insertion of the non-quenching anions into the surfactant layer at the silica/water interface. The hydrophobic anions exemplified by dodecylsulfates versus hydrophilic ones (hydrophosphates) are preferable in the competition with phenol red anions.

  3. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  4. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  5. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  6. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  7. Quantifying the North Pacific silica plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. P.; Hautala, S. L.; Bjorklund, T. A.; Zarnetske, M. R.

    2006-05-01

    New hydrostations plus a comprehensive compilation of existing data have allowed us to characterize the dissolved silica plume located at midwater depths in the North Pacific. The North Pacific silica plume is a global-scale anomaly, extending from the North American continental margin in the east to beyond the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain in the west. Inventory of the plume between 2000 and 3000 m depth indicates that it contains 164 Tmols (164 × 1012 mols) of anomalous dissolved silica and is maintained by a horizontal flux of approximately 1.5 Tmols/yr from the east. The source region of this plume has been previously suggested to be Cascadia Basin in the NE Pacific. Biochemical and geothermal processes within this small region can produce approximately one third of the required flux, but the majority of silica contained within the North Pacific plume may originate in crustal fluid venting from the warm upper basement aquifer that underlies the easternmost Pacific plate.

  8. Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Grogan, Michael D W; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Williams, Rhys; England, Richard; Wadsworth, Willam J; Birks, Tim A

    2009-09-15

    We have embedded thin tapered fibers (with diameters down to 1 microm) in silica aerogel with low loss. The aerogel is rigid but behaves refractively like air, protecting the taper without disturbing light propagation along it. This enables a new class of fiber devices exploiting volume evanescent interactions with the aerogel itself or with dopants or gases in the pores.

  9. Compositions, ages, and diagenetic histories of the carbonate, sulfide, oxide, and phosphatic concretions at Gay Head, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Commeau, R.F.; O'Leary, Dennis W.

    1988-01-01

    The calcite/ankerite concretions were formed in a hot, seasonally arid, caliche-prone environment of early Raritan age; the pyrite, marcasite, and siderite concretions precipitated in sediments deposited in low-energy, marshy, estuarine environments of late Raritan age. The phosphate concretions formed in a middle to inner shelf environment. The goethite and lepidocrocite concretions are secondary oxidation or alteration products of the prexistent Cretaceous concretions that were excavated during the Pleistocene and incorporated into the glacial drift. -from Authors

  10. Multiscale Model for the Templated Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica: The Essential Role of Silica Oligomers

    DOE PAGES

    Perez-Sanchez, German; Chien, Szu -Chia; Gomes, Jose R. B.; ...

    2016-04-04

    A detailed theoretical understanding of the synthesis mechanism of periodic mesoporous silica has not yet been achieved. We present results of a multiscale simulation strategy that, for the first time, describes the molecular-level processes behind the formation of silica/surfactant mesophases in the synthesis of templated MCM-41 materials. The parameters of a new coarse-grained explicit-solvent model for the synthesis solution are calibrated with reference to a detailed atomistic model, which itself is based on quantum mechanical calculations. This approach allows us to reach the necessary time and length scales to explicitly simulate the spontaneous formation of mesophase structures while maintaining amore » level of realism that allows for direct comparison with experimental systems. Our model shows that silica oligomers are a necessary component in the formation of hexagonal liquid crystals from low-concentration surfactant solutions. Because they are multiply charged, silica oligomers are able to bridge adjacent micelles, thus allowing them to overcome their mutual repulsion and form aggregates. This leads the system to phase separate into a dilute solution and a silica/surfactant-rich mesophase, which leads to MCM-41 formation. Before extensive silica condensation takes place, the mesophase structure can be controlled by manipulation of the synthesis conditions. Our modeling results are in close agreement with experimental observations and strongly support a cooperative mechanism for synthesis of this class of materials. Furthermore, this work paves the way for tailored design of nanoporous materials using computational models.« less

  11. Behavior of macroporous vinyl silica and silica monolithic columns in high pressure gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maniquet, Adrien; Bruyer, Nicolas; Raffin, Guy; Baco-Antionali, Franck; Demesmay, Claire; Dugas, Vincent; Randon, Jérôme

    2017-06-30

    80% vinyltrimethoxysilane-based hybrid silica monoliths (80-VTMS), which have been initially developed for separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, have been investigated in high pressure gas chromatography separations (carrier gas pressure up to 60bar) and compared to silica monolithic columns. The behavior of both silica and 80-VTMS monolithic columns was investigated using helium, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as carrier gas. The efficiency of 80-VTMS monolithic columns was shown to vary differently than silica monolithic columns according to the temperature and the carrier gas used. Carrier gas nature was a significant parameter on the retention for both silica and vinyl columns in relation to its adsorption onto the stationary phase in such high pressure conditions. The comparison of retention and selectivity between 80-VTMS monoliths and silica was performed under helium using the logarithm of the retention factor according to the number of carbon atoms combined to Kovats indexes. The very good performances of these columns were demonstrated, allowing the separation of 8 compounds in less than 1min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound assisted deposition of silica coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaş, Recep; Ertaş, Fatma Sinem; Birer, Özgür

    2012-10-01

    We present a novel ultrasound assisted method for silica coating of titanium surfaces. The coatings are formed by “smashing” silica nanoparticles onto activated titanium surface in solution using intense ultrasonic field. Homogeneous silica coatings are formed by deposition of dense multiple layers of silica nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles also grow during the reaction, the layers of the coatings have smaller particles on the substrate and larger particles towards the surface. The thickness of the coatings can be controlled with several experimental parameters. Silica layers with thickness over 200 nm are readily obtained.

  13. Process for Preparing Epoxy-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One-pot reaction process for preparing epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels comprising the reaction of at least one silicon compound selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilanes, orthosilicates and combination thereof in any ratio with effective amounts of an epoxy monomer and an aminoalkoxy silane to obtain an epoxy monomer-silica sol in solution, subsequently preparing an epoxy-monomer silica gel from said silica sol solution followed by initiating polymerization of the epoxy monomer to obtain the epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogel.

  14. Crystallization of biogenic hydrous amorphous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, A.; Yokooji, M.; Chiba, T.; Tamura, T.; Tuji, A.

    2017-12-01

    Diatom, Nitzschia cf. frustulum, collected from Lake Yogo, Siga prefecture, Japan was cultured in laboratory. Organic components of the diatom cell were removed by washing with acetone and sodium hypochlorite. The remaining frustules were studied by SEM-EDX, FTIR spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the spindle-shaped morphology of diatom frustule was composed of hydrous amorphous silica. Pressure induced phase transformation of the diatom frustule was investigated by in situ Raman spectroscopic analysis. With exposure to 0.3 GPa at 100 oC, Raman band corresponding to quartz occurred at ν = 465 cm-1. In addition, Raman bands known as a characteristic Raman pattern of moganite was also observed at 501 cm-1. From the integral ratio of Raman bands, the moganite content in the probed area was estimated to be approximately 50 wt%. With the pressure and temperature effect, the initial morphology of diatom frustule was completely lost and totally changed to a characteristic spherical particle with a diameter of about 2 mm. With keeping the compression of 5.7 GPa at 100 oC, a Raman band assignable to coesite appeared at 538 cm-1. That is, with the compression and heating, the hydrous amorphous silica can be readily crystallized into quartz, moganite, and coesite. The first-principles calculations revealed that a disiloxane molecule stabilized in a trans configuration is twisted 60o and changed into the cis configuration with a close approach of water molecule. It is therefore a reasonable assumption that during crystallization of hydrous amorphous silica, the Si-O-Si bridging unit with the cis configuration would survive as a structural defect and then crystallized into moganite by keeping the geometry. This hypothesis is adaptable to the phase transformation from hydrous amorphous silica to coesite as well, because coesite has the four-membered rings and easily formed from the hydrous amorphous silica under high pressure and high

  15. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  16. Size effect of optical silica microsphere pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xinbing; Hao, Ruirui; Pan, Qian; Zhao, Xinwei; Bai, Xue

    2018-07-01

    Two types of optical pressure sensors with silica microspheres are proposed. The size effect of optical silica microsphere pressure sensors is studied by using a single-wavelength laser beam and polarimeters. The silica microspheres with diameters of 1.0 μm, 1.5 μm and 2.0 μm are prepared on garnet substrates by a self-assembly method. The pressure and the optical properties of the silica microspheres are measured by a resistance strain sensor and Thorlabs Stokes polarimeters as a function of the external direct current (DC) voltage. The optical silica microsphere sensor in transmission mode is suitable for pressure measuring. The results show that the pressure increases, while the diameter of the silica microspheres decreases. The maximum internal pressure can reach up to 7.3 × 107 Pa when the diameter of the silica microspheres is 1.0 μm.

  17. Silica substrate or portion formed from oxidation of monocrystalline silicon

    DOEpatents

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Ellis, Robert V.

    2003-07-15

    A method is disclosed for forming an inclusion-free silica substrate using a monocrystalline silicon substrate as the starting material and oxidizing the silicon substrate to convert it entirely to silica. The oxidation process is performed from both major surfaces of the silicon substrate using a conventional high-pressure oxidation system. The resulting product is an amorphous silica substrate which is expected to have superior etching characteristics for microfabrication than conventional fused silica substrates. The present invention can also be used to convert only a portion of a monocrystalline silicon substrate to silica by masking the silicon substrate and locally thinning a portion the silicon substrate prior to converting the silicon portion entirely to silica. In this case, the silica formed by oxidizing the thinned portion of the silicon substrate can be used, for example, as a window to provide optical access through the silicon substrate.

  18. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  19. Raised Ridges in the Sheepbed Member as Evidence for Early Subaqueous Diagenesis at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebach, K. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kah, L. C.; Stack, K.; Leveille, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Edgar, L. A.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially restricted clusters of erosion-resistant, ridged fracture fills have been found throughout the fine-grained clay-rich Sheepbed member of the Yellowknife Bay Formation where the Mars Science Laboratory rover recently drilled. These 'raised ridge' features are characterized by 1-6 mm thick fractures filled with 2-4 subparallel resistant ridges. The ridges have been mapped throughout the Sheepbed member on Mastcam mosaics from sols 137 to 194 and are shown to be constrained to relatively dense, spatially localized clusters within the unit. The ridges have highly variable attitudes, ranging in dip from vertical to sub-horizontal, and striking in all directions, indicating that the original fractures formed in a mechanically isotropic setting. The fractures are generally short (<50 cm), have spindle-shaped terminations, and do not form regular polygons. The individual ridges are approximately a millimeter across and separated by at least a millimeter of less-resistant material. Based on the geometry of these features and lateral fabric variability within the unit, these are interpreted as early diagenetic synaeresis cracks, likely formed by gas expansion prior to final lithification of the Sheepbed member. Based on the isopachous nature of both the resistant and less-resistant fracture fills, the fracture-filling also occurred subaqueously, in the phreatic zone, and was likely a very early diagenetic process. This is supported by the observation that later diagenetic features, including light-toned sulfate-rich veins, cross-cut raised ridges. Investigation into the characteristics and distribution of these features, and comparison with synaeresis cracks on Earth, provide insight into the formation of the Sheepbed member and early aqueous and diagenetic processes in Gale Crater.

  20. Silica fractionation and reactivity in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzué Belmonte, Dácil; Barão, Lúcia; Vandevenne, Floor; Schoelynck, Jonas; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). A good characterization of the different fractions of reactive silica is crucial to move forward knowledge on ecosystem Si cycling, which has been recognized in the last decade as crucial for terrestrial Si fluxes. A new method to analyze the different fractions of silica in soils has been described by Koning et al. (2002) and adapted by our research team (Barão et al. 2013). Using a continuous extraction of Si and aluminum in 0.5M NaOH, biogenic and non-biogenic reactive fractions are separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity in NaOH. Applying this new method I will investigate three emerging ideas on how humans can affect directly terrestrial Si fluxes. -Land use. I expect strong silica fractionation and reactivity differences in different land uses. These effects due to agricultural and forestry management have already been shown earlier in temperate soils (Vandevenne et al. 2012). Now we will test this hypothesis in recently deforested soils, in the south of Brazil. 'Pristine' forest, managed forest and tobacco field soils (with and without rotation crops) will be studied. This research belongs to an interdisciplinary project on soils and global change. -Fire. According to the IPCC report, extreme events such as fires (number and intensity) would increase due to climate change. We analyzed litter from spruce forest, beech forest and peat soils at two burning levels, after 350°C and

  1. Origin and Timing of Dauphiné Twins Using Fluid Inclusions in Quartz-Cement Fractures in Sandstones from Diagenetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, A.; Ukar, E.; Laubach, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Under diagenetic temperatures (<200°C) and burial depths less than 5 km Dauphiné twins are also common in isolated fracture quartz deposits spanning between fracture walls in low-porosity quartz-cemented sandstones. The twin boundaries coincide with fracture wall-normal fluid inclusion trails. The association of Dauphiné twins and fluid inclusion trails from which temperature and possibly timing can be inferred provides a way to research mechanism and timing of twinning, and potentially the magnitude of paleostrain and stress in some diagenetic settings. Using examples from East Texas and Colorado cores, we show that twins are associated with crack-seal microstructure and fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions, ranging from 130°C to 159°C in the East Texas Basin, and from 162°C to 176°C in the Piceance Basin, record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in wall-normal trails are large and irregularly shaped compared to those in wall-parallel trails, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those in the wall-parallel trails. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images demonstrates that the twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Localization in isolated

  2. Origin and timing of Dauphiné twins in quartz cement in fractured sandstones from diagenetic environments: Insight from fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, András; Ukar, Estibalitz; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2016-09-01

    Electron backscattered diffraction techniques (EBSD) show that Dauphiné twins in quartz are widespread in many tectonometamorphic environments. Our study documents that under diagenetic temperatures (< 200 °C) and burial depths < 5 km Dauphiné twins are common in isolated fracture quartz deposits spanning between fracture walls (i.e., quartz bridges) in low-porosity quartz-cemented sandstones. Using examples from East Texas and Colorado cores, we show that twins are associated with crack-seal microstructure and fluid inclusions. Fracture wall-parallel and wall-normal inclusion trails contain coexisting aqueous and hydrocarbon gas inclusions, so homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions record true trapping temperatures. Inclusions in alignments normal to fracture walls are large and irregularly shaped compared to those aligned parallel to walls, but both show similar liquid-to-vapor ratios. Stacking transmitted light images with scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) and EBSD images demonstrates that Dauphiné twin boundaries are localized along wall-normal inclusion trails. Trapping temperatures for wall-normal inclusion trails are usually higher than those aligned parallel to the fracture wall. Wall-normal fluid inclusion assemblage temperatures typically match the highest temperatures of wall-parallel assemblages trapped during sequential widening, but not necessarily the most recent. In context of burial histories for these samples, this temperature pattern implies that wall-normal assemblages form at discrete times during or after crack-seal fracture widening. Localization in isolated, potentially high-stress quartz deposits in fractures is compatible with a mechanical origin for these Dauphiné twins. Punctuated temperature values and discrepant sizes and shapes of inclusions in wall-normal trails implies that twinning is a by-product of the formation of the wall-normal inclusion assemblages. The association of Dauphiné twins

  3. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  4. A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF CRYSTALLINE SILICA IN RETURNED COMETARY SAMPLES: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ASTROPHYSICAL AND METEORITICAL OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Leroux, Hugues

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline silica (SiO{sub 2}) is recurrently identified at the percent level in the infrared spectra of protoplanetary disks. By contrast, reports of crystalline silica in primitive meteorites are very unusual. This dichotomy illustrates the typical gap existing between astrophysical observations and meteoritical records of the first solids formed around young stars. The cometary samples returned by the Stardust mission in 2006 offer an opportunity to have a closer look at a silicate dust that experienced a very limited reprocessing since the accretion of the dust. Here, we provide the first extended study of silica materials in a large range ofmore » Stardust samples. We show that cristobalite is the dominant form. It was detected in 5 out of 25 samples. Crystalline silica is thus a common minor phase in Stardust samples. Furthermore, olivine is generally associated with this cristobalite, which put constraints on possible formation mechanisms. A low-temperature subsolidus solid–solid transformation of an amorphous precursor is most likely. This crystallization route favors the formation of olivine (at the expense of pyroxenes), and crystalline silica is the natural byproduct of this transformation. Conversely, direct condensation and partial melting are not expected to produce the observed mineral assemblages. Silica is preserved in cometary materials because they were less affected by thermal and aqueous alterations than their chondritic counterparts. The common occurrence of crystalline silica therefore makes the cometary material an important bridge between the IR-based mineralogy of distant protoplanetary disks and the mineralogy of the early solar system.« less

  5. Control over Silica Particle Growth and Particle–Biomolecule Interactions Facilitates Silica Encapsulation of Mammalian Cells with Thickness Control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Robert K.; Harper, Jason C.; Tartis, Michaelann S.

    Over the past 20 years, many strategies utilizing sol–gel chemistry to integrate biological cells into silica-based materials have been reported. One such strategy, Sol-Generating Chemical Vapor into Liquid (SG-CViL) deposition, shows promise as an efficient encapsulation technique due to the ability to vary the silica encapsulation morphology obtained by this process through variation of SG-CViL reaction conditions. In this report, we develop SG-CViL as a tunable, multi-purpose silica encapsulation strategy by investigating the mechanisms governing both silica particle generation and subsequent interaction with phospholipid assemblies (liposomes and living cells). Using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements, linear and exponential silica particlemore » growth dynamics were observed which were dependent on deposition buffer ion constituents and ion concentration. Silica particle growth followed a cluster–cluster growth mechanism at acidic pH, and a monomer-cluster growth mechanism at neutral to basic pH. Increasing silica sol aging temperature resulted in higher rates of particle growth and larger particles. DLS measurements employing PEG-coated liposomes and cationic liposomes, serving as model phospholipid assemblies, revealed that electrostatic interactions promote more stable liposome–silica interactions than hydrogen bonding and facilitate silica coating on suspension cells. However, continued silica reactivity leads to aggregation of silica-coated suspension cells, revealing the need for cell isolation to tune deposited silica thickness. As a result, utilizing these mechanistic study insights, silica was deposited onto adherent HeLa cells under biocompatible conditions with micrometer-scale control over silica thickness, minimal cell manipulation steps, and retained cell viability over several days.« less

  6. Control over Silica Particle Growth and Particle–Biomolecule Interactions Facilitates Silica Encapsulation of Mammalian Cells with Thickness Control

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, Robert K.; Harper, Jason C.; Tartis, Michaelann S.

    2017-07-13

    Over the past 20 years, many strategies utilizing sol–gel chemistry to integrate biological cells into silica-based materials have been reported. One such strategy, Sol-Generating Chemical Vapor into Liquid (SG-CViL) deposition, shows promise as an efficient encapsulation technique due to the ability to vary the silica encapsulation morphology obtained by this process through variation of SG-CViL reaction conditions. In this report, we develop SG-CViL as a tunable, multi-purpose silica encapsulation strategy by investigating the mechanisms governing both silica particle generation and subsequent interaction with phospholipid assemblies (liposomes and living cells). Using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements, linear and exponential silica particlemore » growth dynamics were observed which were dependent on deposition buffer ion constituents and ion concentration. Silica particle growth followed a cluster–cluster growth mechanism at acidic pH, and a monomer-cluster growth mechanism at neutral to basic pH. Increasing silica sol aging temperature resulted in higher rates of particle growth and larger particles. DLS measurements employing PEG-coated liposomes and cationic liposomes, serving as model phospholipid assemblies, revealed that electrostatic interactions promote more stable liposome–silica interactions than hydrogen bonding and facilitate silica coating on suspension cells. However, continued silica reactivity leads to aggregation of silica-coated suspension cells, revealing the need for cell isolation to tune deposited silica thickness. As a result, utilizing these mechanistic study insights, silica was deposited onto adherent HeLa cells under biocompatible conditions with micrometer-scale control over silica thickness, minimal cell manipulation steps, and retained cell viability over several days.« less

  7. Mesoporous silica formulation strategies for drug dissolution enhancement: a review.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Carol A; Ahern, Robert J; Dontireddy, Rakesh; Ryan, Katie B; Crean, Abina M

    2016-01-01

    Silica materials, in particular mesoporous silicas, have demonstrated excellent properties to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Current research in this area is focused on investigating the kinetic profile of drug release from these carriers and manufacturing approaches to scale-up production for commercial manufacture. This review provides an overview of different methods utilized to load drugs onto mesoporous silica carriers. The influence of silica properties and silica pore architecture on drug loading and release are discussed. The kinetics of drug release from mesoporous silica systems is examined and the manufacturability and stability of these formulations are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects of mesoporous silica drug delivery systems are considered. Substantial progress has been made in the characterization and development of mesoporous drug delivery systems for drug dissolution enhancement. However, more research is required to fully understand the drug release kinetic profile from mesoporous silica materials. Incomplete drug release from the carrier and the possibility of drug re-adsorption onto the silica surface need to be investigated. Issues to be addressed include the manufacturability and regulation status of formulation approaches employing mesoporous silica to enhance drug dissolution. While more research is needed to support the move of this technology from the bench to a commercial medicinal product, it is a realistic prospect for the near future.

  8. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  9. High-Silica Hadean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Bell, E. A.; Stephan, T.; Trappitsch, R.; Keller, C. B.; Pardo, O. S.; Davis, A. M.; Harrison, M.; Pellin, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding Hadean (>4 Ga) Earth requires knowledge of its crust. The composition of the crust and volatiles migrating through it directly influence the makeup of the atmosphere, the composition of seawater, and nutrient availability. Despite its importance, there is little known and less agreed upon regarding the nature of the Hadean crust. For example, compilations of whole-rock elemental abundances suggest to some a dominantly mafic crust, while the geochemistry and inclusions in Hadean zircons suggest the existence of felsic crust and possibly even life. We address this question by analyzing the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of apatite inclusions in Archean zircons from Nuvvuagittuq, Canada, using the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization (CHILI). Our results show that the protolith of the Nuvvuagittuq zircons had formed a reservoir with a high (>1) Rb/Sr ratio by 4.4 Ga. The Rb/Sr ratio of this reservoir is too high to be explained by only a mafic crust or a terrestrial "KREEP" layer. Indeed, high Rb/Sr ratios only occur in high SiO2 rocks, and our data suggests that the 4.4 Ga Nuvvuagittuq source was felsic rather than mafic. Specifically, our results suggest that the 4.4 Ga Nuvvuagittuq protolith was of rhyolitic compositions. This finding implies that the early crust had a broad range of igneous rocks, extending from mafic to highly silicic compositions.

  10. Use of Zebrafish Larvae as a Multi-Endpoint Platform to Characterize the Toxicity Profile of Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duc-Hung; De Roo, Bert; Nguyen, Xuan-Bac; Vervaele, Mattias; Kecskés, Angela; Ny, Annelii; Copmans, Daniëlle; Vriens, Hanne; Locquet, Jean-Pierre; Hoet, Peter; de Witte, Peter A M

    2016-11-22

    Nanomaterials are being extensively produced and applied in society. Human and environmental exposures are, therefore, inevitable and so increased attention is being given to nanotoxicity. While silica nanoparticles (NP) are one of the top five nanomaterials found in consumer and biomedical products, their toxicity profile is poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of silica nanoparticles with diameters 20, 50 and 80 nm using an in vivo zebrafish platform that analyzes multiple endpoints related to developmental, cardio-, hepato-, and neurotoxicity. Results show that except for an acceleration in hatching time and alterations in the behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae, silica NPs did not elicit any developmental defects, nor any cardio- and hepatotoxicity. The behavioral alterations were consistent for both embryonic photomotor and larval locomotor response and were dependent on the concentration and the size of silica NPs. As embryos and larvae exhibited a normal touch response and early hatching did not affect larval locomotor response, the behavior changes observed are most likely the consequence of modified neuroactivity. Overall, our results suggest that silica NPs do not cause any developmental, cardio- or hepatotoxicity, but they pose a potential risk for the neurobehavioral system.

  11. Damage Accumulation in Silica Glass Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Silvia; Ferrero, Ezequiel E; Sellerio, Alessandro L; Guerra, Roberto; Zapperi, Stefano

    2018-06-06

    The origin of the brittle-to-ductile transition, experimentally observed in amorphous silica nanofibers as the sample size is reduced, is still debated. Here we investigate the issue by extensive molecular dynamics simulations at low and room temperatures for a broad range of sample sizes, with open and periodic boundary conditions. Our results show that small sample-size enhanced ductility is primarily due to diffuse damage accumulation, that for larger samples leads to brittle catastrophic failure. Surface effects such as boundary fluidization contribute to ductility at room temperature by promoting necking, but are not the main driver of the transition. Our results suggest that the experimentally observed size-induced ductility of silica nanofibers is a manifestation of finite-size criticality, as expected in general for quasi-brittle disordered networks.

  12. Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milliken, Ralph E.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Bishop, Janice L; Clark, Roger N.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Green, Robert O.; Grotzinger, John P.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, Scott L.; Mustard, John F.; Weitz, C.

    2008-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution reflectance data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument reveal the presence of H2O- and SiOH-bearing phases on the Martian surface. The spectra are most consistent with opaline silica and glass altered to various degrees, confirming predictions based on geochemical experiments and models that amorphous silica should be a common weathering product of the basaltic Martian crust. These materials are associated with hydrated Fe sulfates, including H3O-bearing jarosite, and are found in finely stratified deposits exposed on the floor of and on the plains surrounding the Valles Marineris canyon system. Stratigraphic relationships place the formation age of these deposits in the late Hesperian or possibly the Amazonian, implying that aqueous alteration continued to be an important and regionally extensive process on Mars during that time.

  13. Brillouin lasing in coupled silica toroid microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Yoshihiro; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Fujii, Shun; Furusawa, Kentaro; Sekine, Norihiko; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering lasing in a strongly coupled microcavity system. By coupling two silica toroid microcavities, we achieve large mode splitting of 11 GHz, whose frequency separation matches the Brillouin frequency shift of silica. The stimulated Brillouin scattering light is resonantly amplified by pumping at the higher frequency side of the supermode splitting resonance. Since the mode splitting is adjusted by changing the gap distance between the two cavities, our system does not require precise control of a mm-sized cavity diameter to match the free-spectral spacing with the Brillouin frequency shift. It also allows us to use a small cavity, and hence, our system has the potential to achieve the lasing threshold at a very low power.

  14. Thermoporometry characterization of silica microparticles and nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaxin; Zheng, Han; Cheng, He; Zhou, L; Leong, K C; Rajagopalan, R; Too, H P; Choi, W K

    2014-03-04

    We present the results of a systematic study on the porosity of silica microparticles and nanowires prepared by glancing angle deposition-metal-assisted chemical etching (GLAD-MACE) and interference lithography-metal-assisted chemical etching (IL-MACE) techniques using the thermoporometry (TPM) method. Good agreement was obtained between our TPM results and published data provided by the suppliers of silica microparticles. TPM characterization of the GLAD-MACE and IL-MACE nanowires was carried out on the basis of parameters obtained from TPM experiments on microparticles. Our nanowires showed a similar trend but lower values of the pore volume and surface area than nanowires prepared by MACE with AgNO3 solution. We attribute the enhanced bioanalysis performance of the GLAD-MACE nanowires based devices to the increased pore volume and total surface area of the nanowires.

  15. Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.

    PubMed

    Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl₂∙6H₂O and MgSO₄∙7H₂O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)₂ instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%.

  16. Adsorption of silica colloids onto like-charged silica surfaces of different roughness

    DOE PAGES

    Dylla-Spears, R.; Wong, L.; Shen, N.; ...

    2017-01-17

    Particle adsorption was explored in a model optical polishing system, consisting of silica colloids and like-charged silica surfaces. The adsorption was monitored in situ under various suspension conditions, in the absence of surfactants or organic modifiers, using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Changes in surface coverage with particle concentration, particle size, pH, ionic strength and ionic composition were quantified by QCM-D and further characterized ex situ by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A Monte Carlo model was used to describe the kinetics of particle deposition and provide insights on scaling with particle concentration. Transitions from near-zero adsorption tomore » measurable adsorption were compared with equilibrium predictions made using the Deraguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. In addition, the impact of silica surface roughness on the propensity for particle adsorption was studied on various spatial scale lengths by intentionally roughening the QCM sensor surface using polishing methods. It was found that a change in silica surface roughness at the AFM scale from 1.3 nm root-mean-square (rms) to 2.7 nm rms resulted in an increase in silica particle adsorption of 3-fold for 50-nm diameter particles and 1.3-fold for 100-nm diameter particles—far exceeding adsorption observed by altering suspension conditions alone, potentially because roughness at the proper scale reduces the total separation distance between particle and surface.« less

  17. High purity silica reflective heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blome, J. C.; Drennan, D. N.; Schmitt, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet down to 0.15 micron. Scattering coefficients (S) and absorption coefficients (K) were also measured. These coefficients express the optical properties and are used directly in a thermodynamic analysis for sizing a heat shield. The effect of the thin silica melt layer formed during entry was also studied from the standpoint of trapped radiant energy.

  18. Raman Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fused Silica.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fused Silica" bj G. E. Walrafen Department of Chemistry Howard University Washington, D. C. 20059 and P. N. Krishnan...RESEA,CH Task No. NR-0)1-733 T ’echnical opset No. 2 / Raman Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fustd Si I ica, by G. E./Walrafen P. N./Krishnan Howard ... University Department of Chemistry Washington, D. C. 20059 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United States

  19. Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218

  20. Luminescent Silica Nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Montalti, Marco; Petrizza, Luca; Rampazzo, Enrico; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marchiò, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential in preclinical investigations, and the research of suitable tools for in vivo measurements is gaining more and more importance and attention. Nanotechnology entered the field to try to find solutions for many limitation at the state of the art, and luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising materials proposed for future diagnostic implementation. NPs constitute also a versatile platform that can allow facile multi-functionalization to perform multimodal imaging or theranostic (simultaneous diagnosis and therapy). In this contribution we have focussed our attention only on dye doped silica or silica-based NPs conjugated with targeting moieties to enable specific cancer cells imaging and differentiation, even if also a few non targeted systems have been cited and discussed for completeness. We have summarized common synthetic approaches to these materials and then surveyed the most recent imaging applications of silica-based nanoparticles in cancer. The field of theranostic is so important and stimulating that, even if it is not the central topic of this paper, we have included some significant examples. We have then concluded with short hints on systems already in clinical trials and examples of specific applications in children tumours. This review tries to describe and discuss, through focussed examples, the great potentialities of these materials in the medical field, with the aim to encourage further research to implement applications that are still rare. PMID:23458621

  1. The Optical Properties of Ion Implanted Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Cydale C.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Williams, E. K.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    We will present our investigation on the change in the optical properties of silica, 'suprasil', after keV through MeV implantation of copper, tin, silver and gold and after annealing. Suprasil-1, name brand of silica glass produced by Hereaus Amerisil, which is chemically pure with well known optical properties. Both linear nonlinear optical properties of the implanted silica were investigated before and after thermal annealing. All implants, except for Sn, showed strong optical absorption bands in agreement with Mie's theory. We have also used Z-scan to measure the strength of the third order nonlinear optical properties of the produced thin films, which is composed of the host material and the metallic nanoclusters. For implants with a measurable optical absorption band we used Doyle's theory and the full width half maximum of the absorption band to calculate the predicted size of the formed nanoclusters at various heat treatment temperatures. These results are compared with those obtained from direct observation using transmission electron microscopic techniques.

  2. A flexible, bolaamphiphilic template for mesoporous silicas.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alexander K L; Heinroth, Falk; Ward, Antony J; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2013-08-28

    A novel symmetrical bolaamphiphile, containing two N-methylimidazolium head-groups bridged by a 32-methylene linker, was synthesized and characterized. A variety of mesoporous silicas was prepared using the bolaamphiphile as a "soft template". The effects of absolute surfactant concentration and synthesis conditions upon the morphologies of these silicas were investigated. For a given surfactant concentration, particle morphology; pore size; and pore ordering were modified through control of the template to silica-precursor ratio and synthesis conditions. Observed morphologies included: lenticular core-shell nanoparticles and decorticated globules, truncated hexagonal plates, and sheets. In all cases the mesopores are aligned along the shortest axis of the nanomaterial. Decorticated materials displayed surface areas of up to 1200 m(2) g(-1) and pore diameters (D(BJH)) of 24-28 Å. Small-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the majority of the materials has elliptical pores arranged in rectangular lattices (c2mm). Adoption of this symmetry group is a result of the template aggregate deformation from a regular hexagonal phase of cylindrical rods to a ribbon phase under the synthetic conditions.

  3. Physicomechanical enhancement on Portland composite concrete using silica fume as replacement material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husin, Wan Norsariza Wan; Johari, Izwan

    2017-09-01

    The addition of supplementary cementitious materials may change the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Mineral additions which are also known as mineral admixtures have been used with cement for many years. However, this research did not use Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) but using the Portland Cement Composite (PCC). The aim of this study is to determine the effect of partial substitution of PCC by silica fume (SF) on the physicomechanical properties especially the compressive strength of the hardened PCC-SF composite concrete. Silica fume was used to replace PCC at dosage levels of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight of cement in concrete. The results show that on 7 days the PCC concrete exhibited lower early age strength but PCC-SF concrete improved and gain strength up to grade 30 in 7 days. The utilisation of SF resulted in significant improvement of Portland composite concrete admixture.

  4. Quantitative crystalline silica exposure assessment for a historical cohort epidemiologic study in the German porcelain industry.

    PubMed

    Birk, Thomas; Guldner, Karlheinz; Mundt, Kenneth A; Dahmann, Dirk; Adams, Robert C; Parsons, William

    2010-09-01

    A time-dependent quantitative exposure assessment of silica exposure among nearly 18,000 German porcelain workers was conducted. Results will be used to evaluate exposure-response disease risks. Over 8000 historical industrial hygiene (IH) measurements with original sampling and analysis protocols from 1954-2006 were obtained from the German Berufs- genossenschaft der keramischen-und Glas-Industrie (BGGK) and used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM). Early measurements from different devices were converted to modern gravimetric equivalent values. Conversion factors were derived from parallel historical measurements and new side-by-side measurements using historical and modern devices in laboratory dust tunnels and active workplace locations. Exposure values were summarized and smoothed using LOESS regression; estimates for early years were derived using backward extrapolation techniques. Employee work histories were merged with JEM values to determine cumulative crystalline silica exposures for cohort members. Average silica concentrations were derived for six primary similar exposure groups (SEGs) for 1938-2006. Over 40% of the cohort accumulated <0.5 mg; just over one-third accumulated >1 mg/m(3)-years. Nearly 5000 workers had cumulative crystalline silica estimates >1.5 mg/m(3)-years. Similar numbers of men and women fell into each cumulative exposure category, except for 1113 women and 1567 men in the highest category. Over half of those hired before 1960 accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-years crystalline silica compared with 4.9% of those hired after 1960. Among those ever working in the materials preparation area, half accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-year compared with 12% of those never working in this area. Quantitative respirable silica exposures were estimated for each member of this cohort, including employment periods for which sampling used now obsolete technologies. Although individual cumulative exposure estimates ranged from background to about 40 mg/m(3)-years

  5. Chemistry and texture of the rocks at Rocknest, Gale Crater: Evidence for sedimentary origin and diagenetic alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S.M.; Anderson, Ryan; Kah, L.C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Bridges, N.; Tokar, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.C.; Cousin, A.; Clark, B.; Dyar, M.D.; King, P.L.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Schroder, S.; Rowland, S.; Johnson, J.; Edgar, L.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schmidt, M.; Goetz, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D.; Fisk, M.; Madsen, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    A suite of eight rocks analyzed by the Curiosity Rover while it was stopped at the Rocknest sand ripple shows the greatest chemical divergence of any potentially sedimentary rocks analyzed in the early part of the mission. Relative to average Martian soil and to the stratigraphically lower units encountered as part of the Yellowknife Bay formation, these rocks are significantly depleted in MgO, with a mean of 1.3 wt %, and high in Fe, averaging over 20 wt % FeOT, with values between 15 and 26 wt % FeOT. The variable iron and low magnesium and rock texture make it unlikely that these are igneous rocks. Rock surface textures range from rough to smooth, can be pitted or grooved, and show various degrees of wind erosion. Some rocks display poorly defined layering while others seem to show possible fractures. Narrow vertical voids are present in Rocknest 3, one of the rocks showing the strongest layering. Rocks in the vicinity of Rocknest may have undergone some diagenesis similar to other rocks in the Yellowknife Bay Formation as indicated by the presence of soluble calcium phases. The most reasonable scenario is that fine-grained sediments, potentially a mixture of feldspar-rich rocks from Bradbury Rise and normal Martian soil, were lithified together by an iron-rich cement.

  6. Measurement and modelization of silica opal reflection properties: Optical determination of the silica index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Nga, Pham Thu; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    Self-assembled artificial opals (in particular silica opals) constitute a model system to study the optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal but is difficult to measure at the submicrometer scale and usually treated as a free parameter. Here, we propose a method to extract the silica index from the opal reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent methods based on infrared measurements. We show that this index gives a correct description of the opal reflection spectra, either by a band structure or by a Bragg approximation. In particular, we are able to provide explanations in quantitative agreement with the measurements for two features : the observation of a second reflection peak in specular direction, and the quasicollapse of the p-polarized main reflection peak at a typical angle of 54∘.

  7. [Amorphous silica. Types, health effects of exposure, NDS].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E

    1995-01-01

    Maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values for amorphous silica dust have not been identified in the Polish legal regulations up-to-date. In this work the authors review values of allowable (recommended) amorphous silica dust concentrations in other countries. Data on other types of amorphous silica (natural and synthetic) used in industry as well as data on health effects of exposure to these types of dust are presented. The work encompasses 42 entries in the references and one Table which includes the following proposed MAC values: Non-calcinate diatomaceous earth (diatomite) and synthetic silica: Total dust--10 mg/m3 Respirable dust--2 mg/m3 Calcinate diatomaceous earth (diatomite) and fused silica (vitreous silica): Total dust--2 mg/m3 Respirable dust--1 mg/m3.

  8. Synthesis and surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Alexander; Mendez, Natalie; Trogler, William C.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    There are a wide variety of silica nanoformulations being investigated for biomedical applications. Silica nanoparticles can be produced using a wide variety of synthetic techniques with precise control over their physical and chemical characteristics. Inorganic nanoformulations are often criticized or neglected for their poor tolerance; however, extensive studies into silica nanoparticle biodistributions and toxicology have shown that silica nanoparticles may be well tolerated, and in some case are excreted or are biodegradable. Robust synthetic techniques have allowed silica nanoparticles to be developed for applications such as biomedical imaging contrast agents, ablative therapy sensitizers, and drug delivery vehicles. This review explores the synthetic techniques used to create and modify an assortment of silica nanoformulations, as well as several of the diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:25364083

  9. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  10. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  11. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  12. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Bonghwan

    2016-09-01

    Using an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  14. Evaluation of Respirable Crystalline Silica in High School Ceramics Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-01

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher’s work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an exceedance of 21%. PMID:24464235

  15. Green synthesis of silica nanoparticles using sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd, Nur Kamilah; Wee, Nik Nur Atiqah Nik; Azmi, Alyza A.

    2017-09-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been great attention as it being evaluated for used in abundant fields and applications. Due to this significance, this research was conducted to synthesis silica nanoparticles using local agricultural waste, sugarcane bagasse. We executed extraction and precipitation process as it involved low cost, less toxic and low energy process compared to other methods. The Infrared (IR) spectra showed the vibration peak of Si-O-Si, which clearly be the evidence for the silica characteristics in the sample. In this research, amorphous silica nanoparticles with spherical morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and specific surface area of 111 m2/g-1 have been successfully synthesized. The XRD patterns showed the amorphous nature of silica nanoparticles. As a comparison, the produced silica nanoparticles from sugarcane bagasse are compared with the respective nanoparticles synthesized using Stöber method.

  16. Evaluation of respirable crystalline silica in high school ceramics classrooms.

    PubMed

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-23

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher's work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an excess of 21%.

  17. Graphene-silica composite thin films as transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Watcharotone, Supinda; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Stankovich, Sasha; Piner, Richard; Jung, Inhwa; Dommett, Geoffrey H B; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Wu, Shang-En; Chen, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2007-07-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive composite silica films were fabricated on glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates by incorporation of individual graphene oxide sheets into silica sols followed by spin-coating, chemical reduction, and thermal curing. The resulting films were characterized by SEM, AFM, TEM, low-angle X-ray reflectivity, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. The electrical conductivity of the films compared favorably to those of composite thin films of carbon nanotubes in silica.

  18. Photonic integrated circuits based on silica and polymer PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuhara, T.; Fujita, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Sui, B.; Lin, W.; Grek, B.

    2013-03-01

    Various methods of hybrid integration of photonic circuits are discussed focusing on merits and challenges. Material platforms discussed in this report are mainly polymer and silica. We categorize the hybridization methods using silica and polymer waveguides into two types, chip-to-chip and on-chip integration. General reviews of these hybridization technologies from the past works are reviewed. An example for each method is discussed in details. We also discuss current status of our silica PLC hybrid integration technology.

  19. Improvements in geothermal electric power and silica production

    DOEpatents

    Hill, J.H.; Fulk, M.M.

    Electricity is generated from hot geothermal solution by extracting heat therefrom, mineral solids which form in a so cooled geothermal solution are separated to recover minerals and facilitate reinjection of the solution into the ground. The separated solids are treated to recover silica by addition of an acid (amorphous silica precipitates) or a base (other minerals precipitate and soulble silicates are formed which are subsequently precipitated by acid neutralization). If desired, after silica is separated, other minerals can be separated and recovered.

  20. Embedding Luminescent Nanocrystals in Silica Sol-Gel Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    procedure necessary to form low-density silica aerogels using supercritical drying procedures. The resulting aerogel networks show a high surface area...reactions. Recent research that just begins to delve into the subject of taking quantum dot semiconductors in silica aerogels was published in...surface of the QD is desirable. As such, ultra low-density silica aerogel materials are an excellent medium for sensor applications as they can be

  1. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  2. Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.

  3. Surface interactions between silica particles and water and organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Douillard, J.M.; Elwafir, M.; Partyka, S.

    1994-04-01

    A silica sample has been studied by vapor adsorption and by microcalorimetric methods. The combination of these two methods in the case of water allows one to calculate all the thermodynamic terms related to the adhesion on this silica. Adhesion between silica and miscellaneous solvents has been studied by immersion microcalorimetry. The silica is slightly hydrophobic, but the enthalpy of immersion into water is the most energetic one of all the solvents studied. It appears a clear graduation of the enthalpies of immersion due to the presence of delocalized electrons in the studied solvents.

  4. Silica in Opal at Buckskin and Greenhorn on Mount Sharp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    This graph presents information from the NASA Curiosity Mars rover's onboard analysis of rock powder drilled from the "Buckskin" and "Greenhorn" target locations on lower Mount Sharp. Buckskin, in the "Marias Pass" area, and Greenhorn, in the "Bridger Basin" area, both contain high concentrations of silica. X-ray diffraction analysis of powered samples inside Curiosity's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument revealed that each of them contains silica in the form of noncrystalline opal. The broad hump in the two X-ray diffraction patterns is diagnostic of opaline silica. Some of the silica in Buckskin is in the form of tridymite. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20273

  5. Dissolution and analysis of amorphous silica in marine sediments.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggimann, D.W.; Manheim, F. T.; Betzer, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical estimation of amorphous silica in selected Atlantic and Antarctic Ocean sediments, the U.S.G.S. standard marine mud (MAG-1), A.A.P.G. clays, and samples from cultures of a marine diatom, Hemidiscus, has been examined. Our values for amorphous silica-rich circum-Antarctic sediments are equal to or greater than literature values, whereas our values for a set of amorphous silica-poor sediments from a transect of the N. Atlantic at 11oN, after appropriate correction for silica released from clays, are significantly lower than previous estimates from the same region. -from Authors

  6. Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Thu Nga, Pham; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2014-03-01

    We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter.

  7. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate on Modified Silica Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carrie; Komunjer, Ljepša; Hlady, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, CaHPO4•2H2O (DCPD) was studied on untreated planar fused silica and on three modified silica surfaces: octadecylsilyl (OTS) modified silica, human serum albumin treated OTS silica, and UV-oxidized 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilyl (MTS) modified silica. The supersaturation ratio of calcium and phosphate solution with respect to DCPD was kept below ~10. The nucleated crystals were observed 24 hours and one week after initial contact between supersaturated solutions and substrate surfaces using bright field and reflectance interference contrast microscopy. No DCPD crystals nucleated on albumin-treated OTS-silica. Majority of the DCDP crystals formed on the other modified silica surfaces appeared to be morphologically similar irrespective of the nature of nucleating substrate. Reflectance interference contrast microscopy provided a proof that the majority of the crystals on these substrates do not develop an extended contact with the substrate surface. The images showed that the most extended contact planes were between the DCPD crystals and MTS modified silica surface. The crystals nucleated on OTS-treated and untreated silica surfaces showed only few or none well-developed contact planes. PMID:25264399

  8. Characterization of silica particles modified with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wang; Shen, Haiying; Wang, Jiamin; Cao, Jinzhen

    2017-03-01

    The surface of hydrophilic silica particles was modified with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS). The hydrophobicity and hygroscopicity of unmodified and modified silica were investigated through water contact angle (WCA) tests and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method, respectively. The results showed that the surface properties of silica were closely related with the MPTS concentration. Within the range of MPTS concentration applied, 8% MPTS modified silica showed the least aggregation. With the increasing MPTS concentration, the WCAs on modified silica film increased correspondingly, and finally exceeded 90° at 6% and 8% concentrations. The equilibrium moisture contents (EMCs) of modified silica also decreased with the increasing MPTS concentration. The improvement on hydrophobicity can be correlated with the reduction of residual hydroxyl groups (-OH) on modified silica. The self-condensation of MPTS began to occur at concentrations higher than 4%, especially at 8%. Owing to this effect, the modified silica with 8% MPTS showed a slightly higher EMC than 6% MPTS within low relative humidity (RH) range up to 40%. At a higher RH ranging from 40 to 90%, 8% group showed the lowest EMCs because of its highest hydrophobicity and low specific surface area. A mechanism concerning the MPTS modification of silica was also proposed in this study based on the research results.

  9. Winter climate change and fine root biogenic silica in sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum): Implications for silica in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Timothy J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Battles, John J.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2017-03-01

    Winter temperatures are projected to increase over the next century, leading to reductions in winter snowpack and increased frequency of soil freezing in many northern forest ecosystems. Here we examine biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) fine roots collected from a snow manipulation experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Increased soil freezing significantly lowered the BSi content of sugar maple fine roots potentially decreasing their capacity to take up water and dissolved nutrients. The reduced silica uptake (8 ± 1 kmol silica km-2) by sugar maple fine roots is comparable to silica export from temperate forest watersheds. We estimate that fine roots account for 29% of sugar maple BSi, despite accounting for only 4% of their biomass. These results suggest that increased frequency of soil freezing will reduce silica uptake by temperate tree roots, thereby changing silica availability in downstream receiving waters.

  10. Macroporous Silica with Thick Framework for Steam-Stable and High-Performance Poly(ethyleneimine)/Silica CO2 Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyungmin; Choi, Woosung; Choi, Minkee

    2017-06-09

    Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)/silica has been widely studied as a solid adsorbent for post-combustion CO 2 capture. In this work, a highly macroporous silica (MacS), synthesized by secondary sintering of fumed silica, is compared with various mesoporous silicas with different pore structures as a support for PEI. The silicas with large pore diameter and volume enabled high CO 2 adsorption kinetics and capacity, because pore occlusion by the supported PEI was minimized. The steam stability of the silica structures increased with the silica wall thickness owing to suppressed framework ripening. The silicas with low steam stability showed rapid leaching of PEI, which indicated that the PEI squeezed out of the collapsed silica pores leached more readily. Consequently, MacS that had an extra-large pore volume (1.80 cm 3  g -1 ) and pore diameter (56.0 nm), and a thick wall (>10 nm), showed the most promising CO 2 adsorption kinetics and capacity as well as steam stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Carbothermal transformation of a graphitic carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composite to a SiC/silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weijie; Steigerwalt, Eve S; Moore, Joshua T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Collins, W Eugene; Lukehart, C M

    2004-09-01

    Carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composites are prepared by sol-gel processing of surface-enhanced herringbone graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNF) and Si(OMe)4, followed by supercritical CO2 drying. Heating the resulting GCNF/silica aerogel composites to 1650 degrees C under a partial pressure of Ar gas initiates carbothermal reaction between the silica aerogel matrix and the carbon nanofiber component to form SiC/silica nanocomposites. The SiC phase is present as nearly spherical nanoparticles, having an average diameter of ca. 8 nm. Formation of SiC is confirmed by powder XRD and by Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Geological features indicative of processes related to the hematite formation in Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos, Mars: a comparison with diagenetic hematite deposits in southern Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormö, Jens; Komatsu, Goro; Chan, Marjorie A.; Beitler, Brenda; Parry, William T.

    2004-10-01

    In order to understand the formation of the few but large, hematite deposits on Mars, comparisons are often made with terrestrial hematite occurrences. In southern Utah, hematite concretions have formed within continental sandstones and are exposed as extensive weathered-out beds. The hematite deposits are linked to geological and geomorphological features such as knobs, buttes, bleached beds, fractures and rings. These terrestrial features are visible in aerial and satellite images, which enables a comparison with similar features occurring extensively in the martian hematite-rich areas. The combination of processes involved in the movement and precipitation of iron in southern Utah can provide new insights in the context of the hematite formation on Mars. Here we present a mapping of the analogue geological and geomorphological features in parts of Meridiani Planum and Aram Chaos. Based on mapping comparisons with the Utah occurrences, we present models for the formation of the martian analogues, as well as a model for iron transport and precipitation on Mars. Following the Utah model, high albedo layers and rings in the mapped area on Mars are due to removal or lack of iron, and precipitation of secondary diagenetic minerals as fluids moved up along fractures and permeable materials. Hematite was precipitated intraformationally where the fluid transporting the reduced iron met oxidizing conditions. Our study shows that certain geological/geomorphological features can be linked to the hematite formation on Mars and that pH differences could suffice for the transport of the iron from an orthopyroxene volcanoclastic source rock. The presence of organic compounds can enhance the iron mobilization and precipitation processes. Continued studies will focus on possible influence of biological activity and/or methane in the formation of the hematite concretions in Utah and on Mars.

  13. Study of Diagenetic Features in Rudist Buildups of Cretaceous Edwards Formation Using Ground Based Hyperspectral Scanning and Terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Okyay, U.; Hartzell, P. J.; Biber, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ground based remote sensing is a novel technique for development of digital outcrop models which can be instrumental in performing detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis for the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral data collection is combined with terrestrial LiDAR to study outcrops of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated inter-reef facies, including rudist bioherms and biostromes. It is a significant aquifer and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south central Texas. Hyperspectral data were used to map compositional variation in the outcrop by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. Lithological variation was mapped in detail to investigate the structure and composition of rudist buildups. Hyperspectral imagery was registered to a 3D model produced from the LiDAR point cloud with an accuracy of up to one pixel. Flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying toucasid-rich biostrome facies containing chert nodules, overlying sucrosic dolostones, and uppermost peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area and has validated classification products of remote sensing data. Several types of porosity were observed and have been associated with increased dolomitization. This ongoing research involves integration of remotely sensed datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and seeks to develop a workflow for quick and efficient ground based remote sensing-assisted outcrop studies.

  14. Silica nanoparticle phytotoxicity to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Slomberg, Danielle L; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2012-09-18

    The phytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) was evaluated as a function of particle size (14, 50, and 200 nm), concentration (250 and 1000 mg L(-1)), and surface composition toward Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown hydroponically for 3 and 6 weeks. Reduced development and chlorosis were observed for plants exposed to highly negative SiNPs (-20.3 and -31.9 mV for the 50 and 200 nm SiNPs, respectively) regardless of particle concentration when not controlling pH of the hydroponic medium, which resulted in increased alkalinity (~pH 8). Particles were no longer toxic to the plants at either concentration upon calcination or removal of surface silanols from the SiNP surface, or adjusting the pH of the growth medium to pH 5.8. The phytotoxic effects observed for the negatively charged 50 and 200 nm SiNPs were attributed to pH effects and the adsorption of macro- and micro-nutrients to the silica surface. Size-dependent uptake of the nanoparticles by the plants was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) with plant roots containing 32.0, 1.85, and 7.00 × 10(-3) mg Si·kg tissue(-1)/nm(3) (normalized for SiNP volume) for the 14, 50, and 200 nm SiNPs respectively, after 6 weeks exposure at 1000 ppm (pH 5.8). This study demonstrates that the silica scaffolds are not phytotoxic up to 1000 ppm despite significant uptake of the SiNPs (14, 50, and 200 nm) into the root system of A. thaliana.

  15. Quartz/fused silica chip carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research and development effort was to develop monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) packaging which will operate efficiently at millimeter-wave frequencies. The packages incorporated fused silica as the substrate material which was selected due to its favorable electrical properties and potential performance improvement over more conventional materials for Ka-band operation. The first step towards meeting this objective is to develop a package that meets standard mechanical and thermal requirements using fused silica and to be compatible with semiconductor devices operating up to at least 44 GHz. The second step is to modify the package design and add multilayer and multicavity capacity to allow for application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) to control multiple phase shifters. The final step is to adapt the package design to a phased array module with integral radiating elements. The first task was a continuation of the SBIR Phase 1 work. Phase 1 identified fused silica as a viable substrate material by demonstrating various plating, machining, and adhesion properties. In Phase 2 Task 1, a package was designed and fabricated to validate these findings. Task 2 was to take the next step in packaging and fabricate a multilayer, multichip module (MCM). This package is the predecessor to the phased array module and demonstrates the ability to via fill, circuit print, laminate, and to form vertical interconnects. The final task was to build a phased array module. The radiating elements were to be incorporated into the package instead of connecting to it with wire or ribbon bonds.

  16. Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for molsidomine adsorption: Thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect

    Alyoshina, Nonna A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V., E-mail: evp@iscras.ru

    2013-09-15

    A series of unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials was prepared. The unmodified mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol–gel synthesis in the presence of D-glucose as pore-forming agent. The functionalized by phenyl, aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups silica materials were prepared via grafting. The fabricated adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and elemental analysis methods. Then their adsorption properties for mesoionic dug molsidomine were investigated at 290–313 K and physiological pH value. Thermodynamic parameters of molsidomine adsorption on the synthesized materials have been calculated. The obtained results showed that the adsorption processmore » of molsidomine on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. The unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified silica materials exhibit significantly higher adsorption capacities and energies for molsidomine than the aminopropyl modified sample. The effects are discussed from the viewpoint of nature of specific interactions responsible for the adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of molsidomine adsorption showed that the adsorption process on mesoporous silica materials is controlled by chemical nature of surface functional groups. Molsidomine adsorption on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. Taking into account ambiguous nature of mesoionic compounds, it was found that molsidomine is rather aromatic than dipolar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials were prepared. • Molsidomine adsorption on the silica materials was studied. • Phenyl modified silica shows the highest adsorption capacity and favorable energy. • Molsidomine exhibits the lowest affinity to aminopropyl modified silica.« less

  17. Crystallization of calcia-gallia-silica glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal image furance is presently used to study the critical cooling rate for glass formation, and the kinetics of crystallization, of the compositions 18.4CaO-(81.6-X)Ga2O3-XSiO2, where X = 3, 6, 9, and 13.8. Crystallization was studied nonisothermally, and the data were analyzed in light of the Avrami (1939) equation. Critical cooling rate and crystallization activation energy are both found to decrease with increasing silica content, and the results obtained by the present technique are noted to agree with those obtained on the basis of differential thermal analysis measurements.

  18. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  19. Composite Silica Aerogels Opacified with Titania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Jon-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; DiStefano, Salvador; Nesmith, Bill

    2009-01-01

    A further improvement has been made to reduce the high-temperature thermal conductivities of the aerogel-matrix composite materials described in Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials (NPO-44287), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 9 (September 2008), page 50. Because the contribution of infrared radiation to heat transfer increases sharply with temperature, the effective high-temperature thermal conductivity of a thermal-insulation material can be reduced by opacifying the material to reduce the radiative contribution. Therefore, the essence of the present improvement is to add an opacifying constituent material (specifically, TiO2 powder) to the aerogel-matrix composites.

  20. New Evidence from Silica Debris Exo-Systems for Planet Building Hypervelocity Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey

    2010-05-01

    There is abundant inferential evidence for massive collisions in the early solar system [1]: Mercury's high density; Venus' retrograde spin; Earth's Moon; Mars' North/South hemispherical cratering anisotropy; Vesta's igneous origin [2]; brecciation in meteorites [3]; and Uranus' spin axis located near the plane of the ecliptic. Recent work [4] analyzing Spitzer mid-IR spectra has demonstrated the presence of large amounts of amorphous silica and SiO gas produced by a recent (within 103 - 104 yrs) large (MExcess > MPluto) hypervelocity impact collision around the young (~12 Myr old) nearby star HD172555, at the right age to form rocky planets. Many questions still remain concerning the location, lifetime, and source of the detected silica/SiO gas, which should not be stable in orbit at the estimated 5.8 AU from the HD172555 A5V primary for more than a few decades, yet it is also highly unlikely that we are fortuitously observing these systems immediately after silica formation A tabulation of the amount counts in the fine silica dust is decidedly Fe and Mg-atom poor compared to solar [4]. Three possible origins for the observed silica/SiO gas seem currently plausible : (1) A single hyperevelocity impact (>10km/s in order to produce silica and vaporize SiO at impact) creating an optically thick circumplanetary debris ring which is overflowing or releasing silica-rich material from its Hill sphere. Like terrestrial tektites, the Fe/Mg poor amorphous silica rubble is formed from quick-quenched molten/vaporized rock created during the impact. The amount of dust detected in the HD172555 system is easily enough to fill and overflow the Hill sphere radius of 0.03 AU for a Pluto-sized body at 5.8 AU from an A5 star, unless it is optically thick (> 1 cm in physical depth). Such a disk would provide a substantial fraction of the observed IR flux, and will be dense enough to self-shield its SiO gas, greatly extending its photolytic lifetime. The lifetime for such a system

  1. Doxorubicin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibers for long-term adjustments of tumor apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ziming; Pan, Yue; Cheng, Ruoyu; Sheng, Lulu; Wu, Wei; Pan, Guoqing; Feng, Qiming; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-06-01

    There is a high local recurrence (LR) rate in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and enhancement of the local treatment is promising as a way to improve this. Thus we propose a drug delivery system using doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibers which can release anti-tumor drugs in two phases—burst release in the early stage and sustained release at a later stage—to reduce the LR of BCT. In the present study, we designed a novel composite nanofibrous scaffold to realize the efficient release of drugs by loading both DOX and DOX-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles into an electrospun PLLA nanofibrous scaffold. In vitro results demonstrated that this kind of nanomaterial can release DOX in two phases, and the results of in vivo experiments showed that this hybrid nanomaterial significantly inhibited the tumor growth in a solid tumor model. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the apoptosis of tumor cells in the treated group over a 10 week period was significant. The anti-cancer effects were also accompanied with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and TNF-α, along with up-regulation of Bax, Fas and the activation of caspase-3 levels. The present study illustrates that the mesoporous silica nanoparticle composite nanofibrous scaffold could have anti-tumor properties and could be further developed as adjuvant therapeutic protocols for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Thermally stable silica-coated hydrophobic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yuka; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We have successfully developed a method for silica coating on hydrophobic dodecanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles with coating thickness ranging from 10 to 40 nm. The formation of silica-coated Au nanoparticles could be accomplished via the preparation of hydrophilic Au nanoparticle micelles by cationic surfactant encapsulation in aqueous phase, followed by hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on the hydrophilic surface of gold nanoparticle micelles. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles exhibited quite high thermal stability, that is, no agglomeration of the Au cores could be observed after annealing at 600 degrees C for 30 min. Silica-coated Au nanoparticles could serve as a template to derive hollow nanoparticles. An addition of NaCN solution to silica-coated Au nanoparticles led the formation of hollow silica nanoparticles, which were redispersible in deionized water. The formation of the hollow silica nanoparticles results from the mesoporous structures of the silica shell and such a mesoporous structure is applicable to both catalyst support and drug delivery.

  3. Developing improved silica materials and devices for integrated optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, Ashley Julia

    Due to their favorable optical and material properties, silica-based materials and devices have found many important applications throughout science and engineering, especially in sensing, communications, lasers, and integrated optics. Often, silica's properties ultimately limit the performance of these applications. To address this limitation, this thesis investigates the development of improved silica materials and optical devices, including silica films, coatings, waveguides, resonators, lasers, and sensors. Using sol-gel chemistry and microfabrication procedures, custom silica materials and devices are developed to benefit many applications. In this thesis, it is first demonstrated how the low optical loss of silica enables fabrication of low loss integrated waveguides and toroidal resonators with ultra-high quality factors. Then, by adding various rare earth and metal dopants to sol-gel silica, hybrid silica materials and devices are made with custom properties such as high refractive index and lasing capabilities. Finally, several applications are demonstrated, including the use of high refractive index coatings to control the behavior of light, development of Raman and ultra-low threshold rare earth microlasers, and a heterodyned microlaser sensor with significantly improved sensing performance. Future applications and directions of this research are also discussed.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Silica Composite Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, S. M.; Fathi, M. H.; Golozar, M. A.

    One of the most important objectives in the field of biomaterials science and engineering is development of new materials as bone substitutes. Silica (SiO2) has an important role in the biomineralization and biological responses. The aim of this research was to prepare and characterize hydroxyapatite-silica (HA-SiO2) composite nanopowder with different content of silica. Hydroxyapatite-silica composite nanopowders with 20 and 40 wt% silica were prepared using a sol-gel method at 600°C with phosphoric pentoxide and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as a source of hydroxyapatite; also, tetraethylorthosilicate and methyltriethoxisilane as a source of silica. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) techniques were used for characterization and evaluation of the products. The results indicated the presence of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite phase beside amorphous silica phase in prepared composite nanopowders. Moreover, by increasing the content of silica in composite nanopowders, the crystallinity will be decreased,and the ability of the product as a bone substitute material might be controlled by changing the content of the ingredients and subsequently its structure.

  5. Asymmetric orientation of toluene molecules at oil-silica interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledyastuti, Mia; Liang, Yunfeng; Kunieda, Makoto; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2012-08-01

    The interfacial structure of heptane and toluene at oil-silica interfaces has previously been studied by sum frequency generation [Z. Yang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 20355 (2009)], 10.1021/jp9043122. It was found that the toluene molecule is almost perpendicular to the silica surface with a tilt angle of about 25°. Here, we have investigated the structural properties of toluene and heptane at oil-silica interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations for two different surfaces: the oxygen-bridging (hydrophobic) and hydroxyl-terminated (hydrophilic) surfaces of quartz (silica). Based on the density profile, it was found that both heptane and toluene oscillate on silica surfaces, with heptane showing more oscillation peaks. Furthermore, the toluene molecules of the first layer were found to have an asymmetric distribution of orientations, with more CH3 groups pointed away from the silica surface than towards the silica surface. These findings are generally consistent with previous experiments, and reveal enhanced molecular structures of liquids at oil-silica interfaces.

  6. Asymmetric orientation of toluene molecules at oil-silica interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ledyastuti, Mia; Liang, Yunfeng; Kunieda, Makoto; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2012-08-14

    The interfacial structure of heptane and toluene at oil-silica interfaces has previously been studied by sum frequency generation [Z. Yang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 20355 (2009)]. It was found that the toluene molecule is almost perpendicular to the silica surface with a tilt angle of about 25°. Here, we have investigated the structural properties of toluene and heptane at oil-silica interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations for two different surfaces: the oxygen-bridging (hydrophobic) and hydroxyl-terminated (hydrophilic) surfaces of quartz (silica). Based on the density profile, it was found that both heptane and toluene oscillate on silica surfaces, with heptane showing more oscillation peaks. Furthermore, the toluene molecules of the first layer were found to have an asymmetric distribution of orientations, with more CH(3) groups pointed away from the silica surface than towards the silica surface. These findings are generally consistent with previous experiments, and reveal enhanced molecular structures of liquids at oil-silica interfaces.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Colloidal Silica Particles under Mild Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Frances; Zin, Azrinawati Mohd.; Jameson, Graeme J.; Wanless, Erica J.

    2012-01-01

    A microscale laboratory experiment for the preparation and characterization of silica particles at neutral pH and ambient temperature conditions is described. Students first employ experimental fabrication methods to make spherical submicrometer silica particles via the condensation of an alkoxysilane and polyethyleneimine, which act to catalyze…

  8. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of silica bodies to investigate their size and distribution, along with the number of carbon inclusions within the silica bodies of perennial grass species Koeleria macrantha. Fluorescence images were analyzed by image software Adobe Photoshop CS5 or ImageJ that remarkably facilitated the quantification of silica bodies in the dry ash. We observed three types of silica bodies or silica body related mineral structures. Silica bodies were detected on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of K. macrantha leaves, although their sizes, density, and distribution patterns were different. No auto-fluorescence was detected from carbon inclusions. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and image processing software displayed efficient utilization in the identification and quantification of silica bodies in K. macrantha leaf tissues, which should applicable to biological, ecological and geological studies of grasses including forage, turf grasses and cereal crops.

  9. Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based silica-iron oxide superhydrophobic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Nadargi, Digambar; Gurav, Jyoti; Marioni, Miguel A; Romer, Sara; Matam, Santhosh; Koebel, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    We report a facile synthesis of superhydrophobic silica-iron oxide nanocomposites via a co-precursor sol-gel process. The choice of the silica precursor (Methyltrimethoxysilane, MTMS) in combination with iron nitrate altered the pore structure dramatically. The influence of iron oxide doping on the structural properties of pristine MTMS aerogel is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-08-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept-that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols.

  11. Targeted Mesoporous Silica Nanocarriers in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Alejandro; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2018-02-08

    Cancer is one of the major leading causes of death worldwide and its prevalence will be higher in the coming years due to the progressive aging of the population. The development of nanocarriers in oncology has provided a new hope in the fight against this terrible disease. Among the different types of nanoparticles which have been reported in the scientific literature, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are very promising materials due to their inherent properties such as high loading capacity of many different drugs, excellent biocompatibility and easy functionalization. This review presents the current state of the art related to the development of mesoporous silica nanocarriers for antitumoral therapy paying special attention on targeted MSN able to selectively destroy tumoral cells, reducing the side damage in healthy ones, and the basic principles of targeting tumoral tissues and cells. MSNs constitute a promising nanomaterial for drug delivery applications in antitumoral therapy as a consequence of its unique properties such as excellent biocompatibility, high loading capacity, robustness, easy production and existence of multiple strategies for their functionalization with a myriad of bio-organic moieties. In the coming years, the clever application of this material would provide novel alternatives for the treatment of this complex disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Silica Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Anthony Lamar

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials containing nanoparticles with a large interfacial surface area. Only a small quantity of nanoparticles are needed to provide superior multifunctional properties; such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, and moisture absorption properties in polymers. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, so special techniques are required for homogeneous distribution. Nanosilica is now readily available as colloidal sols, for example; Nanopox RTM F400 (supplied by Evonik Nanoresins AG, Germany). The nanoparticles are first synthesized from aqueous sodium silicate solution, and then undergo a surface modification process with organosilane and matrix exchange. F400 contains 40%wt silica nanoparticles colloidally dispersed in a DGEBA epoxy resin. The mean particle diameter is about 20 nm with a narrow distribution range of about 5 to 35 nm. The objectives of this study are to develop a reproducible processing method for nanosilica enhanced resin systems used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites that will be characterized for mechanical and thermal properties. Research has concluded that shows improvements in the properties of the matrix material when processed in loading variations of 0 to 25%wt silica nanoparticles. The loadings were also used to manufacture fiberglass reinforced nanocomposite laminates and also tested for mechanical and thermal properties.

  13. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    DOE PAGES

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; ...

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s correspondingmore » to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.« less

  14. Mechanisms of anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2014-11-01

    The anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica has been known for nearly a century, but the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Using GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic wave travel times at pressures up to 5 GPa in vitreous silica with fictive temperatures (Tf) ranging between 985 °C and 1500 °C. The maximum in ultrasonic wave travel times-corresponding to a minimum in acoustic velocities-shifts to higher pressure with increasing Tf for both acoustic waves, with complete reversibility below 5 GPa. These relationships reflect polyamorphism in the supercooled liquid, which results in a glassy state possessing different proportions of domains of high- and low-density amorphous phases (HDA and LDA, respectively). The relative proportion of HDA and LDA is set at Tf and remains fixed on compression below the permanent densification pressure. The bulk material exhibits compression behavior systematically dependent on synthesis conditions that arise from the presence of floppy modes in a mixture of HDA and LDA domains.

  15. Pegylated silica nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and macrophage uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorani, Giulia; Marin, Riccardo; Canton, Patrizia; Pinto, Marcella; Conti, Giamaica; Fracasso, Giulio; Riello, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present a thorough study of pegylated silica nanoparticle (SNP) interaction with different biological environments. The SNPs have a mean diameter of about 40 nm and are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights. The physicochemical characterization of SNPs allowed the confirmation of the binding of PEG chains to the silica surface, the reproducibility of the synthesis and the narrow size-dispersion. In view of clarifying the SNP interaction with biological environments, we first assessed the SNP reactivity after the incubation with two cell lines (macrophages RAW 264.7 and primary human fibroblasts), observing a reduced toxicity of pegylated SNPs compared to the bare ones. Then, we investigated the effect of the protein adsorption on the SNP surface using the model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the protein adsorption takes place more heavily on poorly pegylated SNPs, promoting the uptake of the latter by macrophages and leading to an increased mortality of these cells. To better understand this mechanism by means of flow cytometry, the dye Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was incorporated in the SNPs. The overall results highlight the SNP potentialities as a drug delivery system, thanks to the low interactions with the macrophages.

  16. Structural refinement of vitreous silica bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Wilson, Mark; Thorpe, M. F.

    The importance of glasses resides not only in their applications but in fundamental questions that they put forth. The continuous random network model can successfully describe the glass structure, but determining details, like ring statistics, has always been difficult using only diffraction data. But recent atomic images of 2D vitreous silica bilayers can offer valuable new insights which are hard to be observed directly in 3D silica models/experiments (for references see). However, the experimental results are prone to uncertainty in atomic positions, systematic errors, and being finite. We employ special boundary conditions developed for such networks to refine the experimental structures. We show the best structure can be found by using various potentials to maximize information gained from the experimental samples. We find a range of densities, the so-called flexibility window, in which tetrahedra are perfect. We compare results from simulations using harmonic potentials, MD with atomic polarizabilities included and DFT. We should thank David Drabold and Bishal Bhattarai for useful discussions. Support through NSF Grant # DMS 1564468 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Water evaporation in silica colloidal deposits.

    PubMed

    Peixinho, Jorge; Lefèvre, Grégory; Coudert, François-Xavier; Hurisse, Olivier

    2013-10-15

    The results of an experimental study on the evaporation and boiling of water confined in the pores of deposits made of mono-dispersed silica colloidal micro-spheres are reported. The deposits are studied using scanning electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen, and adsorption of water through attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. The evaporation is characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. Optical microscopy is used to observe the patterns on the deposits after evaporation. When heating at a constant rate and above boiling temperature, the release of water out of the deposits is a two step process. The first step is due to the evaporation and boiling of the surrounding and bulk water and the second is due to the desorption of water from the pores. Additional experiments on the evaporation of water from membranes having cylindrical pores and of heptane from silica deposits suggest that the second step is due to the morphology of the deposits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SO2 adsorption on silica supported iridium.

    PubMed

    Bounechada, Djamela; Anderson, David P; Skoglundh, Magnus; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2017-02-28

    The interaction of SO 2 with Ir/SiO 2 was studied by simultaneous in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, exposing the sample to different SO 2 concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm in the temperature interval 200-400 °C. Evidences of adsorption of sulfur species in both absence and presence of oxygen are found. For a pre-reduced sample in the absence of oxygen, SO 2 disproportionates such that the iridium surface is rapidly saturated with adsorbed S while minor amounts of formed SO 3 may adsorb on SiO 2 . Adding oxygen to the feed leads to the oxidation of sulfide species that either (i) desorb as SO 2 and/or SO 3 , (ii) remain at metal sites in the form of adsorbed SO 2 , or (iii) spillover to the oxide support and form sulfates (SO 4 2- ). Notably, significant formation of sulfates on silica is possible only in the presence of both SO 2 and O 2 , suggesting that SO 2 oxidation to SO 3 is a necessary first step in the mechanism of formation of sulfates on silica. During the formation of sulfates, a concomitant removal/rearrangement of surface silanol groups is observed. Finally, the interaction of SO 2 with Ir/SiO 2 depends primarily on the temperature and type of gas components but only to a minor extent on the inlet SO 2 concentration.

  19. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept—that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  20. SO2 adsorption on silica supported iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounechada, Djamela; Anderson, David P.; Skoglundh, Magnus; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of SO2 with Ir/SiO2 was studied by simultaneous in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, exposing the sample to different SO2 concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm in the temperature interval 200-400 °C. Evidences of adsorption of sulfur species in both absence and presence of oxygen are found. For a pre-reduced sample in the absence of oxygen, SO2 disproportionates such that the iridium surface is rapidly saturated with adsorbed S while minor amounts of formed SO3 may adsorb on SiO2. Adding oxygen to the feed leads to the oxidation of sulfide species that either (i) desorb as SO2 and/or SO3, (ii) remain at metal sites in the form of adsorbed SO2, or (iii) spillover to the oxide support and form sulfates (SO42-). Notably, significant formation of sulfates on silica is possible only in the presence of both SO2 and O2, suggesting that SO2 oxidation to SO3 is a necessary first step in the mechanism of formation of sulfates on silica. During the formation of sulfates, a concomitant removal/rearrangement of surface silanol groups is observed. Finally, the interaction of SO2 with Ir/SiO2 depends primarily on the temperature and type of gas components but only to a minor extent on the inlet SO2 concentration.

  1. Preparation of Silica Aerogel from TEOS

    PubMed

    Tamon; Kitamura; Okazaki

    1998-01-15

    Silica alcogels were synthesized by the sol-gel polymerization of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). In the synthesis, HCl and NH3 were used as hydrolysis and condensation catalysts. The gelation time became short and the visible light transmittance increased with increasing the amount of HCl or lengthening the hydrolysis time. The alcogels were dried under supercritical conditions with carbon dioxide, and silica aerogels were obtained. As a result of characterization by visible light transmission and N2 adsorption, the aerogels are mesoporous materials with high surface areas. The experimental results suggest that the aerogel properties are not influenced by the drying conditions such as extraction temperature, extraction time, depressurizing temperature, and depressurizing rate. On the other hand, the properties are changed under the conditions of sol-gel polymerization. In the preparation of highly transparent aerogels with high surface areas and large pore volumes, it is necessary to synthesize highly transparent alcogels. It is found that the visible light transmittance of alcogels is an index for preparing aerogels from TEOS. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. Copyright 1998Academic Press

  2. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

  3. High-average-power laser medium based on silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Silica glass is one of the most attractive materials for a high-average-power laser. We have developed a new laser material base don silica glass with zeolite method which is effective for uniform dispersion of rare earth ions in silica glass. High quality medium, which is bubbleless and quite low refractive index distortion, must be required for realization of laser action. As the main reason of bubbling is due to hydroxy species remained in the gelation same, we carefully choose colloidal silica particles, pH value of hydrochloric acid for hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate on sol-gel process, and temperature and atmosphere control during sintering process, and then we get a bubble less transparent rare earth doped silica glass. The refractive index distortion of the sample also discussed.

  4. The regulation of crystalline silica: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Elzea, J M

    1997-01-01

    Silica is ubiquitous in the earth's crust. It occurs in trace to large quantities in rocks and soil. Because it is so common, the regulation of silica has affected a large number of industries, including the mining industry and any industry that uses quartz in the manufacture of a products. Mineral commodities that contain silica include diatomite, bentonite, kaolinite, talc, pyrophyllite, sand and gravel, perlite, pumice, dimension stone, and barite. Products that contain minerals, many of which are associated with silica, include paint, paper, rubber, plastic, pharmaceuticals, food, cement, plaster, cat litter, potting soil, plaster board, and miscellaneous construction materials. In collaboration with some agencies and academic centers, the silica industry is supporting research to lower health risks and to improve the methods of detecting this common material.

  5. Fused silica reflecting heat shields for outer planet entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, W. M.; Peterson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The development of slip-cast fused silica is discussed as a heat shield designed to meet the needs of outer-planet entry probes. The distinguishing feature of silica is its ability to reflect the radiation imposed by planetary-entry environments. This reflectivity is particularly sensitive to degradation by the presence of trace amounts of contaminants introduced by the starting materials or by processing. The microstructure of a silica configuration also significantly influences the reflectivity and other thermomechanical properties. The processing techniques attendant on controlling microstructure while maintaining purity are discussed. The selection of a starting material of essential purity precludes the use of purified natural quartz and requires the use of synthetic fused silica. The silica is characterized in a limited combined heating test environment. The surface mass loss is controlled by liquid runoff from a relatively low-temperature melt layer; the reflectance is basically maintained and the material achieves a surprisingly high heat of ablation.

  6. High export of dissolved silica from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meire, L.; Meire, P.; Struyf, E.; Krawczyk, D. W.; Arendt, K. E.; Yde, J. C.; Juul Pedersen, T.; Hopwood, M. J.; Rysgaard, S.; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2016-09-01

    Silica is an essential element for marine life and plays a key role in the biogeochemistry of the ocean. Glacial activity stimulates rock weathering, generating dissolved silica that is exported to coastal areas along with meltwater. The magnitude of the dissolved silica export from large glacial areas such as the Greenland Ice Sheet is presently poorly quantified and not accounted for in global budgets. Here we present data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet which reveal a large export of dissolved silica by glacial meltwater relative to other macronutrients. Upscaled to the entire Greenland Ice Sheet, the export of dissolved silica equals 22 ± 10 Gmol Si yr-1. When the silicate-rich meltwater mixes with upwelled deep water, either inside or outside Greenland's fjords, primary production takes place at increased silicate to nitrate ratios. This likely stimulates the growth of diatoms relative to other phytoplankton groups.

  7. Enhanced stab resistance of armor composites with functionalized silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Clements, Floria; Rangari, Vijaya; Dhanak, Vinod; Beamson, Graham

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles. This mixture is often known as STF and is consisted of approximately 45 wt % PEG and 55 wt % silica. During rheological tests, STF shows instantaneous spike in viscosity above a critical shear rate. Fabrication of STF-Kevlar composites requires preparation of STF, dilution with ethanol, and then impregnation with Kevlar. In the current approach, nanoscale silica particles were dispersed directly into a mixture of PEG and ethanol through a sonic cavitation process. Two types of silica nanoparticles were used in the investigation: 30 nm crystalline silica and 7 nm amorphous silica. The admixture was then reinforced with Kevlar fabric to produce flexible armor composites. In the next step, silica particles are functionalized with a silane coupling agent to enhance bonding between silica and PEG. The performance of the resulting armor composites improved significantly. As evidenced by National Institute of Justice spike tests, the energy required for zero-layer penetration (i.e., no penetration) jumped twofold: from 12 to 25 J cm2/g. The source of this improvement has been traced to the formation of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds between silica and PEG and superior coating of Kevlar filaments with particles. Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed to examine chemical bonds, elemental composition, and particle dispersion responsible for such improvement. In summary, our experiments have demonstrated that functionalization of silica particles followed by direct dispersion into PEG resulted in superior Kevlar composites having much higher spike resistance.

  8. Silica metal-oxide vesicles catalyze comprehensive prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Botta, Lorenzo; Pérez-Valverde, Maritza Iveth; Saladino, Raffaele; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2018-03-30

    It has recently been demonstrated that mineral self-assembled structures catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions may form in natural waters derived from serpentinization, a geological process widespread in the early stages of Earth-like planets. We have synthesized self-assembled membranes by mixing microdrops of metal solutions with alkaline silicate solutions in the presence of formamide (NH2CHO), a single carbon molecule, at 80ºC. We found that these bilayer membranes, made of amorphous silica and metal oxide-hydroxide nanocrystals, catalyze the condensation of formamide, yielding the four nucleobases of RNA, three aminoacids and several carboxylic acids in a single pot experiment. Besides manganese, iron and magnesium, two abundant elements in the earliest Earth crust that are key in serpentinization reactions, are enough to produce all these biochemical compounds. These results suggest that the transition from inorganic geochemistry to prebiotic organic chemistry is common on a universal scale and, most probably, earlier than ever thought for our planet. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Functional mesoporous silica nanoparticles for bio-imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Jaeyun

    2018-03-22

    Biomedical investigations using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have received significant attention because of their unique properties including controllable mesoporous structure, high specific surface area, large pore volume, and tunable particle size. These unique features make MSNs suitable for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy with unique advantages to encapsulate and load a variety of therapeutic agents, deliver these agents to the desired location, and release the drugs in a controlled manner. Among various clinical areas, nanomaterials-based bio-imaging techniques have advanced rapidly with the development of diverse functional nanoparticles. Due to the unique features of MSNs, an imaging agent supported by MSNs can be a promising system for developing targeted bio-imaging contrast agents with high structural stability and enhanced functionality that enable imaging of various modalities. Here, we review the recent achievements on the development of functional MSNs for bio-imaging applications, including optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound imaging, and multimodal imaging for early diagnosis. With further improvement in noninvasive bio-imaging techniques, the MSN-supported imaging agent systems are expected to contribute to clinical applications in the future. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rapid Precipitation of Amorphous Silica in Experimental Systems with Nontronite (NAu-1) and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-15

    law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...report, we focus on the rapid bio- life because much of our current understanding of early life mineralization of amorphous silica. comes from...matter. The Nanoplast-embedded sample was atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). After pH analysis ultrathin-sectioned, and examined with JEOL3010 TEM with a

  11. The Effect of Various Acids to the Gelation Process to the Silica Gel Characteristic Using Organic Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, NA; Widiyastuti, W.; Sigit, D.; Ajiza, M.; Sujana, W.

    2018-01-01

    Bagasse ash is solid waste of cane sugar industry which contain of silica more than 51%. Some previous study of silica gel from bagasse ash have been conducted often and been applied. This study concerns about the effect of various acid used in the process of gelation to the characteristic of silica gel produced. Then, this silica gel will be used as adsorbent. As that, the silica gel must fulfill the requirements of adsorbent, as have good pores characteristics, fit in mesoporous size so that adsorbent diffusion process is not disturbed. A fitted pores size of silica gel can be prepared by managing acid concentration used. The effect of acid, organic acid (tartaric acid) and inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid), is investigated in detail. The acid is added into sodium silicate solution in that the gel is formed, the pores structures can be investigated with BET, the crystal form is analyzed with XRD and the pore structure is analyzed visually with SEM. By managing the acid concentration added, it gets the effect of acid to the pore structure of silica gel. The bigger concentration is, the bigger the pore’s size of silica gel produced.

  12. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile - Marine sources and diagenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Rosner, Martin; Sepúlveda, Fernando; Vásquez, Paulina; Wilke, Hans; Kasemann, Simone A

    2017-01-01

    Seabird excrements (guano) have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy) of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic signatures towards very

  13. The stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon and elemental contents in modern and fossil seabird guano from Northern Chile – Marine sources and diagenetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Rosner, Martin; Sepúlveda, Fernando; Vásquez, Paulina; Wilke, Hans; Kasemann, Simone A.

    2017-01-01

    Seabird excrements (guano) have been preserved in the arid climate of Northern Chile since at least the Pliocene. The deposits of marine organic material in coastal areas potentially open a window into the present and past composition of the coastal ocean and its food web. We use the stable isotope composition of nitrogen and carbon as well as element contents to compare the principal prey of the birds, the Peruvian anchovy, with the composition of modern guano. We also investigate the impact of diagenetic changes on the isotopic composition and elemental contents of the pure ornithogenic sediments, starting with modern stratified deposits and extending to fossil guano. Where possible, 14C systematics is used for age information. The nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of the marine prey (Peruvian anchovy) of the birds is complex as it shows strong systematic variations with latitude. The detailed study of a modern profile that represents a few years of guano deposition up to present reveals systematic changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition towards heavier values that increase with age, i.e. depth. Only the uppermost, youngest layers of modern guano show compositional affinity to the prey of the birds. In the profile, the simultaneous loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs by degassing, and non-volatile elements like phosphorous and calcium are passively enriched in the residual guano. Fossil guano deposits are very low in nitrogen and low in carbon contents, and show very heavy nitrogen isotopic compositions. One result of the study is that the use of guano for tracing nitrogen and carbon isotopic and elemental composition in the marine food web of the birds is restricted to fresh material. Despite systematic changes during diagenesis, there is little promise to retrieve reliable values of marine nitrogen and carbon signatures from older guano. However, the changes in isotopic composition from primary marine nitrogen isotopic signatures towards very

  14. Geochemical gradients within modern and fossil shells of Concholepas concholepas from northern Chile: an insight into U-Th systematics and diagenetic/authigenic isotopic imprints in mollusk shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonne, Maylis; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2000-05-01

    Seriate geochemical measurements through shells of one modern, one Holocene, and two Sangamonian Concholepas concholepas, from marine terraces of Northern Chile, were performed to document diagenetic vs. authigenic geochemical signatures, and to better interpret U-series ages on such material. Subsamples were recovered by drilling from the outer calcitic layer to the inner aragonitic layer of each of the studied shells. Unfortunately, this sampling procedure induces artifacts, notably the convertion of up to ˜20% of calcite into aragonite, and of up to ˜6% of aragonite into calcite, as well as in the epimerization of a few percent of isoleucine into D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine. Negligible sampling artifacts were noticed for stable isotope and total amino acid contents. Diagenetic effects on the geochemical properties of the shells are particularly pronounced in the inner aragonitic layer and more discrete in the outer calcitic layer. The time-dependent decay of the organic matrix of the shell is illustrated by a one order of magnitude lower total amino acid content in the Sangamonian specimens by comparison with the modern shell. Conversely, the Sangamonian shells U contents increase by a similar factor and 13C- 18O enrichments as high as 2 to 3‰ seem also to occur through the same time interval possibly due to partial replacement of aragonite by gypsum. The decay of the organic matrix of the aragonitic layer of the shell is thought to play a major role with respect to U-uptake processes and stable isotope shifts. Nevertheless, asymptotic 230Th-ages (˜100 ka) in the inner U-rich layers of the Sangamonian shells, and 234U/ 238U ratios compatible with a marine origin for U, suggest U-uptake within a short diagenetic interval, when marine waters were still bathing the embedding sediment. Thus, U-series ages on fossil mollusks from such a hyper-arid environment should not differ much from the age of the corresponding marine unit deposition. However, the

  15. Supramolecular structures on silica surfaces and their adsorptive properties.

    PubMed

    Belyakov, Vladimir N; Belyakova, Lyudmila A; Varvarin, Anatoly M; Khora, Olexandra V; Vasilyuk, Sergei L; Kazdobin, Konstantin A; Maltseva, Tetyana V; Kotvitskyy, Alexey G; Danil de Namor, Angela F

    2005-05-01

    The study of adsorptive and chemical immobilization of beta-cyclodextrin on a surface of hydroxylated silicas with various porous structure is described. Using IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetrical analysis with a programmed heating, and chemical analysis of the silica surface, it is shown that the process of adsorption-desorption of beta-cyclodextrin depends on the porous structure of the silica. The reaction of esterification was used for chemical grafting of beta-cyclodextrin on the surface of hydroxylated silicas. Hydrolytic stability of silicas chemically modified by beta-cyclodextrin apparently is explained by simultaneous formation of chemical and hydrogen bonds between surface silanol groups and hydroxyl groups of beta-cyclodextrin. The uptake of the cations Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and the anions Cr(VI) and As(V) by silicas modified with beta-cyclodextrin is investigated as a function of equilibrium ion concentrations. The increase of ion uptake and selectivity of ion extraction in comparison with starting silicas is established. It is due to the formation of surface inclusion complexes of the "host-guest" type in which one molecule of beta-cyclodextrin interacts simultaneously with several ions.

  16. Porous silica nanoparticles as carrier for curcumin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartono, Sandy Budi; Hadisoewignyo, Lannie; Irawaty, Wenny; Trisna, Luciana; Wijaya, Robby

    2018-04-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with large surface areas and pore volumes show great potential as drug and gene carriers. However, there are still some challenging issues hinders their clinical application. Many types of research in the use of mesoporous silica material for drug and gene delivery involving complex and rigorous procedures. A facile and reproducible procedure to prepare combined drug carrier is required. We investigated the effect of physiochemical parameters of mesoporous silica, including structural symmetry (cubic and hexagonal), particles size (micro size: 1-2 µm and nano size: 100 -300 nm), on the solubility and release profile of curcumin. Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, and Nitrogen sorption were used to confirm the synthesis of the mesoporous silica materials. Mesoporous silica materials with different mesostructures and size have been synthesized successfully. Curcumin has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-virus properties which are beneficial to fight various diseases such as diabetic, cancer, allergic, arthritis and Alzheimer. Curcumin has low solubility which minimizes its therapeutic effect. The use of nanoporous material to carry and release the loaded molecules is expected to enhance curcumin solubility. Mesoporous silica materials with a cubic mesostructure had a higher release profile and curcumin solubility, while mesoporous silica materials with a particle size in the range of nano meter (100-300) nm also show better release profile and solubility.

  17. Silica biomineralization via the self-assembly of helical biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ben; Cao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zhehao; Duan, Yingying; Che, Shunai

    2015-01-21

    The biomimetic synthesis of relevant silica materials using biological macromolecules as templates via silica biomineralization processes attract rapidly rising attention toward natural and artificial materials. Biomimetic synthesis studies are useful for improving the understanding of the formation mechanism of the hierarchical structures found in living organisms (such as diatoms and sponges) and for promoting significant developments in the biotechnology, nanotechnology and materials chemistry fields. Chirality is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and is an inherent feature of biomolecular components in organisms. Helical biomolecules, one of the most important types of chiral macromolecules, can self-assemble into multiple liquid-crystal structures and be used as biotemplates for silica biomineralization, which renders them particularly useful for fabricating complex silica materials under ambient conditions. Over the past two decades, many new silica materials with hierarchical structures and complex morphologies have been created using helical biomolecules. In this review, the developments in this field are described and the recent progress in silica biomineralization templating using several classes of helical biomolecules, including DNA, polypeptides, cellulose and rod-like viruses is summarized. Particular focus is placed on the formation mechanism of biomolecule-silica materials (BSMs) with hierarchical structures. Finally, current research challenges and future developments are discussed in the conclusion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Frederik; Arnold, Karl; Bauer, Werner; Schild, Dieter; Keller, Nico; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Nargang, Tobias M.; Richter, Christiane; Helmer, Dorothea; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2017-04-01

    Glass is one of the most important high-performance materials used for scientific research, in industry and in society, mainly owing to its unmatched optical transparency, outstanding mechanical, chemical and thermal resistance as well as its thermal and electrical insulating properties. However, glasses and especially high-purity glasses such as fused silica glass are notoriously difficult to shape, requiring high-temperature melting and casting processes for macroscopic objects or hazardous chemicals for microscopic features. These drawbacks have made glasses inaccessible to modern manufacturing technologies such as three-dimensional printing (3D printing). Using a casting nanocomposite, here we create transparent fused silica glass components using stereolithography 3D printers at resolutions of a few tens of micrometres. The process uses a photocurable silica nanocomposite that is 3D printed and converted to high-quality fused silica glass via heat treatment. The printed fused silica glass is non-porous, with the optical transparency of commercial fused silica glass, and has a smooth surface with a roughness of a few nanometres. By doping with metal salts, coloured glasses can be created. This work widens the choice of materials for 3D printing, enabling the creation of arbitrary macro- and microstructures in fused silica glass for many applications in both industry and academia.

  19. Size- and structure-dependent toxicity of silica particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Miyaoi, Kenichi; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Nano- and micro-particulates firmly attach with the surface of various biological systems. In some chronic pulmonary disease such as asbestosis and silicosis, causative particulates will induce chronic inflammatory disorder, followed by poor prognosis diseases. However, nano- and micro-scale specific toxicity of silica particulates is not well examined enough to recognize the risk of nano- and micro-particulates from the clinical aspect. To clarify the effect of the size and structure of silica particulates on the cellular damage and the biological response, we assessed the cytotoxicity of the various kinds of silica particles including amorphous and crystalline silica, in mouse alveolar macrophage culture, focusing on the fibrotic and inflammatory response. Our study showed that the cytotoxicity, which depends on the particle size and surface area, is correlated with their inflammatory response. By contrast, production of TGF-β, which is one of the fibrotic agents in lung, by addition of crystal silica was much higher than that of amorphous silica. We conclude that fibrosis and inflammation are induced at different phases and that the size- and structure-differences of silica particulates affect the both biological responses, caused by surface activity, radical species, and so on.

  20. Modified silica sol coatings for surface enhancement of leather.

    PubMed

    Mahltig, Boris; Vossebein, Lutz; Ehrmann, Andrea; Cheval, Nicolas; Fahmi, Amir

    2012-06-01

    The presented study reports on differently modified silica sols for coating applications on leather. Silica sols are prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane and modified by silane compounds with fluorinated and non-fluorinated alkylgroups. In contrast to many earlier investigations regarding sol-gel applications on leather, no acrylic resin is used together with the silica sols when applying on leather. The modified silica particles are supposed to aggregate after application, forming thus a modified silica coating on the leather substrate. Scanning electron microscopy investigation shows that the applied silica coatings do not fill up or close the pores of the leather substrate. However, even if the pores of the leather are not sealed by this sol-gel coating, an improvement of the water repellent and oil repellent properties of the leather substrates are observed. These improved properties of leather by application of modified silica sols can provide the opportunity to develop sol-gel products for leather materials present in daily life.

  1. Molecular Organization Induced Anisotropic Properties of Perylene - Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Turaga, Shuvan Prashant; Bettiol, Andrew Anthony; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2017-08-10

    Optically active silica nanoparticles are interesting owing to high stability and easy accessibility. Unlike previous reports on dye loaded silica particles, here we address an important question on how optical properties are dependent on the aggregation-induced segregation of perylene molecules inside and outside the silica nanoparticles. Three differentially functionalized fluorescent perylene - silica hybrid nanoparticles are prepared from appropriate ratios of perylene derivatives and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and investigated the structure property correlation (P-ST, P-NP and P-SF). The particles differ from each other on the distribution, organization and intermolecular interaction of perylene inside or outside the silica matrix. Structure and morphology of all hybrid nanoparticles were characterized using a range of techniques such as electron microscope, optical spectroscopic measurements and thermal analysis. The organizations of perylene in three different silica nanoparticles were explored using steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime measurements and solid state polarized spectroscopic studies. The interactions and changes in optical properties of the silica nanoparticles in presence of different amines were tested and quantified both in solution and in vapor phase using fluorescence quenching studies. The synthesized materials can be regenerated after washing with water and reused for sensing of amines.

  2. Forces between functionalized silica nanoparticles in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Chandross, Michael; Lorenz, Christian D.; Grest, Gary S.

    2009-05-01

    To prevent the flocculation and phase separation of nanoparticles in solution, nanoparticles are often functionalized with short chain surfactants. Here we present fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations which characterize how these functional coatings affect the interactions between nanoparticles and with the surrounding solvent. For 5-nm-diameter silica nanoparticles coated with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomers in water, we determined the hydrodynamic drag on two approaching nanoparticles moving through solvent and on a single nanoparticle as it approaches a planar surface. In most circumstances, macroscale fluid theory accurately predicts the drag on these nanoscale particles. Good agreement is seen with Brenner’s analytical solutions for wall separations larger than the soft nanoparticle radius. For two approaching coated nanoparticles, the solvent-mediated (velocity independent) and lubrication (velocity-dependent) forces are purely repulsive and do not exhibit force oscillations that are typical of uncoated rigid spheres.

  3. Crystallization of baria-titania-silica glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    1986-01-01

    The critical cooling rate for glass formation, Rc, and the crystallization kinetics of the compositions (1/2)(100-x)BaO-(1/2)(100-x)TiO2-(x)SiO2 with x = 20, 25, 30, 33.3, and 40 mol pct were studied using a thermal image furnace. Crystallization was studied under nonisothermal conditions, and the data were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. The Rc and activation energy for crystallization both decrease with increasing silica content. Fresnoite, Ba2TiSi2O8, crystallized from all of the glasses when they were reheated. The infrared absorption spectra of the glasses and crystals show that they both contain (Si2O7) and square pyramidal (TiO5) groups.

  4. Calculation of noncontact forces between silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifu; Zeng, Qinghua; Yu, Aibing

    2013-02-19

    Quantification of the interactions between nanoparticles is important in understanding their dynamic behaviors and many related phenomena. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate the interaction potentials (i.e., van der Waals attraction, Born repulsion, and electrostatic interaction) between two silica nanospheres of equal radius in the range of 0.975 to 5.137 nm. The results are compared with those obtained from the conventional Hamaker approach, leading to the development of modified formulas to calculate the van der Waals attraction and Born repulsion between nanospheres, respectively. Moreover, Coulomb's law is found to be valid for calculating the electrostatic potential between nanospheres. The developed formulas should be useful in the study of the dynamic behaviors of nanoparticle systems under different conditions.

  5. Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits.

    PubMed

    Politi, Alberto; Cryan, Martin J; Rarity, John G; Yu, Siyuan; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2008-05-02

    Quantum technologies based on photons will likely require an integrated optics architecture for improved performance, miniaturization, and scalability. We demonstrate high-fidelity silica-on-silicon integrated optical realizations of key quantum photonic circuits, including two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.8 +/- 0.5%; a controlled-NOT gate with an average logical basis fidelity of 94.3 +/- 0.2%; and a path-entangled state of two photons with fidelity of >92%. These results show that it is possible to directly "write" sophisticated photonic quantum circuits onto a silicon chip, which will be of benefit to future quantum technologies based on photons, including information processing, communication, metrology, and lithography, as well as the fundamental science of quantum optics.

  6. Phase relations of aluminous silica to 120 GPa and lowermost mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronnes, R. G.; Andrault, D.; Konopkova, Z.; Morgenroth, W.; Liermann, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Al-content. Due to the presence of the Al-rich Ca-ferrite phase (near the MgAl2O4-NaAlSiO4-join) in natural basaltic compositions, the Al-solubility limits for the silica-dominated phases in basaltic lithologies may be similar to those in the binary system SiO2-AlO1.5. Phase transitions in response to increasing pressure are generally associated with densification. Because of the strong partitioning of light and voluminous AlO1.5 into seifertite, however, the densification effect is more than offset by the lighter alumina component. The unit cell data of ref. [1] indicate a volume increase of about 3.8% associated with the transition. The associated density reduction would be strongly dependent on the substitution mechanism. O-vacancy and cation (3Si4+ → 4Al3+) substitutions yield density reductions of 5.4% and 1.9%, respectively [1]. The large density reduction accompanying the seifertite transition may limit the role of gravitational accretion of evolved MORB to the LLSVPs. Segregation of Fe-rich picritic, komatiitic or peridotitic rocks with no separate silica phase may be more likely. Deep-mantle cumulates and solidified melts of peridotitic to komatiitic composition were mostly produced in the Hadean and early Archean, indicating that the antipodal and near-equatorial LLSVPs, stabilized by Earth's rotation, could also represent ancient structures.

  7. Monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticles of distinct topology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Leilei; Liang, Yucang; Erichsen, Egil Sev; Anwander, Reiner

    2017-06-01

    Monodisperse and uniform high-quality MCM(Mobil Composition of Matter)-48-type CMSNs (Cubic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles) are readily prepared by simply optimizing the molar ratio of ethanol and surfactant in the system TEOS-CTAB-NaOH-H 2 O-EtOH (TEOS=tetraethyl orthosilicate, CTAB=cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, EtOH=ethanol). In the absence of ethanol only hexagonal mesoporous silica with ellipsoidal and spherical morphology are obtained. The presence of ethanol drives a mesophase transformation from hexagonal to mixed hexagonal/cubic, further to purely cubic, and finally to a mixed cubic/lamellar. This is accompanied by a morphology evolution involving a mixture of ellipses/spheres, regular rods, uniform spheres, and finally a mixture of spheres/flakes. Preserving the three-dimensional (3D) cubic MCM-48 structure, use of a small amount of ethanol is beneficial to the improvement of the monodispersity of the CMSNs. Moreover, the quality of the CMSNs can also be controlled by changing the surfactant concentration or adjusting the stirring rate. All MSNs were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N 2 physisorption, indicating highly long-range ordered pore arrays, high specific surface areas (max. 1173 m 2 g -1 ) as well as high pore volumes (max. 1.14 cm 3 g -1 ). The monodispersity of the CMSNs was verified by statistical particle size distribution from SEM (scanning electron microscopy)/TEM (transmission electron microscopy) images and DLS (dynamic light scattering). The mesophase transformation can be rationalized on the basis of an ethanol-driven change of the surfactant packing structure and charge matching at the surfactant/silicate interface. The corresponding morphology evolution can be elucidated by an ethanol-controlled hydrolysis rate of TEOS and degree of condensation of oligomeric silicate species via a nucleation and growth process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Series-Coupled Pairs of Silica Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Handley, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Series-coupled pairs of whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonators have been demonstrated as prototypes of stable, narrow-band-pass photonic filters. Characteristics that are generally considered desirable in a photonic or other narrow-band-pass filter include response as nearly flat as possible across the pass band, sharp roll-off, and high rejection of signals outside the pass band. A single microresonator exhibits a Lorentzian filter function: its peak response cannot be made flatter and its roll-off cannot be made sharper. However, as a matter of basic principle applicable to resonators in general, it is possible to (1) use multiple resonators, operating in series or parallel, to obtain a roll-off sharper, and out-of-band rejection greater, relative to those of a Lorentzian filter function and (2) to make the peak response (the response within the pass band) flatter by tuning the resonators to slightly different resonance frequencies that span the pass band. The first of the two microresonators in each series-coupled pair was a microtorus made of germania-doped silica (containing about 19 mole percent germania), which is a material used for the cores of some optical fibers. The reasons for choosing this material is that exposing it to ultraviolet light causes it to undergo a chemical change that changes its index of refraction and thereby changes the resonance frequency. Hence, this material affords the means to effect the desired slight relative detuning of the two resonators. The second microresonator in each pair was a microsphere of pure silica. The advantage of making one of the resonators a torus instead of a sphere is that its spectrum of whispering-gallery-mode resonances is sparser, as needed to obtain a frequency separation of at least 100 GHz between resonances of the filter as a whole.

  9. The potential use of silica sand as nanomaterials for mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiati, N. Retno

    2017-11-01

    The development of nanotechnology is currently experiencing rapid growth. The use of the term nanotechnology is widely applied in areas such as healthcare, industrial, pharmaceutical, informatics, or construction. By the nanotechnology in the field of concrete construction, especially the mechanical properties of concrete are expected to be better than conventional concrete. This study aims to determine the effect of the potential of silica sand as a nanomaterial that is added into the concrete mix The methodology used consist of nanomaterial synthesis process of silica sand using Liquid Polishing Milling Technology (PLMT). The XRF and XRD testing were conducted to determine the composition of silica contained in the silica sand and the level of reactivity of the compound when added into the concrete mix. To determine the effect of nano silica on mortar, then made the specimen with size 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. The composition of mortar is made in two variations, ie by the addition of 3% nano silica and without the addition of nanosilica. To know the mechanical properties of mortar, it is done testing of mortar compressive strength at the age of 28 days. Based on the analysis and evaluation, it is shown that compounds of silica sand in Indonesia, especially Papua reached more than 99% SiO2 and so that the amorphous character of silica sand can be used as a nanomaterial for concrete construction. The results of mechanical tests show that there is an increase of 12% compressive strength of mortar that is added with 3% nano silica.

  10. Structural and Acidic Properties of Niobia-Silica and Niobia-Alumina Aerogels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-06

    some weak Bronsted acidity. The silica aerogel supported niobia samples also had strong Lewis acidity as well as strong iv Bronsted acidity which was...NS25w or the silica aerogel supported niobia because of the formation of a distorted octahedral niobia-rigid silica interface. Isomerization of 1...67 2.1.2 Silica Aerogel .......................................................... 70 2.1.3 Alumina

  11. Graphene-silica Composite Thin Films as Transparent Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Watcharotone,S.; Dikin, D.; Stankovich, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and electrically conductive composite silica films were fabricated on glass and hydrophilic SiO{sub x}/silicon substrates by incorporation of individual graphene oxide sheets into silica sols followed by spin-coating, chemical reduction, and thermal curing. The resulting films were characterized by SEM, AFM, TEM, low-angle X-ray reflectivity, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. The electrical conductivity of the films compared favorably to those of composite thin films of carbon nanotubes in silica.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of titanium oxide supported silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijnemakers, Koen

    2002-01-01

    Titania-silica materials are interesting materials for use in catalysis, both as a catalyst support as well as a catalyst itself. Titania-silica materials combine the excellent support and photocatalytic properties of titania with the high thermal and mechanical stability of silica. Moreover, the interaction of titania with silica leads to new active sites, such as acid and redox sites, that are not found on the single oxides. In this Ph.D. two recently developed deposition methods were studied and evaluated for their use to create titanium oxide supported silica materials, the Chemical Surface Coating (CSC) and the Molecular Designed Dispersion (MDD). These methods were applied to two structurally different silica supports, an amorphous silica gel and the highly ordered MCM-48. Both methods are based on the specific interaction between a titanium source and the functional groups on the silica surface. With the CSC method high amounts of titanium can be obtained. However, clustering of the titania phase is observed in most cases. The MDD method allows much lower titanium amounts to be deposited without the formation of crystallites. Only at the highest Ti loading very small crystallites are formed after calcination. MCM-48 and silica gel are both pure SiO2 materials and therefore chemically similar to each other. However, they possess a different morphology and are synthesized in a different way. As such, some authors have reported that the MCM-48 surface would be more reactive than the surface of silica gel. In our experiments however no differences could be observed that confirmed this hypothesis. In the CSC method, the same reactions were observed and similar amounts of Ti and Cl were deposited. In the case of the MDD method, no difference in the reaction mechanism was observed. However, due to the lower thermal and hydrothermal stability of the MCM-48 structure compared to silica gel, partial incorporation of Ti atoms in the pore walls of MCM-48 took place

  13. Chitosan-silica complex membranes from sulfonic acid functionalized silica nanoparticles for pervaporation dehydration of ethanol-water solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Ling; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Su, Yu-Huei; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized silica particles with sulfonic acid groups (ST-GPE-S) were utilized as a cross-linker for chitosan to form a chitosan-silica complex membranes, which were applied to pervaporation dehydration of ethanol-water solutions. ST-GPE-S was obtained from reacting nanoscale silica particles with glycidyl phenyl ether, and subsequent sulfonation onto the attached phenyl groups. The chemical structure of the functionalized silica was characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR, and energy-dispersive X-ray. Homogeneous dispersion of the silica particles in chitosan was observed with electronic microscopies, and the membranes obtained were considered as nanocomposites. The silica nanoparticles in the membranes served as spacers for polymer chains to provide extra space for water permeation, so as to bring high permeation rates to the complex membranes. With addition of 5 parts per hundred of functionalized silica into chitosan, the resulting membrane exhibited a separation factor of 919 and permeation flux of 410 g/(m(2) h) in pervaporation dehydration of 90 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 70 degrees C.

  14. A new parameter-free soft-core potential for silica and its application to simulation of silica anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Izvekov, Sergei, E-mail: sergiy.izvyekov.civ@mail.mil; Rice, Betsy M.

    2015-12-28

    A core-softening of the effective interaction between oxygen atoms in water and silica systems and its role in developing anomalous thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties have been extensively debated. For silica, the progress with addressing these issues has been hampered by a lack of effective interaction models with explicit core-softening. In this work, we present an extension of a two-body soft-core interatomic force field for silica recently reported by us [S. Izvekov and B. M. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 136(13), 134508 (2012)] to include three-body forces. Similar to two-body interaction terms, the three-body terms are derived using parameter-free force-matching ofmore » the interactions from ab initio MD simulations of liquid silica. The derived shape of the O–Si–O three-body potential term affirms the existence of repulsion softening between oxygen atoms at short separations. The new model shows a good performance in simulating liquid, amorphous, and crystalline silica. By comparing the soft-core model and a similar model with the soft-core suppressed, we demonstrate that the topology reorganization within the local tetrahedral network and the O–O core-softening are two competitive mechanisms responsible for anomalous thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors observed in liquid and amorphous silica. The studied anomalies include the temperature of density maximum locus and anomalous diffusivity in liquid silica, and irreversible densification of amorphous silica. We show that the O–O core-softened interaction enhances the observed anomalies primarily through two mechanisms: facilitating the defect driven structural rearrangements of the silica tetrahedral network and modifying the tetrahedral ordering induced interactions toward multiple characteristic scales, the feature which underlies the thermodynamic anomalies.« less

  15. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud; Kramer, Evelien; Oomen, Agnes G; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Oegema, Gerlof; Tromp, Peter C; Fokkink, Remco; Rietveld, Anton; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2012-03-27

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO(2) particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5-50 and 50-500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Behaviour of Epoxy Silica Nanocomposites Under Static and Creep Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Picu, Radu Catalin; Sandu, Marin; Apostol, Dragos Alexandru; Sandu, Adriana; Baciu, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Specific manufacturing technologies were applied for the fabrication of epoxy-based nanocomposites with silica nanoparticles. For dispersing the fillers in the epoxy resin special equipment such as a shear mixer and a high energy sonicator with temperature control were used. Both functionalized and unfunctionalized silica nanoparticles were added in three epoxy resins. The considered filling fraction was in most cases 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt%.. The obtained nanocomposites were subjected to monotonic uniaxial and creep loading at room temperature. The static mechanical properties were not significantly improved regardless the filler percentage and type of epoxy resin. Under creep loading, by increasing the stress level, the nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% silica creeps less than all other materials. Also the creep rate is reduced by adding silica nanofillers.

  17. Cellulose-silica/gold nanomaterials for electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Jung, Dongsoo; Kim, Heung Soo

    2014-10-01

    Cellulose and one dimensional nano-material composite has been investigated for various industrial applications due to their optical, mechanical and electrical properties. In present investigation, cellulose/silica and silica-gold hybrid biomaterials were prepared by sol-gel covalent cross-linking process. The tetraethoxysiliane (TEOS) and gold precursors and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) as coupling agent were used for sol-gel cross-linking process. The chemical and morphological properties of cellulose/silica and cellulose/silica-gold nano-materials via covalent cross-linking hybrids were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TEM analysis. In the sol-gel process, the inorganic particles were dispersed in the cellulose host matrix at the nanometer scale, bonding to the cellulose through the covalent bonds.

  18. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    DOEpatents

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2015-09-15

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up to an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.

  19. Silica coating of nanoparticles by the sonogel process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Boothroyd, Chris; Tan, Gim Hong; Sutanto, Nelvi; Soutar, Andrew McIntosh; Zeng, Xian Ting

    2008-02-05

    A modified aqueous sol-gel route was developed using ultrasonic power for the silica coating of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. In this approach, organosilane with an amino functional group was first used to cover the surface of as-received nanoparticles. Subsequent silica coating was initiated and sustained under power ultrasound irradiation in an aqueous mixture of surface-treated particles and epoxy silane. This process resulted in a thin but homogeneous coverage of silica on the particle surface. Particles coated with a layer of silica show better dispersability in aqueous and organic media compared with the untreated powder. Samples were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the zeta potential.

  20. Template-directed synthesis of silica nanotubes for explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Acar, Handan; Erkal, Turan S; Bayindir, Mehmet; Guler, Mustafa O

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescent porous organic-inorganic thin films are of interest of explosive detection because of their vapor phase fluorescence quenching property. In this work, we synthesized fluorescent silica nanotubes using a biomineralization process through self-assembled peptidic nanostructures. We designed and synthesized an amyloid-like peptide self-assembling into nanofibers to be used as a template for silica nanotube formation. The amine groups on the peptide nanofibrous system were used for nucleation of silica nanostructures. Silica nanotubes were used to prepare highly porous surfaces, and they were doped with a fluorescent dye by physical adsorption for explosive sensing. These porous surfaces exhibited fast, sensitive, and highly selective fluorescence quenching against nitro-explosive vapors. The materials developed in this work have vast potential in sensing applications due to enhanced surface area. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Mesostructured silica and aluminosilicate carriers for oxytetracycline delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Berger, D; Nastase, S; Mitran, R A; Petrescu, M; Vasile, E; Matei, C; Negreanu-Pirjol, T

    2016-08-30

    Oxytetracycline delivery systems containing various MCM-type silica and aluminosilicate with different antibiotic content were developed in order to establish the influence of the support structural and textural properties and aluminum content on the drug release profile. The antibiotic molecules were loaded into the support mesochannels by incipient wetness impregnation method using a drug concentrated aqueous solution. The carriers and drug-loaded materials were investigated by small- and wide-angle XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Faster release kinetics of oxytetracycline from uncalcined silica and aluminosilicate supports was observed, whereas higher drug content led to lower delivery rate. The presence of aluminum into the silica network also slowed down the release rate. The antimicrobial assays performed on Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates showed that the oxytetracycline-loaded materials containing MCM-41-type mesoporous silica or aluminosilicate carriers inhibited the bacterial development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deforming water droplets with a superhydrophobic silica coating.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    The surface liquidity of a water droplet is eliminated by rubbing hydrophobic particles onto the droplet surface using a sol-gel silica coating with extremely weak binding force, which results in solid-like deformability of a liquid drop.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dongjiang; Zhang, Nong; Xie, Zhengzheng; Feng, Xiaowei; Kong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%–38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%–54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%–270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol. PMID:28774061

  4. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dongjiang; Zhang, Nong; Xie, Zhengzheng; Feng, Xiaowei; Kong, Yong

    2016-11-22

    The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%-38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%-54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%-270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  5. HILIC separation mechanisms of tetracyclines on amino bonded silica column

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of mobile phase variations on the chromatographic separation on amino bonded silica column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were investigated for four zwitterionic tetracyclines (TCs): oxytetracycline, doxycycline, chlortetracycline and tetracycline. A mixed-mode retention m...

  6. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up tomore » an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.« less

  7. Selective hydrophobic derivatization on the surface of helical silica nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sun-Mi; Sung, Ji Yeong; Sim, Eun-Kyung; Jo, Nam-Ju; Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Sumin; Jin, Jong Sung

    2018-02-01

    The chiral 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine derivative that is capable of spontaneous self-assembly was employed as an organogel template to produce a helical mesoporous silica nanotube containing gelators therein by following sol-gel polycondensation of TEOS. The synthesis enabled the successful introduction of the hydrocarbon of octyl silane (hydrophobic functional group) onto the outer surface of the silica nanotube while preserving the hydrophilic silanol (Sisbnd OH) group on internal surface of silica nanotube free from the gelators. This synthetic condition consists of a pre-stage of the introduction of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon functional group onto the outer surface of the silica nanotube selectively, and the post-stage washing of the gelators was presented together with a method analyzing the actions of organogels in the respective experimental processes.

  8. Reflecting heat shields made of microstructured fused silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Heat sheidls constructed from selected monodisperse distributions of high-purity fused-silica particles are efficient reflectors of visible and near-UV radiation generated in shock-layer of space probe during atmospheric entry.

  9. Bioresponsive controlled release from mesoporous silica nanocontainers with glucometer readout.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Zhu, Chunling; Wu, Xiaoping; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2014-02-11

    A novel sensing platform for monitoring small molecules without the need for sample separation and washing is developed by using a commercialized personal glucose meter based on bioresponsive controlled release of glucose from aptamer-gated mesoporous silica nanocontainers.

  10. Deposition of zeolite nanoparticles onto porous silica monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Gackowski, Mariusz; Bielanska, Elzbieta; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    A facile and effective method of deposition of MFl zeolite nanoparticles (nanocrystals) onto macro-/mesoporous silica monolith was proposed. The electrostatic interaction between those two materials was induces by adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes. That can be realized either by adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith or on zeolite nanocrystals. The effect of time, concentration of zeolite nanocrystals, type of polyelectrolyte, and ultrasound treatment is scrutinized. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith with subsequent deposition of nanocrystals resulted in a monolayer coverage assessed with SEM images. Infrared spectroscopy was applied as a useful method to determine the deposition effectiveness of zeolite nanocrystalsmore » onto silica. Modification of nanocrystals with polyelectrolyte resulted in a multilayer coverage due to agglomeration of particles. On the other hand, the excess of polyelectrolyte in the system resulted in a low coverage due to competition between polyelectrolyte and modified nanocrystals.« less

  11. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William T.

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10-12 Pa-1. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented.

  12. Orthogonal chemical functionalization of patterned gold on silica surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Didier; Le Mogne, Thierry; Zuttion, Francesca; Chevalier, Céline; Phaner-Goutorbe, Magali; Souteyrand, Éliane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Single-step orthogonal chemical functionalization procedures have been developed with patterned gold on silica surfaces. Different combinations of a silane and a thiol were simultaneously deposited on a gold/silica heterogeneous substrate. The orthogonality of the functionalization (i.e., selective grafting of the thiol on the gold areas and the silane on the silica) was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) mapping. The orthogonal functionalization was used to immobilize proteins onto gold nanostructures on a silica substrate, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results are especially promising in the development of future biosensors where the selective anchoring of target molecules onto nanostructured transducers (e.g., nanoplasmonic biosensors) is a major challenge. PMID:26734519

  13. INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: U915331
    Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson
    Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    EPA GRANT R...

  14. Seeking Signs of Life Preserved in Martian Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Campbell, K. A.; Djokic, T.; Damer, B.; Deamer, D. W.

    2018-04-01

    Hot spring nodular silica deposits on Earth, which resemble those discovered with the Spirit rover, preserve concentrated organics and fine-scale structures that could be searched for on Mars with the Mars 2020 rover and in returned samples.

  15. Investigation of silica fume concrete bridge deck overlay failures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-23

    Many of these microsilica-modified concrete or silica fume concrete (SFC) bridge deck overlays across the State of Wyoming are suffering from premature distress that includes random cracking, loss of bond and delaminations. To determine the most like...

  16. New insights into silica-based NMR “chromatography”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemberton, Chava; Hoffman, Roy; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Silica is used as an important component for NMR “chromatography”. In this study the effect of the binding strength to silica of a variety of compounds on their diffusion rate is measured for the first time. Over two orders of magnitude of diffusion difference enhancement was obtained in the presence of silica for some compounds. An explanation of the enhancement is given that also allows one to predict the “chromatographic” behavior of new compounds or mixtures. The binding strength is divided into categories of weakly bound, singly bound and multiply bound. Carboxylates, sulfonates, and diols are found to be particularly strongly bound and to diffuse up to 2½ orders of magnitude more slowly in the presence of silica.

  17. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Non-Silica Monolithic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Gaweł, Kamila; Øye, Gisle

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic materials have become very popular because of various applications, especially within chromatography and catalysis. Large surface areas and multimodal porosities are great advantages for these applications. New sol-gel preparation methods utilizing phase separation or nanocasting have opened the possibility for preparing materials of other oxides than silica. In this review, we present different synthesis methods for inorganic, non-silica monolithic materials. Some examples of application of the materials are also included.

  18. Pedogenic silica accumulation in chronosequence soils, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, K.J.; Graham, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Chronosequential analysis of soil properties has proven to be a valuable approach for estimating ages of geomorphic surfaces where no independent age control exists. In this study we examined pedogenic silica as an indicator of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces, and assessed potential sources of the silica. Pedogenic opaline silica was quantified by tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene-disulfonic acid [disodium salt], C6H 4Na2O8S2) extraction for pedons in two different chromosequences in southern California, one in the San Timoteo Badlands and one in Cajon Pass. The soils of hoth of these chronosequences are developed in arkosic sediments and span 11.5 to 500 ka. The amount of pedogenic silica increases with increasing duration of pedogenesis, and the depth of the maximum silica accumulation generally coincides with the maximum expression of the argillic horizon. Pedogenic silica has accumulated in all of the soils, ranging from 1.2% tiron-extractable Si (Sitn) in the youngest soil to 4.6% in the oldest. Primary Si decreases with increasing duration of weathering, particularly in the upper horizons, where weathering conditions are most intense. The loss of Si coincides with the loss of Na and K, implicating the weathering of feld-spars as the likely source of Si loss. The quantity of Si lost in the upper horizons is adequate to account for the pedogenic silica accumulation in the subsoil. Pedogenic silica was equally effective as pedogenic Fe oxides as an indicator of relative soil age in these soils.

  19. Examination of the polished surface character of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Tesar, A A; Fuchs, B A; Hed, P P

    1992-12-01

    Investigation of the surface character of fused silica polished with various compounds dispersed in water identified pH 4 as the optimum condition for high quality. Analyses support the conclusion that at this pH redeposition of hydrated material onto the surface during polishing is limited. Comparative polishing results for Zerodur are included. Improvement of the laser-damage threshold of a coating on the pH 4 polished fused silica is suggested.

  20. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  1. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  2. Face-specific Replacement of Calcite by Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesegang, M.; Milke, R.; Neusser, G.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silica, composed of nanoscale spheres, is an important biomineral, alteration product of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface, and precursor material for stable silicate minerals. Despite constant progress in silica sphere synthesis, fundamental knowledge of natural silica particle interaction and ordering processes leading to colloidal crystals is absent so far. To understand the formation pathways of silica spheres in a geologic environment, we investigated silicified Cretaceous mollusk shell pseudomorphs from Coober Pedy (South Australia) using focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM tomography, petrographic microscopy, µ-XRD, and EMPA. The shells consist of replaced calcite crystals (<2 mm) composed of ordered arrays of uniform, close-packed silica spheres 300 ± 10 nm in size. Concentric layered spheres composed of 40 nm-sized subparticles provide evidence that, at least in the final stage, particle aggregation was the major sphere growth mechanism. Silica sphere arrays in periodically changing orientations perfectly replicate polysynthetic twinning planes of calcite. FIB-SEM tomography shows that cubic closed-packed sphere arrangements preserve the twin lamellae, while the twin plane consists of a submicrometer layer of randomly ordered spheres and vacancies. To transfer crystallographic information from parent to product, the advancement of synchronized dissolution and precipitation fronts along lattice planes is essential. We assume that the volume-preserving replacement process proceeds via a face-specific dissolution-precipitation mechanism with intermediate subparticle aggregation and subsequent layer-by-layer deposition of spheres along a planar surface. Porosity created during the replacement reaction allows permanent fluid access to the propagating reaction interface. Fluid pH and ionic strength remain constant throughout the replacement process, permitting continuous silica nanoparticle formation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation. Our study

  3. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; ...

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δh ads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually untilmore » reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  4. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  5. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during

  6. Diffusive Gas Loss from Silica Glass Ampoules at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the pressure of hydrogen, helium and neon due to diffusion through the wall of silica crystal growth ampoules at elevated temperatures were determined experimentally. We show that, while both He- and Ne-losses closely follow conventional model of diffusive gas permeation through the wall, hydrogen losses, in particular at low fill pressures, can be much larger. This is interpreted in terms of the high solubility of hydrogen in silica glasses.

  7. Examination of the polished surface character of fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.A.; Fuchs, B.A.; Hed, P.P.

    1992-12-01

    Investigation of the surface character of fused silica polished with various compounds dispersed in water identified pH 4 as the optimum condition for high quality. Analyses support the conclusion that at this pH redeposition of hydrated material onto the surface during polishing is limited. Comparative polishing results for Zerodur are included. Improvement of the laser-damage threshold of a coating on the pH 4 polished fused silica is suggested.

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  9. Indications for distinct pathogenic mechanisms of asbestos and silica through gene expression profiling of the response of lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Peeters, Paul M.; Shukla, Arti; Arijs, Ingrid; Dragon, Julie; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposures to airborne asbestos and silica are associated with the development of lung fibrosis in the forms of asbestosis and silicosis, respectively. However, both diseases display distinct pathologic presentations, likely associated with differences in gene expression induced by different mineral structures, composition and bio-persistent properties. We hypothesized that effects of mineral exposure in the airway epithelium may dictate deviating molecular events that may explain the different pathologies of asbestosis versus silicosis. Using robust gene expression-profiling in conjunction with in-depth pathway analysis, we assessed early (24 h) alterations in gene expression associated with crocidolite asbestos or cristobalite silica exposures in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs). Observations were confirmed in an immortalized line (BEAS-2B) by QRT-PCR and protein assays. Utilization of overall gene expression, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and integrated pathway analysis revealed gene alterations that were common to both minerals or unique to either mineral. Our findings reveal that both minerals had potent effects on genes governing cell adhesion/migration, inflammation, and cellular stress, key features of fibrosis. Asbestos exposure was most specifically associated with aberrant cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, whereas silica exposure was highly associated with additional inflammatory responses, as well as pattern recognition, and fibrogenesis. These findings illustrate the use of gene-profiling as a means to determine early molecular events that may dictate pathological processes induced by exogenous cellular insults. In addition, it is a useful approach for predicting the pathogenicity of potentially harmful materials. PMID:25351596

  10. Structure and dynamics of a silica melt in neutral confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the effects of spatial confinement on viscous silica using molecular dynamics simulations. For this purpose, we prepare a silica melt in a cylindrical pore, which is produced by pinning appropriate fractions of silicon and oxygen atoms in a bulk system after an equilibration period. In this way, the structure of the confined silica melt remains unaffected, while the confinement has a strong impact on the dynamics. We find that the structural relaxation of viscous silica is slowed down according to a double exponential law when approaching the pore wall. Moreover, we observe that static density correlations exist in the vicinity of the pore wall. Based on these effects, we determine dynamical and structural length scales of the silica melt. Both length scales show a similar increase upon cooling, with values on the order of the next-neighbor distances in the studied temperature range. Interestingly, we find no evidence that the growth of the length scales is affected by a fragile-to-strong transition of the silica melt. This observation casts serious doubts on the relevance of these length scales for the structural relaxation, at least for the studied glass former.

  11. Structure and dynamics of a silica melt in neutral confinement.

    PubMed

    Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael

    2017-04-07

    We analyze the effects of spatial confinement on viscous silica using molecular dynamics simulations. For this purpose, we prepare a silica melt in a cylindrical pore, which is produced by pinning appropriate fractions of silicon and oxygen atoms in a bulk system after an equilibration period. In this way, the structure of the confined silica melt remains unaffected, while the confinement has a strong impact on the dynamics. We find that the structural relaxation of viscous silica is slowed down according to a double exponential law when approaching the pore wall. Moreover, we observe that static density correlations exist in the vicinity of the pore wall. Based on these effects, we determine dynamical and structural length scales of the silica melt. Both length scales show a similar increase upon cooling, with values on the order of the next-neighbor distances in the studied temperature range. Interestingly, we find no evidence that the growth of the length scales is affected by a fragile-to-strong transition of the silica melt. This observation casts serious doubts on the relevance of these length scales for the structural relaxation, at least for the studied glass former.

  12. Nano filter from sintered rice husk silica membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Chong Soo

    2006-11-01

    A nano filter showing the Knudsen flow was demonstrated by a modification of a membrane constructed from rice husk silica. The membrane was prepared by pressing and sintering micron sized rice husk silica with 4 nm pores. The membrane showed a permeability of 5.2 x 10(-8) mol m(-1) sec(-1) Pa(-1) for H2 and ratios of gas permeability 2.1 and 3.2 for k(H2)/k(CH4) and k(H2)/k(CO2), respectively. When the membrane was treated by filtration of approximately 100 nm sized rice husk silica particles, the permeability decreased to 4.9 x 10(-8) mol m(-1) sec(-1) Pa(-1) and the ratios increased to 2.2 and 3.4. In the case of the membrane after treatments with the dispersion and chemical deposition of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), the corresponding permeability and ratios of the membrane were 1.8 x 10(-8) mol m(-1) sec(-1) Pa(-1), and 2.9 and 4.5, respectively. From the change of the ratio of gas permeability for the membrane with modifications, it is suggested that approximately 100 nm sized rice husk silica particles pack the large pores among the micron sized rice husk silica particles while the chemical deposition of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) reveals the gas flow through 4 nm pores in the rice husk silica by blocking large pores.

  13. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David; Renton, Kevin; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-02-01

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  14. [Surface modification of dental alumina ceramic with silica coating].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Fei-Min; Wang, Xiao-Zu; Xia, Yang

    2006-12-01

    To make silica coating through sol-gel process, and to evaluate the wettability of dental alumina ceramic with or without coating. Silica coating was prepared with colloidal silica sol on In-Ceram alumina ceramic surface which had been treated with air particle abrasion. Coating gel after heat treatment was observed with atomic force microscope (AFM), and was analyzed by infrared spectrum (IR) with gel without sintered as control. Contact angles of oleic acid to be finished, sandblasted and coated ceramic surface of were measured. AFM pictures showed that some parts of nano-particles in coating gel conglomerated after heat treatment. It can be seen from the IR picture that bending vibration absorption kurtosis of Si-OH also vanished after heat treatment. Among contact angles of three treated surface, the ones on polished surface were the biggest (P = 0.000, P = 0.000), and sandblasting+silica coating surface the smallest (P = 0.000, P = 0.003). Silica coating can be made with sol-gel process successfully. Heat treatment may reinforce Si-O-Si net structure of coating gel. Wettability of dental alumina ceramic with silica coating is higher than with sandblasting and polishing.

  15. Silica micro- and nanoparticles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes; Jurado, Encarnación; Lechuga, Manuela

    2018-04-20

    In this work, the toxicity of hydrophilic fumed silica micro- and nanoparticles of various sizes (7 nm, 12 nm, and 50 μm) was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. In addition, the toxicity of an anionic surfactant solution (ether carboxylic acid), a nonionic surfactant solution (alkyl polyglucoside), and a binary (1:1) mixture of these solutions all containing these silica particles was evaluated. Furthermore, this work discusses the adsorption of surfactants onto particle surfaces and evaluates the effects of silica particles on the surface tension and critical micellar concentration (CMC) of these anionic and nonionic surfactants. It was determined that silica particles can be considered as non-toxic and that silica particles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. Nevertheless, the toxicity reduction depends on the ionic character of the surfactants. Differences can be explained by the different adsorption behavior of surfactants onto the particle surface, which is weaker for nonionic surfactants than for anionic surfactants. Regarding the effects on surface tension, it was found that silica particles increased the surface activity of anionic surfactants and considerably reduced their CMC, whereas in the case of nonionic surfactants, the effects were reversed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.