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Sample records for early diagnosis initiative

  1. Understanding Predictors of Early Antenatal Care Initiation in Relationship to Timing of HIV Diagnosis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nattey, Cornelius; Jinga, Nelly; Mongwenyana, Constance; Mokhele, Idah; Mohomi, Given; Fox, Matthew P; Onoya, Dorina

    2018-06-01

    Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission benefits from early presentation to antenatal care (ANC). It is, however, unclear whether a previous HIV diagnosis results in earlier initiation of ANC. We estimated the probability of early ANC initiation among women with a previous HIV-positive diagnosis compared to those who first tested for HIV during ANC and explored determinants of early ANC among HIV-positive women. We conducted an analysis of a cross-sectional survey among 411 HIV-positive adult (>18 years) women who gave birth at midwife obstetrics units in Gauteng between October 2016 and May 2017. Predictors of early ANC (defined as initiating ANC before or at 14 weeks of gestation) were assessed by multivariate log-binomial regression model. Overall, 51% (210) were diagnosed during pregnancy with 89% (188) initiating antiretroviral therapy on the same day of diagnosis. There was no meaningful difference in the timing of ANC initiation between women with previous HIV diagnosis [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.9-1.7] compared with those diagnosed during pregnancy. Early ANC was predicted by planned pregnancy [aRR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7], parity (>2 children) [aRR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9] compared to not having a child, and tuberculosis diagnosis [aRR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-6.1]. Our results suggest the need for a targeted intervention among HIV-positive women by improving the quality, content and outreach of ANC services to enhance early ANC uptake, and minimize mother-to-child transmission risk.

  2. [Initial diagnosis of Parkinson's disease - neuroradiological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Orimo, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Brain MRI is essential for differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from other parkinsonian syndromes. The purpose of performing brain MRI is not to make a diagnosis of PD but is to exclude other parkinsonian syndromes. Recently, several new MRI techniques such as voxel based morphometry, relaxometry, magnetization transfer, spectroscopy, tractography, and functional MRI have been introduced in the diagnosis of PD. Neuromelanin imaging is one of the new techniques and can be useful to make an initial diagnosis of PD. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy is a sensitive imaging tool to differentiate PD from other parkinsonian syndromes and is one of the good tools to make an initial diagnosis of PD. Brain perfusion imaging is sometimes useful to make an initial diagnosis of PD, because reduced brain perfusion area can be detected before brain MRI detects morphological changes of the brain. Dopamine transporter imaging, not available in Japan, is a sensitive tool to detect very early parkinsonism and is useful to make an initial diagnosis of PD. However, it is difficult to differentiate PD from other parkinsonian syndromes.

  3. Early diagnosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Garway-Heath, David F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for the clinical application of vision function tests and imaging devices to identify early glaucoma, and sets out a scheme for the appropriate use and interpretation of test results in screening/case-finding and clinic settings. In early glaucoma, signs may be equivocal and the diagnosis is often uncertain. Either structural damage or vision function loss may be the first sign of glaucoma; neither one is consistently apparent before the other. Quantitative tests of visual function and measurements of optic-nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer anatomy are useful to either raise or lower the probability that glaucoma is present. The posttest probability for glaucoma may be calculated from the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio of the diagnostic criterion, and the output of several diagnostic devices may be combined to achieve a final probability. However, clinicians need to understand how these diagnostic devices make their measurements, so that the validity of each test result can be adequately assessed. Only then should the result be used, together with the patient history and clinical examination, to derive a diagnosis.

  4. Diagnosis and initial management of cerebellar infarction.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Jonathan A; Newman-Toker, David E; Savitz, Sean I

    2008-10-01

    Cerebellar infarction is an important cause of stroke that often presents with common and non-specific symptoms such as dizziness, nausea and vomiting, unsteady gait, and headache. Accurate diagnosis frequently relies on careful attention to patients' coordination, gait, and eye movements--components of the neurological physical examination that are sometimes omitted or abridged if cerebellar stroke is not specifically being considered. The differential diagnosis is broad, and includes many common and benign causes. Furthermore, early-stage posterior fossa ischaemia is rarely seen with brain CT--the most commonly available initial imaging test that is used for stroke. Insufficient examination and imaging can result in misdiagnosis. However, early correct diagnosis is crucial to help prevent treatable but potentially fatal complications, such as brainstem compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. The identification and treatment of the underlying vascular lesions at an early stage can also prevent subsequent occurrences of stroke and improve patients' outcomes. Here, we review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarction, from diagnosis and misdiagnosis to patients' monitoring, treatment, and potential complications.

  5. Addison disease - diagnosis and initial management.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Susan; Siafarikas, Aris

    2010-11-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease caused by either primary adrenal failure (Addison disease) or by impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Steroid replacement therapy normalises quality of life, however, adherence can be problematic. This article provides information on adrenal insufficiency focusing on awareness of initial symptoms and on risk scenarios, emergency management and baseline investigations, complete investigations and long term management. Early recognition of adrenal insufficiency is essential to avoid associated morbidity and mortality. Initial diagnosis and decision to treat are based on history and physical examination. Appropriate management includes emergency resuscitation and steroid administration. Initial investigations can include sodium, potassium and blood glucose levels. However, complete investigations can be deferred. Specialist advice should be obtained and long term management includes a Team Care Arrangement. For patients, an emergency plan and emergency identification are essential.

  6. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  7. Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Becker, Georg; Müller, Antje; Braune, Stefan; Büttner, Thomas; Benecke, Reiner; Greulich, Wolfgang; Klein, Wolfgang; Mark, Günter; Rieke, Jürgen; Thümler, Reiner

    2002-10-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to stop the degenerative process. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk and at earlier stages of the disease appears to be essential for any successful neuroprotection. The discovery of several genetic mutations associated with IPD raises the possibility that these, or other biomarkers, of the disease may help to identify persons at risk of IPD. Transcranial ultrasound have shown susceptibility factors for IPD related to an increased iron load of the substantia nigra. In the early clinical phase, a number of motor and particularly non-motor signs emerge, which can be identified by the patients and physicians years before the diagnosis is made, notably olfactory dysfunction, depression, or 'soft' motor signs such as changes in handwriting, speech or reduced ambulatory arm motion. These signs of the early, prediagnostic phase of IPD can be detected by inexpensive and easy-to-administer tests. As one single instrument will not be sensitive enough, a battery of tests has to be composed measuring independent parameters of the incipient disease. Subjects with abnormal findings in this test battery should than be submitted to nuclear medicine examinations to quantify the extent of dopaminergic injury and to reach the goal of a reliable, early diagnosis.

  8. Oaklahoma: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Oklahoma Early Childhood Program uses public and private funds to enhance and expand high quality early care and education opportunities for children birth through age 3. The George Kaiser Family Foundation initiated the pilot in 2006 by matching state general revenue with private donations. Since that time, other private funders and providers…

  9. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  10. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  11. [Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György

    2014-07-20

    Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.

  12. Automatic CDR Estimation for Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Jiménez, S.; Alemany, P.

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that constitutes the second cause of blindness in developed countries. Although it cannot be cured, its progression can be prevented through early diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatic glaucoma diagnosis based on retinal colour images. We focus on capturing the inherent colour changes of optic disc (OD) and cup borders by computing several colour derivatives in CIE L∗a∗b∗ colour space with CIE94 colour distance. In addition, we consider spatial information retaining these colour derivatives and the original CIE L∗a∗b∗ values of the pixel and adding other characteristics such as its distance to the OD centre. The proposed strategy is robust due to a simple structure that does not need neither initial segmentation nor removal of the vascular tree or detection of vessel bends. The method has been extensively validated with two datasets (one public and one private), each one comprising 60 images of high variability of appearances. Achieved class-wise-averaged accuracy of 95.02% and 81.19% demonstrates that this automated approach could support physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in its early stage, and therefore, it could be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening programs. PMID:29279773

  13. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  14. Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katus, Hugo; Ziegler, André; Ekinci, Okan; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Achenbach, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Brueckmann, Martina; Collinson, Paul; Comaniciu, Dorin; Crea, Filippo; Dinh, Wilfried; Ducrocq, Grégory; Flachskampf, Frank A; Fox, Keith A A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Hebert, Kathy A; Himmelmann, Anders; Hlatky, Mark; Lautsch, Dominik; Lindahl, Bertil; Lindholm, Daniel; Mills, Nicholas L; Minotti, Giorgio; Möckel, Martin; Omland, Torbjørn; Semjonow, Véronique

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Systematic assessment of cervical cancer initiation and progression uncovers genetic panels for deep learning-based early diagnosis and proposes novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Jung, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Sang Jun; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Kang, Yun Pyo; Yan, Hong Hua; Min, Jung Eun; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-12-12

    Although many outstanding achievements in the management of cervical cancer (CxCa) have obtained, it still imposes a major burden which has prompted scientists to discover and validate new CxCa biomarkers to improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of CxCa. In this study, eight different gene expression data sets containing 202 cancer, 115 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 105 normal samples were utilized for an integrative systems biology assessment in a multi-stage carcinogenesis manner. Deep learning-based diagnostic models were established based on the genetic panels of intrinsic genes of cervical carcinogenesis as well as on the unbiased variable selection approach. Survival analysis was also conducted to explore the potential biomarker candidates for prognostic assessment. Our results showed that cell cycle, RNA transport, mRNA surveillance, and one carbon pool by folate were the key regulatory mechanisms involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of CxCa. Various genetic panels combined with machine learning algorithms successfully differentiated CxCa from CIN and normalcy in cross-study normalized data sets. In particular, the 168-gene deep learning model for the differentiation of cancer from normalcy achieved an externally validated accuracy of 97.96% (99.01% sensitivity and 95.65% specificity). Survival analysis revealed that ZNF281 and EPHB6 were the two most promising prognostic genetic markers for CxCa among others. Our findings open new opportunities to enhance current understanding of the characteristics of CxCa pathobiology. In addition, the combination of transcriptomics-based signatures and deep learning classification may become an important approach to improve CxCa diagnosis and management in clinical practice.

  16. Systematic assessment of cervical cancer initiation and progression uncovers genetic panels for deep learning-based early diagnosis and proposes novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Jung, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Sang Jun; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Nghi, Tran Diem; Kang, Yun Pyo; Yan, Hong Hua; Min, Jung Eun; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-01-01

    Although many outstanding achievements in the management of cervical cancer (CxCa) have obtained, it still imposes a major burden which has prompted scientists to discover and validate new CxCa biomarkers to improve the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of CxCa. In this study, eight different gene expression data sets containing 202 cancer, 115 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 105 normal samples were utilized for an integrative systems biology assessment in a multi-stage carcinogenesis manner. Deep learning-based diagnostic models were established based on the genetic panels of intrinsic genes of cervical carcinogenesis as well as on the unbiased variable selection approach. Survival analysis was also conducted to explore the potential biomarker candidates for prognostic assessment. Our results showed that cell cycle, RNA transport, mRNA surveillance, and one carbon pool by folate were the key regulatory mechanisms involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of CxCa. Various genetic panels combined with machine learning algorithms successfully differentiated CxCa from CIN and normalcy in cross-study normalized data sets. In particular, the 168-gene deep learning model for the differentiation of cancer from normalcy achieved an externally validated accuracy of 97.96% (99.01% sensitivity and 95.65% specificity). Survival analysis revealed that ZNF281 and EPHB6 were the two most promising prognostic genetic markers for CxCa among others. Our findings open new opportunities to enhance current understanding of the characteristics of CxCa pathobiology. In addition, the combination of transcriptomics-based signatures and deep learning classification may become an important approach to improve CxCa diagnosis and management in clinical practice. PMID:29312619

  17. Survival after initial diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric B; Shadlen, Marie-Florence; Wang, Li; McCormick, Wayne C; Bowen, James D; Teri, Linda; Kukull, Walter A

    2004-04-06

    Alzheimer disease is an increasingly common condition in older people. Knowledge of life expectancy after the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and of associations of patient characteristics with survival may help planning for future care. To investigate the course of Alzheimer disease after initial diagnosis and examine associations hypothesized to correlate with survival among community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer disease. Prospective observational study. An Alzheimer disease patient registry from a base population of 23 000 persons age 60 years and older in the Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington. 521 newly recognized persons with Alzheimer disease enrolled from 1987 to 1996 in an Alzheimer disease patient registry. Baseline measurements included patient demographic features, Mini-Mental State Examination score, Blessed Dementia Rating Scale score, duration since reported onset of symptoms, associated symptoms, comorbid conditions, and selected signs. Survival was the outcome of interest. The median survival from initial diagnosis was 4.2 years for men and 5.7 years for women with Alzheimer disease. Men had poorer survival across all age groups compared with females. Survival was decreased in all age groups compared with the life expectancy of the U.S. population. Predictors of mortality based on proportional hazards models included a baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score of 17 or less, baseline Blessed Dementia Rating Scale score of 5.0 or greater, presence of frontal lobe release signs, presence of extrapyramidal signs, gait disturbance, history of falls, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes at baseline. The base population, although typical of the surrounding Seattle community, may not be representative of other, more diverse populations. In this sample of community-dwelling elderly persons who received a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, survival duration was shorter than predicted on the basis of U.S. population

  18. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  19. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  20. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  1. [Early diagnosis of autism: Phenotype-endophenotype].

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, S

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders have for some time been the focus of intense interest for clinicians and researchers because of the high prevalence of the disorders among children in the community (approximately 1%), their severity and pervasiveness. Particular attention has been paid to the early diagnosis of the disorder and to the intensive therapeutic intervention. Currently the best prognosis for autism lays in the early diagnosis and intervention. Postponing the diagnosis and the intervention beyond infancy is considered loss of precious time. The diagnosis of autism, which begins early in life, was until recently considered that could be reliability made at the age of 3 years. Recent follow up studies however on children at risk for autism (children who had an older sibling with autism) have shown that the clinical signs of autism emerge at the end of the first year and become distinct by the end of the second year when the diagnosis can reliably be made. From a clinical perspective it is noted that the early clinical signs of risk for autism are related to social communication (e.g. limited or absent response when calling his/her name and to joint attention), stereotype behaviours and body movements or unusual handling of objects (e.g. intensive observation of objects and stereotype movements of hands and tapping or spinning), incongruent regulation of emotions (reduced positive and increased negative emotion). There is also delay in developmental characteristics such as the language (both receptive and expressive) and motor (particularly in postural control - characteristic is the drop of the head backwards when the infant is held in horizontal position). Studies on various aspects of the endophenotype of certain clinical signs among infants at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as avoidance of eye contact, delay in verbal communication and increase of the head circumference, may provide useful information and may assist the clinician on follow up in the

  2. Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.

    1987-01-01

    White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)

  3. Early diagnosis of HIV in children below 18 months using DNA PCR test--assessment of the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions and challenges in early initiation of ART in a resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil; Singh, Girraj; Kaushik, Pratap; Joshi, Bipin; Kalra, Kamlesh; Chakraborty, Sabyasachi

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess efficacy of the current Indian Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) protocol in 217 HIV-exposed infants, and to assess challenges in the early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 18 (8.3%) infants with HIV, as determined by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test at ≥ 6 weeks to <18 months of age. The mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate in 154 mother-baby pairs fully compliant with the PMTCT protocol was 5.2%. However, if 25 pairs who were positive using dried blood spot (DBS) DNA PCR and who did not undergo whole blood testing are included in the analysis, then the overall MTCT rate would be 19.8%. The current protocol is 50% effective considering an MTCT rate of 35-40% without any intervention. ART was initiated in 10 (55.6%) HIV-infected children at a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 10.45 ± 4.9 (range: 4-17.5) months; delay resulted in opportunistic infections in one-third of the children. A single-dose nevirapine PMTCT regimen should be replaced by a triple antiretroviral regimen; DBS DNA PCR-positive infants may be given ART, and simultaneously a whole blood specimen should be taken to determine whether ART should be continued.

  4. Stages of syphilis in South China - a multilevel analysis of early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ngai Sze; Huang, Shujie; Zheng, Heping; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Peizhen; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li Gang; Goh, Beng Tin; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-31

    Early diagnosis of syphilis and timely treatment can effectively reduce ongoing syphilis transmission and morbidity. We examined the factors associated with the early diagnosis of syphilis to inform syphilis screening strategic planning. In an observational study, we analyzed reported syphilis cases in Guangdong Province, China (from 2014 to mid-2015) accessed from the national case-based surveillance system. We categorized primary and secondary syphilis cases as early diagnosis and categorized latent and tertiary syphilis as delayed diagnosis. Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors associated with early diagnosis. We also examined the factors associated with early diagnosis at the individual and city levels in multilevel logistic regression models with cases nested by city (n = 21), adjusted for age at diagnosis and gender. Among 83,944 diagnosed syphilis cases, 22% were early diagnoses. The city-level early diagnosis rate ranged from 7 to 46%, consistent with substantial geographic variation as shown in the multilevel model. Early diagnosis was associated with cases presenting to specialist clinics for screening, being male and attaining higher education level. Cases received syphilis testing in institutions and hospitals, and diagnosed in hospitals were less likely to be in early diagnosis. At the city-level, cases living in a city equipped with more hospitals per capita were less likely to be early diagnosis. To enhance early diagnosis of syphilis, city-specific syphilis screening strategies with a mix of passive and client/provider-initiated testing might be a useful approach.

  5. FDG-PET in early AD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chew, Jessica; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2013-05-01

    FDG-PET is a valuable tool that will continue to aid in identifying AD in its prodromal and early dementia stages, distinguishing it from other causes of dementia, and tracking progression of the disease. As brain FDG-PET scans and well-trained readers of these scans are becoming more widely available to clinicians who are becoming more informed about the role FDG-PET can play in early AD diagnosis, its use is expected to increase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary Sequestration: Early Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Sajad A.; Mufti, Gowher N.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Baba, Ajaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Intralobar sequestration is characterized by aberrant formation of nonfunctional lung tissue that has no communication with the bronchial tree and receives systemic arterial blood supply. Failure of earlier diagnosis can lead to recurrent pneumonia, failure to thrive, multiple hospital admissions, and more morbidity. The aim of this case report is to increase the awareness about the lung sequestration, to diagnose and treat it early, so that it is resected before repeated infection, and prevent the morbidity and mortality. PMID:26273485

  7. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  8. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  9. Initial Diagnosis and Management of Coma.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2016-11-01

    Coma represents a true medical emergency. Drug intoxications are a leading cause of coma; however, other metabolic disturbances and traumatic brain injury are also common causes. The general emergency department approach begins with stabilization of airway, breathing, and circulation, followed by a thorough physical examination to generate a limited differential diagnosis that is then refined by focused testing. Definitive treatment is ultimately disease-specific. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology, causes, examination, and treatment of coma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Diagnosis of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Frederick S.; Xu, Meiqi; Glaser, David L.; Collins, Felicity; Connor, Michael; Kitterman, Joseph; Sillence, David; Zackai, Elaine; Ravitsky, Vardit; Zasloff, Michael; Ganguly, Arupa; Shore, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification in specific anatomic patterns. Most patients with fibrodys-plasia ossificans progressiva are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures that can cause lifelong disability. Recently, the genetic cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva was identified, and definitive genetic testing for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is now available before the appearance of heterotopic ossification. METHODS We recently evaluated 7 children for diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva before the onset of heterotopic ossification. A medical history, physical examination, and skeletal survey were obtained on all of the patients, as well as clinical genetic testing for the canonical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva mutation. RESULTS All 7 of the children (4 girls and 3 boys; ages 3 months to 6 years) had congenital malformations of the great toes, but none had radiographic evidence of heterotopic ossification at the time of evaluation. Five of the 7 children had soft tissue lesions of the neck and back, suggestive of early fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva flare-ups, 3 of whom had undergone invasive diagnostic procedures that exacerbated their condition. Two children had no history or signs of soft tissue swelling or flare-ups. DNA sequence analysis found that all 7 of the children had the recurrent fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva missense mutation, a single nucleotide substitution (c.617G>A) at codon 206 in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin receptor IA, a bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor. CONCLUSION Clinical suspicion of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva early in life on the basis of malformed great toes can lead to early clinical diagnosis, confirmatory

  11. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age <12 weeks was inadequate including Thailand. The study aimed to improve the rate of early ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. Methods: A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge–counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Results: Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P < .001) and meeting an LHV (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.86-2.29, P < .001), but lower at 6 months after training (adjusted OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, P = .002). Almost all women (99.7%) in the intervention group who met an LHV reported that they were encouraged to attend early ANC. Conclusion: Training LHVs in communities by knowledge–counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited. PMID:29657959

  12. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  13. Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh-Toan; Zhou, Yiren; Zheng, Haitian; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Koh, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    We research a mobile imaging system for early diagnosis of melanoma. Different from previous work, we focus on smartphone-captured images, and propose a detection system that runs entirely on the smartphone. Smartphone-captured images taken under loosely-controlled conditions introduce new challenges for melanoma detection, while processing performed on the smartphone is subject to computation and memory constraints. To address these challenges, we propose to localize the skin lesion by combining fast skin detection and fusion of two fast segmentation results. We propose new features to capture color variation and border irregularity which are useful for smartphone-captured images. We also propose a new feature selection criterion to select a small set of good features used in the final lightweight system. Our evaluation confirms the effectiveness of proposed algorithms and features. In addition, we present our system prototype which computes selected visual features from a user-captured skin lesion image, and analyzes them to estimate the likelihood of malignance, all on an off-the-shelf smartphone.

  14. Impact of early diagnosis on functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867

  15. Disclosure of Diagnosis in Early Recognition of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Blessing, Andreas; Studer, Anna; Gross, Amelie; Gruss, L Forest; Schneider, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11). Results indicate greater endorsement of the internal locus of control in individuals with ARMS after communication of diagnosis in contrast to the other groups. Our results suggest that disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center leads to a reduction of psychological distress and increased feelings of control over one's health. Persons with ARMS seem to particularly benefit from disclosure of diagnosis as part of early intervention.

  16. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient’s symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  17. The Presidential Initiative on Shared Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettis, Roy

    2000-04-01

    In September 1998, President Clinton and President Yeltsin issued a statement that our two countries would develop a system to share data from our respective early warning systems. The purpose of the initiative is to further reduce the risk of ballistic missile launches occurring in response to a misunderstanding about the data from such systems. The proposal includes a permanent center for sharing such data, located in Moscow, separate from but communicating with the strategic command-and-control centers of each country. It also includes development of a system of pre-launch notifications, which is expected to eventually provide notification of a broad class of launches, on a voluntary basis, including launches by all the countries that engage in missile and space activities. The status, progress, and prognosis for the work will be discussed. The presentation will address the experience gained from the operation of the Center for Y2K Strategic Stability in Colorado Springs (12/99 - 01/00), which tested many of our ideas for a joint center sharing both pre- launch and sensor data on worldwide launches. In addition, the potential of the initiative -- the first arms control effort involving active and continuing U.S.-Russian joint operations -- to provide a model for future arms control opportunities will be discussed.

  18. Predictors of patient entry into alcohol treatment after initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, J E; Booth, B M; Owen, R R; Lancaster, A E; Smith, G R

    2000-08-01

    To improve the quality of care for alcohol-related disorders, key transitions in the continuum of care, including treatment entry, must be fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable predictors of patient entry into a substance-use treatment program following the initial diagnosis of an alcohol-related disorder on a medical or surgical inpatient unit. An administrative computerized database was used to identify the sample for this study. Inpatient and outpatient records were obtained from the Little Rock VAMC/DHCP. Predictors of patient entry into treatment within six months of the initial diagnosis of an alcohol related disorder included age younger than than 60 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6), not married (OR = 1.7), primary diagnosis of an alcohol-related disorder (OR = 7.7), diagnosis of a comorbid drug (OR = 4.3) or psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.6), diagnosis by a medical as opposed to a surgical specialty (OR = 6.0), and African American (OR = 1.7).

  19. Acute gall bladder perforation--a dilemma in early diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C L; Wong, T H; Rauff, A

    1991-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a rare complication of cholecystitis. A definitive diagnosis is uncommon before surgery and the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition are high. We report six patients with gall bladder perforation to show the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. The history and the clinical findings of these patients are reviewed to highlight diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:1885081

  20. Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…

  1. Deep Learning Role in Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Islam; Khalil, Ashraf; Elmogy, Mohammed; Abou El-Fetouh, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Elmaghraby, Adel; Ghazal, Mohammed; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The presented system integrates both clinical biomarkers (prostate-specific antigen) and extracted features from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging collected at multiple b values. The presented system performs 3 major processing steps. First, prostate delineation using a hybrid approach that combines a level-set model with nonnegative matrix factorization. Second, estimation and normalization of diffusion parameters, which are the apparent diffusion coefficients of the delineated prostate volumes at different b values followed by refinement of those apparent diffusion coefficients using a generalized Gaussian Markov random field model. Then, construction of the cumulative distribution functions of the processed apparent diffusion coefficients at multiple b values. In parallel, a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed to transform the prostate-specific antigen results into diagnostic probabilities. Finally, those prostate-specific antigen–based probabilities are integrated with the initial diagnostic probabilities obtained using stacked nonnegativity constraint sparse autoencoders that employ apparent diffusion coefficient–cumulative distribution functions for better diagnostic accuracy. Experiments conducted on 18 diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data sets achieved 94.4% diagnosis accuracy (sensitivity = 88.9% and specificity = 100%), which indicate the promising results of the presented computer-aided diagnostic system. PMID:29804518

  2. Biomarkers for the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Saito, Keigo; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, the 5-year survival rate is > 70% if patients are diagnosed at an early stage. However, early diagnosis of HCC is complicated by the coexistence of inflammation and cirrhosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are required. Currently, the diagnosis of HCC without pathological correlation is achieved by analyzing serum α-fetoprotein levels combined with imaging techniques. Advances in genomics and proteomics platforms and biomarker assay techniques over the last decade have resulted in the identification of numerous novel biomarkers and have improved the diagnosis of HCC. The most promising biomarkers, such as glypican-3, osteopontin, Golgi protein-73 and nucleic acids including microRNAs, are most likely to become clinically validated in the near future. These biomarkers are not only useful for early diagnosis of HCC, but also provide insight into the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. In addition, such molecular insight creates the basis for the development of potentially more effective treatment strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of the biomarkers that are currently used for the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:26457017

  3. Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stability and Change in Clinical Diagnosis and Symptom Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…

  4. EARLY: a pilot study on early diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in a primary healthcare centre.

    PubMed

    Benito, Luisa; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Gómez, Eva; Martí, David; Mitjavila, Joan; Torres, Ferran; Miró, Òscar; Sisó, Antoni; Mont, Lluís

    2015-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is likely to improve therapy and prognosis. The study objective was to evaluate the usefulness of a programme for early diagnosis of AF in patients from an urban primary care centre. Participants were recruited from a randomized sample of patients not diagnosed with AF but having relevant risk factors: age ≥ 65 years, ischaemic and/or valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and/or diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The intervention included (i) initial visit with clinical history, electrocardiogram, and instruction about pulse palpation and warning signs and (ii) electrocardiogram every 6 months during a 2-year follow-up. The main endpoint of the study was the proportion of new cases diagnosed at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were number of new AF diagnoses and complications associated with the arrhythmia in both groups. A total of 928 patients were included (463 IG and 465 CG). At 6 months, AF was diagnosed in 8 IG patients and 1 CG patient (1.7 vs. 0.2%, respectively, P = 0.018). After 2 years of follow-up, 11 IG patients and 6 CG patients had newly diagnosed AF (2.5 vs. 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.132). Time to first diagnosis of AF was shorter in IG patients [median (inter-quartile range): 7 (192) days vs. 227 (188.5) days in CG, P = 0.029]. The simple screening proposed could be useful for the early detection of AF in primary care. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Early ultrasonographic diagnosis of hereditary retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pierro, L; Capoferri, C; Brancato, R

    1991-01-01

    A hereditary retinoblastoma (RTB) was identified by ocular echography in a newborn, whose predisposition to RTB had been assessed based on the family history and DNA testing of the chorionic villi at the eighth week of pregnancy. Ultrasonography was performed during pregnancies without an abnormality being demonstrated. On the third day of life a B-scan examination showed a small membranous lesion in the nasal parapapillary area, whilst on A-scan, the lesion appeared as a hyperreflective peak. Thanks to its early identification, the tumor was successfully treated by photocoagulation.

  6. Early pregnancy diagnosis in bovines: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Ashok K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.

  7. Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Bovines: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2013-01-01

    An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949

  8. The economic and clinical burden of early versus late initiation of celecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant

  9. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  10. Diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Veeravahu, M

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.

  11. Spectral biopsy for skin cancer diagnosis: initial clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Nguyen, Hieu T. M.; Zhang, Yao; Sebastian, Katherine R.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2017-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a noninvasive method that utilizes multimodal spectroscopy towards the goal of a "spectral biopsy" of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We previously described an updated spectral biopsy system that allows acquisition of all three forms of spectroscopy through a single fiber optic probe and is composed of off-the-shelf OEM components that are smaller, cheaper, and enable a more clinic-friendly system. We present initial patient data acquired with the spectral biopsy system, the first from an extensive clinical study (n = 250) to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma). We also present our first attempts at analyzing this initial set of clinical data using statistical-based models, and with models currently being developed to extract biophysical information from the collected spectra, all towards the goal of noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis.

  12. Early Sonographic Diagnosis of Neurocutaneous Melanosis in a Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Turan, Aynur; Demirel, Nihal; Demirkan, Tulin Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare, congenital non-hereditary syndrome, characterized by multiple pigmented nevi. We report the radiologic findings of a newborn who had extensive cutaneous melanotic nevus with satellite lesions in the brain. Ultrasound showed multiple echogenic foci in the cerebral parenchyma. Subsequent MRI confirmed these lesions as characteristic deposits of melanin. The infant was asymptomatic, but presence of risk factors such as malign transformation or neurological manifestations makes early diagnosis very important. We present this case to emphasize on the radiological findings of this syndrome in order to reach an early diagnosis. PMID:25780540

  13. Ultrasound elastography in the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jin; Kwag, Hyon Joo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Park, Hae-Won; Lee, Yong-Rae; Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ultrasound (US) elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed US elastography findings of 18 feet with a clinical history and physical examination highly suggestive of plantar fasciitis but with normal findings on conventional US imaging as well as 18 asymptomatic feet. Softening of the plantar fascia was significantly greater in the patient than in the control group [Reviewers 1 and 2: 89% (16/18) vs. 50% (9/18), P=.027, respectively]. US elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colliot, O; Hamelin, L; Sarazin, M

    2013-10-01

    A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detecting different types of structural and functional abnormalities at an early stage of the disease. Anatomical MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The recent diagnostic criteria of "mild cognitive impairment due to AD" include hippocampal atrophy, which is considered a marker of neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in the hippocampus and throughout the whole brain. Recent modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI provide additional measures that could contribute to the early diagnosis but require further validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Cutaneous Necrosis: A Guide to Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Karen; Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Fike, Jesse; Stanford, Carol; Hall, John C

    Acute cutaneous necrosis is characterised by a wide range of aetiologies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, warranting complex considerations in management. Early recognition is imperative in diagnosis and management of sudden gangrenous changes in the skin. This review discusses major causes of cutaneous necrosis, examines the need for early assessment, and integrates techniques related to diagnosis and management. The literature, available via PubMed, on acute cutaneous necrotic syndromes was reviewed to summarise causes and synthesise appropriate treatment strategies to create a clinician's guide in the early diagnosis and management of acute cutaneous necrosis. Highlighted in this article are key features associated with common causes of acute cutaneous necrosis: warfarin-induced skin necrosis, heparin-induced skin necrosis, calciphylaxis, pyoderma gangrenosum, embolic phenomena, purpura fulminans, brown recluse spider bite, necrotising fasciitis, ecthyma gangrenosum, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypergammaglobulinemia, and cryoglobulinemia. This review serves to increase recognition of these serious pathologies and complications, allowing for prompt diagnosis and swift limb- or life-saving management.

  17. GPs' attitudes, awareness, and practice regarding early diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shamail; Orrell, Martin; Iliffe, Steve; Gracie, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care, the diagnosis of dementia is often delayed and the 2007 National Audit Office Report concluded action was needed to improve patient care and value for money. Aim To investigate the attitudes, awareness, and practice of GPs in England regarding early diagnosis and management of patients with dementia, and perceptions of local specialist services, to identify training or support needs. Design of study Secondary analysis of survey data that capture the above attitudes, awareness, and practice. Setting Online survey, targeting GP members of medeConnect. Method Survey data were obtained using an anonymised online self-completion questionnaire, and then analysed using standard data-analysis software. Results A total of 1011 GPs across the eight English regions responded. Older GPs were more confident in diagnosing and giving advice about dementia, but less likely to feel that early diagnosis was beneficial, and more likely to feel that patients with dementia can be a drain on resources with little positive outcome. Younger GPs were more positive and felt that much could be done to improve quality of life. Attitudes had no correlation with sex. GPs in general felt they had not had sufficient basic and post-qualifying training in dementia, and overall knowledge about dementia was low. Conclusion Much could be done to improve GPs' knowledge of dementia, and the confidence of older GPs could be an educational resource. However, greater experience may create scepticism about early diagnosis because of the perceived poor quality of specialist services. PMID:20849686

  18. Investigating Initial Disclosures and Reactions to Unexpected, Positive HPV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hernandez, Rachael; Catona, Danielle

    2014-07-01

    Initial disclosures of health conditions are critical communication moments. Existing research focuses on disclosers; integrating confidants into studies of initial disclosures is needed. Guided by the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM; Greene, 2009), this study examined what diagnosed persons and confidants may say when faced with unexpected test results and unexpected disclosures, respectively. Participants ( N = 151) recorded an audio-visual message for another person, after imagining that they or the other person had just received unexpected, positive HPV test results. The qualitative analysis revealed four themes: (1) impression management and social distance, (2) invisible symptoms and advice regarding future disclosures, (3) expressing and acknowledging emotional reactions, and (4) misunderstandings and lacking knowledge about HPV. These findings suggested that DD-MM may be a relevant framework for understanding not only when disclosers share, but what disclosers and confidants say in early conversations about new diagnoses. While disclosers' and confidants' messages showed marked similarities, important differences appeared. For example, confidants focused on assuaging disclosers' fear about the consequences, whereas disclosers expressed distress related to their uncertainty about the prognosis of an HPV infection and how to prepare for next steps. The discussion highlighted implications for the DD-MM, HPV disclosures, and future interventions.

  19. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  20. Initial diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Australia: views from the coal face.

    PubMed

    Bereznicki, Bonnie; Walters, Haydn; Walters, Julia; Peterson, Gregory; Bereznicki, Luke

    2017-07-01

    Early diagnosis and management can mitigate the long-term morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To gain insights into the initial diagnostic process and early management of COPD by Australian general practitioners (GP). A random sample of Australian GP was invited to complete a postal survey, which assessed familiarity with and use of contemporary practice guidelines, diagnostic criteria and management preferences for COPD. A total of 233 GP completed the survey. While most GP based a COPD diagnosis on smoking history (94.4%), symptoms (91.0%) and spirometry (88.8%), only 39.9% of respondents recorded a formal diagnosis of COPD after the patient's first symptomatic presentation. Tiotropium was the preferred treatment in 77.3% of GP for the initial management of COPD, while only 27.5% routinely recommended pulmonary rehabilitation. GP routinely recorded patients' smoking status and offered smoking cessation advice, but the timing of this advice varied. Less than half of the respondents routinely used COPD management guidelines or tools and resources provided by the Australian Lung Foundation. There is scope for major improvement in GP familiarity with and use of COPD management guidelines and readily available tools and resources. Some systematic issues were highlighted in the Australian primary care setting, such as a reactive and relatively passive and delayed approach to diagnosis, potentially delayed smoking cessation advice and underutilisation of pulmonary rehabilitation. There is an urgent need to devise strategies for improving patient outcomes in COPD using resources that are readily available. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Cognitive assessments for the early diagnosis of dementia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of poststroke dementia (PSD) is important for medical practitioners to customize patient treatment programs based on cognitive consequences and disease severity progression. The aim is to diagnose and detect brain degenerative disorders as early as possible to help stroke survivors obtain early treatment benefits before significant mental impairment occurs. Neuropsychological assessments are widely used to assess cognitive decline following a stroke diagnosis. This study reviews the function of the available neuropsychological assessments in the early detection of PSD, particularly vascular dementia (VaD). The review starts from cognitive impairment and dementia prevalence, followed by PSD types and the cognitive spectrum. Finally, the most usable neuropsychological assessments to detect VaD were identified. This study was performed through a PubMed and ScienceDirect database search spanning the last 10 years with the following keywords: “post-stroke”; “dementia”; “neuro-psychological”; and “assessments”. This study focuses on assessing VaD patients on the basis of their stroke risk factors and cognitive function within the first 3 months after stroke onset. The search strategy yielded 535 articles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, only five articles were considered. A manual search was performed and yielded 14 articles. Twelve articles were included in the study design and seven articles were associated with early dementia detection. This review may provide a means to identify the role of neuropsychological assessments as early PSD detection tests. PMID:25246795

  2. Early complications in bariatric surgery: incidence, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.

  3. The Primary Care Physician in the Early Diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis: the Cornerstone of Recognition and Hope

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Magnus, Jeanette H.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disease of unknown etiology that manifests as a heterogeneous group of multi-organ system manifestations and is characterized by vasculopathy and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, with mortality related to pulmonary, cardiac, renal or gastrointestinal involvement. The prevalence of SSc may be underestimated in the general population. Cases are often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, particularly cases with mild or no skin manifestations. Due to late referrals to rheumatologic care, many moderate-to-severe cases progress to irreversible end-organ damage that might have been prevented by early diagnosis. Early diagnosis of SSc with initiation of appropriate treatment is essential, with great impact on morbidity and mortality. This review examines presenting features, ensuing complications and treatment providing a focus on SSc as a treatable disease. Primary care providers play a pivotal role in recognizing initial symptoms associated with SSc and securing early diagnosis through early referral to specialists. PMID:24366221

  4. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Metabolomics as a promising tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, E B; Dos Santos, G C; Duarte, M E L; Moura, V; Aguiar, D P

    2017-09-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability worldwide, due to progressive articular cartilage loss and degeneration. According to recent research, OA is more than just a degenerative disease due to some metabolic components associated to its pathogenesis. However, no biomarker has been identified to detect this disease at early stages or to track its development. Metabolomics is an emerging field and has the potential to detect many metabolites in a single spectrum using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques or mass spectrometry (MS). NMR is a reproducible and reliable non-destructive analytical method. On the other hand, MS has a lower detection limit and is more destructive, but it is more sensitive. NMR and MS are useful for biological fluids, such as urine, blood plasma, serum, or synovial fluid, and have been used for metabolic profiling in dogs, mice, sheep, and humans. Thus, many metabolites have been listed as possibly associated to OA pathogenesis. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the studies in animal models and humans, regarding the use of metabolomics as a tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis. The concept of osteoarthritis as a metabolic disease and the importance of detecting a biomarker for its early diagnosis are highlighted. Then, some studies in plasma and synovial tissues are shown, and finally the application of metabolomics in the evaluation of synovial fluid is described.

  6. In vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry for early malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chengzhong; Carey, Kai A; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Menyaev, Yulian A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Stumhofer, Jason S; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2016-06-01

    In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has already demonstrated a great potential for the diagnosis of deadly diseases through ultrasensitive detection of rare disease-associated circulating markers in whole blood volume. Here, we demonstrate the first application of this powerful technique for early diagnosis of malaria through label-free detection of malaria parasite-produced hemozoin in infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as high-contrast PA agent. The existing malaria tests using blood smears can detect the disease at 0.001-0.1% of parasitemia. On the contrary, linear PAFC showed a potential for noninvasive malaria diagnosis at an extremely low level of parasitemia of 0.0000001%, which is ∼10(3) times better than the existing tests. Multicolor time-of-flight PAFC with high-pulse repetition rate lasers at wavelengths of 532, 671, and 820 nm demonstrated rapid spectral and spatial identification and quantitative enumeration of individual iRBCs. Integration of PAFC with fluorescence flow cytometry (FFC) provided real-time simultaneous detection of single iRBCs and parasites expressing green fluorescence proteins, respectively. A combination of linear and nonlinear nanobubble-based multicolor PAFC showed capability to real-time control therapy efficiency by counting of iRBCs before, during, and after treatment. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity, high-resolution ultrafast PAFC-FFC platform represents a powerful research tool to provide the insight on malaria progression through dynamic study of parasite-cell interactions directly in bloodstream, whereas portable hand-worn PAFC device could be broadly used in humans for early malaria diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  7. Optimized smith waterman processor design for breast cancer early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, D. S.; Isa, M. N.; Ismail, R. C.; Ahmad, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimized design of Processing Element (PE) of Systolic Array (SA) which implements affine gap penalty Smith Waterman (SW) algorithm on the Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX75T Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence alignment. The PE optimization aims to reduce PE logic resources to increase number of PEs in FPGA for higher degree of parallelism during alignment matrix computations. This is useful for aligning long DNA-based disease sequence such as Breast Cancer (BC) for early diagnosis. The optimized PE architecture has the smallest PE area with 15 slices in a PE and 776 PEs implemented in the Virtex - 6 FPGA.

  8. Psychological aspects of therapeutic abortion after early prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A

    1991-01-01

    The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion.

  9. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  10. Early diagnosis of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Casaroto, Ana R; Loures, Daniela C N Rocha; Moreschi, Eduardo; Veltrini, Vanessa C; Trento, Cleverson L; Gottardo, Vilmar D; Lara, Vanessa S

    2011-01-25

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the KCOTs are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This article paper reports the case of a patient, a 10-year-old boy with NBCCS, emphasizing its clinical and radiographic manifestations. This study highlights the importance of health professionals in the early diagnosis of NBCCS and in a preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  11. [Early clinical diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis. A study of 70 eyes].

    PubMed

    Bernauer, W; Duguid, G I; Dart, J K

    1996-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is an uncommon condition which is usually associated with contact lens wear. The use of home made saline and poor hygiene are important risk factors. Early diagnosis is crucial since these cases respond well to medical therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate early clinical signs. Between September 1992 and October 1994, 70 cases of acanthamoeba keratitis, one of them bilateral, were prospectively monitored at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. A database of all patients was set up and the clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and the outcome were recorded. 66 patients (96%) were contact lens wearers, 64 of them (97%) wore soft lenses. The mean interval between first symptoms and correct diagnosis was 42%. The most frequent initial diagnoses were "unclear keratoconjunctivitis" and "herpetic keratitis". Early corneal findings included punctate keratopathy (n = 14; 20%), pseudodendrites (n = 4; 6%), epithelial infiltrates (n = 17; 24%), diffuse or focal sub-epithelial infiltrates (n = 36; 51%) and radial keratoneuritis (n = 5; 7%). Ring infiltrates (n = 13; 18%) and corneal ulceration (n = 13) were late signs. When the above corneal findings are observed, particularly in contact lens wearers, the diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis should be considered. The diagnosis of "herpetic keratitis" in association with contact lens wear should be encountered with scepticism.

  12. [Thinking about the present primary open angle glaucoma early diagnosis concepts and methods].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zeqin

    2014-05-01

    Early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma has not been clear and consistent in concepts and methods. At present, according to the pathophysiology process of optic nerve damage and its detection technology, early diagnosis on the concept still belongs to the early clinical diagnosis instead of preclinical diagnosis, and on the method depends on the fundus as morphological index combined with the visual field as functional index. The direction of early clinical diagnosis mainly lies in exploring more effective diagnosis index, rather than blindly adopt new diagnostic technology.

  13. Chlorophyll as a biomarker for early disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor Atta, Babar; Saleem, M.; Ali, Hina; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Imran; Ahmed, M.

    2018-06-01

    The current study was designed to identify the stage for the diagnosis of disease before visible symptoms appeared. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been employed to identify disease signatures for its early diagnosis in rice plant leaves. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) diseased and healthy leaf samples were collected from the rice fields in September, 2017 which were then used to record spectra using an excitation wavelength at 410 nm. The spectral range of emission was set from 420 to 800 nm which covers the blue–green and the chlorophyll bands. It was found that diseased leaves have a narrower ‘chlorophyll a’ band than healthy ones, and furthermore, that the emission band at 730 nm was either declined or depleted in the sample with high infection symptoms. In contrast, the blue–green region was observed to increase due to the emergence of disease. As the band intensity of chlorophyll decreases during infection, this decrease in chlorophyll content and increase in the blue–green spectral region could provide a new approach for predicting BLB at an early stage. The important finding was that the chlorophyll degradation and rise in the blue–green region take place in leaves with BLB or during BLB infection. Principal component analysis has been applied to spectral data which successfully separated diseased samples from healthy ones even with very small spectral variations.

  14. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  15. Turnaround Time for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis in Rural Zambia: A Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Hamangaba, Francis; Mayani, Felix; Moss, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This study was undertaken in rural Zambia to measure the turnaround time for confirmation of HIV infection and identify delays in diagnosis. Methods Chart reviews were conducted from 2010–2012 for children undergoing early infant HIV diagnosis at Macha Hospital in Zambia. Relevant dates, receipt of drugs by mother and child for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and test results were abstracted. Results 403 infants provided 476 samples for early infant diagnosis. The median age at the “6-week” and “6-month” assessments was 8.1 weeks and 7.0 months, respectively. The majority of mothers (80%) and infants (67%) received PMTCT. The median time between sample collection and arrival at the central laboratory in Lusaka was 17 days (IQR: 10, 28); arrival at the central laboratory to testing was 6 days (IQR: 5, 11); testing to return of results to the clinic was 29 days (IQR: 17, 36); arrival of results at the clinic to return of results to the caregiver was 45 days (IQR: 24, 79). The total median time from sample collection to return of results to the caregiver was 92 days (IQR: 84, 145). The proportion of HIV PCR positive samples was 12%. The total median turnaround time was shorter for HIV PCR positive as compared to negative or invalid samples (85 vs. 92 days; p = 0.08). Conclusions Delays in processing and communicating test results were identified, particularly in returning results from the central laboratory to the clinic and from the clinic to the caregiver. A more efficient process is needed so that caregivers can be provided test results more rapidly, potentially resulting in earlier treatment initiation and better outcomes for HIV-infected infants

  16. Factors predicting early diagnosis of pediatric laryngotracheobronchial foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Parida, Pradipta; Nirmal, Nirmal Shanmugasundaram; Gopalakrishnan, Surianarayanan; Saxena, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinical and radiological findings to make early diagnosis of foreign body (FB) aspiration in children. This prospective study was conducted on 45 children below 12 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of FB aspiration undergone rigid bronchoscopy from September 2008 to may 2010. Bronchoscopy was positive for FB in 37 children. The results of these 37 children (15 female and 22 male) were analyzed. 81% of children were in age group of 1-3 years. Penetration syndrome (sudden onset coughing, choking and gagging when the child is having something in the mouth) (89.2%) and decreased breath sounds (86.5%) were the most common clinical features. Cough, respiratory difficulty and fever were present in 83.8%, 78.4% and 27% respectively. Tachypnoea, tachycardia, chest retractions, decreased chest movements and wheeze were present in 83.3%, 83.3%, 83.3%, 51.4% and 43.2% respectively. Unilateral hyperinflation (64.9%), mediastinal shift (45.9%), and collapse (21.6%) were common radiological sign on chest radiograph and in 13.5% patients the chest X-rays were normal. Sites of FB lodgments were larynx, trachea, right main bronchus, left main bronchus and bilateral bronchi in 10.8%, 10.8%, 35.1%, 37.8 and 5.5% respectively. Food related FBs were present in 30 cases (peanut in 54.1%) and inorganic FBs were present in 7 cases. FBs were removed successfully by rigid bronchoscopy in all cases without any mortality. Penetration syndrome, localized decreased breath sounds, unilateral hyperinflation and/or mediastinal shift on radiology are predictors for early diagnosis of FB aspiration.

  17. Teaching Early College High School at LaGuardia Community College. Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, along with Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, is funding the Early College High School Initiative. The 13 partner organizations are creating or redesigning more than 250 pioneering small high schools. Jobs for the Future coordinates the Early College High…

  18. Factors influencing early referral, early diagnosis and management in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Denton, Christopher P; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E; Hinzmann, Barbara; Davies, Siobhan; de Oliveira Pena, Janethe; Khanna, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into clinical practice regarding referral, early diagnosis and other aspects of the management of patients with dcSSc in Europe and the USA. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 84 rheumatologists (or internal medicine physicians) and 40 dermatologists in different countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA). Physicians were asked to identify key steps in the patient pathway relating to patient presentation, diagnosis and referral, in addition to other treatment and follow-up processes. The interviewed physicians reported that late presentation with dcSSc was common, with some patients presenting to primary care physicians after symptoms had persisted for up to 1 year. Awareness of dcSSc is reported to vary widely among primary care physicians. Final diagnosis, generally following guideline-based recommendations, was by rheumatologists in most cases (or internal medicine physicians in France) and they remained responsible for global patient management, with lesser involvement in diagnosis and management by dermatologists. Specialist centres were not well defined and did not exist in all countries. Patients and primary healthcare providers can be unaware of the symptoms of dcSSc, therefore presentation and referral to specialist care are often late. Thus, improved awareness among patients and primary care physicians is necessary to facilitate earlier referral and diagnosis. Once referred, more consistent use of the modified Rodnan skin score at diagnosis and follow-up may help to monitor disease progression. Furthermore, establishing specialist centres may help to promote such changes and improve patient care.

  19. Lupus erythematosus (LE) cells in ascites: initial diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus by cytological examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kun-Ta; Lee, Yu-Chin; Chen, Chun-Wei; Shih, Jen-Fu; Tung, Su-Mei; Yang, Ya-Ting; Perng, Reury-Perng

    2007-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, involving multiple organs. Diverse manifestations may obscure the diagnosis and confuse our thinking process, especially when few clues are present at the beginning. Serositis is one of the various presentations, and the presence of lupus erythematosus (LE) cell in body fluid may be a hint for the final diagnosis of SLE. Herein, we present a young female patient diagnosed of SLE with initial presentation of lupus peritonitis. Finding of LE cell in ascites prompted us for immunologic survey. Diagnosis of SLE was confirmed with high titer of anti-nuclear antibody and antibody to double-stranded DNA. Cytologic examination of body fluid is mainly useful in detecting malignant cells, but high specificity of this marker aids in early diagnosis of SLE.

  20. Serum Hsp70 Antigen: Early Diagnosis Marker in Perinatal Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon Aa

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve. A significant difference between the serum concentrations

  1. Serum Hsp70 Antigen: Early Diagnosis Marker in Perinatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon AA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Objectives: Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. Patients and Methods: In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve

  2. Measurement of breastfeeding initiation: Ethiopian mothers' perception about survey questions assessing early initiation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Salasibew, Mihretab Melesse; Filteau, Suzanne; Marchant, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Although breastfeeding is almost universal in Ethiopia, only 52% newborns benefited from early initiation in 2011. Early initiation is one of the recommended interventions for saving newborn lives but its potential seems not yet realized for Ethiopian newborns and there is a need for continued efforts to increase coverage. To do so, it is also relevant to focus on consistent and accurate reporting of coverage in early initiation. WHO recommends the question "how long after birth did you first put [name] to the breast?" in order to assess coverage in early initiation. It is designed to measure the time after birth when the mother attempted to initiate breastfeeding regardless of whether breast milk had arrived or not. However, it is unclear how mothers perceive this question and what their responses of time refer to. In this study, we assessed Ethiopian mothers' perception about the question assessing early initiation. Cognitive interviews were conducted between April and May 2013 with eligible mothers in Basona and Debrebirhan woredas (districts), 120 km away from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 49 mothers, most from Basona (n = 36) and the rest from Debrebirhan woredas (n = 13) were interviewed. No probes or follow on questions were required for mothers to understand what the WHO recommended question was about. However, further probing was needed to ascertain what maternal responses of time refer to. Accordingly, mothers' response about the timing of early initiation was related to the first time the newborn received breast milk rather than their first attempt to initiate breastfeeding. In addition, considerable probing was required to approximate and code responses of time based on the WHO coding format because some mothers were unable to assess time in minutes or hours. The existing question is not adequate to identify intended attempts of mothers to initiate breastfeeding. We recommend revising the question as "how long after birth did you first put

  3. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  4. Intervening to promote early initiation of breastfeeding in the LDR.

    PubMed

    Komara, Carol; Simpson, Diana; Teasdale, Carla; Whalen, Gaye; Bell, Shay; Giovanetto, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an interventional protocol for the early initiation of breastfeeding that would remove barriers in the labor, delivery, recovery (LDR) unit. Descriptive design using 100 postpartum mothers who were interviewed before discharge at a large university hospital in the south-central United States. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The protocol was effective for initiating breastfeeding, and breastfeeding increased from 53% to 66%. When barriers to breastfeeding are reduced in the LDR setting, women will breastfeed. It is possible that reducing hospital barriers to breastfeeding in the LDR can also set the stage for sustained breastfeeding during hospitalization and for less supplementation with formula.

  5. A Possible Contra-Indication for Early Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions: Impact on Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) in children on parenting stress. While there is increasing pressure to provide early diagnosis of ASC, there is a lack of evidence relating to the impact of early diagnosis on the parents. The parents of 85 children with ASC completed measures of their…

  6. [The value of PHI/PCA3 in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Tan, S J; Xu, L W; Xu, Z; Wu, J P; Liang, K; Jia, R P

    2016-01-12

    To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 190 patients with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled. They were all underwent initial biopsy and 11 of them were also underwent repeated biopsy. In addition, 25 healthy cases (with normal digital rectal examination and PSA<4 ng/ml) were the control group.The PHI and PCA3 were detected by using immunofluorescence and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis were determined by ROC curve.In addition, the relationship between PHI/PSA and the Gleason score and clinical stage were analyzed. A total of 89 patients were confirmed PCa by Pathological diagnosis. The other 101 patients were diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 test were 85.4% was 92.1%. Area under curve (AUC) of PHI is higher than AUC of PSA (0.727>0.699). The PHI in peripheral blood was positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage. The detection of PCA3 and PHI shows excellent detecting effectiveness. Compared with single PSA, the combined detection of PHI and PCA3 improved the diagnostic specificity. It can provide a new method for the early diagnosis in prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  7. Early diagnosis and treatment in a child with foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early infant HIV diagnosis and entry to HIV care cascade in Thailand: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sirirungsi, Wasna; Khamduang, Woottichai; Collins, Intira Jeannie; Pusamang, Artit; Leechanachai, Pranee; Chaivooth, Suchada; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Samleerat, Tanawan

    2016-06-01

    Early infant diagnosis of HIV is crucial for timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infected children who are at high risk of mortality. Early infant diagnosis with dried blood spot testing was provided by the National AIDS Programme in Thailand from 2007. We report ART initiation and vital status in children with HIV after 7 years of rollout in Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected from HIV-exposed children in hospitals in Thailand and mailed to the Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, where HIV DNA was assessed with real-time PCR to establish HIV infection. We linked data from children with an HIV infection to the National AIDS Programme database to ascertain ART and vital status. Between April 5, 2007, and Oct 1, 2014, 16 046 dried blood spot samples were sent from 8859 children in 364 hospitals in Thailand. Median age at first dried blood spot test was 2·1 (IQR 1·8-2·5) months. Of 7174 (81%) children with two or more samples, 223 (3%) were HIV positive (including five unconfirmed). Of 1685 (19%) children with one sample, 70 (4%) were unconfirmed positive. Of 293 (3%) children who were HIV positive, 220 (75%) registered for HIV care and 170 (58%) initiated ART. Median age at ART initiation decreased from 14·2 months (IQR 10·2-25·6) in 2007 to 6·1 months (4·2-9·2) in 2013, and the number of children initiating ART aged younger than 1 year increased from five (33%) of 15 children initiating ART in 2007 to ten (83%) of 12 initiating ART in 2013. 15 (9%) of 170 children who initiated ART died and 16 (32%) of 50 who had no ART record died. Early infant diagnosis with dried blood spot testing had high uptake in primary care settings. Further improvement of linkage to HIV care is needed to ensure timely treatment of all children with an HIV infection. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  10. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  11. [The new concept of osteoporosis. Early diagnosis, prevention and therapy are possible today].

    PubMed

    Hesch, R D; Harms, H; Rittinghaus, E F; Brabant, G

    1990-04-15

    A paradigma of osteoporosis pathology is discussed, at the center of which is the hormone-related disturbance of the osteoblast/osteoclast functional unit. A liberal replacement of estrogen-gestagen in post-menopausal women is advocated. Early diagnosis with the aid of quantitative computed tomography makes it possible to establish the indication for timely hormonal treatment in the future, which can result in a measureable increase in bone mass. Late therapy, that is, treatment initiated after the occurrence of fractures, has proven largely ineffective.

  12. Technical report—Diagnosis and management of an initial UTI in febrile infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Finnell, S Maria E; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young children are clinically challenging. This report was developed to inform the revised, evidence-based, clinical guideline regarding the diagnosis and management of initial UTIs in febrile infants and young children, 2 to 24 months of age, from the American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection. The conceptual model presented in the 1999 technical report was updated after a comprehensive review of published literature. Studies with potentially new information or with evidence that reinforced the 1999 technical report were retained. Meta-analyses on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent recurrent UTI were performed. Review of recent literature revealed new evidence in the following areas. Certain clinical findings and new urinalysis methods can help clinicians identify febrile children at very low risk of UTI. Oral antimicrobial therapy is as effective as parenteral therapy in treating UTI. Data from published, randomized controlled trials do not support antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile UTI when vesicoureteral reflux is found through voiding cystourethrography. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract after the first UTI has poor sensitivity. Early antimicrobial treatment may decrease the risk of renal damage from UTI. Recent literature agrees with most of the evidence presented in the 1999 technical report, but meta-analyses of data from recent, randomized controlled trials do not support antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile UTI. This finding argues against voiding cystourethrography after the first UTI.

  13. Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Igarashi, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops. METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients

  14. Predictors of successful early infant diagnosis of HIV in a rural district hospital in Zambézia, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca E; Ciampa, Philip J; Sidat, Mohsin; Blevins, Meridith; Burlison, Janeen; Davidson, Mario A; Arroz, Jorge A; Vergara, Alfredo E; Vermund, Sten H; Moon, Troy D

    2011-04-01

    A key challenge inhibiting the timely initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment is the loss to follow-up of mothers and their infants between the time of mothers' HIV diagnoses in pregnancy and return after delivery for early infant diagnosis of HIV. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique. We determined follow-up rates for early infant diagnosis and age at first test in a retrospective cohort of 443 HIV-infected mothers and their infants. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful follow-up. Of the 443 mother-infant pairs, 217 (49%) mothers enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic, and only 110 (25%) infants were brought for early infant diagnosis. The predictors of follow-up for early infant diagnosis were larger household size (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.53), independent maternal source of income (OR, 10.8; 95% CI, 3.42-34.0), greater distance from the hospital (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.01-4.51), and maternal receipt of antiretroviral therapy (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.02-9.73). The median age at first test among 105 infants was 5 months (interquartile range, 2-7); 16% of the tested infants were infected. Three of four HIV-infected women in rural Mozambique did not bring their children for early infant HIV diagnosis. Maternal receipt of antiretroviral therapy has favorable implications for maternal health that will increase the likelihood of early infant diagnosis. We are working with local health authorities to improve the linkage of HIV-infected women to HIV care to maximize early infant diagnosis and care.

  15. Syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis as initial presentation of early neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Sócola, F E; López-Herrero, F; Medina-Tapia, A; Rueda-Rueda, T; Contreras-Díaz, M; Sánchez-Vicente, J L

    2017-10-01

    A 36 year-old male with a recent HIV diagnosis, presented with loss of vision of his left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion in the macula. After fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, syphilis serology, and cerebrospinal fluid results, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is a rare ocular manifestation of syphilis. All patients with characteristic clinical and angiographic findings of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis should be tested for a neurosyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Early treatment with intravenous penicillin is usually effective with good visual results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on cardiac function and rhythm in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Padala, Santosh K; Peaslee, Samuel; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Steckman, David A; Judson, Marc A

    2017-01-15

    There is limited data on the effect of corticosteroid therapy in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). We sought to examine the impact of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy, within a month of CS diagnosis, on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), and atrioventricular (AV) block. We retrospectively identified 30 CS patients from a large university sarcoidosis clinic. The effect of early initiation of corticosteroid therapy on LVEF was assessed by serial echocardiography, and on VAs and AV block was assessed by Holter monitoring and/or device interrogations. The median time from diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis to CS was 40months. 90% (27/30) of the CS patients received corticosteroid therapy and 85% percent (23/27) had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Fourteen patients (47%) had reduced EF<50%. 9/14 patients who had early initiation of corticosteroid therapy had improvement in mean EF (25% to 46%, P<0.001); 5/14 patients who had a delay in initiation or who did not receive corticosteroids had no improvement in mean EF (41% to 37%, P=0.47). Fourteen patients (47%) had VAs and 5 patients (17%) had advanced AV block. Early initiation of corticosteroid therapy resulted in no VA recurrences in 8/11 patients (72%), and complete recovery of AV conduction in 2/3 patients (67%). Patients with VAs (n=3) or advanced AV block (n=2) who failed to receive early corticosteroid therapy did not show improvement. There is often a delay in manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis for several years from the diagnosis of extra-cardiac sarcoidosis. Prompt initiation of corticosteroid therapy in CS patients may improve outcomes whereas delayed initiation of corticosteroids or failure to use corticosteroids may be associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  18. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  19. Comparison between presepsin and procalcitonin in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Agustin; Arthamin, Maimun Z; Indriana, Kristin; Anshory, Muhammad; Hur, Mina; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2018-05-09

    Neonatal sepsis remains worldwide one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both term and preterm infants. Lower mortality rates are related to timely diagnostic evaluation and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy. Blood culture, as gold standard examination for sepsis, has several limitations for early diagnosis, so that sepsis biomarkers could play an important role in this regard. This study was aimed to compare the value of the two biomarkers presepsin and procalcitonin in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed, in Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang, Indonesia, in 51 neonates that fulfill the criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with blood culture as diagnostic gold standard for sepsis. At reviewer operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, using a presepsin cutoff of 706,5 pg/mL, the obtained area under the curve (AUCs) were: sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 68.8%, positive predictive value = 85.7%, negative predictive value = 68.8%, positive likelihood ratio = 2.75, negative likelihood ratio = 0.21, and accuracy = 80.4%. On the other hand, with a procalcitonin cutoff value of 161.33 pg/mL the obtained AUCs showed: sensitivity = 68.6%, specificity = 62.5%, positive predictive value = 80%, negative predictive value = 47.6%, positive likelihood ratio = 1.83, the odds ratio negative = 0.5, and accuracy = 66.7%. In early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, compared with procalcitonin, presepsin seems to provide better early diagnostic value with consequent possible faster therapeutical decision making and possible positive impact on outcome of neonates.

  20. Use of MRI for the early diagnosis of masticatory muscle myositis.

    PubMed

    Cauduro, Alberto; Paolo, Favole; Asperio, Roberto M; Rossini, Valeria; Dondi, Maurizio; Simonetto, Lucia A; Cantile, Carlo; Lorenzo, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The medical records of two dogs that were diagnosed with masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) were reviewed. The reported clinical signs included intense pain when opening the mouth and restricted jaw movement. MRI detected widespread, symmetrical, and inhomogeneously hyperintense areas in the masticatory muscle. Electromyography (EMG) demonstrated severe and spontaneous pathologic activity in the temporal and masseter muscles. With early therapeutic treatment, remission of symptoms occurred within 2 mo, and no relapses were observed for the subsequent 2 yr. The gold standard for the diagnosis of MMM is the 2M antibody test, but the purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MRI as an accurate and efficient diagnostic tool for the initiation of early therapy for the treatment of muscle myositis.

  1. Multi-Domain Transfer Learning for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Shen, Dinggang; Li, Zuoyong; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2017-04-01

    Recently, transfer learning has been successfully applied in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) based on multi-domain data. However, most of existing methods only use data from a single auxiliary domain, and thus cannot utilize the intrinsic useful correlation information from multiple domains. Accordingly, in this paper, we consider the joint learning of tasks in multi-auxiliary domains and the target domain, and propose a novel Multi-Domain Transfer Learning (MDTL) framework for early diagnosis of AD. Specifically, the proposed MDTL framework consists of two key components: 1) a multi-domain transfer feature selection (MDTFS) model that selects the most informative feature subset from multi-domain data, and 2) a multi-domain transfer classification (MDTC) model that can identify disease status for early AD detection. We evaluate our method on 807 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The experimental results show that the proposed MDTL method can effectively utilize multi-auxiliary domain data for improving the learning performance in the target domain, compared with several state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Multi-Domain Transfer Learning for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Li, Zuoyong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, transfer learning has been successfully applied in early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) based on multi-domain data. However, most of existing methods only use data from a single auxiliary domain, and thus cannot utilize the intrinsic useful correlation information from multiple domains. Accordingly, in this paper, we consider the joint learning of tasks in multi-auxiliary domains and the target domain, and propose a novel Multi-Domain Transfer Learning (MDTL) framework for early diagnosis of AD. Specifically, the proposed MDTL framework consists of two key components: 1) a multi-domain transfer feature selection (MDTFS) model that selects the most informative feature subset from multi-domain data, and 2) a multidomain transfer classification (MDTC) model that can identify disease status for early AD detection. We evaluate our method on 807 subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The experimental results show that the proposed MDTL method can effectively utilize multi-auxiliary domain data for improving the learning performance in the target domain, compared with several state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27928657

  3. Parental divorce and initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Parental Divorce and Initiation of Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803

  5. How Persistent is a Diagnosis of Mathematical Disorder at an Early Age? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desoete, Annemmie; De Weerd, Frauke; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; De Bond, Annemie

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to look at differences between children who outgrew and did not outgrow an early diagnosis of mathematical learning disorder (MD; n=13), and peers without MD (n=13). Children were tested at 5, 6, 7 and 10 years of age. About 54% of the children with an early diagnosis of MD still experienced mathematical difficulties at the…

  6. [Vojta's method as the early neurodevelopmental diagnosis and therapy concept].

    PubMed

    Banaszek, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Vaclav Vojta (1917-2000) developed an early diagnostic method of the neurodevelopmental disorder of infants and came up with therapeutic concept consisting in releasing of global motor complexes by means of the stimulation of proper areas on patients body. In the diagnostics apart from very careful observation of the spontaneous movement of the infant and examination of the reflexes that are characteristic for the first weeks of human's life, Vojta applied the examination of the 7 postural reactions. Presence of the trouble in patterns and dynamics of the postural reactions Vojta called Central Nervous Coordination Disorder--CNCD and regarded as work diagnosis or alarm signal indicating necessity of application of the therapy, especially when asymmetry of the muscle tone and primitive reflexes beyond their physiological appearance period are observed or the number of the abnormal reactions exceeds 5. Global motor complexes as reflex locomotion--crawling and rotation--consist of all the partial motion patterns, which are gradually used by healthy infant in the process of postural and motor ontogenesis. Providing the central nervous system with proper external stimulation allows to, using neuronal plasticity, recreate an access to the human's postural development program and gradually replace pathological motor patterns by those more regular. Exercises repeated several times a day rebuilt support, erectile and vertical mechanisms, improve automatic postural control and phase lower limb movement. Affecting especially on autochtonic muscles of the spine exercises balance synergic cooperation of muscle groups in the trunk and those surrounding key body joints. This way they correct body's posture and peripheral motion and pathology of the outlasted primitive reflexes gradually withdraws.

  7. [Early diagnosis and early treatment for liver cancer in Qidong: survival of patients and effectiveness of screening].

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R

    2017-12-23

    Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B

  8. Colorectal Cancer Initial Diagnosis: Screening Colonoscopy, Diagnostic Colonoscopy, or Emergent Surgery, and Tumor Stage and Size at Initial Presentation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Courtney C; Mittal, Pardeep K; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rutherford, Robin; Staley, Charles A; Cardona, Kenneth; Hawk, Natalyn N; Dixon, W Thomas; Kitajima, Hiroumi D; Kang, Jian; Small, William C; Oshinski, John; Votaw, John R

    2016-03-01

    Rates of colorectal cancer screening are improving but remain suboptimal. Limited information is available regarding how patients are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (for example, asymptomatic screened patients or diagnostic workup because of the presence of symptoms). The purpose of this investigation was to determine how patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (screening colonoscopy, diagnostic colonoscopy, or emergent surgery) and tumor stage and size at diagnosis. Adults evaluated between 2011 and 2014 with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer were identified. Clinical notes, endoscopy reports, surgical reports, radiology reports, and pathology reports were reviewed. Sex, race, ethnicity, age at the time of initial diagnosis, method of diagnosis, presenting symptom(s), and primary tumor size and stage at diagnosis were recorded. Colorectal cancer screening history was also recorded. The study population was 54% male (265 of 492) with a mean age of 58.9 years (range, 25-93 years). Initial tissue diagnosis was established at the time of screening colonoscopy in 10.7%, diagnostic colonoscopy in 79.2%, and during emergent surgery in 7.1%. Cancers diagnosed at the time of screening colonoscopy were more likely to be stage 1 than cancers diagnosed at the time of diagnostic colonoscopy or emergent surgery (38.5%, 7.2%, and 0%, respectively). Median tumor size was 3.0 cm for the screening colonoscopy group, 4.6 cm for the diagnostic colonoscopy group, and 5.0 cm for the emergent surgery group. At least 31% of patients diagnosed at the time of screening colonoscopy, 19% of patients diagnosed at the time of diagnostic colonoscopy, and 26% of patients diagnosed at the time of emergent surgery had never undergone a screening colonoscopy. Nearly 90% of colorectal cancer patients were diagnosed after development of symptoms and had more advanced disease than asymptomatic screening patients. Colorectal cancer outcomes will be improved by improving rates of colorectal

  9. Impact of Early Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with Acute HIV Infection in Vienna, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Herout, Sandra; Mandorfer, Mattias; Breitenecker, Florian; Reiberger, Thomas; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Rieger, Armin; Aichelburg, Maximilian C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated during acute HIV infection. Most recent data provides evidence of benefits of early ART. Methods We retrospectively compared the clinical and immunological course of individuals with acute HIV infection, who received ART within 3 months (group A) or not (group B) after diagnosis. Results Among the 84 individuals with acute HIV infection, 57 (68%) received ART within 3 months (A) whereas 27 (32%) did not receive ART within 3 months (B), respectively. Clinical progression to CDC stadium B or C within 5 years after the diagnosis of HIV was less common in (A) when compared to (B) (P = 0.002). After twelve months, both the mean increase in CD4+ T cell count and the mean decrease in viral load was more pronounced in (A), when compared to (B) (225 vs. 87 cells/μl; P = 0.002 and -4.19 vs. -1.14 log10 copies/mL; P<0.001). Twenty-four months after diagnosis the mean increase from baseline of CD4+ T cells was still higher in group A compared to group B (251 vs. 67 cells/μl, P = 0.004). Conclusions Initiation of ART during acute HIV infection is associated with a lower probability of clinical progression to more advanced CDC stages and significant immunological benefits. PMID:27065239

  10. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    PubMed

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  11. Assessing Very Early Infant Diagnosis Turnaround Times: Findings from a Birth Testing Pilot in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heather J.; Mokone, Majoalane; Tukei, Vincent J.; Nchephe, Matsepeli; Phalatse, Mamakhetha; Tiam, Appolinaire; Guay, Laura; Mofenson, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Very early infant diagnosis (VEID) (testing within two weeks of life), combined with rapid treatment initiation, could reduce early infant mortality. Our study evaluated turnaround time (TAT) to receipt of infants' HIV test results and ART initiation if HIV-infected, with and without birth testing availability. Data from facility records and national databases were collected for 12 facilities offering VEID, as part of an observational prospective cohort study, and 10 noncohort facilities. HIV-exposed infants born in January–June 2016 and any cohort infant diagnosed as HIV-infected at birth or six weeks were included. The median TAT from blood draw to caregiver result receipt was 76.5 days at birth and 63 and 70 days at six weeks at cohort and noncohort facilities, respectively. HIV-exposed infants tested at birth were approximately one month younger when their caregivers received results versus those tested at six weeks. Infants diagnosed at birth initiated ART about two months earlier (median 6.4 weeks old) than those identified at six weeks (median 14.8 weeks). However, the long TAT for testing at both birth and six weeks illustrates the prolonged process for specimen transport and result return that could compromise the effectiveness of adding VEID to existing overburdened EID systems. PMID:29410914

  12. Developments in early diagnosis and therapy of HIV infection in newborns.

    PubMed

    Canals, Francisco; Masiá, Mar; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2018-01-01

    Infants who acquire HIV have an exceptionally high risk of morbidity and mortality if they do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on ART in HIV-infected neonates. Data were obtained from literature searches from PubMed, abstracts from International Conferences (2000-2017), and authors' files. Expert opinion: Current evidence favors early diagnosis and prompt ART of HIV infection in newborns. The precise timing of initiation of ART remains undetermined. Very early (close to birth) ART appears to limit the size of the viral reservoir and may restrict replication-competent virus, but the clinical benefit remains unproven. Among the current options for initial therapy, in full term neonates from 2 weeks of life onwards, a lopinavir/ritonavir-based three-drug regimen is preferred. In term infants, younger than 2 weeks a nevirapine-based regimen is recommended, although there are no clinical trial data supporting that initiating treatment before 2 weeks improves outcome compared to starting afterwards. Existing safety information is insufficient to recommend ART in preterm infants, with pharmacokinetic data available for zidovudine only. If ART is considered in this setting, an individual case assessment of the risk/benefit ratio of treatment should be made.

  13. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  14. Predictors of successful early infant diagnosis of HIV in a rural district hospital in Zambézia, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca E.; Ciampa, Philip J.; Sidat, Mohsin; Blevins, Meridith; Burlison, Janeen; Davidson, Mario A.; Arroz, Jorge A.; Vergara, Alfredo E.; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A key challenge inhibiting the timely initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment is the loss to follow-up of mothers and their infants between the time of mothers' HIV diagnoses in pregnancy and return after delivery for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. We sought to identify barriers to follow-up of HIV-exposed infants in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Methods We determined follow-up rates for early infant diagnosis and age at first test in a retrospective cohort of 443 HIV-infected mothers and their infants. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful follow-up. Results Of the 443 mother-infant pairs, 217 (49%) mothers enrolled in the adult HIV care clinic, and only 110 (25%) infants were brought for early infant diagnosis. The predictors of follow-up for EID were larger household size (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.53), independent maternal source of income (OR=10.8; 95% CI, 3.42-34.0), greater distance from the hospital (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.01-4.51) and maternal receipt of ART (OR=3.15; 95% CI, 1.02-9.73). The median age at first test among 105 infants was 5 months (interquartile range 2 to 7); 16% of the tested infants were infected. Conclusions Three of four HIV-infected women in rural Mozambique did not bring their children for early infant HIV diagnosis. Maternal receipt of ART has favorable implications for maternal health that will increase the likelihood of early infant diagnosis. We are working with local health authorities to improve the linkage of HIV-infected women to HIV care to maximize early infant diagnosis and care. PMID:21266912

  15. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D

    2017-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P < 0.0001). Although the first treatment varied across study centers (P < 0.0001), levetiracetam was the most commonly prescribed medication regardless of epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease based on salivary lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Carro, Eva; Bartolomé, Fernando; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Molina, José Antonio; Ortiz, Pablo; Calero, Miguel; Rabano, Alberto; Cantero, José Luis; Orive, Gorka

    2017-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) process is likely initiated many years before clinical onset. Biomarkers of preclinical disease are critical for the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies. Current biomarkers for early disease, including cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid β (Aβ) levels, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and the use of brain amyloid imaging, are limited because they are very invasive or expensive. Noninvasive biomarkers may be a more accessible alternative, but none can currently detect preclinical AD with the required sensitivity and specificity. Here, we show a novel, straight-forward, and noninvasive approach for assessment of early stages of cognitive decline. Salivary samples from cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD, and neurology controls were analyzed. We have discovered and validated a new single saliva biomarker, lactoferrin, which in our cross-sectional investigation perfectly discriminates clinically diagnosed aMCI and AD patients from a cognitively healthy control group. The accuracy for AD diagnosis shown by salivary lactoferrin was greater than that obtained from core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including total tau and CSF Aβ 42 . Furthermore, salivary lactoferrin can be used for population screening and for identifying those underdiagnosed subjects with very early stages of mild cognitive impairment and AD. This biomarker may offer new insights in the early diagnostics for AD.

  17. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Christian; Cerasa, Antonio; Battista, Petronilla; Gilardi, Maria C; Quattrone, Aldo; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as to lessen the time and cost of clinical trials. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-related biomarkers have been recently identified by the use of machine learning methods for the in vivo differential diagnosis of AD. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging papers investigating this topic are focused on the difference between AD and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), not considering the impact of MCI patients who will (MCIc) or not convert (MCInc) to AD. Morphological T1-weighted MRIs of 137 AD, 76 MCIc, 134 MCInc, and 162 healthy controls (CN) selected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohort, were used by an optimized machine learning algorithm. Voxels influencing the classification between these AD-related pre-clinical phases involved hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal ganglia, gyrus rectus, precuneus, and cerebellum, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. Classification accuracy was 76% AD vs. CN, 72% MCIc vs. CN, 66% MCIc vs. MCInc (nested 20-fold cross validation). Our data encourage the application of computer-based diagnosis in clinical practice of AD opening new prospective in the early management of AD patients.

  19. Early Psoriatic Arthritis Versus Early Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis: Role of Dermoscopy Combined with Ultrasonography for Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zabotti, Alen; Errichetti, Enzo; Zuliani, Francesca; Quartuccio, Luca; Sacco, Stefania; Stinco, Giuseppe; De Vita, Salvatore

    2018-05-01

    Exclusion of psoriatic skin/nail lesions is important in differentiating early seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) from early polyarticular psoriatic arthritis (EPsA) and such manifestations may go unnoticed in atypical or minimally expressed cases. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation in highlighting dermatological lesions missed on rheumatological examination and to investigate the role of ultrasonography (US) and dermoscopy in improving the recognition of subclinical psoriatic findings. Patients with a new diagnosis of seropositive or seronegative ERA and EPsA with prevalent hands involvement were recruited. All were reassessed for the presence of psoriatic lesions during an integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation and underwent hands US and proximal nailfold dermoscopy. Seventy-three consecutive subjects were included in the study: 25 with seropositive ERA, 23 with seronegative ERA, and 25 with EPsA. One-fourth of the subjects initially diagnosed as seronegative ERA presented cutaneous or nail psoriasis on integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation, thereby being reclassified as EPsA. The presence of at least 1 extrasynovial feature on hand US and dotted vessels on proximal nailfold dermoscopy was significantly associated with EPsA, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and 96.0% and a specificity of 88.1% and 83.3% for US and dermoscopy, respectively. When used together, specificity for PsA diagnosis raised to 90.5%. Integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation may be helpful in identifying patients with EPsA misclassified as seronegative ERA. Additionally, US and dermoscopy may be used as supportive tools in identifying subclinical psoriatic features, which may come in handy in distinguishing EPsA from ERA.

  20. Initial cognitive decline is associated with cortical thinning in early Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Svenningsson, Per; Weintraub, Daniel; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Lebedev, Alexander; Westman, Eric; Aarsland, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to assess cortical thickness in a large multicenter cohort of drug-naive patients with early Parkinson disease (PD), with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and explore the cognitive correlates of regional cortical thinning. Methods: One hundred twenty-three newly diagnosed patients with PD and 56 healthy controls with 3-tesla structural MRI scans and complete neuropsychological assessment from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative were included. Modified Movement Disorders Society Task Force level II criteria were applied to diagnose MCI in PD. FreeSurfer image processing and analysis software was used to measure cortical thickness across groups and the association with cognitive domains and tests. Results: In patients with MCI, atrophy was found in temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital areas compared with controls. Specific regional thinning in the right inferior temporal cortex was also found in cognitively normal patients. Memory, executive, and visuospatial performance was associated with temporoparietal and superior frontal thinning, suggesting a relationship between cognitive impairment and both anterior and posterior cortical atrophy in the whole patient sample. Conclusions: These findings confirm that MCI is associated with widespread cortical atrophy. In addition, they suggest that regional cortical thinning is already present at the time of diagnosis in patients with early, untreated PD who do not meet the criteria for MCI. Together, the results indicate that cortical thinning can serve as a marker for initial cognitive decline in early PD. PMID:24808018

  1. Mapping patients' experiences from initial symptoms to gout diagnosis: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jennifer; Roddy, Edward; Mallen, Christian D; Hider, Samantha L; Prinjha, Suman; Ziebland, Sue; Richardson, Jane C

    2015-09-14

    To explore patients' experiences from initial symptoms to receiving a diagnosis of gout. Data from in-depth semistructured interviews were used to construct themes to describe key features of patients' experiences of gout diagnosis. A maximum variation sample of 43 UK patients with gout (29 men; 14 women; age range 32-87 years) were recruited from general practices, rheumatology clinics, gout support groups and through online advertising. Severe joint pain, combined with no obvious signs of physical trauma or knowledge of injury, caused confusion for patients attempting to interpret their symptoms. Reasons for delayed consultation included self-diagnosis and/or self-medication, reluctance to seek medical attention, and financial/work pressures. Factors potentially contributing to delayed diagnosis after consultation included reported misdiagnosis, attacks in joints other than the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and female gender. The limitations in using serum uric acid (SUA) levels for diagnostic purposes were not always communicated effectively to patients, and led to uncertainty and lack of confidence in the accuracy of the diagnosis. Resistance to the diagnosis occurred in response to patients' beliefs about the causes of gout and characteristics of the people likely to be affected. Diagnosis prompted actions, such as changes in diet, and evidence was found of self-monitoring of SUA levels. This study is the first to report data specifically about patients' pathways to initial consultation and subsequent experiences of gout diagnosis. A more targeted approach to information provision at diagnosis would improve patients' experiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Computational Intelligence in Early Diabetes Diagnosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research. PMID:21713313

  3. Computational intelligence in early diabetes diagnosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S

    2010-01-01

    The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research.

  4. Immunological diagnosis as an adjunctive tool for an early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis of an immune competent child in a low tuberculosis endemic country: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vita, Serena; Ajassa, Camilla; Caraffa, Emanuela; Lichtner, Miriam; Mascia, Claudia; Mengoni, Fabio; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Di Biasi, Claudio; Ciardi, Rosa Maria; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2017-03-13

    Pediatric tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment saves lives, in fact delays in the initiation of therapy have been associated with high mortality rates. This is a case of an Italian child who was diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis after a history of a month of headache, fatigue and weight loss. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis with predominance and decreased glucose concentration. Microscopy and conventional diagnostic tests to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative, while a non classical method based on intracellular cytokine flow cytometry response of CD4 cells in cerebral spinal fluid helped us to address the diagnosis, that was subsequently confirmed by a nested polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 123 base pair fragment of the M. tuberculosis DNA. We diagnosed tuberculous meningitis at an early stage through an innovative immunological approach, supported by a nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of M. tuberculosis DNA. An early diagnosis is required in order to promptly initiate a therapy and to increase the patient's survival.

  5. [Access barriers in early diagnosis of breast cancer in the Federal District and Oaxaca].

    PubMed

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Caballero, Marta; González-Robledo, Luz María

    2009-01-01

    To identify social, cultural and health service barriers that prevent timely access to early detection of breast cancer in two regions: Mexico City Federal District and the state of Oaxaca. An exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study was carried out in 2008 among women under 25 years of age without pathology, with pathological diagnosis, their male partners and managers of several public and private institutions. Information was collected by focus groups and through interviews that were recorded and transcribed after having received informed consent. Initial exploration allowed the identification of access barriers in three main areas: a) the availability of information for the general population, b) training of first-contact general practitioners and gynecologists, and c) fears among couples and families. Barriers in the three levels identified are relevant as they reveal important deficiencies in the dissemination of information both to the general population and to health providers.

  6. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973

  7. Screening and validation of serum protein biomarkers for early postmenopausal osteoporosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Hu, Ya-Qian; Zhao, Zhuo-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Gao, Bo; Lu, Wei-Guang; Xu, Xiao-Long; Lin, Xi-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Peng; Jie, Qiang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Yang, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most prominent worldwide public health problems and the morbidity is increasing with the aging population. It has been demonstrated that early diagnosis and intervention delay the disease progression and improve the outcome. Therefore, searching for biomarkers that are able to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for developing osteoporosis is an effective way to improve the quality of life of patients, and alleviate social and economic burdens. In the present study, a protein array was used to identify potential biomarkers. The bone mineral densities of 10 rats were dynamically measured in an ovariectomized model by micro‑computed tomography assessment, and the early stage of osteoporosis was defined. Through the protein array‑based screening, the expression levels of six serum protein biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were observed to alter at the initiation stage of the postmenopausal osteoporosis. Fractalkine, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‑1 and monocyte chemotactic protein‑1 were finally demonstrated to be increased in the serum of eight enrolled postmenopausal osteoporosis patients using ELISA assay and were correlated with the severity of progressive bone loss. These biomarkers may be explored as potential early biomarkers to readily evaluate and diagnose postmenopausal osteoporosis in the clinic.

  8. Self-Initiated Health Behaviors Following a Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Gillian H.; Garand, Linda I.; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the health related activities that patients self-initiate after being diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Fifty-three persons with MCI were queried regarding health related activity changes made as a direct result of the MCI diagnosis, excluding activities which a) they were performing prior to their diagnosis, or b) were formally recommended by a clinician. Qualitative description was used to analyze responses. Most participants (62%) reported initiating one or more health related activities. The activities fell into three distinct categories: behaviors that were symptom driven (e.g., cognitive exercises), health promoting (e.g., dietary changes), or general increases in activity level. Activities reported by this sample encompassed many practices for which there is limited evidence for a potential impact on the clinical course of MCI. However, findings provide insight into the types of interventions that may be most attractive to those living with an MCI diagnosis. PMID:21928756

  9. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17-243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4-122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18-3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63-5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31-0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify underlying symptoms and offer appropriate treatment sooner

  10. Evaluation of Prostate Cancer with 11C- and 18F-Choline PET/CT: Diagnosis and Initial Staging.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Sascha; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Heuschkel, Martin; Dräger, Desiree; Hildebrandt, Guido; Krause, Bernd J; Schwarzenböck, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis and adequate staging are crucial for the choice of adequate treatment in prostate cancer (PC). Morphologic and functional imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI, have had limited accuracy in the diagnosis and nodal staging of PC. Molecular PET/CT imaging with 11 C- or 18 F-choline-labeled derivatives is increasingly being used, but its role in the diagnosis and initial staging of PC is controversial because of limitations in sensitivity and specificity for the detection of primary PC. For T staging, functional MRI is superior to 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT. For N staging, 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT can provide potentially useful information that may influence treatment planning. For the detection of bone metastases, 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT has had promising results; however, in terms of cost-effectiveness, the routine use of 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT is still debatable. 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT might be used in high-risk PC before radiation treatment planning, potentially affecting this planning (e.g., regarding dose escalation). This review provides an overview of the diagnostic accuracy and limitations of 11 C- or 18 F-choline PET/CT in the diagnosis and staging of PC. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. [Clinical relevant procedures for early pregnancy diagnosis in the mare].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Sieme, H; Bartmann, C-P; Handler, J; Sobiraj, A; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    This review describes stepwise the recto-manual and transrectal ultrasonographic evidence of early pregnancy detection in the horse. The morphological and physiological conditions in the individual phases of early pregnancy are presented in correlation to the potential clinical findings. The importance of embryonic and early foetal losses is presented. Communication and documentation of findings are also addressed. The final section is devoted to the evaluation of the examination effort. In this regard, it is emphasized that the gynaecological examination for the evaluation of the pregnancy status represents a service contract.

  12. Endoscopic Management of Early Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Screening, Diagnosis, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Canto, Marcia I; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2018-01-01

    Because the esophagus is easily accessible with endoscopy, early diagnosis and curative treatment of esophageal cancer is possible. However, diagnosis is often delayed because symptoms are not specific during early stages of tumor development. The onset of dysphagia is associated with advanced disease, which has a survival at 5 years lower than 15%. Population screening by endoscopy is not cost-effective, but a number of alternative imaging and cell analysis technologies are under investigation. The ideal screening test should be inexpensive, well tolerated, and applicable to primary care. Over the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of dysplasia (squamous and Barrett's), and early esophageal cancer using resection and ablation technologies supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials. We review the state-of-the-art technologies for early diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment, which together could reduce the burden of disease. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    1 AD _________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate...DATES COVERED 15 Jul 2015 - 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer...the expression level of deregulated miRNAs in mouse and human PCa tissues as well as serum samples using an advanced nanotechnology -based sensing

  14. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis: Current Procedures and Implications for Early Interventionists Working with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Patricia M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an overview of procedures commonly used in prenatal screening and diagnosis including ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. Emphasis is on the role of the early interventionist in supporting families during prenatal diagnosis. (Author/DB)

  16. Amyloid imaging with PET in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2013-05-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) with positron emission tomography has moved from the research arena into clinical practice. Clinicians working with cognitive decline and dementia must become familiar with its benefits and limitations. Amyloid imaging allows earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and better differential diagnosis of dementia and provides prognostic information for mild cognitive impairment. It also has an increasingly important role in therapeutic trial recruitment and for evaluation of anti-Aβ treatments. Longitudinal observations are required to elucidate the role of Aβ deposition in the course of Alzheimer disease and provide information needed to fully use the prognostic power of this investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. George Papanicolaou's Efforts to Develop Novel Cytologic Methods for the Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Austin, R Marshall

    2017-01-01

    Toward the end of his career, Dr. George Papanicolaou became interested in human endometrial explants placed into tissue culture. The initial focus of his studies was on phagocytic cells emanating from endometrial explants and their role in cleansing the uterine cavity after each menstrual cycle and in sterilizing the uterine cavity in the face of infection. Papanicolaou also observed that growth rates of explanted normal and pathologic endometrial tissues differed considerably. Explants of endometrial malignancies exhibited not only increased growth rates but also visible proliferation of cells with readily identifiable cytologic features of malignancy. Acknowledging that cytologic screening for early diagnosis of intrauterine malignancies had up to that point not proven to be reliable as screening for cervical cancer, he hoped that the tissue culture explant technique could prove to be a new adjunctive diagnostic method for the diagnosis of endometrial and other female genital tract malignancies not readily detectible by other diagnostic procedures. Papanicolaou's untimely death in 1962 cut short his progress in this area of study. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Initial diagnosis of small lymphocytic lymphoma in parotidectomy for Warthin tumour, a rare collision tumour

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A; Memauri, B; Hasegawa, W

    2005-01-01

    Warthin tumours (WT) and malignant lymphomas are only rarely associated, and most are examples of involvement of the lymphoid stroma of WT by a disseminated lymphoma. This report describes a case where excision of a parotid mass led to the initial diagnosis of WT and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The diagnosis of SLL was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. The patient had stage IV A disease and is currently in chemotherapy induced complete remission. This case highlights the extremely rare association of SLL with WT and the importance of evaluation of the WT stroma, where the pale proliferation centres of SLL may mimic germinal centres of reactive lymphoid nodules. PMID:15735173

  19. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  20. Redefining Leadership: Lessons from an Early Education Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…

  1. Early diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Bahiri; El Zorkany, Bassel; Youseif, Ehab; Tikly, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype for spondyloarthritis primarily affecting young men. Geographic and ethnic variations exist in the prevalence and severity of AS and relate to the wide disparity in the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, a major genetic risk factor. The strength of the disease association with HLA-B27 is lower in most Arab populations (25-75 %) than in Western European populations (>90 %), and there is no association in sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of HLA-B27 is <1 %. Other epidemiologic differences between European and African populations are the apparent later age at presentation in sub-Saharan Africa, and the high rate of spondyloarthropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosis of AS is often delayed 8-10 years; potential reasons for the delay in Africa and the Middle East include low awareness among physicians and patients, the requirement for radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis for diagnosis, and limited access to magnetic resonance imaging in some countries. Treatment should be initiated early to prevent or reduce skeletal deformity and physical disability. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective first-line treatment and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs are indicated for patients who have an inadequate response to first-line therapy. In Africa and the Middle East, such treatments may be precluded either by cost or contraindicated because of the high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection. Research is sorely needed to develop cost-effective tools to diagnose AS early as well as effective, inexpensive, and safe treatments for these developing regions.

  2. Noninvasive diagnosis of early caries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    There is no diagnostic technology presently available utilizing non-ionizing radiation that can image the state of demineralization of dental enamel in vivo for the detection, characterization and monitoring of early, incipient caries lesions. In this study, a Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) system was evaluated for its potential for the non-invasive diagnosis of early carious lesions. We demonstrated clear discrimination in PS-OCT imags between regions of normal and demineralized enamel in bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. Moreover, high-resolution, cross- sectional images were acquired that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions of extracted human teeth. Regions that appeared to be demineralized in the PS- OCT imags were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the state of polarization of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. The demineralized regions of enamel have a large scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This initial study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions.

  3. [Heterotopic ossification spinal cord injury. Management through early diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Maier, D

    2005-02-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a frequent and potentially disastrous complication of acute spinal cord injury. Pathogenesis and etiology are not well described, initial clinical symptoms are uncharacteristic, specific laboratory findings do not exist. Between March 1997 and May 2000 all 290 patients admitted to our facility with acute spinal cord injury underwent standardized sonographic examinations of the soft tissue around the hip joint every three weeks, starting as early as two weeks after injury. In 12% of the patient population characteristic sonographic findings for heterotopic ossification were present while the regular x-ray examination was still unremarkable. Laboratory findings (alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, anorganic phosphate) were unspecific. Clinical findings were present only in a few patients. All patients underwent radiotherapy consisting of the administration of 5 times 3 Gy to the area as soon as possible. Follow up demonstrated no progression of the heterotopic bone formation in these cases. In conclusion, regular ultrasound examination proved to be a secure, fast and reproducible method for the very early diagnosis of heterotopic ossification after acute spinal cord injury.

  4. [Echographic diagnosis of missed early miscarriage: Assessment of image quality].

    PubMed

    Barthes, C; Mezan De Malartic, C; Baumann, C; Rousseaux, H; Morel, O

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound examination plays a central role in case of suspected non-viable pregnancy. A wrong diagnosis might have major consequence in terms of inadequate care, especially in cases of false positive non-viable pregnancy diagnosis. Ultrasound criterions are today well defined. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel image-quoting method of first-trimester non-viable pregnancy. Thirty images of non-viable pregnancy were twice evaluated with blinded proofreading. Two quotations were evaluated: the first for the images of gestational sacs without embryo (gestational sac score), the second for the images with embryo (embryo score). The ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) was>0.75 for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility both for the quotations of the gestational sac and for the embryo with a low variability. Reproducibility of quoting crown rump length measurements <5mm was low at first proofreading but after adjustment of the quoting modalities, ICC was also>0.75. The inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of our quoting methods is high with a low variability. They might be a useful tool in current practice in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Economic evaluation od the value of early diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism in hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Lenne, X; Allenet, B; Laurent, P; Lebrun, T; Wemeau, J L

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the economic consequences of the early screening and management for overt hypothyrodism in elderly women suffering from hypercholesterolaemia. A cost analysis was performed using screening decision tree followed by a Markov model, targeted on an hypothetical cohort of elderly women (i.e. > or = 55 years of age) suffering from hypercholesterolaemia. Two arms were compared, "no diagnosis", patients being treated by lipid lowering drugs in the long run, "diagnosis", patients being screened for thyroid disturbance and proposed adequate correction by hormone treatment. Relevant clinical data introduced into the model were obtained from published data and from experts. At the end of the initial diagnostic, patients could enter three different health states: euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism or overt hypothyroidism. During 30 years, patients were assumed to be seen each year by a general practitioner for clinical examination and cholesterol dosage, plus, according to the health state evolution, TSH and T4 screening. In the baseline analysis, euthyroidian patients who had a inexplicable degradation of hypercholesterolaemia control were tested for TSH and, if abnormal, T4 serum; for subclinical hypothyroidian patients, TSH and T4 were measured every year. The direct costs taken into account were concerning medical supervision, drug treatment and biologic exams. Costs were analysed from the societal perspective and were expressed in 1998 French Francs (FF) with an accounting rate of 5% by year. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. The total cost at 30-year was equal to 25,006 F for "diagnosis" strategy, to 24,390 F for "no diagnosis" strategy. The incremental cost of the first strategy decreased according to the time horizon. It was 6.8% at 5-year and 2.5% at 30-year. Results were sensitive to variation in response rate of hypercholesterolaemic patients to hormone treatment of hypothyroidism (0.25 in base-case). The investment

  6. Help-seeking intentions for early dementia diagnosis in a sample of Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Devoy, Susan; Simpson, Ellen Elizabeth Anne

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that may increase intentions to seek help for an early dementia diagnosis. Early dementia diagnosis in Ireland is low, reducing the opportunity for intervention, which can delay progression, reduce psychological distress and increase social supports. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and a mixed methods approach, three focus groups were conducted (N = 22) to illicit attitudes and beliefs about help seeking for an early dementia diagnosis. The findings informed the development of the Help Seeking Intentions for Early Dementia Diagnosis (HSIEDD) questionnaire which was piloted and then administered to a sample of community dwelling adults from Dublin and Kildare (N = 95). Content analysis revealed participants held knowledge of the symptoms of dementia but not about available interventions. Facilitators of help seeking were family, friends and peers alongside well informed health professionals. Barriers to seeking help were a lack of knowledge, fear, loss, stigma and inaccessible services. The quantitative findings suggest the TPB constructs account for almost 28% of the variance in intentions to seek help for an early diagnosis of dementia, after controlling for sociodemographic variables and knowledge of dementia. In the final step of the regression analysis, the main predictors of help seeking were knowledge of dementia and subjective norm, accounting for 6% and 8% of the variance, respectively. Future interventions should aim to increase awareness of the support available to those experiencing early memory problems, and should highlight the supportive role that family, friends, peers and health professionals could provide.

  7. Early prenatal diagnosis of a lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai

    2018-04-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.

  8. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Marquez-Gonzalez, Horacio; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases.

  9. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Methods: Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. Results: In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. Conclusions: The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases. PMID:26019380

  10. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  11. Breast self-examination: importance of technique in early diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, T G; Coldman, A J; Skippen, D H

    1984-01-01

    Shortly after diagnosis of breast cancer 416 patients were interviewed about their use of screening procedures and the method of tumour detection. Although 72% reported that they performed breast self-examination (BSE), only 12% actually inspected and palpated their breasts monthly. BSE was not significantly associated with tumour size or involvement of the lymph nodes; however, thorough inspection was associated with smaller tumours, and careful palpation with the absence of palpable nodes. Of those who no longer or never had examined their breasts 40% reported having annual breast examinations by their physician and had significantly smaller tumours than did the others. Most of the women (86%) reported having detected their own tumours, and BSE did not significantly increase the likelihood of self-detection. The frequency of use of screening procedures was similar in a sample of women without breast cancer. PMID:6498686

  12. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    PubMed

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  13. Pulsar perimetry in the diagnosis of early glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Zeppieri, Marco; Brusini, Paolo; Parisi, Lucia; Johnson, Chris A; Sampaolesi, Roberto; Salvetat, Maria Letizia

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of Pulsar perimetry (Pulsar) in detecting early glaucomatous visual field (VF) damage in comparison with Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT), Scanning Laser Polarimetry (SLP, GDx VCC), and Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT). Prospective observational cross-sectional case study. This multicenter study included: 87 ocular hypertensives (OHT); 67 glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) patients; 75 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients; and 90 normals. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) HFA 30-2, Pulsar T30W, FDT N-30, HRT II, and GDx VCC. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AROCs) for discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes and agreement among instruments were determined. The best parameters for Pulsar, FDT, HRT, and GDx were, respectively: loss variance square root; no. of areas with P< 5%; Cup-Shape-Measure; and Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI). In detecting POAG eyes, Pulsar (AROC, 0.90) appeared comparable with FDT (0.89) and significantly better than HRT (0.82) and GDx (0.79). For GON, Pulsar ability (0.74) was higher than GDx (0.69) and lower than FDT (0.80) and HRT (0.83). The agreement among instruments ranged from 0.12 to 0.56. Pulsar test duration was significantly shorter than SAP and FDT (P< .001). Pulsar T30W test is a rapid and easy perimetric method, showing higher sensitivity than SAP in detecting early glaucomatous VF loss. Its diagnostic ability is good for detecting early perimetric POAG eyes and fair for GON eyes. Pulsar performance was comparable with FDT, HRT, and GDx, even if the agreement between instruments was poor to fair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illig, David C.

    A survey of school districts was conducted to determine the initial progress and problems associated with the 1997 Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. Data reveal that most school districts had enough space for smaller classes for at least two grade levels; small school districts were much less likely to report space constraints. The CSR did…

  15. [Early prenatal diagnosis of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins].

    PubMed

    Picaud, A; Nlome-Nze, A R; Engongha-Beka, T; Ogowet-Igumu, N

    1990-06-01

    The authors summarize the case of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins diagnosed at 22 weeks of pregnancy by ultrasonography performed because of hydramnios. The rate of separation anomalies of monozygotic twins is assessed by a review of the literature: from 1 to twenty to fifty thousands for joined twins to 1 per cent fifty thousand to fifteen millions for diprosopus. The etiology is the result of a late division of the egg between D12 and D16. Often an encephalic diprosopic joined twins cause elevated levels of maternal serum alpha protein. Early ultrasonography permits to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  16. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  17. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear grade and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    De Lena, M; Barletta, A; Marzullo, F; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Romero, A; Perez, J; Lacava, J; Cuevas, M A; Rodriguez, R; Schittulli, F; Paradisco, A

    1996-01-01

    The presence of early metastases to distant sites in breast cancer patients is an infrequent event whose mechanisms are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic and clinical role of DNA ploidy and cell nuclear grade of primary tumors in the metastatic process of a series of stage IV previously untreated breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases. DNA flow cytometry analysis on paraffin-embedded material and cell nuclear grading of primary tumors was performed on a series of 50 breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Aneuploidy was found in 28/46 (61%) of evaluable cases and was independent of site of involvement, clinical response, time of progression and overall survival of patients. Of the 46 cases evaluable for nuclear grade, 5 (11%), 16 (35%) and 25 (54%) were classified as G1 (well-differentiated) G2 and G3, respectively. Nuclear grade also was unrelated to response to therapy and overall survival, whereas time to progression was significantly longer in G1-2 than G3 tumors with the logrank test (P < 0.03) and multivariate analysis. Our results seem to stress the difficulty to individualize different prognostic subsets from a series of breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis according to DNA flow cytometry and nuclear grade.

  19. CSF N-glycoproteomics for early diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Palmigiano, Angelo; Barone, Rita; Sturiale, Luisa; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Bua, Rosaria Ornella; Romeo, Donata Agata; Messina, Angela; Capuana, Maria Luisa; Maci, Tiziana; Le Pira, Francesco; Zappia, Mario; Garozzo, Domenico

    2016-01-10

    This work aims at exploring the human CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) N-glycome by MALDI MS techniques, in order to assess specific glycosylation pattern(s) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n:24) and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n:11), these last as potential AD patients at a pre-dementia stage. For comparison, 21 healthy controls were studied. We identified a group of AD and MCI subjects (about 40-50% of the studied sample) showing significant alteration of CSF N-glycome profiling, consisting of a decrease in the overall sialylation degree and an increase in species bearing bisecting GlcNAc. Noteworthy, all the MCI patients that converted to AD within the clinical follow-up, had an abnormal CSF glycosylation profile. Based on the studied cohort, CSF glycosylation changes may occur before an AD clinical onset. Previous studies specifically focused on the key role of glycosyltransferase GnT-III on AD-pathogenesis, addressing the patho-mechanism to specific sugar modification of BACE-1 glycoprotein with bisecting GlcNAc. Our patients addressed protein N-glycosylation changes at an early phase of the whole biomolecular misregulation on AD, pointing to CSF N-glycome analyses as promising tool to enhance early detection of AD and also suggesting alternative therapeutics target molecules, such as specific glyco-enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early diagnosis of orthopedic implant failure using macromolecular imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Dusad, Anand; Zhang, Yijia; Purdue, P Edward; Fehringer, Edward V; Garvin, Kevin L; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong

    2014-08-01

    To develop and evaluate diagnostic tools for early detection of wear particle-induced orthopaedic implant loosening. N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer was tagged with a near infrared dye and used to detect the inflammation induced by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a murine peri-implant osteolysis model. It was established by inserting an implant into the distal femur and challenging with routine PMMA particles infusion. The osteolysis was evaluated by micro-CT and histological analysis at different time points. Significant peri-implant osteolysis was found 3-month post PMMA particle challenge by micro-CT and histological analysis. At 1-month post challenge, when there was no significant peri-implant bone loss, the HPMA copolymer-near infrared dye conjugate was found to specifically target the femur with PMMA particles deposition, but not the contralateral control femur with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) infusion. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the macromolecular diagnostic agent to detect particle-induced peri-implant inflammation prior to the development of detectable osteolysis. Recognition of this early pathological event would provide the window of opportunity for prevention of peri-implant osteolysis and subsequent orthopaedic implant failure.

  1. Photo diagnosis of early pre cancer (LSIL) in genital tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Andersen-Engels, S.; Auksorius, E.; Bendsoe, N.; Gavriushin, V.; Gustafsson, U.; Oyama, J.; Palsson, S.; Soto Thompson, M.; Stenram, U.; Svanberg, K.; Viliunas, V.; De Weert, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.

  2. Chlamydia testing and diagnosis following initiation of long-acting reversible contraception: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sally B; Garrett, Susan M; Stanley, James; Pullon, Susan R H

    2017-12-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) effectively protects against pregnancy but provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To compare rates of chlamydia testing and diagnosis for women initiating long-acting versus oral contraception. Retrospective cohort study involving data collection for 6160 women initiating post-abortion contraception at a large New Zealand regional public hospital abortion clinic (2009-2012), with chlamydia testing data obtained from the local laboratory during two-year follow up. Negative binomial regression modelling examined the effect of contraceptive method on two outcome measures: chlamydia testing and chlamydia diagnosis (adjusting for potential covariates of age, ethnicity, past chlamydia infection, pregnancy history) in year one and two of follow up. Two thousand seven hundred and twenty nine women (44%) received a LARC and 1764 (28.6%) were prescribed oral contraception. Adjusted testing rates differed by contraceptive method only in year one (P < 0.01): with higher rates among copper intrauterine device users (relative risk (RR) 1.2, 95% CI 1.06-1.35), and lower rates for implant users (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.99) compared with oral contraceptive users (reference group). No significant differences were observed in chlamydia diagnosis rates by contraceptive method (P > 0.05). Younger age, past chlamydia infection, Maori and Pacific ethnicity were associated with higher rates of chlamydia diagnosis (P < 0.01). Known STI-related risk factors (age, ethnicity, past infection) but not contraceptive method were independently related to rates of subsequent chlamydia diagnosis. This suggests that increased LARC uptake would not occur at the expense of chlamydia control. Regular screening and risk reduction advice (including condom use) are important chlamydia control measures for at-risk groups. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in primary health care setting: eight year cohort analysis from district Faridabad, Haryana, North India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Shashi; Singh, Arvind K; Parmeshwaran, Giridara G; Haldar, Partha; Malhotra, Sumit; Kaur, Ravneet

    2017-01-01

    Delay in initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment may have a tremendous impact on disease transmission, development of drug resistance, poor outcome and overall survival of TB patients. The delay can occur at various levels. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis is mostly due to health system failure and has immense programmatic implications. It has not been studied extensively in the Indian setting. The authors did a cohort analysis of all TB patients initiated on treatment from two primary health centres (PHCs) at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System between January 2007 and December 2014. Diagnosis and treatment of TB in the study area was done as per the protocol envisaged in the national program. Information related to demography, details of diagnosis and treatment of TB and outcome of treatment were extracted from the TB register. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis was considered if the gap between diagnosis and treatment was greater than 7 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to find the association of various factors with delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis. Out of 885 patients, 662 patients started treatment for pulmonary TB. Mean time interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 8.95 days. Only 57.7% of pulmonary TB patients were started on treatment within 7 days of diagnosis, and an additional 24.5% were started on treatment 8-14 days after diagnosis. Patients on retreatment regimens and those residing in villages without a PHC were more likely to have delayed initiation of treatment (odds ratio (OR)=1.82 (1.3-2.7, p=0.001) and OR=1.62 (1.1-2.5, p=0.01) respectively). Delay in initiation of treatment was also associated with unfavourable treatment outcome such as default, failure or death. There is a need to have healthcare changes related to TB care to enable initiation of treatment as early as possible. Pretreatment counselling especially for retreatment

  4. Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats Anders; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012) presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals. PMID:23459124

  5. Understanding the link between early sexual initiation and later sexually transmitted infection: test and replication in two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Haggerty, Kevin P; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    Age at sexual initiation is strongly associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI); yet, prevention programs aiming to delay sexual initiation have shown mixed results in reducing STI. This study tested three explanatory mechanisms for the relationship between early sexual debut and STI: number of sexual partners, individual characteristics, and environmental antecedents. A test-and-replicate strategy was employed using two longitudinal studies: the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) and Raising Healthy Children (RHC). Childhood measures included pubertal age, behavioral disinhibition, and family, school, and peer influences. Alcohol use and age of sexual debut were measured during adolescence. Lifetime number of sexual partners and having sex under the influence were measured during young adulthood. Sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was self-reported at age 24. Early sex was defined as debut at <15 years. Path models were developed in SSDP evaluating relationships between measures, and were then tested in RHC. The relationship between early sex and STI was fully mediated by lifetime sex partners in SSDP, but only partially in RHC, after accounting for co-occurring factors. Behavioral disinhibition predicted early sex, early alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and sex under the influence, but had no direct effect on STI. Family management protected against early sex and early alcohol use, whereas antisocial peers exacerbated the risk. Early sexual initiation, a key mediator of STI, is driven by antecedents that influence multiple risk behaviors. Targeting co-occurring individual and environmental factors may be more effective than discouraging early sexual debut and may concomitantly improve other risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Sex Work Initiation and Violence against Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.

  7. Becoming the Denigrated Other: Group Relations Perspectives on Initial Reactions to a Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    The initial reactions to a bipolar disorder diagnosis of research participants in a small, qualitative study consisted of astonishment, dread of being “mad,” and extremely negative associations. All had prior mental health diagnoses, including episodes of severe depression (all but one) and alcoholism (one). All participants reported mental health histories prediagnosis and most had spent years contending with mental health labels, medications, symptoms, and hospitalizations. In addition, most participants were highly educated health professionals, quite familiar with the behaviors that the medical system considered to comprise bipolar disorder. Their negative associations to the initial bipolar disorder diagnosis, therefore, appeared inconsistent with their mental health histories and professional knowledge. This article contextualizes these initial reactions of shock and distress and proposes interpretations of these findings from societal and psychodynamic group relations perspectives. The participants’ initial negative reactions are conceptualized as involving the terror of being transported from the group of “normal” people into the group of “mad” or “crazy” people, i.e., people with mental illnesses, who may constitute a societal “denigrated other.” PMID:23049521

  8. Genetic Testing Confirmed the Early Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kok Siong; Sng, Andrew Anjian; Ho, Cindy Weili; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome (PHEX) have been causally associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR). The early diagnosis of XLHR in infants is challenging when it is based solely on clinical features and biochemical findings. We report a 7-month-old boy with a family history of hypophosphatemic rickets., who demonstrated early clinical evidence of rickets, although serial biochemical findings could not definitively confirm rickets. A sequencing assay targeting the PHEX gene was first performed on the mother’s DNA to screen for mutations in the 5′UTR, 22 coding exons, and the exon-intron junctions. Targeted mutation analysis and mRNA studies were subsequently performed on the boys’ DNA to investigate the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Genetic screening of the PHEX gene revealed a novel mutation, c.1080-2A>C, at the splice acceptor site in intron 9. The detection of an aberrant mRNA transcript with skipped (loss of) exon 10 establishes its pathogenicity and confirms the diagnosis of XLHR in this infant. Genetic testing of the PHEX gene resulted in early diagnosis of XLHR, thus enabling initiation of therapy and prevention of progressive rachitic changes in the infant. PMID:26904698

  9. Retinal nerve fiber layer reflectance for early glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Milner, Thomas E; Markey, Mia K; McKinnon, Stuart J; Rylander, Henry G

    2014-01-01

    Compare performance of normalized reflectance index (NRI) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) parameters determined from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images for glaucoma and glaucoma suspect diagnosis. Seventy-five eyes from 71 human subjects were studied: 33 controls, 24 glaucomatous, and 18 glaucoma-suspects. RNFLT and NRI maps were measured using 2 custom-built OCT systems and the commercial instrument RTVue. Using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, RNFLT and NRI measured in 7 RNFL locations were analyzed to distinguish between control, glaucomatous, and glaucoma-suspect eyes. The mean NRI of the control group was significantly larger than the means of glaucomatous and glaucoma-suspect groups in most RNFL locations for all 3 OCT systems (P<0.05 for all comparisons). NRI performs significantly better than RNFLT at distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes using RTVue OCT (P=0.008). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucoma-suspect versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable for PS-OCT-EIA (P=0.101) and PS-OCT-DEC (P=0.227). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucomatous versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable (PS-OCT-EIA: P=0.379; PS-OCT-DEC: P=0.338; RTVue OCT: P=0.877). NRI is a promising measure for distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes and may indicate disease in the preperimetric stage. Results of this pilot clinical study warrant a larger study to confirm the diagnostic power of NRI for diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma.

  10. Early Childhood Mentoring Programs: A Survey of Community Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan

    Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…

  11. African American women's experiences with the initial discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G

    2001-04-01

    To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.

  12. [Possible Significance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cytology at Initial Diagnosis and Follow-up of Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Grünewaldt, A; Hügel, C; Hermann, E; Wagner, T O F

    2017-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] is an important procedure in the diagnosis of a variety of lung diseases. While it has enormous value in the diagnostics of inflammatory parenchymal diseases, its significance in lung cancer is unclear. Keeping in mind that immune therapy (e. g. application of checkpoint inhibitors) is gaining importance in the management of lung carcinoma, it is important to know if there are typical cellular patterns in BAL of lung cancer patients. Methods  In a retrospective proof of principle-study, we analyzed 38 patients who underwent BAL at the initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Results  We observed an elevated level of CD25 lymphocytes as well as an increased expression of DR antigen, both signaling lymphocyte activation. We could not find a typical cytologic pattern of inflammatory cells in lung carcinoma patients. Sensitivity of BAL to malignant cells was rare, thus confirming earlier analysis. Conclusion  We could not demonstrate typical cellular patterns in BAL of lung cancer patients. Evaluation of specific microRNA patterns might play a supporting role in the initial diagnosis as well as follow-up of lung cancer patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Early diagnosis of post-varicella necrotising fasciitis: A medical and surgical emergency

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Rose; Abraham, Bobby; Cherian, Vinod Jacob; Joseph, Jobin I.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely rare complication of a rather common paediatric viral exanthem varicella. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Laboratory risk indicator of NF score aids in early clinical diagnosis in suspected cases of post-varicella NF thus enabling timely intervention. Surgery delayed for more than 24 hours, is an independent risk factor for death. Surgical debridement with good antibiotic coverage is the definitive treatment for NF. PMID:27251524

  14. Infant vocalizations and the early diagnosis of severe hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Eilers, R E; Oller, D K

    1994-02-01

    To determine whether late onset of canonical babbling could be used as a criterion to determine risk of hearing impairment, we obtained vocalization samples longitudinally from 94 infants with normal hearing and 37 infants with severe to profound hearing impairment. Parents were instructed to report the onset of canonical babbling (the production of well-formed syllables such as "da," "na," "bee," "yaya"). Verification that the infants were producing canonical syllables was collected in laboratory audio recordings. Infants with normal hearing produced canonical vocalizations before 11 months of age (range, 3 to 10 months; mode, 7 months); infants who were deaf failed to produce canonical syllables until 11 months of age or older, often well into the third year of life (range, 11 to 49 months; mode, 24 months). The correlation between age at onset of the canonical stage and age at auditory amplification was 0.68, indicating that early identification and fitting of hearing aids is of significant benefit to infants learning language. The fact that there is no overlap in the distribution of the onset of canonical babbling between infants with normal hearing and infants with hearing impairment means that the failure of otherwise healthy infants to produce canonical syllables before 11 months of age should be considered a serious risk factor for hearing impairment and, when observed, should result in immediate referral for audiologic evaluation.

  15. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-07-01

    Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. Methods In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. Results The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. Conclusions In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. PMID:25908835

  17. Monitoring Procalcitonin in Febrile Neutropenia: What Is Its Utility for Initial Diagnosis of Infection and Reassessment in Persistent Fever?

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Frank; Knaup, Marlies; Calandra, Thierry; Marchetti, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Background Management of febrile neutropenic episodes (FE) is challenged by lacking microbiological and clinical documentation of infection. We aimed at evaluating the utility of monitoring blood procalcitonin (PCT) in FE for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever. Methods PCT kinetics was prospectively monitored in 194 consecutive FE (1771 blood samples): 65 microbiologically documented infections (MDI, 33.5%; 49 due to non-coagulase-negative staphylococci, non-CNS), 68 clinically documented infections (CDI, 35%; 39 deep-seated), and 61 fever of unexplained origin (FUO, 31.5%). Results At fever onset median PCT was 190 pg/mL (range 30–26'800), without significant difference among MDI, CDI and FUO. PCT peak occurred on day 2 after onset of fever: non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI (656, 80–86350) vs. FUO (205, 33–771; p<0.001). PCT >500 pg/mL distinguished non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI from FUO with 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PCT was >500 pg/ml in only 10% of FUO (688, 570–771). A PCT peak >500 pg/mL (1196, 524–11950) occurred beyond 3 days of persistent fever in 17/21 (81%) invasive fungal diseases (IFD). This late PCT peak identified IFD with 81% sensitivity and 57% specificity and preceded diagnosis according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 41% of cases. In IFD responding to therapy, median days to PCT <500 pg/mL and defervescence were 5 (1–23) vs. 10 (3–22; p = 0.026), respectively. Conclusion While procalcitonin is not useful for diagnosis of infection at onset of neutropenic fever, it may help to distinguish a minority of potentially severe infections among FUOs on day 2 after onset of fever. In persistent fever monitoring procalcitonin contributes to early diagnosis and follow-up of invasive mycoses. PMID:21541027

  18. Monitoring procalcitonin in febrile neutropenia: what is its utility for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever?

    PubMed

    Robinson, James Owen; Lamoth, Frédéric; Bally, Frank; Knaup, Marlies; Calandra, Thierry; Marchetti, Oscar

    2011-04-25

    Management of febrile neutropenic episodes (FE) is challenged by lacking microbiological and clinical documentation of infection. We aimed at evaluating the utility of monitoring blood procalcitonin (PCT) in FE for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever. PCT kinetics was prospectively monitored in 194 consecutive FE (1771 blood samples): 65 microbiologically documented infections (MDI, 33.5%; 49 due to non-coagulase-negative staphylococci, non-CNS), 68 clinically documented infections (CDI, 35%; 39 deep-seated), and 61 fever of unexplained origin (FUO, 31.5%). At fever onset median PCT was 190 pg/mL (range 30-26'800), without significant difference among MDI, CDI and FUO. PCT peak occurred on day 2 after onset of fever: non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI (656, 80-86350) vs. FUO (205, 33-771; p<0.001). PCT >500 pg/mL distinguished non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI from FUO with 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PCT was >500 pg/ml in only 10% of FUO (688, 570-771). A PCT peak >500 pg/mL (1196, 524-11950) occurred beyond 3 days of persistent fever in 17/21 (81%) invasive fungal diseases (IFD). This late PCT peak identified IFD with 81% sensitivity and 57% specificity and preceded diagnosis according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 41% of cases. In IFD responding to therapy, median days to PCT <500 pg/mL and defervescence were 5 (1-23) vs. 10 (3-22; p = 0.026), respectively. While procalcitonin is not useful for diagnosis of infection at onset of neutropenic fever, it may help to distinguish a minority of potentially severe infections among FUOs on day 2 after onset of fever. In persistent fever monitoring procalcitonin contributes to early diagnosis and follow-up of invasive mycoses.

  19. Ethnic Differences in Family Factors Related to Early Drug Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    CATALANO, RICHARD F.; MORRISON, DIANE M.; WELLS, ELIZABETH A.; GILLMORE, MARY R.; IRITANI, BONITA; HAWKINS, J. DAVID

    2007-01-01

    The literature on family predictors of substance use for the general population is reviewed and compared to findings for three specific ethnic groups: black, white and Asian-Americans. Rates of substance use initiation are examined in a sample of 919 urban 5th-grade students. Ethnic differences on measures of family predictors are examined and significant ethnic differences are found on several of these factors. Finally, separate regressions for black, white and Asian American youths of family factors on the variety of substances initiated examine ethnic similarities and differences in predictors. The results demonstrate significant differences by ethnicity in family management practices, involvement in family activity, sibling deviance, parental disapproval of children's drinking and family structure. The regression equations identified unique as well as common predictors of the variety of substances initiated by the end of 5th grade. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:1285743

  20. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  1. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  2. Long-Term Consequences of Early Sexual Initiation on Young Adult Health: A Causal Inference Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Kari C.; Vasilenko, Sara A.; Butera, Nicole M.; Coffman, Donna L.

    2017-01-01

    Although early sexual initiation has been linked to negative outcomes, it is unknown whether these effects are causal. In this study, we use propensity score methods to estimate the causal effect of early sexual initiation on young adult sexual risk behaviors and health outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to…

  3. Early diagnosis and care is achieved but should be improved in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bar, Céline; Diene, Gwenaelle; Molinas, Catherine; Bieth, Eric; Casper, Charlotte; Tauber, Maithé

    2017-06-28

    PWS is a severe neurodevelopmental genetic disorder now usually diagnosed in the neonatal period from hypotonia and feeding difficulties. Our study analyzed the birth incidence and care of infants with early diagnosis. Data were collected on 61 infants with a molecular diagnosis of PWS born in 2012 and 2013 in France. Thirty-eight infants with PWS were born in 2013. The median age at diagnosis was 18 days. Birth incidence calculated for 2013 was 1/21,000 births. No case was diagnosed prenatally, despite 9 amniocenteses, including 4 for polyhydramnios. Five infants had delayed diagnosis, after 3 months of life. For 2 of them, the diagnosis was not suspected at birth and for 3, FISH analysis in the neonatal period was normal, with no further molecular studies. Ninety-three percent of the neonates were hospitalized, and 84% needed nasogastric tube feeding for a median of 38 days. Swallowing assessment was performed for 45%, at a median age of 10 days. Physiotherapy was started for 76% during hospitalization. Eighty percent of those diagnosed within the first 3 months were seen by a pediatric endocrinologist within the first week of life. Our study is the first to assess the birth incidence of PWS in France, at 1/21,000 births. Some prenatal or neonatal cases remain undiagnosed because of unrecognized clinical signs and the inappropriate choice of the initial molecular test. We also underscore the need to optimize neonatal care of infants with PWS.

  4. Diagnosis and prognosis of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Gu, Wei; Hou, Yanyan

    2017-11-07

    To explore the gestational age of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) of pregnancy, and to analyze the relationship between the clinical biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes in order to arrive at a reasonable diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment. This is a retrospective clinical study. We selected 47,260 pregnant women who received prenatal care and underwent childbirth at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University from January 2014 to December 2016 for participating in this study. Of these 47,260 women, 407 developed ICP. To calculate the gestational week cutoff between early- and late-onset ICP by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index. Two independent samples t tests and chi square test were used to compare the differences in biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. We found that 34 weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. Early-onset ICP is characterized by early onset, long disease duration and a higher incidence of preterm labor, fetal distress, and fetal low birth weight compared to late-onset ICP. Thirty-four weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. And to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases of early-onset ICP, we suggest prolonging gestation up to 37 weeks as far as possible before selecting iatrogenic birth.

  5. [The place of neuropathy in the early diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome: Report on two siblings].

    PubMed

    Blin-Rochemaure, N; Allani-Essid, N; Carlier, R; Laugel, V; Quijano-Roy, S

    2017-04-01

    Two siblings affected with Cockayne syndrome (CS) are described: this diagnosis was suggested by the finding of a demyelinating neuropathy on electromyography in both children and consistent clinical features. CS is a rare genetic disorder with severe prognosis and a highly varied phenotype, making early diagnosis difficult. Taking into account these two cases and the literature, the current diagnosis criteria are insufficiently specific and appear late: the diagnosis may be delayed because multi-organ involvement and sensorial impairment suggests more frequent neurometabolic disorders. Neuroradiologic abnormalities are suggestive but may occur later. The finding of a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy seems to be a more useful marker to suspect this disorder in the presence of other clinical features. Further studies are required to better define the chronology of the symptoms, not only for adequate genetic counseling and eventual prenatal diagnosis, but also to assess the efficacy of future therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Subdivision of Genesis Early Science Polished Aluminum Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.; Meshik, A.; See, T. H.; Bastien, R.

    2005-01-01

    A large surface, about 245 square centimeters, of highly polished aluminum 6061 T6 alloy was attached to the science canister thermal panel for the purpose of collecting solar wind noble gases. The analysis of this collector will be part of the Genesis Early Science results. The pre-launch configuration of the collector is shown. The collector sustained some damage during the recovery impact in Utah, September 8, 2004.

  7. Infection Control for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Early Diagnosis and Treatment Is the Key

    PubMed Central

    van Cutsem, Gilles; Isaakidis, Petros; Farley, Jason; Nardell, Ed; Volchenkov, Grigory; Cox, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, “Ebola with wings,” is a significant threat to tuberculosis control efforts. Previous prevailing views that resistance was mainly acquired through poor treatment led to decades of focus on drug-sensitive rather than drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis, driven by the World Health Organization's directly observed therapy, short course strategy. The paradigm has shifted toward recognition that most DR tuberculosis is transmitted and that there is a need for increased efforts to control DR tuberculosis. Yet most people with DR tuberculosis are untested and untreated, driving transmission in the community and in health systems in high-burden settings. The risk of nosocomial transmission is high for patients and staff alike. Lowering transmission risk for MDR tuberculosis requires a combination approach centered on rapid identification of active tuberculosis disease and tuberculosis drug resistance, followed by rapid initiation of appropriate treatment and adherence support, complemented by universal tuberculosis infection control measures in healthcare facilities. It also requires a second paradigm shift, from the classic infection control hierarchy to a novel, decentralized approach across the continuum from early diagnosis and treatment to community awareness and support. A massive scale-up of rapid diagnosis and treatment is necessary to control the MDR tuberculosis epidemic. This will not be possible without intense efforts toward the implementation of decentralized, ambulatory models of care. Increasing political will and resources need to be accompanied by a paradigm shift. Instead of focusing on diagnosed cases, recognition that transmission is driven largely by undiagnosed, untreated cases, both in the community and in healthcare settings, is necessary. This article discusses this comprehensive approach, strategies available, and associated challenges. PMID:27118853

  8. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Method Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). Results The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17–243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4–122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18–3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63–5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33–0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31–0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Conclusions Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify

  9. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred; Emery, Sean; Grund, Birgit; Sharma, Shweta; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Cooper, David A; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Llibre, Josep M; Molina, Jean-Michel; Munderi, Paula; Schechter, Mauro; Wood, Robin; Klingman, Karin L; Collins, Simon; Lane, H Clifford; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D

    2015-08-27

    Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. We randomly assigned HIV-positive adults who had a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter to start antiretroviral therapy immediately (immediate-initiation group) or to defer it until the CD4+ count decreased to 350 cells per cubic millimeter or until the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or another condition that dictated the use of antiretroviral therapy (deferred-initiation group). The primary composite end point was any serious AIDS-related event, serious non-AIDS-related event, or death from any cause. A total of 4685 patients were followed for a mean of 3.0 years. At study entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients in the deferred-initiation group be offered antiretroviral therapy. The primary end point occurred in 42 patients in the immediate-initiation group (1.8%; 0.60 events per 100 person-years), as compared with 96 patients in the deferred-initiation group (4.1%; 1.38 events per 100 person-years), for a hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.62; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for serious AIDS-related and serious non-AIDS-related events were 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.50; P<0.001) and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.97; P=0.04), respectively. More than two thirds of the primary end points (68%) occurred in patients with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter. The risks of a grade 4 event were similar in the two groups, as were the risks of unscheduled hospital admissions. The initiation of

  10. [Influence of depression on the initial diagnosis and the evolution of cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Cenalmor-Aparicio, C; Bravo-Quelle, N; Miranda-Acuna, J; Luque-Buzo, E; Herrera-Tejedor, J; Olazaran-Rodriguez, J

    2017-07-16

    Depression and cognitive impairment maintain a close and complex relationship, which could be modified by pharmacological treatment. To analyze the influence of depression and antidepressive medication on the initial diagnosis and the evolution of cognitive impairment. All the patients derived to a Neurology clinic due to complaints or suspicion of cognitive impairment, during a period of nine years, were studied. The influence of demographic and depression-related variables on initial cognitive diagnosis, cognitive-functional situation and 1-year evolution were analyzed. A total of 582 patients were included (mean age: 77.6 ± 7.0; 64.9% women). Frequency of current and past depression were, respectively, 25.4% and 17.2%. In addition, 20.6% of the patients were taking antidepressant medication and 31.2% were on anxiolytic/hypnotic treatment. One-year follow-up visit was available in 320 (59.8%) of patients. In the adjusted analysis, anxiolytic/hypnotic treatment was associated with a worse cognitive-functional situation in the initial visit, while past depression and presence of dystimia were associated with a favorable evolution (p < 0.05). Past or current depression are not associated with bad prognosis in patients derived to neurologist due to possible cognitive impairment.

  11. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study and Evaluability Assessment. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  12. Nanotheranostics: Emerging Strategies for Early Diagnosis and Therapy of Brain Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sonali; Viswanadh, Matte Kasi; Singh, Rahul Pratap; Agrawal, Poornima; Mehata, Abhishesh Kumar; Pawde, Datta Maroti; Narendra; Sonkar, Roshan; Muthu, Madaswamy Sona

    2018-01-01

    Nanotheranostics have demonstrated the development of advanced platforms that can diagnose brain cancer at early stages, initiate first-line therapy, monitor it, and if needed, rapidly start subsequent treatments. In brain nanotheranostics, therapeutic as well as diagnostic entities are loaded in a single nanoplatform, which can be further developed as a clinical formulation for targeting various modes of brain cancer. In the present review, we concerned about theranostic nanosystems established till now in the research field. These include gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, quantum dots, polymeric nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, solid lipid nanoparticles and dendrimers for the advanced detection and treatment of brain cancer with advanced features. Also, we included the role of three-dimensional models of the BBB and cancer stem cell concept for the advanced characterization of nanotheranostic systems for the unification of diagnosis and treatment of brain cancer. In future, brain nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized treatment which can make brain cancer even remediable or at least treatable at the primary stages. PMID:29291164

  13. Women's accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2014-12-01

    As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men's reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women's help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women's accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. The women's accounts featured masculine practices associated with men's help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and 'normal' life. Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women's help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Importance of Early Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis in Patients with Complete Atrioventricular Block.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Toyoji; Inomata, Takayuki; Minami, Yoshiyasu; Yazaki, Mayu; Fujita, Teppei; Iida, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuki; Nabeta, Takeru; Ishii, Shunsuke; Naruke, Takashi; Maekawa, Emi; Koitabashi, Toshimi; Ako, Junya

    2018-05-23

    Our aim is to clarify the factors for early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) in patients with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and its impact on cardiac function after corticosteroid therapy.A total of 15 CS patients with CAVB who underwent corticosteroid therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time from the first CAVB onset to the diagnosis of CS. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the early diagnosis group (within 1 year; group E, n = 10) and the late diagnosis group (over 1 year; group L, n = 5).The history of extracardiac sarcoidosis (60 versus 0%, P = 0.0440) and abnormal findings on echocardiography (70 versus 0%, P = 0.0256) at the CAVB onset were significantly more frequent in group E than in group L. The change of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels was significantly better in group E than in group L (0.8 ± 2.8 versus -32.4 ± 3.9%, P < 0.0001; -11.1 ± 16.0 versus 161.8 ± 35.8 pg/mL, P = 0.0013, respectively). After corticosteroid therapy, the LVEF and BNP levels were also significantly better in group E than in group L (53.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.0 ± 9.3%, P = 0.0128; 63.0 ± 46.4 versus 458.8 ± 352.0 pg/mL, P = 0.0027).The diagnosis may be delayed in CS patients with CAVB without history of extracardiac sarcoidosis. Abnormal findings on echocardiography contributed to the early diagnosis of CS. Therefore, the diagnosis of CS may be missed or delayed in patients without them. Time delay from the CAVB onset to the CS diagnosis may exacerbate the cardiac function.

  15. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  16. Acquired initiating mutations in early hematopoietic cells of CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  18. Extensive intramuscular manifestation of sarcoidosis with initially missed diagnosis and delayed therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Niklaus; Sutter, Reto; Schirp, Udo; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disorder, which in nearly all cases involves the lungs and other organs. Isolated forms of sarcoidosis within the muscles, but without lung involvement, are extremely rare and can lead to delayed or even false diagnosis. A 52-year-old white, Swiss man presented with painful arm cramps and a history of symptoms over the previous 3 years. In the initial clinical investigation, our patient also showed edema in both legs without any other complaints. After performing an magnetic resonance imaging scan of his extremities and a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan, diffuse myositis was described. The subsequent muscle biopsy provided the surprising diagnosis of muscle sarcoidosis, without involvement of the lungs or any other organ. After starting therapy with glucocorticoids, his symptoms improved immediately. Sarcoidosis is a common disorder, which in most cases affects the lungs. In this case report an isolated sarcoidosis is described without lung involvement, but with involvement of the muscles of the extremities and the trunk. Reported cases of sarcoidosis only involving skeletal muscle and without lung involvement are extremely rare. Radiologists should consider this presentation of sarcoidosis to avoid delayed diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Novel blood-based microRNA biomarker panel for early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Lei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Dan; Lin, Jin-Huan; Liao, Zhuan; Ji, Jun-Tao; Du, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of pancreas. Early diagnosis will improve the prognosis of patients. This study aimed to obtain serum miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of CP. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) of CP patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and the DEmiRs in plasma of early CP patients (n = 10) from clinic by miRNA microarrays. Expression levels of DEmiRs were further tested in clinical samples including early CP patients (n = 20), late CP patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 18). The primary endpoints were area under curve (AUC) and expression levels of DEmiRs. Four DEmiRs (hsa-miR-320a-d) were obtained from GEO CP, meanwhile two (hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a) were identified as distinct biomarkers of early CP by miRNA microarrays. When applied on clinical serum samples, hsa-miR-320a-d were accurate in predicting late CP, while hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a were accurate in predicting early CP with AUC of 100.0% and 87.5%. Our study indicates that miRNA expression profile is different in early and late CP. Hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a are biomarkers of early CP, and the panel of the above 6 serum miRNAs has the potential to be applied clinically for early diagnosis of CP. PMID:28074846

  20. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  1. Can cognitive assessment really discriminate early stages of Alzheimer's and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia at initial clinical presentation?

    PubMed

    Reul, Sophia; Lohmann, Hubertus; Wiendl, Heinz; Duning, Thomas; Johnen, Andreas

    2017-08-09

    Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD. In a retrospective approach, we evaluated and compared how cognitive profiles assessed at initial clinical presentation predicted the diagnosis of later verified AD (n = 43) and bvFTD (n = 26). Additionally, the neuropsychological standard domains memory, language, visuospatial skills, executive functions, praxis and social cognition were subjected to stepwise discriminant analysis to compare their differential contribution to diagnosis. Regardless of diagnosis, a percentage of patients presented with major deterioration in a wide range of cognitive domains when compared with age-matched normative data. Only few significant differences were detected on the group level: Patients with AD were relatively more impaired in the verbal recall, verbal recognition, figure copy, and surprisingly in the executive subdomains, set shifting and processing speed whereas bvFTD was characterised by more deficits in imitation of face postures. A combination of tests for verbal recall, imitation of limb and face postures, and figure copy showed the greatest discriminatory power. Our results imply that the contribution of a standard neuropsychological assessment is limited for differential diagnosis of AD and bvFTD at initial presentation. In contrast to current clinical guidelines, executive functions are neither particularly nor exclusively impaired in patients with bvFTD when assessed within a standard clinical neuropsychological test battery. The significant overlap of bvFTD and AD

  2. The Sepsis Early Recognition and Response Initiative (SERRI)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen L.; Ashton, Carol M.; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Pinn, Teresa T.; Tran, Shirley K.; Nicolas, Juan C.; Rose, Alexis L.; Shirkey, Beverly A.; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Wray, Nelda P.

    2016-01-01

    Duration of Initiative 48 months and currently ongoing. Setting The Houston Methodist Hospital System and affiliated hospitals (3 facilities with 2 hospital-run skilled nursing facilities in and around Houston), St. Joseph’s Regional Health Center (1 acute care hospital and 2 skilled nursing facilities in Bryan, Texas), Hospital Corporation of America (2 acute care facilities in Houston, 1 acute care facility in McAllen, Texas [Rio Grande Valley]), Kindred Healthcare (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston), Select Medical Specialty Hospitals (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston). Whom This Should Concern Hospital administrators, quality and safety officers, performance improvement and patient safety professionals, clinic managers, infection control and prevention staff, and other physicians, nurses, and clinical staff. PMID:26892701

  3. Pregnancy outcomes in women with an early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feghali, Maisa N; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Comer, Diane M; Caritis, Steve; Catov, Janet M; Scifres, Christina M

    2018-04-01

    To examine pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the timing of diagnosis. We compared demographics, blood sugars and outcomes between women diagnosed before (n = 167) or after 24 weeks' gestation (n = 1202) in a single hospital between 2009 and 2012. Because early screening is risk-based we used propensity score modelling and conditional logistic regression to account for systematic differences. Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks were more likely to be obese and they were less likely to have excess gestational weight gain (35 vs. 45%, p = 0.04). Early diagnosis was associated with more frequent therapy including glyburide (65 vs. 56%, p < 0.001) and insulin (19 vs 6%, p < 0.001). After propensity score modelling and accounting for covariates, early diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2, 95% 1-4.15, p = 0.0498). Early diagnosis was not associated with other adverse outcomes. In a subgroup analysis comparing women treated with glyburide prior to 24 weeks compared to those diagnosed after 24 weeks, early diagnosis in women treated with glyburide was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.4, P = 0.04). Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks have unique features, are at risk for adverse outcomes, and require targeted approaches to therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Macro-level age norms for the timing of sexual initiation and adolescents' early sexual initiation in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092) and the 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n = 27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16 years) self-reported age at sexual initiation, which we defined as early (<15 years) or not early (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR .60, 95% CI .45-.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65 years) norms (AOR .37, 95% CI .23-.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20 years) norms (AOR .60, 95% CI .49-.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR .68, 95% CI .46-.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR .66, 95% CI .45-.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys' ESI. Macrolevel cultural norms may impact adolescents' sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jinsong; Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows thatmore » automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.« less

  6. Clinical impact of early diagnosis of autism on the prognosis and parent-child relationships.

    PubMed

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Kreider, Consuelo Maun; Brasher, Susan N; Ansell, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child. A growing body of evidence supports the value of early diagnosis and treatment with evidence-based interventions, which can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD as well as of their carers and families. Particularly noteworthy are early interventions that occur in natural surroundings and can be modified to address age-related goals throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1) provide readers with a brief background related to ASD; 2) describe commonly used screening instruments and tools for early diagnosis; 3) describe early interventions that have empirical support; and 4) discuss how the parent-child and family relationships can be affected through this process. This information can provide professionals with information they can use to assist families who make critical and potentially life-changing decisions for children with ASD.

  7. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Pablo M; Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-06-30

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes.

  8. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  9. Implementation and assessment of a fast-track programme to improve communication between primary and specialized care in patients with suspected cancer: how to shorten time between initial symptoms of cancer, diagnosis and initiation of treatment.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M T; González, I; Tarazona, N; Roselló, S; Saiz, R; Sanmartín, A; Martínez-Agulló, Á; Caballero, A; Mas, P; Franco, J; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J; García-Callejo, J; Martín, V; Navarro, J; Teruel, A; Lluch, A; Chirivella, I

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to asses a cancer fast-track programme (CFP) to shorten the time since a patient with suspicion of cancer is referred by the primary care (PC) physician to the specialized medical team. Guidelines for main suspected tumours were designed to help PC physicians to detect and rapidly refer cases to the CFP oncology coordinator, who sent them to the appropriate department to accelerate diagnosis, staging and therapy. All patients analysed in this report were referred from June 2009 to July 2012. A total of 897 suspected cancer cases were submitted and finally 705 were studied. In 205 (29 %) a cancer diagnosis was confirmed within 23 days (median). Therapy was initiated within 46 days after referral (median). Early diagnoses with a potential curative approach were made in 166 (82 %). This CFP decreased the waiting time for cancer diagnosis, by improving communication between PC physician and specialized care teams. Most patients included in this program could get therapy with curative intent.

  10. Use of the initial trauma CT scan to aid in diagnosis of open pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Scolaro, John A; Wilson, David J; Routt, Milton Lee Chip; Firoozabadi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    Open pelvic disruptions represent high-energy injuries. The prompt identification and management of these injuries decreases their associated morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) scans are routinely obtained in the initial evaluation of patients with pelvic injuries. The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence and source of air densities noted on computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdominal and pelvic region in patients with pelvic fractures and evaluate the use of initial CT imaging as an adjunctive diagnostic tool to identify open injuries. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed at a single institution. Seven hundred and twenty-two consecutive patients with a pelvic disruption over a two-year period were included. Review of initial injury CT scans was performed using bone and lung viewing algorithms to identify the presence of extra-luminal air. The primary outcome was the presence, location and source of air identified on pre-operative CT scans. Secondary measurements were identification of air by plain radiograph and correlation between identified air densities on CT and clinically diagnosed open pelvic fractures. Ninety-eight patients were identified as having extra-luminal air densities on CT scans. Eighty-one patients were included in the final analysis following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Air was noted by the radiologist in forty-five (55.6%) instances. Six patients (7.4%) were clinically diagnosed with an open pelvic ring disruption; in two patients (2.4%) this diagnosis was delayed. In all patients, the CT was able to track air from its origin. In patients with pelvic disruptions, the injury CT should also be evaluated for the presence and source of extra-luminal air. In some patients, this finding may represent an open pelvic ring disruption. A complete physical exam and CT evaluation should be used to decrease the missed or delayed diagnosis of an open pelvic ring

  11. Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adulthood: Broadening the Scope Beyond Early Sexual Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  12. Malignancy during pregnancy in Japan: an exceptional opportunity for early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Tabata, Tsutomu; Sudo, Tamotsu; Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Matsuo, Koji; Grubbs, Brendan H; Enomoto, Takayuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2018-02-08

    Malignancy during pregnancy has become a significant cause of maternal death in developed countries, likely due to both an older pregnant population, and increases of cervical cancer in younger women. Our aim is to investigate the clinical aspects of malignancy during pregnancy in Japan and to use this information to identify opportunities for earlier detection and treatment. We provided a questionnaire to 1508 secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Japan. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of cases with malignancy during pregnancy for the period of January to December, 2008. From the 760 institutions which responded, we obtained clinical information for 227 unique cases. The questionnaire provided clinical information, including disease site, pregnancy outcome and how the disease was detected. The most common type of malignancy was cervical cancer (n = 162, 71.4%) followed by ovarian (n = 16, 7.0%) and breast cancer (n = 15, 6.6%). Leukemia (n = 7, 3.1%), colon cancer (n = 5, 2.2%), gastric cancer (n = 5, 2.2%), malignant lymphoma (n = 4, 1.8%), thyroid cancer (n = 3, 1.3%), brain cancer (n = 3, 1.3%), endometrial cancer (n = 2, 0.9%), and head and neck cancer (n = 2, 0.9%) accounted for the remaining cases. Overall, gynecological malignancies accounted for 79.3% (95% confidence interval 74.0-84.6) of pregnancy associated malignancies diagnosed in the present study. The majority of cervical cancers, 149 (92.0%) of 162, were diagnosed by a Pap (Papanicolaou) smear during early gestation. Ten (62.5%) of the ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed by ultrasonography during a prenatal checkup or at the time of initial pregnancy diagnosis. Out of 14 breast cancers, only one (7.1%) was diagnosed by screening breast exam. From this study, we reaffirm the clear and significant benefits of prenatal checkups starting at an early gestational age for the detection of gynecological cancers during pregnancy. Conversely, breast

  13. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Irfan; Sefvan, Omer; Luqman, Uzair; Ibrahim, Waseem; Mehmood, Sana; Alamgir, Wajiha

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings. OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32%). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III (24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention.

  14. Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease in the Oldest Old: Yes or No?

    PubMed

    Paolacci, Lucia; Giannandrea, David; Mecocci, Patrizia; Parnetti, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many efforts have been spent to identify sensitive biomarkers able to improve the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Two different workgroups (NIA-AA and IWG) included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging findings in their sets of criteria in order to improve diagnostic accuracy as well as early diagnosis. The number of subjects with cognitive impairment increases with aging but the oldest old (≥85 years of age), the fastest growing age group, is still the most unknown from a biological point of view. For this reason, the aim of our narrative mini-review is to evaluate the pertinence of the new criteria for AD diagnosis in the oldest old. Moreover, since different subgroups of oldest old have been described in scientific literature (escapers, delayers, survivors), we want to outline the clinical profile of the oldest old who could really benefit from the use of biomarkers for early diagnosis. Reviewing the literature on biomarkers included in the diagnostic criteria, we did not find a high degree of evidence for their use in the oldest old, although CSF biomarkers seem to be still the most useful for excluding AD diagnosis in the "fit" subgroup of oldest old subjects, due to the high negative predictive value maintained in this age group.

  15. The Potential of Gait Analysis to Contribute to Differential Diagnosis of Early Stage Dementia: Current Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debra; Funk, Melanie; Crossley, Margaret; Basran, Jenny; Kirk, Andrew; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal

    2007-01-01

    Early differential diagnosis of dementia is becoming increasingly important as new pharmacologic therapies are developed, as these treatments are not equally effective for all types of dementia. Early detection and differential diagnosis also facilitates informed family decision making and timely access to appropriate services. Information about…

  16. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  17. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement for early diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seror, Jeremy; Lefevre, Guillaume; Berkane, Nathalie; Richard, Frederic; Bornes, Marie; Uzan, Serge; Berkane, Nadia

    2014-12-01

    Calcium-channel blockers administered to pregnant women as tocolytic agents can cause acute pulmonary edema. The first signs of this severe complication can be atypical and so delay introduction of appropriate therapy. We describe three cases in whom B-type natriuretic peptide measurements proved to be relevant in early diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with acute pulmonary edema. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in this setting could contribute to timely diagnosis and improve follow-up. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Early College High School Initiative. Evaluation Year End Report: 2003?2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika

    2005-01-01

    This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…

  19. Preparing Beginning Reading Teachers: An Experimental Comparison of Initial Early Literacy Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…

  20. Formative Evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…

  1. Do Diagnosis Delays Impact Receipt of Test Results? Evidence from the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis Program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugambi, Melissa Latigo; Deo, Sarang; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Kiyaga, Charles; Singer, Mendel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. Methods We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility). Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70–0.98). Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40–2.33) and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.81) compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.93). Conclusion In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results. PMID:24282502

  2. Effect of structured teaching programme on VIA test for early detection and diagnosis of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Shiny

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual framework of the study, undertaken in select health centres of New Delhi, was based on General System Model. The research approach was evaluative with one group pre-test and post-test design. The study population comprised of Community Health Workers working in selected centres in Najafgarh, Delhi. Purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 30 Community Health Workers. A structured knowledge questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of subjects. A Structured Teaching Programme was developed to enhance the knowledge of Community Health Workers. Pre-test was given on day 1 and Structured Teaching Programme administered on same day. Post-test was conducted on day 7. Most of the Community Health Workers were in the age group of 21-30 years with academic qualification up to Higher Secondary level. Maximum Community Health Workers had professional qualification as ANM/MPHW (female). Majority of the Community Health Workers had experience up to 5 years. Initially there was deficit in scores of knowledge of Community Health Workers regarding Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) test. Mean post-test knowledge scores of Community Health Workers were found to be signifi- cantly higher than their mean pre-test knowledge score. The Community Health Workers after expo- sure to Structured Teaching Programme gained a significant positive relationship between post-test knowledge scores. The study reveals the efficacy of Structured Teaching Programme in enhancing the knowledge of Community Health Workers regarding VIA test and a need for conducting a regular and well planned health teaching programme on VIA test for improving their knowledge on VIA test for the early detection and diagnosis of cervical cancer.

  3. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  4. From Birth to School: Early Childhood Initiatives and Third-Grade Outcomes in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.; Muschkin, Clara G.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the community-wide effects of two statewide early childhood policy initiatives in North Carolina. One initiative provides funding to improve the quality of child care services at the county level for all children between the ages of 0 to 5, and the other provides funding for preschool slots for disadvantaged four-year-olds.…

  5. Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  6. Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  7. Joint Pairing and Structured Mapping of Convolutional Brain Morphological Multiplexes for Early Dementia Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lisowska, Anna; Rekik, Islem

    2018-06-21

    Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we propose a joint morphological brain multiplexes pairing and mapping strategy for early MCI detection, where a brain multiplex not only encodes the similarity in morphology between pairs of brain regions, but also a pair of brain morphological networks. Experimental results confirm that the proposed framework outperforms in classification accuracy several state-of-the-art methods. More importantly, we unprecedentedly identified most discriminative brain morphological networks between eMCI and NC, which included the paired views derived from maximum principal curvature and the sulcal depth for the left hemisphere and sulcal depth and the average curvature for the right hemisphere. We also identified the most highly correlated morphological brain connections in our cohort, which included the (pericalcarine cortex, insula cortex) on the maximum principal curvature view, (entorhinal cortex, insula cortex) on the mean sulcal depth view, and (entorhinal cortex, pericalcarine cortex) on the mean average curvature view, for both hemispheres. These highly correlated morphological connections might serve as biomarkers for early MCI diagnosis.

  8. Potential application of non-small cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies to early cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yibing; Fan, Yu; Wu, Jun; Wan, Haisu; Wang, Jing; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F.; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    To identify a panel of tumor associated autoantibodies which can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-five unique and in-frame expressed phage proteins were isolated. Based on the gene expression profiling, four proteins were selected for further study. Both receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and leave-one-out method revealed that combined measurements of four antibodies produced have better predictive accuracies than any single marker alone. Leave-one-out validation also showed significant relevance with all stages of NSCLC patients. The panel of autoantibodies has a high potential for detecting early stage NSCLC. PMID:22713465

  9. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Yehoshua; Finkelstein, Tamar; Kadry, Rana; Schonberger, Shirley; Shpack, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  10. Does adenosine deaminase activity play a role in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.

  11. [Early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Bell palsy with blink reflex ].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan-dan; Li, Xiao-song; Liu, Yuan-yuan

    2014-11-01

    To determine the value of blink reflex in early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Bell palsy. Blink reflex and facial nerve conduction were examined in 58 patients with Bell palsy within one week after symptom onset. The patients without response of R1 , R2 and R2 ' waves were classified as complete efferent retardarce (Group A, 30 cases), and those with response of R1 , R2 and R2 ' waves were classified as incomplete efferent anomalies (Group B, 28 cases). The clinical outcomes after three months of systemic therapy were evaluated using the House-Blackmann (H-B) scale. Efferent anomalies of blink reflex occurred in ail of the 58 patients. Abnormal results of facial nerve conduction appeared in 23 (39. 7%) patients. The three months therapy was effective in 93% patients in Group B and 70% patients in Group A (P<0. 05). Blink reflex can play a significant role in early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Bell palsy.

  12. [The early diagnosis of juvenile germinoma originating from the basal ganglia and thalamus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Ling; Li, Cun-Jiang

    2011-04-01

    To explore the early diagnosis of germinoma originating from the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus during juveniles. Retrospective analysis was done with the clinical cases of germinomas in BG and thalamus from 2000 to 2009. The symptoms, signs, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were analyzed and related literature were reviewed. Eight patents were collected. The main symptoms were hemiplegia, associated with aphasia and/or impaired cognition. Brain CT showed high density and calcification. Abnormal T1 and T2 signal were found in brain MRI frequently associated with ipsilateral hemisphere atrophy. MRS showed increased choline and decreased N-acetylaspartate level. Elevated CSF human chorionic gonadotrophin level were found in two of them. Germinoma in BG and thalamus predominates in a boy. The neuroimaging features are very informative for early diagnosis.

  13. EARLY DIAGNOSIS IN POST RENAL TRANSPLANT OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS: A FRESH LOOK.

    PubMed

    Chopra, G S; Narula, A S; Reddy, P S; Bhardwaj, J R

    1999-04-01

    A total of 86 renal transplant patients who were transplanted with live related donor (LRD) and live unrelated donor (LURD) kidneys were studied for opportunistic infections. Immune diagnosis of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes-simplex virus type II (HSV-2), Aspergillosis and Tuberculosis was carried out in these patients along with sputum examination, CSF studies and biopsy of lymphnode and other tissues in few cases. A high degree of Toxoplasma, CMV & HSV-2 positivity was seen in transplanted patients. However sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculos was found to be low with standard criteria, which increased significantly when modified criteria were used. It is concluded that regular immunological monitoring should be carried out in transplanted patients so as to reach an early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.

  14. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sanjeev; Shekhar, Rahul C; Singh, Gurjeet; Shah, Nipam; Ahmad, Hafiz; Kumar, Narendra; Sharma, Surendra K; Samantaray, J C; Ranjan, Sanjai; Ekka, Meera; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2012-07-31

    For antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB), there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT), in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART) and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART) of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045). Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05). Rates of adverse events were similar. Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. CTRI/2011/12/002260.

  15. Salivary fistula: Blue dye testing as part of an algorithm for early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kiong, Kimberley L.; Tan, Ngian Chye; Skanthakumar, Thakshayeni; Teo, Constance E.H.; Soo, Khee Chee; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Roche, Elizabeth; Yee, Kaisin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Orocutaneous and pharyngocutaneous fistula (OPCF) is a debilitating complication of head and neck surgery for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), resulting in delayed adjuvant treatment and prolonged hospitalization. As yet, there is no established test that can help in prompt and accurate diagnosis of OPCF. This study aims to determine the accuracy of bedside blue dye testing and its role as part of an algorithm for early diagnosis. We also analyze the risk factors predisposing to OPCF. Study Design Retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Methods Patients with head and neck SCC who underwent major resection and reconstruction, at risk of OPCF, were included. Results of blue‐dye and video‐fluoroscopic swallow‐studies (VFSS) testing for OPCF were recorded. For the patients that were noted to develop OPCF, the length of time to diagnosis of fistula and subsequent mode of management were examined. Results Of the 93 patients in this study, 25 (26.9%) developed OPCF. Advanced T‐classification (T3/T4) was the only significant predisposing risk factor (p = 0.013). The sensitivity and specificity of the bedside blue dye testing was found to be 36.4% and 100%, respectively. The test positive patients were diagnosed with OPCF at a median of postoperative day (POD) 9.5 as compared to POD 13 for the test negative patients (p = 0.001). Early diagnosis was associated with faster fistula resolution with treatment. Conclusion Blue dye testing is a simple bedside test that can assist in the early diagnosis of OPCF in patients, allowing treatment to be instituted earlier with improved outcomes. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29299509

  16. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews at two primary healthcare centres in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality of the OR Tambo district, South Africa. Twenty-four purposive sample of mothers of HIV-exposed infants took part in the study. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and field notes were obtained. The findings were triangulated with two focus group discussions in order to enrich and validate the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The participants have fairly good knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the risks during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The majority of participants were confident of the protection offered by anti-retroviral drugs provided during pregnancy, however, lack knowledge of optimal time for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Reasons for not accessing EID included fear of finding out that their child is HIV positive, feelings of guilt and/or shame and embarrassment with respect to raising an HIV infected infant. Personal experiences of HIV diagnosis and HAART were associated with participants' attitudes and beliefs toward care-seeking behaviours. Stigma resulting from their own disclosure to others reduced their likelihood of recommending EID to other members of

  17. Emphasis on the early diagnosis of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis: retrospective analysis over 16 years at one Chinese center.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Li, J; Zheng, J; Khan, Z; Qiang, W; Gao, F; Zhao, Y; Shi, B

    2017-07-01

    Antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis is a rare but life-threatening adverse drug reaction that occurs in patients during the treatment of Graves' disease. We aimed to comprehensively examine data for patients with this rare complication and to improve the clinical safety of ATDs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 hospitalized patients diagnosed with ATD-induced agranulocytosis between 2000 and 2015. Agranulocytosis occurred in 52 (81.3%) patients within the first 3 months after initiation of ATD therapy. Fever (84.4%) and sore throat (82.8%) were the most common symptoms. Although they experienced symptoms, 30 (46.9%) patients did not seek treatment immediately and delayed their diagnosis of agranulocytosis. The minimum granulocyte count was lower in the patients diagnosed after the appearance of symptoms than in those diagnosed before the appearance of symptoms (0.01 × 10 9 /L (0 × 10 9 /L - 0.06 × 10 9 /L) versus 0.26 × 10 9 /L (0.05 × 10 9 /L - 0.40 × 10 9 /L), P < 0.001). The interval days from the appearance of symptoms to the diagnosis of agranulocytosis were negatively correlated with the minimum granulocyte count (r = -0.348, P = 0.005). In addition, a lower minimum granulocyte count was associated with a longer recovery time (β = -11.899, 95% CI -15.304 to -8.496). Our findings have demonstrated that delayed diagnosis of ATD-induced agranulocytosis is common in our population. Delayed diagnosis is associated with severe agranulocytosis and may prolong the recovery time from agranulocytosis. Monitoring of the white blood cell and granulocyte counts may be an effective way to establish an early diagnosis and prevent progression to severe agranulocytosis.

  18. [Early alcohol initiation and increased adult alcohol consumption: cause or indicator?].

    PubMed

    Geels, L M; Vink, J M; van Beek, J H D A; Willemsen, G; Bartels, M; Boomsma, D I

    2013-01-01

    Early alcohol initiation is strongly associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse/dependence in adulthood. The mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. To examine whether there is a causal link between early alcohol initiation and later alcohol consumption. Survey data were collected from twin pairs (age range 18-80) included in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). A discordant twin design was used to examine the origin of the link between early alcohol initiation and adult alcohol consumption. Within monozygotic pairs (82-143 pairs), twins who started drinking early were compared to their brother/sister who started drinking later, on frequency of alcohol use, weekly alcohol consumption, number of alcohol intoxications, excessive drinking, alcohol abuse/-dependence, and hazardous drinking. By drawing comparisons within monozygotic pairs, we were able to control for the effects of genes/shared environment. Additional analyses examined the effects of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Within monozygotic twin pairs, the twin who had started drinking early did not differ significantly from his/her brother/sister with respect to future alcohol consumption. Results were independent of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Early alcohol initiation did not have significant causal effects on subsequent alcohol consumption in adulthood and may be an indicator of a predisposition for alcohol consumption. Campaigns aimed at raising the minimum age for alcohol initiation will possibly have only a limited effect on adult alcohol consumption.

  19. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  20. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    study will recruit wounded warriors with severe extremity trauma, which places them at high risk for heterotopic ossification (HO); bone formation at...involved in HO; 2) to define accurate and practical methods to predict where HO will develop; and 3) to define potential therapies for prevention or...elicit HO. These tools also need to provide effective methods for early diagnosis or risk assessment (prediction) so that therapies for prevention or

  1. [Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome caused by landslides:a report of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Peng, Zi-Lai; Liu, Xu-Bang; Chen, Lian

    2012-01-01

    To summarize early diagnosis and treatment methods of 20 patients with compartment syndrome caused by landslides during coal mine accidents in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome and reduce disability. From September 2006 to April 2010,20 patients with compartment syndrome were treated with the methods of early decompression, systemic support. All the patients were male with an average age of 42 years (ranged, 23 to 54). All the patients with high tension limb swelling, pain, referred pain passive positive; 5 extremities feeling diminish or disappear and the distal blood vessel beat were normal or weakened or disappeared; myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine increased in 5 cases and oliguria in occurred 1 case. The function of affected limbs was observed according to disability ratings. Three cases complicated with infection of affected limb and 6 cases occurred with renal function insufficiency. Total recovery was in 16 cases, basically recovery in 3, amputation in 1 case. All patients were followed up for 6-15 months with an average of 12 months. The ability to work according to national standard identification--Employee work-related injuries and occupational disability rating classification (GB/T16180-2006) to assess, grade 5 was in 1 case, grade 8 in 2 cases, grade 10 in 1 case, no grade in 16 cases. Arteriopalmus of dorsalis pedis weaken and vanished can not be regard as an evidence in early diagnosis of compartment syndrome. Early diagnosis and decompression, systemic support and treatment is the key in reducing disability.

  2. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO...1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0119 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  3. POSNA Quality Safety Value Initiative: From Vision to Implementation to Early Results.

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M; Flynn, John M

    2015-01-01

    The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: "To lead in defining our members' value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America."

  4. Detection of urinary biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiongfei; Gan, Chengjun; Xiao, Ke; He, Weifeng; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Cibing; Wu, Xiongfei; Luo, Gaoxing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Hu, Jie; Tan, Jiangling; Zhang, Xiaorong; Larsen, Peter Mose; Wu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Acute allograft rejection has been recognized as a major impediment to improved success in renal transplantation. Timely detection and control of rejection are very important for the improvement in long-term renal allograft survival. Thus, biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute rejection are required urgently to clinical medication. This study seeks to search for such biomarker candidates by comparing patients' pre-treatment urinary protein profiling with their post-treatment urinary protein profiling. A total of 15 significantly and consistently down-regulated protein candidates were identified. Among them, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin precursor (AACT), tumor rejection antigen gp96 (GP96) and Zn-Alpha-2-Glycoprotein (ZAG) were selected for further analysis. The results indicated that Western Blot assay of AACT, GP96 and ZAG had advanced the diagnosis time of acute renal rejection by 3 days, compared with current standard clinical observation and laboratory examination. Furthermore, the double-blind detection revealed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of acute renal rejection of AACT, GP96 and ZAG were 66.67%/100%/60%, 83.33%/100%/80% and 66.67%/100%/60%, respectively, and 100%/100%/100% in combination. In conclusion, urinary protein AACT, GP96 and ZAG could be a set of potential biomarkers for early non-invasive diagnosis of the acute rejection after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Missed Opportunities for Early HIV diagnosis: Critical Insights from Stories of Kenyan Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kako, Peninnah M.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kibicho, Jennifer; Karani, Anna K.; Dressel, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Early HIV testing is critical to prevention and timely treatment. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis can result in unnecessary deaths at a time when access to antiretroviral treatment proves life saving. While HIV prevention and treatment research has increased, less research exists on women's experiences with HIV diagnosis, despite the fact that women are most affected. Insights from local women are critical in designing culturally meaningful interventions that thwart missed opportunities for early HIV diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to uncover steps women took to know their HIV diagnosis. Using narrative inquiry methodology informed by post-colonial feminism, we interviewed 40 HIV- positive women in Kenya. Five themes emerged related to uptake of HIV testing for women: (a) spouse's critical illness or death; (b) years of suffering from HIV-related symptoms; (c) sick children; (d) prenatal testing; and (e) personal desire to know one's HIV status. These findings centered on women experiences provide an important basis for health promotion interventions related to HIV prevention, earlier detection, and treatment. PMID:24273455

  6. Recent histopathological studies in leprosy, with particular reference to early diagnosis and leprous neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Job, C K

    2007-01-01

    In histopathological studies in leprosy, two important areas were identified in recently published work. They are early diagnosis and neuropathy. In histopathological examination, finding of M. leprae in tissues and/or granulomatous destruction of nerves are the two important findings to confirm the diagnosis. Immunopathological staining of M. leprae, PCR amplification of M. leprae antigen and S100 staining of Schwaann cells have considerably enhanced the sensitivity of histopathological diagnosis. If the two clinical findings such as hypopigmented patches with impaired sensation and thickened nerves accompanied by loss of sensation are the only ones that are taken into account for diagnosis, then a significant number of early patients will be missed. It is pointed out that biopsy examination of skin and nerves, when necessary, and skin-smear studies are indispensable diagnostic procedures. In the study of leprous neuropathy, there are several studies trying to decipher the entry of M. leprae into Schwann cells. The sharing of antigens between M. leprae and surface membrane of Schwann cells may be an important factor. However, there is much more to be learned in this area. In the control and prevention of neuritis, although corticosteroids administered along with multi-drug therapy was helpful, the benefit was not sustained.

  7. Conventional early infant diagnosis in Lesotho from specimen collection to results usage to manage patients: Where are the bottlenecks?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heather J.; Isavwa, Anthony; Mokone, Mafusi; Foso, Matokelo; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Early infant diagnosis is an important step in identifying children infected with HIV during the perinatal period or in utero. Multiple factors contribute to delayed antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV-infected children, including delays in the early infant HIV diagnosis cascade. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate early infant diagnosis turnaround times in Lesotho. Trained staff reviewed records of HIV-exposed infants (aged-6-8 weeks) who received an HIV test during 2011. Study sites were drawn from Highlands, Foothills and Lowlands regions of Lesotho. Central laboratory database data were linked to facility and laboratory register information. Turnaround time geometric means (with 95% CI) were calculated and compared by region using linear mixed models. Results 1,187 individual infant records from 25 facilities were reviewed. Overall, early infant diagnosis turnaround time was 61.7 days (95%CI: 55.3–68.7). Mean time from specimen collection to district laboratory was 14 days (95%CI: 12.1–16.1); from district to central laboratory, 2 days (95%CI 0.8–5.2); results from central laboratory to district hospital, 23.3 days (95%CI: 18.7–29.0); from district hospital to health facility, 3.2 days (95%CI 1.9–5.5); and from health facility to caregiver, 10.4 days (95%CI, 7.9–13.5). Mean times from specimen transfer to the central laboratory and for result transfer from central laboratory to district hospital were significantly shorter in the Lowlands Region (0.9 and 16.2 days, respectively), compared to Highlands Region (6.0 [P = 0.030] and 34.3 days [P = 0.0099]. Turnaround time from blood draw to receipt of results was significantly shorter for HIV infected infants compared to HIV uninfected infants [p = 0.0036] at an average of 47.1 days (95%CI: 38.9–56.9) and 62 days (95%CI: 55.9–68.7) respectively. Of 47 HIV-infected infants, 36 were initiated on antiretroviral therapy at an average of 1.3 days (95%CI: 0.3, 5

  8. Low Dopamine Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Should Genotyping Signify Early Diagnosis in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Mark S.; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor self-esteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with > 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches. PMID:24393762

  9. Does hopelessness of Turkish women affect their behavior regarding cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Taşçi-Duran, Emel; Unsal-Atan, Şenay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate attitudes women of towards cervical cancer prevention applications and early diagnosis, and whether or not their hopelessness levels had any influence. The present study was carried out in Isparta with a descriptive design. A sample of 251 individuals was recruited from January 2011 through May 2011 in the largest tea garden (restaurant- cafe). The data collection tool consisted of two parts: a "Questionnaire Form" identifying women; and the "Beck Hopelessness Scale". Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for Windows for the numerical and percentage distribution, average, standard deviation with the ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Some 70.2 % of the woman indicated that they had not taken the Pap test. There was a significant relationship between the hopelessness level and women believing that they could protect themselves from getting cervical cancer (F=10.11 p=0.00). There was a significant relationship between hopelessness levels and believing whether or not early diagnosis tests are deterministic (F=8.781 p=0.00). Our study concluded that the hopelessness level of women had an effect on their thoughts about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis.

  10. Low dopamine function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: should genotyping signify early diagnosis in children?

    PubMed

    Gold, Mark S; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor selfesteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with ≥ 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches.

  11. Early diagnosis of hantavirus infection by family doctors can reduce inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Brorstad, Alette; Oscarsson, Kristina Bergstedt; Ahlm, Clas

    2010-09-01

    Hantavirus infections are emerging infections that cause either Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A recent Swedish outbreak of nephropathia epidemica, a European HFRS, was analysed to study the patient flow and clinical picture and to investigate the value of an early diagnosis in general practice. Design. In a retrospective design, medical records of verified cases of Hantavirus infection were studied. The study was conducted in the county of Norrbotten, Sweden. Data from Hantavirus patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were analysed. Demographic data, level of care, treatment, clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings were obtained. In total, 456 cases were included (58% males and 42% females). The majority of patients first saw their general practitioner and were exclusively treated in general practice (83% and 56%, respectively). When diagnosed correctly at the first visit, antibiotics and hospitalization were significantly lowered compared with delayed diagnosis (14% vs. 53% and 30% vs. 54%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The clinical picture was diverse. Early thrombocytopenia was found in 65% of the patients, and haemorrhagic manifestations were documented in a few cases. Signs of renal involvement--haematuria, proteinuria, and raised levels of serum creatinine--were found in a majority of patients. Raised awareness in general practice regarding emerging infections and better diagnostic tools are desirable. This study of a Hantavirus outbreak shows that general practitioners are frontline doctors during outbreaks and through early and correct diagnosis they can reduce antibiotic treatment and hospitalization.

  12. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Prediction and Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis in HIV-Infected Patients with Early Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS. PMID:24088852

  14. Clinical prediction and diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients with early Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S W; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS.

  15. Timing of initiation of enzyme replacement therapy after diagnosis of type 1 Gaucher disease: effect on incidence of avascular necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Pramod K; Deegan, Patrick; Vellodi, Ashok; Cole, J Alexander; Yeh, Michael; Weinreb, Neal J

    2009-01-01

    Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry were analysed to assess the relationship between enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase (ERT) and incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1), and to determine whether the time interval between diagnosis and initiation of ERT influences the incidence rate of AVN. All patients with GD1 enrolled in the Gaucher Registry who received ERT and did not report AVN prior to starting therapy (n = 2700) were included. The incidence rate of AVN following initiation of ERT was determined. An incidence rate of AVN of 13·8 per 1000 person-years was observed in patients receiving ERT. Patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis had an incidence rate of 8·1 per 1000 person-years; patients who started ERT ≥2 years after diagnosis had an incidence rate of 16·6 per 1000 person-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0·59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·36–0·96, P = 0·0343]. Splenectomy was an independent risk factor for AVN (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·23, 95% CI 1·61–3·08, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, the risk of AVN was reduced among patients who initiated ERT within 2 years of diagnosis, compared to initiating treatment ≥2 years after diagnosis. A higher risk of AVN was observed among patients who had previously undergone splenectomy. PMID:19732054

  16. Economic and epidemiological impact of early antiretroviral therapy initiation in India

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Manoj V; Dowdy, David W; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent WHO guidance advocates for early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at higher CD4 counts to improve survival and reduce HIV transmission. We sought to quantify how the cost-effectiveness and epidemiological impact of early ART strategies in India are affected by attrition throughout the HIV care continuum. Methods We constructed a dynamic compartmental model replicating HIV transmission, disease progression and health system engagement among Indian adults. Our model of the Indian HIV epidemic compared implementation of early ART initiation (i.e. initiation above CD4 ≥350 cells/mm3) with delayed initiation at CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3; primary outcomes were incident cases, deaths, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) and costs over 20 years. We assessed how costs and effects of early ART initiation were impacted by suboptimal engagement at each stage in the HIV care continuum. Results Assuming “idealistic” engagement in HIV care, early ART initiation is highly cost-effective ($442/QALY-gained) compared to delayed initiation at CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 and could reduce new HIV infections to <15,000 per year within 20 years. However, when accounting for realistic gaps in care, early ART initiation loses nearly half of potential epidemiological benefits and is less cost-effective ($530/QALY-gained). We project 1,285,000 new HIV infections and 973,000 AIDS-related deaths with deferred ART initiation with current levels of care-engagement in India. Early ART initiation in this continuum resulted in 1,050,000 new HIV infections and 883,000 AIDS-related deaths, or 18% and 9% reductions (respectively), compared to current guidelines. Strengthening HIV screening increases benefits of earlier treatment modestly (1,001,000 new infections; 22% reduction), while improving retention in care has a larger modulatory impact (676,000 new infections; 47% reduction). Conclusions Early ART initiation is highly cost-effective in India but only has modest

  17. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P < .0001). Overall, 6.1%, 75.5%, and 18.4% of individuals had positive, negative, and inconclusive results, respectively. The most commonly altered genes included folliculin (FLCN) and fumarate hydratase (FH), which were altered in 1.8% and 1.3% of patients, respectively. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), mesenchymal epithelial transition factor proto-oncogene (MET), and PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2) had the highest rates of variants of unknown significance, which were identified in 2.7%, 2.2%, and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Early age of onset was the only factor that was identified as predictive of a positive test on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.975; P = .0052) and may be the only identifying characteristic of low-penetrant syndromes, such as those associated with MITF (melanogenesis-associated transcription factor) mutations, which do not have singular histology or a family history of kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American

  18. Early childhood predictors of age of initiation to use of cannabis: a birth prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M

    2013-05-01

    Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Early marijuana initiation: The link between prenatal marijuana exposure, early childhood behavior, and negative adult roles.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    We investigated the associations among gestational factors including prenatal marijuana exposure (PME), child behavior at age 3, early age of onset of marijuana use (EAOM, <15years), and adult roles at 22years. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD) Project, a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure in offspring who have been studied for over 22years since the prenatal phase. Data from the prenatal, birth, 3-, and 22-year phases (N=608) were used in the present study. Age of onset of offspring substance use was determined based on data from the 14-, 16-, and 22-year phases. The subjects were of lower socioeconomic status, 43% were Caucasian and the remaining were African-American, and 48% were males. Early childhood behavior was significantly (p<0.05) related to EAOM after controlling for PME, birth and childhood environmental risk factors, and Conduct Disorder. EAOM was significantly associated with negative adult roles including increased risk of being arrested (p<0.001), lower educational attainment (p<0.001), having a child without being married (p<0.05), and unemployment at 22years (p<0.001). The correlations between PME and negative adult roles and between early childhood behavior and negative adult roles were also statistically significant. Pathway analysis demonstrated that EAOM significantly mediated the associations between PME and fulfillment of adult roles and between early childhood behavior and adult roles. There are a number of intervention points that could be targeted that would have a long-term impact on lowering the probability of EAOM and less success in adult roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  1. The Early Identity Exploration Scale—a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance. PMID:25983707

  2. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  3. Early laparoscopic management of acute postoperative hemorrhage after initial laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Zorn, Kevin C; Gofrit, Ofer N; Lucioni, Alvaro; Orvieto, Marcelo A; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2007-08-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery has been well established for the management of abdominal emergencies. However, the value of this technique for postoperative hemorrhage in urology has not been characterized. We present our favorable experience with laparoscopic exploration after urologic surgery and suggest guidelines for laparoscopic management of post-laparoscopy bleeding. Three patients who developed hemorrhage shortly after laparoscopic urologic surgery and were managed by laparoscopic exploration were identified from a series of 910 laparoscopic urologic procedures performed at our institution from October 2002 to June 2006. Three patients, who were hemodynamically stable (two after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, one after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy), required prompt surgical exploration for postoperative hemorrhage not stabilized by blood transfusion (mean 2.7 units) at a mean of 19.4 hours after initial surgery. Clots were evacuated with a 10-mm suction-irrigator. Two patients were found to have abdominal-wall arterial bleeding and were managed with suture ligation. The third patient demonstrated diffuse bleeding from the prostatic bed, which was controlled with Surgicel and FloSeal. Bleeding was efficiently controlled in all patients, and none required post-exploration transfusion. The mean post-exploration hospital stay was 2.3 days. Significant hemorrhage after urologic laparoscopy is a rare event. We found laparoscopic exploration to be an excellent way to diagnose and correct such hemorrhage in certain patients. Early diagnosis with clinical and hematologic studies, a lowered threshold for surgical exploration, and specific operative equipment may decrease patient morbidity and the need for open surgical exploration.

  4. Nailfold capillaroscopy in primary biliary cirrhosis: a useful tool for the early diagnosis of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Tovoli, Francesco; Granito, Alessandro; Giampaolo, Luca; Frisoni, Magda; Volta, Umberto; Fusconi, Marco; Masi, Chiara; Lenzi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). In the last years many efforts have been dedicated to the research of widely accepted criteria for the early diagnosis of SSc. Since studies on the prevalence of early SSc in PBC patients are lacking, our aim was to investigate its hitherto unknown prevalence in a large cohort of PBC patients. We studied 80 PBC patients and 72 patients with other chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic workup included research into signs of connective tissue disease, determination of autoantibody profile, and examination of capillary abnormalities through nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Ten PBC patients (12.5%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for early SSc and 5 (6.3%) had definite SSc. None of the patients in the control group were diagnosed either with early or definite SSc. No differences were observed in terms of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and liver function tests between PBC patients with and without associated SSc. Early SSc is significantly frequent in PBC patients. The detection of early SSc in PBC patients may lead to a prompt treatment of its complications, preventing inabilities and preserving the chance of liver transplantation.

  5. [Application evaluation of multi-parametric MRI in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer and prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Li, P; Huang, Y; Li, Y; Cai, L; Ji, G H; Zheng, Y; Chen, Z Q

    2016-10-11

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multi-parametric MRI (Mp-MRI) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer(PCa) in the peripheral zone(PZ) and low T 2 WI signal intensity of prostatitis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with PZ early PCa and 37 with prostatitis of hypointense T 2 WI signal in PZ were retrospectively analyzed, which were collected from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from Janurary 2009 to June 2015, who underwent T 2 WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI examination and all patients were confirmed by pathology. All the data was transferred to GE Advanced Workstation AW4.3, the indexes divided into cancerous and prostatitis regions were calculated by Functool2 of signal intensity-time(SI-T) curve and ADC value, to calcuate the time to minimum(T max ), the whole enhancment degree (SI max ). ROC cure was used to determine the cutoff value for PCa detection with the ADC value. Result: On T 2 WI, 57.5% of PCa (23/40) showed focal nodular homogeneous low signal intensity, 70.3% of prostatitis(26/37) showed diffuse inhomogeneous low signal intensity. DCE-MRI, the distribution of curve types for malignant tumors was type Ⅰ 2.5%(1/40), typeⅡ32.5%(13/40) and type Ⅲ 65.0% (26/40). While the numbers for prostatitis was type Ⅰ 16.2%(6/37) , type Ⅱ 56.8% (21/37) and type Ⅲ 27.0% (10/37)respectively.The patterns of curve types in malignant lesions were different from benign lesions significantly(χ 2 =12.32, P <0.01). The mean values of T max , SI max in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (17.96±2.91)s, 1.76%±0.23% and (21.19±3.59)s, 1.53%±0.18%, respectively ( t =5.37, 6.10; P <0.01). On DWI, The mean ADC values in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (0.95±0.13)×10 -3 mm 2 /s and (1.12±0.13)×10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively ( t =7.10, P <0.01). According to the ROC analysis, when the cutoff value was 1.01×10 -3 mm 2 /s, the early PCa of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was 79.1%, 72.7% and 76

  6. Does Radiotherapy for the Primary Tumor Benefit Prostate Cancer Patients with Distant Metastasis at Initial Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeona; Chang, Jee Suk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Choi, Young Deuk; Ham, Won Sik; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Treatment of the primary tumor reportedly improves survival in several types of metastatic cancer. We herein evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy for the primary tumor in prostate cancer with metastasis. Materials/Methods The study cohort included 140 men with metastatic prostate cancer at initial diagnosis. Metastatic sites were divided into 4 groups as follows: solitary bone, 2–4 bones, ≥5 bones, and visceral organs. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients treated with (prostate radiotherapy [PRT] group) or without radiotherapy to the primary tumor. Results Patients in PRT group presented with a statistically significantly younger age (p = .02), whereas other characteristics showed no significant difference. Overall survival (OS) and biochemical failure-free survival (BCFFS) were improved in PRT patients (3-year OS: 69% vs. 43%, p = 0.004; 3-year BCFFS: 52% vs. 16%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis identified PRT as a significant predictor of both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, p = 0.015). None of the 38 PRT patients experienced severe (grade ≥3) genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions Our data suggest that radiotherapy to the primary tumor was associated with improved OS and BCFFS in metastatic prostate cancer. The results of this study warrant prospective controlled clinical trials of this approach in stage IV prostate cancer patients with limited extent of bone metastasis and good performance status. PMID:26807740

  7. Early diagnosis of typhoid fever by nested PCR for flagellin gene of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Harish, B N; Menezes, G A; Acharya, N S; Parija, S C

    2012-11-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi continues to be a major health problem in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Inability to make an early laboratory diagnosis and resort to empirical therapy, often lead to increased morbidity and mortality in cases of typhoid fever. This study was aimed to optimize a nested PCR for early diagnosis of typhoid fever and using it as a diagnostic tool in culture negative cases of suspected typhoid fever. Eighty patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and 40 controls were included in the study. The blood samples collected were subjected to culture, Widal and nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene of S. Typhi. The sensitivity of PCR on blood was found to be 100 per cent whereas the specificity was 76.9 per cent. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR was calculated to be 76.9 per cent with an accuracy of 86 per cent. None of the 40 control samples gave a positive PCR. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity nested PCR can be used as a useful tool to diagnose clinically suspected, culture negative cases of typhoid fever.

  8. Neglected evidence in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent; Richeldi, Luca

    2014-03-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s) remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a "by-product" of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of "velcro" crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns.

  9. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  10. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging in early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a vascular component

    PubMed Central

    Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da

  11. Early diagnosis of rheumatic diseases: an evaluation of the present situation and proposed changes

    PubMed Central

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Maślińska, Maria; Gryglewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a very common complaint, affecting 30–40% of the European population. It is estimated that approximately 400,000 Poles suffer from inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, and a vast majority of those affected are working-age individuals. Patients with suspected arthritis require prompt diagnosis and treatment, as any delays may result in irreversible joint destruction and disability. Currently in Poland, the lag time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis is, on average, as much as 35 weeks. In this paper, we review the current state of specialist rheumatology care in Poland and propose a reorganised care model that includes early diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis. The main goal we wish to achieve with our reorganised model is to enhance access to outpatient specialist rheumatology care for patients with suspected arthritis. We believe that our model should make it possible to considerably reduce the lag time between GP referral and the diagnosis and treatment by a rheumatologist to as little as 3 to 4 weeks. This article provides a proposal of changes that would achieve this goal and is a summary of the report published by the Institute of Rheumatology in September 2014. PMID:27407218

  12. Early diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes: pros and cons of current clinical diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Vicente, Elena; Pradas, Jesús; Marín-Lahoz, Juan; De Luna, Noemi; Clarimón, Jordi; Turon-Sans, Janina; Gelpí, Ellen; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Illa, Isabel; Rojas-Garcia, Ricard

    2017-08-01

    To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients referred to a tertiary neuromuscular clinic as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but who were re-diagnosed as having an ALS mimic syndrome, and to identify the reasons that led to the revision of the diagnosis. We reviewed the final diagnosis of all patients prospectively registered in the Sant Pau-MND register from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2015. A detailed clinical evaluation and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study were performed at first evaluation. Twenty of 314 (6.4%) patients included were re-diagnosed as having a condition other than ALS, in 18 cases already at first evaluation. An alternative specific diagnosis was identified in 17 of those 20, consisting of a wide range of conditions. The main finding leading to an alternative diagnosis was the result of the electrophysiological study. Fifty per cent did not fulfil the El Escorial revised criteria (EECr) for ALS. The most common clinical phenotype at onset in patients with ALS mimic syndromes was progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). Misdiagnosing ALS is still a common problem. Early identification of ALS mimic syndromes is possible based on atypical clinical features and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study. Patients should be attended in specialised centres. The application of EECr helps to identify ALS misdiagnoses.

  13. Pathways to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation: a qualitative comparison of patients' experiences in the era of rapid molecular diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Pren; van Niekerk, Margaret; du Toit, Elizabeth; Beyers, Nulda; Leon, Natalie

    2015-10-28

    Although new molecular diagnostic tests such as GenoType MTBDRplus and Xpert® MTB/RIF have reduced multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment initiation times, patients' experiences of diagnosis and treatment initiation are not known. This study aimed to explore and compare MDR-TB patients' experiences of their diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway in GenoType MTBDRplus and Xpert® MTB/RIF-based diagnostic algorithms. The study was undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa where primary health-care services provided free TB diagnosis and treatment. A smear, culture and GenoType MTBDRplus diagnostic algorithm was used in 2010, with Xpert® MTB/RIF phased in from 2011-2013. Participants diagnosed in each algorithm at four facilities were purposively sampled, stratifying by age, gender and MDR-TB risk profiles. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Through constant comparative analysis we induced common and divergent themes related to symptom recognition, health-care access, testing for MDR-TB and treatment initiation within and between groups. Data were triangulated with clinical information and health visit data from a structured questionnaire. We identified both enablers and barriers to early MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment. Half the patients had previously been treated for TB; most recognised recurring symptoms and reported early health-seeking. Those who attributed symptoms to other causes delayed health-seeking. Perceptions of poor public sector services were prevalent and may have contributed both to deferred health-seeking and to patient's use of the private sector, contributing to delays. However, once on treatment, most patients expressed satisfaction with public sector care. Two patients in the Xpert® MTB/RIF-based algorithm exemplified its potential to reduce delays, commencing MDR-TB treatment within a week of their first health contact. However, most patients in both algorithms experienced

  14. Identification of serum protein markers for early diagnosis of pregnancy in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, Lukumoni; Nanda, Trilok; Ghosh, Arnab; Ghosh, Mayukh; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Sambhu Sharan; Bharali, Arpita; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Improper or delayed pregnancy diagnosis has significant impact over animal production, particularly in buffaloes which inherently suffer from several reproductive inefficiencies. Thus the present study has undertaken to identify serum protein markers pertaining to early pregnancy diagnosis in buffaloes. Serum samples were collected from 10 pregnant Murrah Buffalo heifers at weekly intervals from days 0-35 post-artificial insemination and from 12 inseminated non-pregnant cyclic buffalo heifers on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis revealed the presence of five protein spots showing average density fold change of ≥4 during early pregnancy. Mass spectrometry analysis identified these up-regulated proteins as anti-testosterone antibody light chain, apolipoprotein A-II precursor, serum amyloid A, cytokeratin type II, component IV isoform 1, which are have established roles in embryogenesis, but over-expression of the fifth identified protein immunoglobulin lambda light chain in pregnancy has been elucidated as a novel finding in the current study. Further, with bioinformatics analysis, potential antigenic B-cell epitopes were predicted for all these five proteins. An antibody cocktail-based approach involving antibodies against all these five up-regulated entire proteins or their epitopes could be developed for early detection of pregnancy in buffaloes. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Successful diagnosis and treatment of early splenic ectopic pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Ni, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Splenic ectopic pregnancy (SEP), a special abdominal pregnancy, is extremely rare but carries a high risk of potentially uncontrollable, life-threatening intraperitoneal bleeding at early gestation, which is equivalent to the spontaneous rupture of the spleen. Therefore, early diagnosis of SEP is crucial and may avoid life-threatening situation. A 29-year-old G3P2 woman presented with 50 days of amenorrhea and positive serum β-human gonadotropin (β-HCG) was enrolled into the hospital due to the absence of gestational sac located in the uterine cavity. A pan-abdominal ultrasound scan revealed a 2.6 cm ×1.6 cm hyperechoic mass inferior to the spleen with color Doppler signal surrounding and 0.9 cm anechoic inside. The gynecologist found the gestational sac was located in the dorsal pole of the spleen through the exploratory laparoscopy. Total splenectomy was performed uneventfully to avoid the hemorrhage shock. The patient discharged with no complications and normal 1-month follow-up. It highlights that fully understanding of the knowledge about abdominal pregnancy, especially splenic pregnancy, and early imaging study with ultrasonography could reduce or avoid the misdiagnosis and miss-diagnosis of SEP.

  16. Clinical implications in laboratory parameter values in acute Kawasaki disease for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu-Mi; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sung-Churl; Yu, Jae-Won; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Han, Ji-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to analyse laboratory values according to fever duration, and evaluate the relationship across these values during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) to aid in the early diagnosis for early-presenting KD and incomplete KD patients. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with KD (n=615) were evaluated according to duration of fever at presentation, and were compared between patients with and without coronary artery lesions (CALs). For evaluation of the relationships across laboratory indices, patients with a fever duration of 5 days or 6 days were used (n=204). The mean fever duration was 6.6±2.3 days, and the proportions of patients with CALs was 19.3% (n=114). C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and neutrophil differential values were highest and hemoglobin, albumin, and lymphocyte differential values were lowest in the 6-day group. Patients with CALs had longer total fever duration, higher CRP and neutrophil differential values and lower hemoglobin and albumin values compared to patients without CALs. CRP, albumin, neutrophil differential, and hemoglobin values at the peak inflammation stage of KD showed positive or negative correlations each other. The severity of systemic inflammation in KD was reflected in the laboratory values including CRP, neutrophil differential, albumin, and hemoglobin. Observing changes in these laboratory parameters by repeated examinations prior to the peak of inflammation in acute KD may aid in diagnosis of early-presenting KD patients.

  17. [Usefulness of serological studies for the early diagnosis of Lyme disease in Primary Health Care Centres].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díaz, Pablo; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Coira-Nieto, Amparo

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of an early diagnosis of Lyme disease (LD) in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC) using the ELISA test as serological screening technique. A retrospective study (2006-2013) was performed in order to determine the anti-Borrelia seropositivity in 2,842 people at risk of having LD. The possible relationship between the environment and the area of residence with anti-Borrelia seropositivity was also studied according to the origin of the specimens (PHCC/Hospital). Overall, 15.2% of samples were positive to Borrelia spp. Seropositivity was significantly higher in samples sent by PHCC doctors than those sent by Hospital doctors. Seropositivity was significantly higher in rural than in urban populations and in those who live in mountainous or flat areas. The percentage of seropositivity has increased over the years. The role of the PHCC doctor is essential for achieving an early diagnosis of Lyme disease, as a higher percentage of seropositives was detected in samples submitted from PHCC. Furthermore, most early localised LD patients were diagnosed in PHCC, avoiding the appearance of sequelae. Therefore, detection of Borrelia specific antibodies using an ELISA assay is a useful screening test for patients at risk of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of the Alere q Point-of-Care System for Early Infant HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Nei-yuan; Dunning, Lorna; Kroon, Max; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Early infant diagnosis (EID) and prompt linkage to care are critical to minimise the high morbidity and mortality associated with infant HIV infection. Attrition in the "EID cascade" is common; however, point-of-care (POC) EID assays with same-day result could facilitate prompt linkage of HIV-infected infant to treatment. Despite a number of POC EID assays in development, few have been independently evaluated and data on new technologies are urgently needed to inform policy. We compared Alere q 1/2 Detect POC system laboratory test characteristics with the local standard of care (SOC), Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 qualitative PCR in an independent laboratory-based evaluation in Cape Town, South Africa. Routinely EID samples collected between November 2013 and September 2014 were each tested by both SOC and POC systems. Repeat testing was done to troubleshoot any discrepancy between POC and SOC results. Overall, 1098 children with a median age of 47 days (IQR, 42-117) were included. Birth PCR (age <7 days) comprised of 8% (n = 92) tests while 56% (n = 620) of children tested as part of routine EID (ages 6-14 weeks). In the overall direct comparison, Alere q Detect achieved sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI, 91.7-97.9%) and a specificity of 99.8% (95% CI, 99.1-100%). Following repeat testing of discordant samples and exclusion of any inconclusive results, the POC assay sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% (95% CI 93.4-98.9%) and 100% (lower 95% CI 98%) respectively. Among birth PCR tests the POC assay had slightly lower sensitivity (93.3% vs 96.5% in routine EID) and higher assay error rate (10% vs 5% in samples of older children, p = 0.04). Our results indicate this POC assay performs well for EID in the laboratory. The high specificity and thus high positive predictive value would suggest a positive POC result may be adequate for immediate infant ART initiation. While POC testing for EID may have particular utility for birth testing at delivery facilities, the lower

  20. The Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative: An Example of Statewide Collective Impact.

    PubMed

    Meinen, Amy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Korth, Amy L; Christens, Brian D; Breuer, Catherine; Joyner, Hilary; Polzin, Molle; Adams, Alexandra; Wolfe, Daithi; Braun, Abbe; Hoiting, Jill; Paulson, Jeanette; Cullen, Bridget; Stader, Kelli

    2016-11-01

    The Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative), established in 2007, seeks to address and prevent obesity in the early care and education system through nutrition and physical activity environmental and policy changes. The collaborative includes professionals from 3 state of Wisconsin Departments, the University of Wisconsin-Extension, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and public health and early care and education organizations. This paper explores the efforts of the Initiative to advance our understanding of collective impact in practice and its value to health promotion efforts. Evaluators conducted a mixed methods case study to evaluate the application of collective impact principles by the Initiative. This included a survey of Initiative partners, review of archival documents, and qualitative interviews with Initiative leaders. Initiative partners noted progress in establishing the conditions for collective impact. Archival documents and interviews describe both formal and informal practices that helped set a common agenda, align and coordinate partner activities, and promote communication among Initiative leaders. Results also detail the important current and potential roles of “backbone” staff from healthTIDE to support the Initiative. Additionally, results suggest particularly challenging aspects of the Initiative’s impact model related to shared measurement and broader stakeholder communication. While the Initiative is still setting in place the conditions for collective impact, it has achieved significant policy, systems, and environment changes since its formation. Inclusion of nutrition and physical activity criteria in the state’s quality rating improvement system for child care centers is one of its outcomes. This case study offers several important insights about the application of collective impact in health promotion efforts, particularly in relation to the transition from previous collaborative activities, the

  1. Early Oscillation Detection for Hybrid DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel fault detection technique for hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation diagnosis. The technique is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and Is realized by using signal spectral analysis. Real-circuit simulation and analytical study reveal critical factors of the oscillation and indicate significant correlations between the spectral analysis method and the gain/phase margin method. A stability diagnosis index (SDI) is developed as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to the DC/DC converter. This technique Is capable of detecting oscillation at an early stage without interfering with DC/DC converter's normal operation and without limitations of probing to the converter.

  2. Brazilian Spotted Fever: the importance of dermatological signs for early diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Daíne Vargas; Medeiros, Marcelo Zanolli; Hans, Gunter; de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Barbosa, Aline Blanco; Vicari, Carolina Faria Santos

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is an acute febrile infectious disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by tick bite. As this disease is rare and has high mortality rates in Brazil, the clinical aspects and epidemiological data may help the diagnosis. We report a case of Brazilian spotted fever in a 19-year-old patient who presented maculopapular exanthema in the palmar region and upper limbs, lymphadenopathy, fever, chills, headache, conjunctival hyperemia, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, myalgia, developing neurological signs and abdominal pain. He was treated with doxycycline with clinical improvement. We emphasize the importance of the recognition of this disease by dermatologists as cutaneous manifestations are the key findings to establish early diagnosis and prevent complications. PMID:25830998

  3. The significance of fluorescein angiography in the early diagnosis of lesions on ocular fundus at pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowski, T; Gluza, J; Rasiewicz, D

    1977-05-27

    The role of fluorescein angiography in early diagnosis of lesions on fundus of the eye at pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients has been shown. The authors show angiographic changes on the basis of three cases of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis of early knee osteoarthritis based on MRI T2 mapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yixiao; Yang, Ran; Jia, Sen; Li, Zhanjun; Zhou, Zhiyang; Lou, Ting

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the method of computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA (OA: osteoarthritis). Based on the technique of MRI (MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging) T2 Mapping, through computer image processing, feature extraction, calculation and analysis via constructing a classifier, an effective computer-aided diagnosis method for knee OA was created to assist doctors in their accurate, timely and convenient detection of potential risk of OA. In order to evaluate this method, a total of 1380 data from the MRI images of 46 samples of knee joints were collected. These data were then modeled through linear regression on an offline general platform by the use of the ImageJ software, and a map of the physical parameter T2 was reconstructed. After the image processing, the T2 values of ten regions in the WORMS (WORMS: Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score) areas of the articular cartilage were extracted to be used as the eigenvalues in data mining. Then,a RBF (RBF: Radical Basis Function) network classifier was built to classify and identify the collected data. The classifier exhibited a final identification accuracy of 75%, indicating a good result of assisting diagnosis. Since the knee OA classifier constituted by a weights-directly-determined RBF neural network didn't require any iteration, our results demonstrated that the optimal weights, appropriate center and variance could be yielded through simple procedures. Furthermore, the accuracy for both the training samples and the testing samples from the normal group could reach 100%. Finally, the classifier was superior both in time efficiency and classification performance to the frequently used classifiers based on iterative learning. Thus it was suitable to be used as an aid to computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA.

  5. Potential Role of Neuroimaging Markers for Early Diagnosis of Dementia in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan; Kilimann, Ingo; Thyrian, Jochen R; Kloppel, Stefan; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample. Molecular imaging marker of amyloid pathology, and volumetric markers of regional and whole brain atrophy support the diagnosis of AD dementia and MCI due to AD, and contribute to confidence in the differential diagnosis of AD and non-AD related dementias in specialized care. Limited evidence from the literature and our primary care cohort suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of volumetric imaging markers may be similar in the dementia stage of AD, but may be inferior for cases with MCI in primary compared with specialized care. Evidence is still widely lacking on the use of imaging markers for early and differential diagnosis of AD dementia, and detection of prodromal AD in primary care. Further progress to fill this gap will depend on the availability of international multimodal data from well-defined primary care cohorts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Should chest examination be reinstated in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    PubMed Central

    Oshaug, Katja; Halvorsen, Peder A; Melbye, Hasse

    2013-01-01

    Background Although proven to be associated with bronchial obstruction, chest signs are not listed among cues that should prompt spirometry in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in established guidelines. Aims We aimed to explore how chest findings add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods In a cross-sectional study, patients aged 40 years or older, previously diagnosed with either asthma or COPD in primary care, answered questionnaires and underwent physical chest examination and spirometry. Results Among the 375 patients included, 39.7% had forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7. Hyperresonance to percussion was the strongest predictor of COPD, with a sensitivity of 20.8, a specificity of 97.8, and likelihood ratio of 9.5. In multivariate logistic regression, where pack-years, shortness of breath, and chest findings were among the explanatory variables, three physical chest findings were independent predictors of COPD. Hyperresonance to percussion yielded the highest odds ratio (OR = 6.7), followed by diminished breath sounds (OR = 5.0), and thirdly wheezes (OR = 2.3). These three chest signs also gave significant diagnostic information when added to shortness of breath and pack-years in receiver operating-characteristic curve analysis. Conclusion We found that chest signs may add to respiratory symptoms and a history of smoking in the diagnosis of COPD, and we conclude that chest signs should be reinstated as cues to early diagnosis of COPD in patients 40 years or older. PMID:23983462

  7. Gene expression profiles reveal key genes for early diagnosis and treatment of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hou, Ziming; Wang, Changjiang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hongbing

    2018-04-23

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is an aggressive brain tumor that occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Conventional diagnosis method and standard therapy cannot treat ACPs effectively. In this paper, we aimed to identify key genes for ACP early diagnosis and treatment. Datasets GSE94349 and GSE68015 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Consensus clustering was applied to discover the gene clusters in the expression data of GSE94349 and functional enrichment analysis was performed on gene set in each cluster. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and hubs were selected. Support vector machine (SVM) model was built based on the signature genes identified from enrichment analysis and PPI network. Dataset GSE94349 was used for training and testing, and GSE68015 was used for validation. Besides, RT-qPCR analysis was performed to analyze the expression of signature genes in ACP samples compared with normal controls. Seven gene clusters were discovered in the differentially expressed genes identified from GSE94349 dataset. Enrichment analysis of each cluster identified 25 pathways that highly associated with ACP. PPI network was built and 46 hubs were determined. Twenty-five pathway-related genes that overlapped with the hubs in PPI network were used as signatures to establish the SVM diagnosis model for ACP. The prediction accuracy of SVM model for training, testing, and validation data were 94, 85, and 74%, respectively. The expression of CDH1, CCL2, ITGA2, COL8A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 were significantly upregulated in ACP tumor samples, while CAMK2A, RIMS1, NEFL, SYT1, and STX1A were significantly downregulated, which were consistent with the differentially expressed gene analysis. SVM model is a promising classification tool for screening and early diagnosis of ACP. The ACP-related pathways and signature genes will advance our knowledge of ACP pathogenesis

  8. Towards early in vivo photoacoustic malaria diagnosis with 10,000-fold sensitivity improvement (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Kai A.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-03-01

    Roughly 0.6 million people die each year from malaria due to lack of early diagnosis and well-timed treatment. Our previous study demonstrated great potential of in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for early diagnosis of deadly diseases with focus on cancer and thromboembolic complications. Here we demonstrate potential of advanced PAFC platforms using new laser, ultrasound transducer array and recording system to detect infected red blood cells (iRBCs) with malaria-associated pigment hemozoin which has a higher PA contrast than blood background. Mature parasites of human infecting species such as P. falciparum characteristically sequester mature iRBCs in the capillary bed and display synchrony in their reproductive cycle. To address this issue prior to clinical application, new PAFC platform was verified in a pre-clinical study using new animal models. Specifically, we used P. chabaudi (a rodent malaria species that mimics the characteristics of the most virulent human counterpart) to estimate the detection sensitivity with immature ring-stage parasites in peripheral blood, compared PA signals from the differing species, and examined the relationship between PA signal amplitudes and level of blood oxygenation. Based on previous successful trials on melanoma patients with melanin as an intrinsic PA marker, which has similar absorption as hemozoin, we believe that after additional malaria-related clinical trials, PAFC with a small 1064 nm laser and wearable a cost-effective, easy-to-use, watch-like, safe PA probe will provide malaria diagnosis in humans at parasitemia levels 10e4 -times lower than the current gold standard of diagnosis, the Giemsa-stained blood smear. It can reduce malaria-related mortality by well-timed treatment, especially in children in malaria-endemic countries.

  9. Role of MRI in the early diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Si, Ming-Jue; Gui, Shuang; Fan, Qin; Han, Hong-Xiu; Zhao, Qian-Qian; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhao, Jiang-Min

    2016-07-01

    To determine the role of MRI in the early diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP). Clinical and MRI features of 27 cases of tubal pregnancy were reviewed. A thick-walled gestational sac (GS)-like structure was demonstrated lateral to the uterus in all cases. On T2-weighted images, the thick wall typically exhibited 3 discrete rings in 22 cases (81 %), among which 17 cases (63 %) displayed small vessels and 6 cases (33 %) exhibited small areas of fresh haemorrhage inside the thick wall. The contents demonstrated non-specific liquid in 26 %, papillary solid components in 56 %, and fresh blood or fluid-fluid level in 19 % of the cases. Dilatation of the affected fallopian tube associated with hematosalpinx was demonstrated in 18 cases (67 %) and marked enhancement of the tubal wall was observed in 22 cases (81 %). No correlation was found between the size of the GS and the estimated gestational age (r = 0.056). MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis and management of tubal pregnancy. The characteristic MRI features include a GS-like structure with a "three rings" appearance on T2-weighted images, presence of solid components in the sac, dilatation of the affected fallopian tube with hematosalpinx, and tubal wall enhancement. • MR imaging has served as a problem-solving procedure in ectopic pregnancy. • MR imaging features can be criteria for early diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. • Detailed assessment of ectopic implantation is necessary for management decision-making.

  10. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in Myanmar: call for innovative interventions to improve uptake and reduce turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Thiha, Soe; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Philip, Sairu; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; War, May Wint; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    In collaboration with the national AIDS program, early infant diagnosis (EID) is implemented by Integrated HIV Care (IHC) program through its anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centers across 10 cities in five states and regions of Myanmar. Blood samples from the ART centers are sent using public transport to a centralized PCR facility. Among HIV-exposed babies <9 months at enrolment into IHC program (2013-15), to describe the EID cascade (enrolment, sample collection for PCR, result receipt by mother, HIV diagnosis and ART initiation) and factors associated with delayed (>8 weeks of age) or no blood sample collection for EID. Retrospective cohort study involving record review. A predictive poisson regression model with robust variance estimates was fitted for risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Of 1349 babies, 523 (39%) of the babies' mothers were on ART before pregnancy. Timely uptake of EID (<8 weeks of age) was 47% (633/1349); sample collection was delayed in 27% (367/1349) and not done in 26% (349/1349) babies. Among samples collected (n = 1000), 667 results were received by the mother; 52 (5%) were HIV-infected; among them 42 (81%) were initiated on ART. Median (IQR) turnaround time from sample collection to result receipt by mother and time to initiate ART from result receipt by mother was 7 (4,12) and 8.5 (6,16) weeks, respectively. Mothers not on ART before pregnancy and distance of ART center from PCR facility (more than 128 km) were the risk factors of delayed or no sample collection. Improving provision of ART to mothers (through universal 'test and treat') is urgently required, which has the potential to improve the timely uptake of EID as well. Interventions to reduce turnaround times, like point of care EID testing and/or systematic use of mobile technology to communicate results, are needed.

  11. Early diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome by computed tomography and ultrasonography: report of five cases

    SciTech Connect

    Baert, A.L.; Fevery, J.; Marchal, G.

    1983-03-01

    In 5 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, computed tomography after intravenous bolus injection of iodinated contrast agents demonstrated images not previously seen in other diseases. The images are compatible with stagnation of contrast material at the periphery of the liver. In 3 of the 5 cases, grey-scale ultrasonography failed to document the normal hepatic veins draining into the inferior caval vein, but showed an intrahepatic network of comma-shaped venous structures. It is proposed that these two noninvasive approaches can help in establishing an early diagnosis.

  12. Primary care and cancer: Facing the challenge of early diagnosis and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Round, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    With ageing populations and an increasing lifetime risk of cancer, primary care will continue to play an increasingly important role in early diagnosis and cancer survivorship, especially with the lowering of risk thresholds for referral and diagnostic investigations. However, primary care in many countries is in crisis with increasing workloads for primary care physicians. Potential solutions to these challenges will be outlined including development of multidisciplinary teams, diagnostic decision support, increasing access to diagnostics and cost-effective referral pathways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Chromatic multifocal pupillometer for objective early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Ben-Ner, Daniel; Sharvit-Ginon, Inbal; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal; Sher, Ifat

    2017-02-01

    The pupil responses of 15 cognitively normal subjects (ages 60-74) were examined in response to 76 focal red and blue light stimuli using a chromatic multifocal pupillometer (CMP). Subjects with low cognitive scores as determined as by Montreal Cognitive Assessment testing, presented significantly weaker and sluggish pupil responses in peripheral and central locations of the visual field in response to red and blue light. Our findings suggests that the CMP may present a novel objective, non-invasive, low cost technique for early diagnosis of cognitive decline that may serve for Alzheimer Disease prevention and as sensitive outcome measure of therapeutic effects.

  14. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  15. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation as a Problem Behavior: A Comparative Study of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using a Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) framework, this paper examines the extent to which psychosocial correlates of early sexual initiation (before age 16) vary across developed nations. Methods Fifteen-year-old participants (n=5,624) in the 1997-1998 WHO collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland) and the 1996 US Add Health survey self-reported substance use (alcohol and tobacco), school attachment, positive parental communication, and early sexual intercourse experience. Stratifying by gender, we performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses controlling for family socioeconomic status, family structure, and nation fixed effects. Results Self-reported early sexual experience, substance use, school attachment and positive communication with parents varied significantly across nations for both boys and girls. In both crude and adjusted analyses, substance use was positively associated with early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations, although associations were stronger in Europe than the US (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 1.56-3.74). School attachment was similarly inversely related to early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations (AOR range 0.63-0.94). However, positive parent communication was significantly inversely related to early sexual experience only among US females (AOR 0.50). Conclusions Findings overall supported the fit of early adolescent sexual initiation as a risk behavior within a PBT framework cross-nationally, suggesting that similar factors could be targeted to prevent early sexual initiation across some developed nations. However further research is warranted examining the temporality of these relationships. PMID:20864009

  16. Some Limitations for Early Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Infection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Volta, Bibiana Julieta; Perrone, Alina Elizabet; Rivero, Rocío; Scollo, Karenina; Bustos, Patricia Laura; Bua, Jacqueline

    2018-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi , the causing agent of Chagas disease, can be transmitted to the offspring of infected pregnant women, thus being an epidemiologically important way of parasite transmission in humans. In addition, the migration of infected women from endemic areas to nonendemic countries may export this parasite infection. The diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease relies on the detection of the parasite because maternal antibodies are passively transferred to infants during pregnancy. The diagnosis of congenital infection can also be confirmed by detection of infant-specific anti- T cruzi antibodies at 10 months after delivery. Because early detection of T cruzi infection in newborns allows an efficient trypanocidal treatment and cure, more sensitive molecular techniques such as DNA amplification are being used for a prompt parasitological diagnosis of children born to seropositive mothers. In this report, we describe a diagnosis case of a child congenitally infected with T cruzi who tested negative for parasite detection both by microscopic observation and DNA amplification at 20 days and 6 months after delivery. However, at 7 months of age, a hemoculture was made from the infant's blood, and the infective parasite was finally isolated and classified as T cruzi discrete typing unit I. In a retrospective study, real-time polymerase chain reaction also allowed detecting the parasite but failed to detect any parasite load in earlier control samples. This case report stresses that even when molecular techniques are negative, a long-term follow-up is necessary for the diagnosis of infants congenitally infected with T cruzi . Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Procalcitonin for the early diagnosis of sepsis in burn patients: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Luís; Afreixo, Vera; Santos, Filipe; Almeida, Luís; Paiva, José Artur

    2017-11-01

    The gold standard for sepsis diagnosis in burn patient still relies on microbiological cultures, which take 48-72h to provide results, delaying the start of antimicrobial therapy. Thus, biomarkers allowing an earlier sepsis diagnosis in burn patients are needed. This retrospective observational study included 150 burn patients with total burned surface area ≥15%. Clinical diagnosis of sepsis among these patients was done according to the American Burn Association criteria. Biomarker (procalcitonin, white blood cells and platelet countings, prothrombinemia, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, blood lactate and temperature) values were available for 48 patients without sepsis (2767 timepoints) and 102 patients with sepsis (652 timepoints). Quantitative variables were compared with Mann-Whitney tests and qualitative variables were compared with Pearson chi-square test. Effect size was measured by the probability of superiority. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves evaluate capacity for sepsis diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for some cut-off values, including the best cut-off defined by the maximum of Youden index. Statistically significant differences between the groups of septic and non-septic patients, with medium to large effect size, were detected for all the biomarkers considered, except temperature. PCT was the biomarker with the largest AUC and effect size (AUC=0.71). Analysis of the PCT ROC curve showed that 0.5ng/mL cut-off presented highest sensitivity and lowest specificity, whereas 1.5ng/mL cut-off was associated with lowest sensitivity and highest specificity. Procalcitonin showed to be the best of the biomarkers studied for an early diagnosis of sepsis. Its use should be considered in antimicrobial stewardship programs in Burn Units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. [The importance of early diagnosis and intervention in children diagnosed with reading disorder. Case studies].

    PubMed

    Törö, Krisztina; Balázs, Judit

    2015-06-01

    Reading Disorder (RD) belongs to Specific Learning Disorders within the chapter of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition. Previous research shows that the time of the diagnosis of RD - early (before starting school) or late - has a great impact on the prognosis. In the current paper we present the cases of two children diagnosed with RD. Our cases demonstrate that if RD is diagnosed in early childhood, the child's and his/her family's quality of life can be influenced in a positive direction, while late recognition of RD might influence the child's and the family's quality of life negatively. For these reasons it is important that experts recognize RD in time, start appropriate treatment and give proper support to children diagnosed with RD and their families.

  19. Prognostic impact of metastatic pattern in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro; Romero, Alberto Omar; Machiavelli, Mario Raúl; Pérez, Juan Eduardo; Leone, Julieta; Leone, José Pablo

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the prognostic influence of metastatic pattern (MP) compared with other biologic and clinical factors in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis (BCID) and evaluate factors associated with specific sites of metastases (SSM). We evaluated women with stage IV BCID with known metastatic sites, reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. MP was categorized as bone-only, visceral, bone and visceral (BV), and other. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). Logistic regression examined factors associated with SSM. We included 9143 patients. Bone represented 37.5% of patients, visceral 21.9%, BV 28.8%, and other 11.9%. Median OS by MP was as follows: bone 38 months, visceral 21 months, BV 19 months, and other 33 months (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis showed that higher number of metastatic sites had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.9), black race (hazard ratio 1.17), grade 3/4 tumors (hazard ratio 1.6), triple-negative (hazard ratio 2.24), BV MP (hazard ratio 2.07), and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.25) had significantly shorter OS. As compared with HR+/HER2- tumors, triple-negative and HR-/HER2+ had higher odds of brain, liver, lung, and other metastases. HR+/HER2+ had higher odds of liver metastases. All three subtypes had lower odds of bone metastases. There were substantial differences in OS according to MP. Tumor subtypes have a clear influence among other factors on SSM. We identified several prognostic factors that could guide therapy selection in treatment naïve patients.

  20. Statewide Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Early Elective Deliveries and Improve Birth Registry Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Heather C; King, Eileen; White, Beth E; Ford, Susan E; Fuller, Sandra; Krew, Michael A; Marcotte, Michael P; Iams, Jay D; Bailit, Jennifer L; Bouchard, Jo M; Friar, Kelly; Lannon, Carole M

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the success of a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data accuracy rapidly and at scale in Ohio. Between February 2013 and March 2014, participating hospitals were involved in a quality improvement initiative to reduce early elective deliveries at less than 39 weeks of gestation and improve birth registry data. This initiative was designed as a learning collaborative model (group webinars and a single face-to-face meeting) and included individual quality improvement coaching. It was implemented using a stepped wedge design with hospitals divided into three balanced groups (waves) participating in the initiative sequentially. Birth registry data were used to assess hospital rates of nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation. Comparisons were made between groups participating and those not participating in the initiative at two time points. To measure birth registry accuracy, hospitals conducted monthly audits comparing birth registry data with the medical record. Associations were assessed using generalized linear repeated measures models accounting for time effects. Seventy of 72 (97%) eligible hospitals participated. Based on birth registry data, nonmedically indicated inductions at less than 39 weeks of gestation declined in all groups with implementation (wave 1: 6.2-3.2%, P<.001; wave 2: 4.2-2.5%, P=.04; wave 3: 6.8-3.7%, P=.002). When waves 1 and 2 were participating in the initiative, they saw significant decreases in rates of early elective deliveries as compared with wave 3 (control; P=.018). All waves had significant improvement in birth registry accuracy (wave 1: 80-90%, P=.017; wave 2: 80-100%, P=.002; wave 3: 75-100%, P<.001). A quality improvement initiative enabled statewide spread of change strategies to decrease early elective deliveries and improve birth registry accuracy over 14 months and could be used for rapid

  1. Initiation of follicular atresia: gene networks during early atresia in pig ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbi; Liu, Yang; Yao, Wang; Li, Qifa; Liu, Hong-Lin; Pan, Zengxiang

    2018-05-09

    In mammals, more than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo a degenerative process known as atresia. The molecular events involve in atresia initiation remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze differential gene expression profiles of medium antral ovarian follicles during early atresia in pig. The transcriptome evaluation was performed on cDNA microarrays using healthy and early atretic follicle samples and was validated by quantitative PCR. Annotation analysis applying current database (sus scrofa 11.1) revealed 450 significantly differential expressed genes between healthy and early atretic follicles. Among them, 142 were significantly up-regulated in early atretic with respect to healthy group and 308 were down-regulated. Similar expression trends were observed between microarray data and qRT-PCR confirmation, which indicated the reliability of the microarray analysis. Further analysis of the differential expressed genes revealed the most significantly affected biological functions during early atresia including blood vessel development, regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress and negative regulation of cell adhesion. The pathway and interaction analysis suggested that atresia initiation associates with 1) a crosstalk of cell apoptosis, autophagy, and ferroptosis rather than change of typical apoptosis markers, 2) dramatic shift of steroidogenic enzymes, 3) deficient glutathione metabolism, and 4) vascular degeneration. The novel gene candidates and pathways identified in the current study will lead to a comprehensive view of the molecular regulation of ovarian follicular atresia and a new understanding of atresia initiation.

  2. Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Initiatives on Special Education Placements in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschkin, Clara G.; Ladd, Helen F.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the community-wide effects of investments in two early childhood initiatives in North Carolina (Smart Start and More at Four) on the likelihood of a student being placed into special education. We take advantage of variation across North Carolina counties and years in the timing of the introduction and funding levels of the two…

  3. Parental Monitoring during Early Adolescence Deters Adolescent Sexual Initiation: Discrete-Time Survival Mixture Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups were…

  4. The Experiences of Early Career Teachers: New Initiatives and Old Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Buchanan, John; Varadharajan, Meera; Burke, Paul F.

    2018-01-01

    The task of supporting beginning teachers has received considerable attention in recent years, and numerous initiatives have been implemented. In this article we investigate the experiences of early career teachers (ECTs) in New South Wales, Australia, at a time when their employing authority mandated the provision of mentors and a reduction in…

  5. Frameworks for Change: Four Recurrent Themes for Quality in Early Childhood Curriculum Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…

  6. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  7. Application of multiplex nested methylated specific PCR in early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bi; Yu, Lei; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Luo, Xin; Huang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the application of multiplex nested methylated specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Serum and fresh tissue samples were collected from 114 EOC patients. RUNX3, TFPI2 and OPCML served as target genes. Methylation levels of tissues were assessed by multiplex nested methylated specific PCR, the results being compared with those for carcinoma antigen 125 (CA125). The serum free deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) methylation spectrum of EOC patients was completely contained in the DNA spectrum of cancer tissues, providing an accurate reflection of tumor DNA methylation conditions. Serum levels of CA125 and free DNA methylation in the EOC group were evidently higher than those in benign lesion and control groups (p<0.05). Patients with early EOC had markedly lower serum CA125 than those with advanced EOC (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in free DNA methylation (p>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predicative value (PPV) of multiplex nested methylated specific PCR were significantly higher for detection of all patients and those with early EOC than those for CA125 (p<0.05). In the detection of patients with advanced EOC, the PPV of CA125 detection was obviously lower than that of multiplex nested methylated specific PCR (p>0.05), but there was no significant difference in sensitivity (p>0.05). Serum free DNA methylation can be used as a biological marker for EOC and multiplex nested methylated specific PCR should be considered for early diagnosis since it can accurately determine tumor methylation conditions.

  8. Early diagnosis of genital mucosal melanoma: how good are our dermoscopic criteria?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tova; Pulitzer, Melissa; Marino, Maria L; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Zivanovic, Oliver; Marchetti, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    There are limited studies on the dermoscopic features of mucosal melanoma, particularly early-stage lesions. Described criteria include the presence of blue, gray, or white colors, with a reported sensitivity of 100%. It is unclear if these features will aid in the detection of early mucosal melanoma or improve diagnostic accuracy compared to naked-eye examination alone. An Asian female in her fifties was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic, irregularly pigmented patch of the clitoral hood and labia minora of unknown duration. Her past medical history was notable for Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. She denied a personal or family history of skin cancer. Dermoscopic evaluation of the vulvar lesion revealed heterogeneous brown and black pigmentation mostly composed of thick lines. There were no other colors or structures present. As the differential diagnosis included vulvar melanosis and mucosal melanoma, the patient was recommended to undergo biopsy, which was delayed due to complications from her underlying lung cancer. Repeat dermoscopic imaging performed three months later revealed significant changes concerning for melanoma, including increase in size, asymmetric darkening, and the appearance of structureless areas and central blue and pink colors. Histopathological examination of a biopsy and subsequent resection confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in situ. Previously described dermoscopic features for mucosal melanoma may not have high sensitivity for early melanomas. Additional studies are needed to define the dermoscopic characteristics of mucosal melanomas that aid in early detection. Health care providers should have a low threshold for biopsy of mucosal lesions that show any clinical or dermoscopic features of melanoma, especially in older women.

  9. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    PubMed

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  10. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  11. The evolution of the early Martian climate and the initial emplacement of crustal H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the geomorphic evidence for the widespread occurrence of water and ice in the early Martian crust, and the difficulty involved in accounting for this distribution given the present climate, it has been suggested that the planet's early climate was originally more Earth-like, permitting the global emplacement of crustal H2O by direct precipitation as snow or rain. The resemblance of the Martian valley networks to terrestrial runoff channels and their almost exclusive occurrence in the planet's ancient (approximately 4-b.y.-old) heavily cratered terrain are often cited as evidence of just such a period. An alternative school of thought suggests that the early climate did not differ substantially from that of today. Advocates of this view find no compelling reason to invoke a warmer, wetter period to explain the origin of the valley networks. Rather, they cite evidence that the primary mechanism of valley formation was groundwater sapping, a process that does not require that surface water exists in equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, while sapping may successfully explain the origin of the small valleys, it fails to address how the crust was initially charged with ice as the climate evolved towards its present state. Therefore, given the uncertainty regarding the environmental conditions that prevailed on early Mars, the initial emplacement of ground ice is considered here from two perspectives: (1) the early climate started warm and wet, but gradually cooled with time, and (2) the early climate never differed substantially from that of today.

  12. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part I.

    PubMed

    Bohîlțea, R E; Ancăr, V; Cirstoiu, M M; Rădoi, V; Bohîlțea, L C; Furtunescu, F

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania, reaching in 2013 the average value of 8.06/ 100,000 women, and 15.97/ 100,000 women within the highest risk age range, having in recent years an increasing trend, being higher in urban than in rural population. Annually, approximately 800 new cases are registered in our country. The estimated lifetime risk of a woman to develop endometrial cancer is of about 1,03%. Based on an abnormal uterine bleeding, 35% of the endometrial cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, with significantly diminished lifetime expectancy. Drafting a national program for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. We proposed a standardization of the diagnostic steps and focused on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding occurring in pre/ post-menopausal women, investigating features/ anomalies of cervical cytology examination, diagnosis, treatment and proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms addresses the four risk groups, by improving information system reporting and record keeping. Improving addressability cases by increasing the health education of the population will increase the rate of diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages of the disease. ACOG = American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, PATT = Partial Activated Thromboplastin Time, BRCA = Breast Cancer Gene, CT = Computerized Tomography, IFGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, HLG = Hemoleucogram, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, BMI = Body Mass Index, INR = International Normalized Ratio, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI

  14. Light-chain cardiac amyloidosis: strategies to promote early diagnosis and cardiac response

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Martha; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterised by the aggregation of misfolded immunoglobulin light chain (LC), predominantly in the heart and kidneys, causing organ failure. If untreated, the median survival of patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis is 6 months from the onset of heart failure. Protracted time to establish a diagnosis, often lasting >1 year, is a frequent factor in poor treatment outcomes. Cardiologists, to whom patients are often referred, frequently miss the opportunity to diagnose cardiac AL amyloidosis. Nearly all typical cardiac support measures, with the exception of diuretics, are ineffective and may even worsen clinical symptoms, emphasising the need for accurate diagnosis. Patients with severe cardiac involvement face poor outcomes; heart transplantation is rarely an option because of multiorgan involvement, rapid clinical decline and challenges in predicting which patients will respond to treatment of the underlying plasma cell disorder. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with ‘source therapies’ that limit the production of amyloidogenic LC are associated with better survival and improvement in organ function after a median of 2.4 months following haematological complete response. However, organ recovery is often incomplete because these source therapies do not directly target deposited amyloid. Emerging amyloid-directed therapies may attenuate, and potentially reverse, organ dysfunction by clearing existing amyloid and inhibiting fibril formation of circulating aggregates. Improved recognition of AL amyloidosis by cardiologists allows for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. PMID:28456755

  15. Screening mammography--early detection or over-diagnosis? Contribution from Australian data.

    PubMed

    Bell, R J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the benefits and harms of organized screening mammography, with particular reference to data from Australia. Published literature was examined relating to the impact of screening mammography on breast cancer-specific mortality, the trends in use of adjuvant treatments for breast cancer, the effectiveness of adjuvant treatment in terms of breast cancer-specific mortality, the impact of breast cancer treatment on non-breast cancer mortality and the magnitude of the issue of over-diagnosis. Most of the recent reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality is explained by use of adjuvant therapy rather than screening mammography. The impact of screening mammography in countries where women present with early disease and have access to adjuvant treatment is modest. There is a wide range of estimates for the magnitude of over-diagnosis. All-cause mortality (rather than breast cancer-specific mortality) should be used when assessing the impact of mammographic screening as otherwise the harm of breast cancer treatment in women who are over-diagnosed will be missed. The benefits and harms of screening mammography are finely balanced. The impact of screening mammography is at best neutral but may result in overall harm. Women should be informed of the issue of over-diagnosis. It is time to review whether organized mammographic screening programs should continue.

  16. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Three Methods for the Early Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis in Cats.

    PubMed

    Silva, J N; Miranda, L H M; Menezes, R C; Gremião, I D F; Oliveira, R V C; Vieira, S M M; Conceição-Silva, F; Ferreiro, L; Pereira, S A

    2018-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is caused by species of fungi within the Sporothrix schenckii complex that infect man and animals. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an epidemic has been observed since 1998, with most of the cases being related to transmission from infected cats. Although the definitive diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis is made by fungal culture, cytopathological and histopathological examinations are used routinely, because the long culture period may delay treatment onset. However, alternative methods are desirable in cases of low fungal burden. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been described as a sensitive method for diagnosing human and canine sporotrichosis, but there are no reports of its application to cats. The aim of this study was to analyse the sensitivity of cytopathological examination (Quick Panoptic method), histopathology (Grocott silver stain) and anti-Sporothrix IHC by blinded comparisons, using fungal culture as the reference standard. Samples were collected from 184 cats with sporotrichosis that exhibited skin ulcers. The sensitivities of Grocott silver stain, cytopathological examination and IHC were 91.3%, 87.0% and 88.6%, respectively. Grocott silver stain showed the best performance. IHC showed high sensitivity, as did cytopathological examination and these may be considered as alternative methodologies. When the three methods were combined, the diagnosis was established in 180 (97.8%) out of 184 cases. Taken together, these findings indicate the need to implement these methods as routine tools for the early diagnosis of sporotrichosis in cats, notably when fungal culture is not available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical utility of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Kaj; Dubois, Bruno; Fagan, Anne M.; Lewczuk, Piotr; de Leon, Mony J.; Hampel, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Several potential disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have failed to show any effect on disease progression in clinical trials, conceivably because the AD subjects are already too advanced to derive clinical benefit from treatment and because diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone introduces a high misdiagnosis rate. Thus, well-validated biomarkers for early detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the amyloid-β (Aβ1-42) peptide, in combination with high total tau and phosphorylated tau, are sensitive and specific biomarkers highly predictive of progression to AD dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment. However, interlaboratory variations in the results seen with currently available immunoassays are of concern. Recent worldwide standardization efforts and quality control programs include standard operating procedures for both preanalytical (e.g., lumbar puncture and sample handling) and analytical (e.g., preparation of calibration curve) procedures. Efforts are also ongoing to develop highly reproducible assays on fully automated instruments. These global standardization and harmonization measures will provide the basis for the generalized international application of CSF bio-markers for both clinical trials and routine clinical diagnosis of AD. PMID:24795085

  18. Timing of First Antenatal Care (ANC) and Inequalities in Early Initiation of ANC in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Yuba Raj; Jha, Trishna; Mehata, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The provision and uptake of quality and timely antenatal care (ANC) is an essential element of efforts to improve health outcomes for women and newborn babies. Antenatal consultations assist in early identification and treatment of complications during pregnancy. This study aimed to provide an information on distribution and inequalities in early initiation of ANC in Nepal. The distribution and inequalities in the early initiation of ANC were examined using Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys 2011. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess inequalities. Overall, 70% of the women had started their first ANC at 4 month or earlier. Among participants who had never attended school, just more than half (52%) received first ANC at 4 months or earlier, while majority of participants (97%) who had received higher education received first ANC at recommended time. Similarly, 89% of those from richest quintile and 48% of those from poorest quintile received first ANC at recommended time. In adjusted analysis, women from richest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to initiate ANC early (AOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.31-6.05) compared to the poorest. Similarly, women with higher level education were significantly more likely (AOR: 11.40, 95% CI: 5.05-25.73) to initiate ANC early compared to women who had never attended school. A significantly lower odds of early ANC take up was observed among madhesi other caste (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) compared to brahmin/chhetri women. Women whose pregnancy was unwanted were significantly less likely to attend first ANC at 4 months or early (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93) in comparison to women whose pregnancy was wanted. The differences in the recommended timing of initiation of ANC were evident among women with different educational, economic levels, and caste/ethnic groups. Rural women were less likely to have checkups as per guidelines. The findings suggest to a need of interventions to raise female

  19. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mimoz, O; Karim, A; Mazoit, J X; Edouard, A; Leprince, S; Nordmann, P

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated prospectively the use of Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens to allow the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), compared with the use of 60 bronchoscopic protected specimen brushes (PSB) and 126 blinded plugged telescopic catheters (PTC) obtained from 134 patients. Gram stains were from Cytospin slides; they were studied for the presence of microorganisms in 10 and 50 fields by two independent observers and classified according to their Gram stain morphology. Quantitative cultures were performed after serial dilution and plating on appropriate culture medium. A final diagnosis of VAP, based on a culture of > or = 10(3) c.f.u. ml-1, was established after 81 (44%) samplings. When 10 fields were analysed, a strong relationship was found between the presence of bacteria on Gram staining and the final diagnosis of VAP (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 74 and 81%, specificity 94 and 100%, positive predictive value 91 and 100%, negative predictive value 82 and 88%). The correlation was less when we compared the morphology of microorganisms observed on Gram staining with those of bacteria obtained from quantitative cultures (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 54 and 69%, specificity 86 and 89%, positive predictive value 72 and 78%, negative predictive value 74 and 84%). Increasing the number of fields read to 50 was associated with a slight decrease in specificity and positive predictive value of Gram staining, but with a small increase in its sensitivity and negative predictive value. The results obtained by the two observers were similar to each other for both numbers of fields analysed. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens performed on 10 fields predicted the presence of VAP and partially identified (using Gram stain morphology) the microorganisms growing at significant concentrations, and could help in the early choice of the treatment of VAP. Increasing the number of fields read or having the Gram

  20. [Early diagnosis of Hansen disease: study of the health services in Recife (Pernambuco), Brazil].

    PubMed

    Feliciano, K V; Kovacs, M H; Alzate, A

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive study carried out in the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and September 1994. The study aimed at health services available for performing early diagnosis of Hansen's disease with emphasis on accessibility and quality of the services provided. The sample consisted of 32 health clinics visited for diagnostic purposes by 183 patients with Hansen's disease. Information on organizational infrastructures was collected by means of interviews with health clinic managers. Information regarding routine procedures in the 32 clinics was collected by observation, with special attention given to archival and inspection activities. A total of 1,998 patients were interviewed to determine accessibility of services. Time spent in consultation with the physician was determined for 1,000 patients who were seen by 123 physicians at the clinics during the interviews. To explore physicians' attitude and knowledge regarding Hansen's disease, 133 were randomly selected from a list of names. The following factors were identified as hindering early diagnosis of Hansen's disease: the large number of people seeking service who could not be seen by a physician on the same day; the long time elapsed between appointment scheduling and the actual visit (for those not seen on the same day); the long wait for the consultation; the brevity of the consultation; the low availability of trained personnel; the low proportion of physicians who examined all body surfaces; difficulties in the clinical recognition of the disease; and physicians not prepared to make a differential diagnosis. These obstacles can precipitate the physical deterioration of Hansen's disease patients and stimulate the persistence of transmissibility; therefore, they need to be overcome if Hansen's disease is to be eliminated.

  1. Accuracy of blood culture for early diagnosis of mediastinitis in febrile patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    San Juan, R; Aguado, J M; López, M J; Lumbreras, C; Enriquez, F; Sanz, F; Chaves, F; López-Medrano, F; Lizasoain, M; Rufilanchas, J J

    2005-03-01

    Postsurgical mediastinitis (PSM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery procedures. Although prompt diagnosis is crucial in these patients, neither clinical data nor imaging techniques have shown enough sensitivity or specificity for early diagnosis of PSM. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of blood cultures as a diagnostic test for the early detection of PSM in patients who become febrile after cardiac surgery procedures. During a 4-year period (1999-2002), patients who developed fever (>37.8 degrees C) in the first 60 days after a cardiac surgery procedure were evaluated. Blood cultures were drawn from these patients. PSM was defined as deep infection involving retrosternal tissue and/or the sternal bone directly observed by the surgeon and confirmed microbiologically. Three criteria for positivity of blood cultures were applied: bacteremia, staphylococcal bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. For purposes of the analysis, a positive blood culture in patients with PSM was considered a true-positive test and a negative blood culture a false-negative test. Otherwise, in febrile patients without PSM in the postsurgery period, a positive blood culture was considered a false-positive test and a negative blood culture a true-negative test. Blood cultures were drawn from 266 febrile patients in the postsurgery period. PSM occurred in 38 patients (26 cases due to S. aureus, 8 to Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3 to gram-negative enteric bacteria, and one to Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Within the 60-day postsurgical period, blood culture as a diagnostic test was most accurate in patients with S. aureus bacteremia, providing 68% sensitivity, 98% specificity, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. If the analysis was limited to the period during which patients are at maximum risk for PSM (day 7-20), the values in patients with S. aureus bacteremia were as follows

  2. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    to the Italian context; the document of the Agency for Regional Healthcare Services (AGE.NA.S) is a more suited compendium for consultation, and the recent joint statement on integrated COPD management of the three major Italian scientific Associations in the respiratory area together with the contribution of a Society of General Medicine deals prevalently with some critical issues (appropriateness of diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, rehabilitation, continuing care); also the document "Care Continuity: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)" of the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)-Italy does not treat in depth the issue of early diagnosis. The present document - produced by the AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease) Task Force for early diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model and on available evidence and expertise -after a general examination of the main epidemiologic aspects, proposes to integrate the above-mentioned existing documents. In particular: a) it formally indicates on the basis of the available evidence the modalities and the instruments necessary for carrying out secondary prevention at the primary care level (a pro-active,'case-finding'approach; assessment of the individual's level of risk of COPD; use of short questionnaires for an initial screening based on symptoms; use of simple spirometry for the second level of screening); b) it identifies possible ways of including these activities within primary care practice; c) it places early diagnosis within the "systemic", consequential management of chronic respiratory diseases, which will be briefly described with the aid of schemes taken from the Italian and international reference documents.

  3. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    the Italian context; the document of the Agency for Regional Healthcare Services (AGE.NA.S) is a more suited compendium for consultation, and the recent joint statement on integrated COPD management of the three major Italian scientific Associations in the respiratory area together with the contribution of a Society of General Medicine deals prevalently with some critical issues (appropriateness of diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, rehabilitation, continuing care); also the document “Care Continuity: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)” of the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)-Italy does not treat in depth the issue of early diagnosis. The present document – produced by the AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease) Task Force for early diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model and on available evidence and expertise –after a general examination of the main epidemiologic aspects, proposes to integrate the above-mentioned existing documents. In particular: a) it formally indicates on the basis of the available evidence the modalities and the instruments necessary for carrying out secondary prevention at the primary care level (a pro-active,‘case-finding’approach; assessment of the individual’s level of risk of COPD; use of short questionnaires for an initial screening based on symptoms; use of simple spirometry for the second level of screening); b) it identifies possible ways of including these activities within primary care practice; c) it places early diagnosis within the “systemic”, consequential management of chronic respiratory diseases, which will be briefly described with the aid of schemes taken from the Italian and international reference documents. PMID:25473523

  4. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, M G; Willemink, M J; Pompe, E; van der Bruggen, T; van Rhenen, A; Lammers, J W J; Wessels, F; Sprengers, R W; de Jong, P A; Minnema, M C

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  5. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pompe, E.; van der Bruggen, T.; van Rhenen, A.; Lammers, J. W. J.; Wessels, F.; Sprengers, R. W.; de Jong, P. A.; Minnema, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose. PMID:28235014

  6. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating DNA in serum for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Millon, Laurence; Larosa, Fabrice; Lepiller, Quentin; Legrand, Faezeh; Rocchi, Steffi; Daguindau, Etienne; Scherer, Emeline; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Leroy, Joel; Grenouillet, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the detection of circulating DNA from the most common species of Mucorales for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in at-risk patients. We retrospectively evaluated a combination of 3 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays using hydrolysis probes targeting Mucor/Rhizopus, Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia), and Rhizomucor for circulating Mucorales detection. Serial serum samples from 10 patients diagnosed with proven mucormycosis (2-9 samples per patient) were analyzed. No cross-reactivity was detected in the 3 qPCR assays using 19 reference strains of opportunistic fungi, and the limit of detection ranged from 3.7 to 15 femtograms/10 µL, depending on the species. DNA from Mucorales was detected in the serum of 9 of 10 patients between 68 and 3 days before mucormycosis diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and/or positive culture. All the qPCR results were concordant with culture and/or PCR-based identification of the causing agents in tissue (Lichtheimia species, Rhizomucor species, and Mucor/Rhizopus species in 4, 3, and 2 patients, respectively). Quantitative PCR was negative in only 1 patient with proven disseminated mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia species. Our study suggests that using specific qPCR targeting several species of Mucorales according to local ecology to screen at-risk patients could be useful in a clinical setting. The cost and efficacy of this strategy should be evaluated. However, given the human and economic cost of mucormycosis and the need for rapid diagnosis to initiate prompt directed antifungal therapy, this strategy could be highly attractive.

  7. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P < 0.001). A tick bite was not a risk factor. Fever; bleeding, vomiting, leucopoenia, thrombocytopenia, and increases in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were also indicative of CCHF infection. Accurate and speedy diagnosis of CCHF and appropriate treatment play an important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Hem D

    2017-10-25

    During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein-protein interaction, and pharmacogenomics

  9. Initial Misdiagnosis of Proximal Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Is Associated with Delay in Diagnosis and Advanced Stage at Presentation.

    PubMed

    Swords, Douglas S; Mone, Mary C; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P; Mulvihill, Sean J; Scaife, Courtney L

    2015-10-01

    Delay in diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with decreased survival. The effect of an initial misdiagnosis on delay in diagnosis and stage of PDAC is unknown. This study is a retrospective review (2000-2010) from a University-based cancer center of new diagnoses of proximal PDAC. Of 313 patients, 98 (31.3 %) had an initial misdiagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients were younger, 62.8 ± 12.6 vs. 68.0 ± 10.1 (p < 0.001). The most common initial misdiagnoses were: gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and peptic ulcer disease. After excluding patients with prior cholecystectomy, 14.2 % were misdiagnosed with gallbladder disease and underwent cholecystectomy before PDAC diagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients had higher rates of abdominal pain (p < 0.001), weight loss (p = 0.04), and acute pancreatitis (p < 0.001) and lower rate of jaundice (p < 0.001). Median time between symptoms to PDAC diagnosis was longer in misdiagnosed: 4.2 months vs. 1.4 (p < 0.001). Median time from contact with medical provider to axial imaging was longer in misdiagnosed (p < 0.001). Rate of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis was higher in misdiagnosed: 61.2 vs. 43.7 % (p = 0.004), with a 1.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.74) higher risk of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis; however, there was no difference in median overall survival in misdiagnosed patients (9.6 months in misdiagnosed vs. 10.3 months in correctly diagnosed, p = 0.69). Initial misdiagnosis of patients with proximal PDAC is associated with delay in diagnosis and higher risk of locally advanced or advanced disease at time of PDAC diagnosis.

  10. Altered serum microRNAs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a highly lethal infectious disease and early diagnosis of TB is critical for the control of disease progression. The objective of this study was to profile a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB infection. Methods Using TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) validation, expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 30 patients with active tuberculosis and 60 patients with Bordetella pertussis (BP), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus (EV) were analyzed. Results The Low-Density Array data showed that 97 miRNAs were differentially expressed in pulmonary TB patient sera compared with healthy controls (90 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated). Following qRT-PCR confirmation and receiver operational curve (ROC) analysis, three miRNAs (miR-361-5p, miR-889 and miR-576-3p) were shown to distinguish TB infected patients from healthy controls and other microbial infections with moderate sensitivity and specificity (area under curve (AUC) value range, 0.711-0.848). Multiple logistic regression analysis of a combination of these three miRNAs showed an enhanced ability to discriminate between these two groups with an AUC value of 0.863. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered levels of serum miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of pulmonary TB infection. PMID:23272999

  11. A Novel Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip Combined with Multiple Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yao; Zhi, Xiao; Su, Haichuan; Wang, Kan; Yan, Zhen; He, Nongyue; Zhang, Jingpu; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis is very important to improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and to understand the biology of cancer. In order to meet the clinical demands for early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we developed a disposable easy-to-use electrochemical microfluidic chip combined with multiple antibodies against six kinds of biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Helicobacter pylori CagA protein (H.P.), P53oncoprotein (P53), pepsinogen I (PG I), and PG-II). The six kinds of biomarkers related to gastric cancer can be detected sensitively and synchronously in a short time. The specially designed three electrodes system enables cross-contamination to be avoided effectively. The linear ranges of detection of the electrochemical microfluidic chip were as follows: 0.37-90 ng mL-1 for CEA, 10.75-172 U mL-1 for CA19-9, 10-160 U L-1 for H.P., 35-560 ng mL-1 for P53, 37.5-600 ng mL-1 for PG I, and 2.5-80 ng mL-1for PG II. This method owns better sensitivity compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of 394 specimens of gastric cancer sera. Furthermore, we established a multi-index prediction model based on the six kinds of biomarkers for predicting risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, the electrochemical microfluidic chip for detecting multiple biomarkers has great potential in applications such as early screening of gastric cancer patients, and therapeutic evaluation, and real-time dynamic monitoring the progress of gastric cancer in near future.

  12. Biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease: 'ALZheimer ASsociated gene'--a new blood biomarker?

    PubMed

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Janetzky, Bernd; Attems, Johannes; Kienzl, Elisabeth

    2008-08-01

    Simple, non-invasive tests for an early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers (plasma/serum, platelets, urine, connective tissue) for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) are available. In disease stages with evident cognitive disturbances, the clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity even in early disease stages are improved by CSF markers, in particular combined tau and amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) and plasma markers (eg, Abeta-42/Abeta-40 ratio). Recently, a novel gene/protein--ALZAS (Alzheimer Associated Protein)--with a 79 amino acid sequence, containing the amyloid beta-42 fragment (Abeta-42), the amyloid precursor protein (APP) transmembrane signal and a 12 amino acid C-terminal, not present in any other known APP alleles, has been discovered on chromosome 21 within the APP region. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed the expression of the transcript of this protein in the cortex and hippocampal regions as well as in lymphocytes of human AD patients. The expression of ALZAS is mirrored by a specific autoimmune response in AD patients, directed against the ct-12 end of the ALZAS-peptide but not against the Abeta-sequence. ELISA studies of plasma detected highest titers of ALZAS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (presymptomatic AD), but only moderately increased titers in autopsy-confirmed AD, whereas low or undetectable ct-12 titers were found in cognitively intact age-matched subjects and young controls. The antigen, ALZAS protein, was detected in plasma in later clinical stages of AD. It is suggested that ALZAS represents an indicator in a dynamic equilibrium between both peripheral and brain degenerative changes in AD and may become a useful "non-invasive" diagnostic marker via a simple blood test.

  13. A qualitative signature for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on relative expression orderings.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lu; Zhang, Zimei; Guan, Qingzhou; Guo, Yating; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Lv, Xingwei; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huarong; Wang, Xianlong; Guo, Zheng

    2018-04-23

    Currently, using biopsy specimens to confirm suspicious liver lesions of early hepatocellular carcinoma are not entirely reliable because of insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. It is necessary to develop a signature to aid early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis using biopsy specimens even when the sampling location is inaccurate. Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a simple qualitative signature to distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients. A signature consisting of 19 gene pairs was identified in the training data sets and validated in 2 large collections of samples from biopsy and surgical resection specimens. For biopsy specimens, 95.7% of 141 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and all (100%) of 108 cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients were correctly classified. Especially, all (100%) of 60 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues and 77.5% of 80 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. For surgical resection specimens, 99.7% of 733 hepatocellular carcinoma specimens were correctly classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, while 96.1% of 254 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues and 95.9% of 538 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, 17.0% of 47 cirrhosis from non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients waiting for liver transplantation were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating that some patients with long-lasting cirrhosis could have already gained hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics. The signature can distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and tumour-adjacent tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients even using inaccurately sampled biopsy specimens, which can aid early

  14. Which medical and social decision topics are important after early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease from the perspectives of people with Alzheimer's Disease, spouses and professionals?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Katharina; Perneczky, Robert; McCabe, Rose; Kurz, Alexander; Hamann, Johannes

    2016-03-08

    The relevance of early decision making will rise with increasing availability of early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain imaging or biomarkers. Five people with mild AD, six relatives and 13 healthcare professionals with experience in the management of AD were interviewed in a qualitative study regarding medical and social decision topics that emerge after early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Medical treatment, assistance in everyday life and legal issues emerged as the main decision topics after an early diagnosis of AD. People with AD mostly got in contact with the health and social care system through the initiative of their spouses. They were usually aware of their illness and most received antidementia drugs and/or behavioural interventions. Following diagnosis people with AD received support by their spouses. Healthcare professionals were aware of the risk of excessive demand on relatives due to supporting their family member with AD. In the opinion of healthcare professionals legal issues should be arranged in time before patients lose their decisional capacity. In addition, people with AD and spouses reported various coping strategies, in particular "carry on as normal" after diagnosis but mostly are reluctant to actively plan for future stages of the disease. Due to the common desire to "carry on as usual" after a diagnosis of AD, many people with AD and spouses may miss the opportunity to discuss and decide on important medical and social topics. A structured approach e.g. a decision aid might support people with AD and spouses in their decision making process and thereby preserve persons' with AD autonomy before they lose the capacity in decision-making.

  15. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation: The Effects of Training Local Health Volunteers in the Community.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age <12 weeks was inadequate including Thailand. The study aimed to improve the rate of early ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge-counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P < .001) and meeting an LHV (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.86-2.29, P < .001), but lower at 6 months after training (adjusted OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, P = .002). Almost all women (99.7%) in the intervention group who met an LHV reported that they were encouraged to attend early ANC. Training LHVs in communities by knowledge-counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited.

  16. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Maya; Cohen-Serrins, Julian; Knight, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families. PMID:28122018

  18. Multi-disciplinary team for early gastric cancer diagnosis improves the detection rate of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Di, Lianjun; Wu, Huichao; Zhu, Rong; Li, Youfeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Rui; Li, Hongping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hong; Chen, Hui; Zhen, Hong; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xuefeng; Xie, Ming; Tuo, Bigung

    2017-12-06

    Gastric cancer is a frequent malignant tumor worldwide and its early detection is crucial for curing the disease and enhancing patients' survival rate. This study aimed to assess whether the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) can improve the detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC). The detection rate of EGC at the Digestive Endoscopy Center, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, China between September 2013 and September 2015 was analyzed. MDT for the diagnosis of EGC in the hospital was established in September 2014. The study was divided into 2 time periods: September 1, 2013 to August 31, 2014 (period 1) and September 1, 2014 to September 1, 2015 (period 2). A total of 60,800 patients' gastroscopies were performed during the two years. 61 of these patients (0.1%) were diagnosed as EGC, accounting for 16.44% (61/371) of total patients with gastric cancer. The EGC detection rate before MDT (period 1) was 0.05% (16/29403), accounting for 9.09% (16/176) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period. In comparison, the EGC detection rate during MDT (period 2) was 0.15% (45/31397), accounting for 23% (45/195) of total patients with gastric cancer during this period (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses showed that intensive gastroscopy for high risk patients of gastric cancer enhanced the detection rate of EGC in cooperation with Department of Pathology (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 2.39-43.3, P < 0.05). MDT could improve the endoscopic detection rate of EGC.

  19. Socio-economic status and time trends associated with early ART initiation following primary HIV infection in Montreal, Canada: 1996 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mehraj, Vikram; Cox, Joseph; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Cao, Wei; Li, Taisheng; Ponte, Rosalie; Thomas, Réjean; Szabo, Jason; Baril, Jean-Guy; Trottier, Benoit; Côté, Pierre; LeBlanc, Roger; Bruneau, Julie; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV infection have varied over time, with the 2015 World Health Organization recommendation suggesting ART initiation at the time of diagnosis regardless of CD4 T-cell counts. Herein, we investigated the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors in addition to time trends on early ART initiation among participants of the Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study. The Montreal Primary HIV Infection Study is a prospective cohort established in three community medical centres (CMCs) and two university medical centres (UMCs). Recently diagnosed HIV-infected adults were categorized as receiving early (vs. delayed) ART if ART was initiated within 180 days of the baseline visit. Associations between early ART initiation and socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural information were examined. Independent associations of factors linked with early ART initiation were determined using multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 348 participants had a documented date of HIV acquisition of <180 days. The median interquartile range (IQR) age of participants was 35 (28; 42) years and the majority were male (96%), having paid employment (63%), men who have sex with men (MSM) (78%) and one to four sexual partners in the last three months (70%). Participants presented with a median IQR HIV plasma viral load of 4.6 (3.7; 5.3) log 10 copies/ml, CD4 count of 510 (387; 660) cells/μl and were recruited in CMCs (52%) or UMCs (48%). Early ART initiation was observed in 47% of the participants and the trend followed a V-shaped curve with peaks in 1996 to 1997 (89%) and 2013 to 2015 (88%) with a dip in 2007 to 2009 (22%). Multivariable analyses showed that having a paid employment adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.95), lower CD4 count (aOR per 50 cell increase: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99) and care at UMCs (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.90) were independently associated with early ART

  20. Ecodevelopmental Predictors of Early Initiation of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Estrada, Yannine; Huang, Shi; Martínez, Marcos; Sardinas, Krystal; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the transactional relationships of risk and protective factors that influence initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among Hispanic youth. Ecodevelopmental theory was used to identify factors at multiple ecological levels with a focus on four school-level characteristics (i.e. school socioeconomic status, school climate, school acculturation, and school ethnic composition). A sample of 741 Hispanic adolescents (M age =13.9, SD =.67) and their caregivers were recruited from 18 participating middle schools in Miami-Dade County, FL. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized ecodevelopmental model of early substance use, accounting for school clustering effects. Results provided strong support for the model (CFI = .95; RMSEA =.03). School SES was indirectly related to the likelihood of starting to use substances through perceived peer use norms (β =.03, p <.02). Similarly, school climate had an indirect effect on substance use initiation through family functioning and perceptions of peer use norms (β = −.03, p < .01). Neither school ethnic composition nor school acculturation had indirect effects on initiation of substance use. Results highlight the importance of the interplay of risk and protective factors at multiple ecological levels that impact early substance use initiation. Further, findings underscore the key role of school level characteristics on initiation of substance use and present opportunities for intervention. PMID:26054814

  1. The value of confirmatory testing in early infant HIV diagnosis programmes in South Africa: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Lorna; Francke, Jordan A; Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Penazzato, Martina; Hou, Taige; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J; Walensky, Rochelle P; Leroy, Valériane; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa. Using the Cost-effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Pediatric model, we simulated EID testing at age 6 weeks for HIV-exposed infants without and with confirmatory testing. We assumed a NAAT cost of US$25, NAAT specificity of 99.6%, NAAT sensitivity of 100% for infants infected in pregnancy or at least 4 weeks prior to testing, and a mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate at 12 months of 4.9%; we simulated guideline-concordant rates of testing uptake, result return, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (100%). After diagnosis, infants were linked to and retained in care for 10 years (false-positive) or lifelong (true-positive). All parameters were varied widely in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes included number of infants with false-positive diagnoses linked to ART per 1,000 ART initiations, life expectancy (LE, in years) and per-person lifetime HIV-related healthcare costs. Both without and with confirmatory testing, LE was 26.2 years for HIV-infected infants and 61.4 years for all HIV-exposed infants; clinical outcomes for truly infected infants did not differ by strategy. Without confirmatory testing, 128/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses; with confirmatory testing, 1/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses. Because confirmatory testing averted costly HIV care and ART in truly HIV-uninfected infants, it was cost-saving: total cost US$1,790/infant tested, compared to US$1,830/infant tested without confirmatory testing. Confirmatory

  2. Lung Metastases in Neuroblastoma at Initial Diagnosis: A Report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Project

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Steven G.; London, Wendy B.; Zhang, Yang; Matthay, Katherine K.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew; Diller, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid cancer. Lung metastasis is rarely detected in children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database. Procedure The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis. Clinical and biological characteristics were compared between patients with and without lung metastasis. Survival for patients with and without lung metastasis was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis. Results Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis. Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (p < 0.02 in each case). Five-year overall survival ± standard error for patients with lung metastasis was 34.5% ± 6.8% compared to 44.7% ± 1.3% for patients without lung metastasis (p=0.0002). However, in multivariable analysis, the presence of lung metastasis was not independently predictive of outcome. Conclusions Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels. Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome. PMID:18649370

  3. Sex disparities in diagnosis of bladder cancer after initial presentation with hematuria: a nationwide claims-based investigation.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Joshua A; Vekhter, Benjamin; Lyttle, Christopher; Steinberg, Gary D; Large, Michael C

    2014-02-15

    Women have disproportionately higher mortality rates relative to incidence for bladder cancer. Multiple etiologies have been proposed, including delayed diagnosis and treatment. Guidelines recommend ruling out malignancy in men and women presenting with hematuria. This study sought to determine the difference in timing from presentation with hematuria to diagnosis of bladder cancer in women versus men. This is a retrospective population-based study examining the timing from presentation with hematuria to diagnosis of bladder cancer, based on data from the MarketScan databases, which include enrollees of more than 100 health insurance plans of approximately 40 large US employers from 2004 through 2010. All study patients presented with hematuria and were subsequently diagnosed with bladder cancer. The primary outcome measure was number of days between initial presentation with hematuria and diagnosis of bladder cancer by sex. A total of 5416 men and 2233 women met inclusion criteria. Mean days from initial hematuria claim to bladder cancer claim was significantly longer in women (85.4 versus 73.6 days, P < .001), and the proportion of women with >6 month delay in bladder cancer diagnosis was significantly higher (17.3% versus 14.1%, P < .001). Women were more likely to be diagnosed with urinary tract infection (odds ratio = 2.32, 95% confidence interval = 2.07-2.59) and less likely to undergo abdominal or pelvic imaging (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.71-0.89). Both men and women experience significant delays between presentation with hematuria and diagnosis of bladder cancer, with longer delays for women. This may be partly responsible for the sex-based discrepancy in outcomes associated with bladder cancer. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  4. The protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2004-10-01

    Substantial research and theory suggests that smoking initiation is socially mediated, with both peers and parents playing important roles. To learn more about how parenting behaviors influence smoking initiation, students (n=1002) from four middle schools were surveyed at the beginning of the sixth grade (T1), and the end of the sixth (T2) and seventh (T3) grades. T1 and T2-T1 predictors were regressed on smoking initiation at the end of seventh grade. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, association with friends who smoke, attitudes toward deviance, outcome expectations for smoking, perceived school climate, parental expectations, parental involvement at T1 and increases in these variables (T2-T1) were associated with smoking initiation at T3, but only the T1 measures of social competence, academic engagement, school adjustment, perceived prevalence, parental monitoring and parental involvement were associated with smoking initiation at T3. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, parental expectations were negatively associated, and increases in attitudes accepting of deviance and affiliation with friends who smoke were positively associated with smoking initiation. Analysis of interactions indicated that parental expectations and monitoring did not mediate the effect on smoking initiation of attitudes toward deviance or the number of friends who smoke. These findings provide evidence that parental expectations may protect early adolescents against smoking even in the context of increases in favorable attitudes and friends who smoking.

  5. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    PubMed

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  6. [Tuberculous gumma or metastatic tuberculous abscess as initial diagnosis of tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient: an unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Marco, A; Solé, R; Raguer, E; Aranda, M

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous cold abscesses or gumma are an unusual form of tuberculosis. We report a case of gumma as initial diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis. This case was studied in 2012 in Barcelona ( Spain). Source data was compiled from the electronic clinical records, hospital reports and additional diagnostic testing. Immunocompetent inmate, born in Cape Verde, living in Spain since the age of four. Positive tuberculin skin test. Initial examination without interest, but a palpable mass in lower back. Fine needle aspiration of the abscess was positive (PCR and Lowenstein) for M. tuberculosis. Computed tomography showed lung cavitary nodes in apical part and lung upper right side. After respiratory isolation, antituberculous therapy and an excellent evolution, the patient was discharged from hospital with disseminated tuberculosis diagnosis. It is advisable to monitor the injuries since, although rare, it may be secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, mainly in inmuno-compromised populations and in immigrants coming from hyper-endemic tuberculosis areas.

  7. Long-term effect of initiating pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    To compare the long-term outcomes of subjects initially treated with pramipexole dihydrochloride with those of subjects initially treated with levodopa in the Comparison of the Agonist Pramipexole With Levodopa on Motor Complications of Parkinson's Disease (CALM-PD) trial. Up to 2 years of open extended follow-up of the CALM-PD subjects. Academic movement disorders clinics at 22 sites in the United States and Canada. Patients Patients with early Parkinson disease (N = 301) who required dopaminergic therapy to treat emerging disability were enrolled between October 1996 and August 1997, a subset of whom consented to extended follow-up until August 2003 (n = 222). Intervention Subjects were randomized to receive initial treatment with either pramipexole (n = 151) or levodopa (n = 150). Investigators were permitted to add open-label levodopa or other antiparkinsonian medications to treat ongoing or emerging disability. The primary outcome variable was the time-weighted average of self-reported disability scores in the "on" and "off" states as measured by the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale at the final visit. Secondary outcomes included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, the presence and severity of dopaminergic motor complications, quality-of-life scale scores, Geriatric Depression Scale score, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, and adverse events. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.0 (0.2) years, mean (SD) self-reported weighted Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale scores were similar in the initial pramipexole (79.9 [16.2]) and initial levodopa (82.5 [14.6]) groups (P = .19). Dopaminergic motor complications (wearing off, on-off effects, or dyskinesias) were more common in the initial levodopa group (68.4%) than in the initial pramipexole group (50.0%) (P = .002), although disabling dyskinesias were uncommon in both groups. The mean (SD) Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was significantly higher in the initial pramipexole

  8. [Utility of early imaging of myocardial innervation scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia].

    PubMed

    Camacho, V; Estorch, M; Marquié, M; Domènech, A; Flotats, A; Fernández, A; Duch, J; Geraldo, L L; Deportos, J; Artigas, C; Lleó, A; Carrió, I

    2013-03-01

    The importance of accurate and early diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) lies in its pharmacological management. Delayed imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy allows differentiation between DLB and other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of early imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy for differentiating DLB from others neurodegenerative disease with cognitive impairment. We assess retrospectively 106 patients (51 men, mean age 78 years) with cognitive impairment that underwent a cardiac (123)I-MIBG study. Planar images were acquired in anterior view of the thorax 15min (early) and 4h (delayed) after tracer administration. The heart-to-mediastinum ratios (HMR) at 15m (HMR15m) and at 4h (HMR4h) were obtained. After four years, 52 patients were diagnosed of DLB.HMR15m and HMR4h were significantly inferior in DLB respect to the others neurodegenerative diseases (1,27±0,15 vs 1,76±0,15,p<0,05) and (1,14±0,13 vs 1,68±0,19,p<0.01), respectively. The ROC analysis showed a HMR15m cut off point of 1.56 to differentiated DLB from the other dementias with a sensitivity and a specificity of 98%. Early imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy can help to differentiate DLB from other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive analysis of volatile biomarkers in human emanations for health and early disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Early disease diagnosis is crucial for human healthcare and successful therapy. Since any changes in homeostatic balance can alter human emanations, the components of breath exhalations and skin emissions may be diagnostic biomarkers for various diseases and metabolic disorders. Since hundreds of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the human body, analysis of these VOCs may be a noninvasive, painless, and easy diagnostic tool. Sampling and preconcentration by sorbent tubes/traps and solid-phase microextraction, in combination with GC or GC-MS, are usually used to analyze VOCs. In addition, GC-MS-olfactometry is useful for simultaneous analysis of odorants and odor quality. Direct MS techniques are also useful for the online real-time detection of VOCs. This review focuses on recent developments in sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in human odors and/or emanations, and discusses future use of VOC analysis.

  10. Improving human activity recognition and its application in early stroke diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Villar, José R; González, Silvia; Sedano, Javier; Chira, Camelia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    The development of efficient stroke-detection methods is of significant importance in today's society due to the effects and impact of stroke on health and economy worldwide. This study focuses on Human Activity Recognition (HAR), which is a key component in developing an early stroke-diagnosis tool. An overview of the proposed global approach able to discriminate normal resting from stroke-related paralysis is detailed. The main contributions include an extension of the Genetic Fuzzy Finite State Machine (GFFSM) method and a new hybrid feature selection (FS) algorithm involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a voting scheme putting the cross-validation results together. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is a well-performing HAR tool that can be successfully embedded in devices.

  11. [Utility of axial images in an early Alzheimer disease diagnosis support system (VSRAD)].

    PubMed

    Goto, Masami; Aoki, Shigeki; Abe, Osamu; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Satake, Yoshiroh; Nishida, Katsuji; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Kyohhito; Mima, Kazuo; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-09-20

    In recent years, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has become a popular tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. The Voxel-Based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), a VBM system that uses MRI, has been reported to be clinically useful. The able-bodied person database (DB) of VSRAD, which employs sagittal plane imaging, is not suitable for analysis by axial plane imaging. However, axial plane imaging is useful for avoiding motion artifacts from the eyeball. Therefore, we created an able-bodied person DB by axial plane imaging and examined its utility. We also analyzed groups of able-bodied persons and persons with dementia by axial plane imaging and reviewed the validity. After using the DB of axial plane imaging, the Z-score of the intrahippocampal region improved by 8 in 13 instances. In all brains, the Z-score improved by 13 in all instances.

  12. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, J. Randall; Delos, John B.; Flower, Abigail A.; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Richman, Joshua S.; Lake, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and non-linear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician. PMID:22026974

  13. Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heeney, J L

    2006-11-01

    Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed.

  14. Monitoring on internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding fiber Bragg grating for early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    The abnormal temperature rise is the precursor of the defective composite insulator in power transmission line. However no consolidated techniques or methodologies can on line monitor its internal temperature now. Thus a new method using embedding fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rod is adopted to monitor its internal temperature. To correctly demodulate the internal temperature of FRP rod from the Bragg wavelength shift of FBG, the conversion coefficient between them is deduced theoretically based on comprehensive investigation on the thermal stresses of the metal-composite joint, as well as its material and structural properties. Theoretical model shows that the conversion coefficients of FBG embedded in different positions will be different because of non-uniform thermal stress distribution, which is verified by an experiment. This work lays the theoretical foundation of monitoring the internal temperature of composite insulator with embedding FBG, which is of great importance to its health structural monitoring, especially early diagnosis.

  15. Challenges encountered by local health volunteers in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of malaria in Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zones.

    PubMed

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Aye, Khin Myo; Kyaw, Khin Thiri; Han, Soe Soe; Aye, Thin Thin; Wai, Khin Thet; Kyaw, Myat Phone

    2016-06-06

    After artemisinin resistance was reported, the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment (MARC) project was initiated in 2011. One of the activities of MARC is to train volunteers for early diagnosis and prompt treatment by providing rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and artemisinin combination therapy. This study aimed to fulfil the gap of information on the challenges faced by malaria volunteers in artemisinin-containment areas. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in 11 townships in MARC areas to assess the challenges in early diagnosis of malaria and treatment by malaria volunteers using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Altogether 405 volunteers participated in the study. Although 97.5 % of volunteers can interpret a positive result for malaria, only 41.2 % correctly stated the persistence of a positive result in recently infected cases. Over 80 % knew the effects of temperature and humidity on performance of the malaria RDT. Unexpectedly, 15.1 % perceived that expired RDTs can still be useful for diagnosis although 98.3 % of respondents cited that the overall results of RDTs were reliable. Although most of them knew the treatment for malaria based on RDT results, some could not give the correct answer, while a few (2 %) mentioned artesunate monotherapy for RDT-negative cases. Training received by volunteers was also varied in study sites and 92.1 % believed that it was not sufficient. A certain portion of them faced the problem of regular supply of RDTs (9.9 %) and drugs (47.5 %), interpretation of result of RDTs (30 %), and performing blood test (20 %). The median RDT tested per month (25th, 75th percentile) was 6.0 (2.0, 15.0) indicating the need for prioritization based on endemicity. Regular reporting, supervision, monitoring system, and proper refresher training using uniform content of guideline to correct misconception of the volunteers, were needed to be strengthened. Moreover, the reliable and regular supply of materials

  16. A hybrid feature selection approach for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Jutglà, Esteve; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Vialatte, François-Benoît; Elgendi, Mohamed; Cichocki, Andrzej; Dauwels, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Recently, significant advances have been made in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from electroencephalography (EEG). However, choosing suitable measures is a challenging task. Among other measures, frequency relative power (RP) and loss of complexity have been used with promising results. In the present study we investigate the early diagnosis of AD using synchrony measures and frequency RP on EEG signals, examining the changes found in different frequency ranges. Approach. We first explore the use of a single feature for computing the classification rate (CR), looking for the best frequency range. Then, we present a multiple feature classification system that outperforms all previous results using a feature selection strategy. These two approaches are tested in two different databases, one containing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects (patients age: 71.9 ± 10.2, healthy subjects age: 71.7 ± 8.3), and the other containing Mild AD and healthy subjects (patients age: 77.6 ± 10.0 healthy subjects age: 69.4 ± 11.5). Main results. Using a single feature to compute CRs we achieve a performance of 78.33% for the MCI data set and of 97.56% for Mild AD. Results are clearly improved using the multiple feature classification, where a CR of 95% is found for the MCI data set using 11 features, and 100% for the Mild AD data set using four features. Significance. The new features selection method described in this work may be a reliable tool that could help to design a realistic system that does not require prior knowledge of a patient's status. With that aim, we explore the standardization of features for MCI and Mild AD data sets with promising results.

  17. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  18. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Grati, Mhamed; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient's early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management.

  19. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. Methods In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Results Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. Conclusions We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient’s early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management. PMID:27440999

  20. Efficient mining of association rules for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, R.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Illán, I. A.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Gómez-Río, M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel technique based on association rules (ARs) is presented in order to find relations among activated brain areas in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. In this sense, the aim of this work is to discover associations among attributes which characterize the perfusion patterns of normal subjects and to make use of them for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Firstly, voxel-as-feature-based activation estimation methods are used to find the tridimensional activated brain regions of interest (ROIs) for each patient. These ROIs serve as input to secondly mine ARs with a minimum support and confidence among activation blocks by using a set of controls. In this context, support and confidence measures are related to the proportion of functional areas which are singularly and mutually activated across the brain. Finally, we perform image classification by comparing the number of ARs verified by each subject under test to a given threshold that depends on the number of previously mined rules. Several classification experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the proposed methods using a SPECT database that consists of 41 controls (NOR) and 56 AD patients labeled by trained physicians. The proposed methods were validated by means of the leave-one-out cross validation strategy, yielding up to 94.87% classification accuracy, thus outperforming recent developed methods for computer aided diagnosis of AD.

  1. The Impact of Ventilation and Early Diagnosis on Tuberculosis Transmission in Brazilian Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Juliana; Ko, Albert I.; da Silva Santos Carbone, Andrea; Paião, Dayse Sanchez Guimarães; Sgarbi, Renata Viebrantz Enne; Yeckel, Catherine W.; Andrews, Jason R.; Croda, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners have among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, the contribution of the prison environment on transmission is not well understood and structural characteristics have received little attention as effective epidemiological interventions in TB control. We evaluated architectural characteristics and estimated ventilation rates in 141 cells in three prisons in central west Brazil using steady-state exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. We used a modified Wells–Riley equation to estimate the probability of infection for inmates sharing a cell with an infectious case and projected the impact of interventions, including early diagnosis and improved ventilation. Overall, prison cells were densely populated (mean 2.1 m2 per occupant) and poorly ventilated, with only three cells meeting World Health Organization (WHO) standards for per-person ventilation (60 L/s) applied in infection control settings. In the absence of interventions, projected mean risk of infection was 78.0% during a 6-month period. Decreasing time-to-diagnosis by 25% reduced transmission risk by 8.3%. Improving ventilation to WHO standards decreased transmission by 38.2%, whereas optimizing cross-ventilation reduced transmission by 64.4%. Prison environments promote high infection risk over short-time intervals. In this context, enhanced diagnostics have a limited impact on reducing transmission. Improving natural ventilation may be required to effectively control TB in prisons. PMID:26195459

  2. The Impact of Ventilation and Early Diagnosis on Tuberculosis Transmission in Brazilian Prisons.

    PubMed

    Urrego, Juliana; Ko, Albert I; da Silva Santos Carbone, Andrea; Paião, Dayse Sanchez Guimarães; Sgarbi, Renata Viebrantz Enne; Yeckel, Catherine W; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-10-01

    Prisoners have among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, the contribution of the prison environment on transmission is not well understood and structural characteristics have received little attention as effective epidemiological interventions in TB control. We evaluated architectural characteristics and estimated ventilation rates in 141 cells in three prisons in central west Brazil using steady-state exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. We used a modified Wells-Riley equation to estimate the probability of infection for inmates sharing a cell with an infectious case and projected the impact of interventions, including early diagnosis and improved ventilation. Overall, prison cells were densely populated (mean 2.1 m(2) per occupant) and poorly ventilated, with only three cells meeting World Health Organization (WHO) standards for per-person ventilation (60 L/s) applied in infection control settings. In the absence of interventions, projected mean risk of infection was 78.0% during a 6-month period. Decreasing time-to-diagnosis by 25% reduced transmission risk by 8.3%. Improving ventilation to WHO standards decreased transmission by 38.2%, whereas optimizing cross-ventilation reduced transmission by 64.4%. Prison environments promote high infection risk over short-time intervals. In this context, enhanced diagnostics have a limited impact on reducing transmission. Improving natural ventilation may be required to effectively control TB in prisons. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of disseminated toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Taro; Sumi, Masahiko; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Kaneko, Yumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Norose, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-06-01

    A 66-year-old woman with refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma underwent cord blood transplantation. Prior to transplantation, a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies was positive. On day 96, she exhibited fever and dry cough. Chest CT showed diffuse centrilobular ground glass opacities in both lungs. The reactivation of T. gondii was identified by the presence of parasite DNA in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, brain MRI revealed a space occupying lesion in the right occipital lobe. Therefore, disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. She received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine from day 99. The lung and brain lesions both showed improvement but the PCR assay for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood was positive on day 133. On day 146, she developed blurred vision and reduced visual acuity, and a tentative diagnosis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was made based on ophthalmic examination results. As agranulocytosis developed on day 158, we decided to discontinue pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine and the treatment was thus switched to atovaquone. Moreover, we added spiramycin to atovaquone therapy from day 174, and her ocular condition gradually improved. In general, the prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor. However, early diagnosis and treatment may contribute to improvement of the fundamentally dismal prognosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis after HSCT.

  4. Video Head Impulse Test for Early Diagnosis of Vestibular Neuritis Among Acute Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qiongfeng; Zhang, Lisan; Hong, Wenke; Yang, Yi; Chen, Zhaoying; Lu, Peilin; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Xingyue

    2017-09-01

    This study assesses the value of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for early diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) among acute vertigo. Thirty-three cases of vestibular neuritis (VN), 96 patients with other acute vertigo (AV), and 50 cases of normal controls used vHIT to quantitatively test a pair of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflection (VOR) gains, two pairs of vertical VOR gains, and the corresponding three pairs of VOR gain asymmetry. The peculiarity of VOR gains in VN and the differences between VN and other AV, normal controls by vHIT, were collected and analyzed. There were statistically significant differences in the three pairs of VOR gains asymmetry between VN and other AV, and normal controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity was 87.9% and specificity was 94.3% in differentiating VN from normal and other acute vertigo by vHIT. This study shows vHIT has advantages in the diagnosis of VN in acute vertigo with good sensitivity and specificity and indicates a widespread clinical application.

  5. [Differential diagnosis of specific gastric lesions in early syphilis patients with helicobacter infection].

    PubMed

    Krivisheev, A B; Kuimov, A D; Krivosheev, B N

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate differential-diagnostic significance of different clinical signs, endoscopic and serological studies in making diagnosis of early gastric syphilis (EGS) in patients with helicobacter infection. Thirty patients were hospitalized with diagnosis of gastric and/or duodenal ulcer. Helicobacter pylori was identified morphologically or with a rapid urease test. Syphilis was rejected when microprecipitation reaction was negative and confirmed with Wassermann reaction. The patients received standard treatment including a course of eradication therapy. Endoscopic examination discovered single and multiple ulcers in 25 and 5 patients, respectively, located in the stomach and duodenum. A rapid test for syphilis produced negative and positive results in 28 and 2 patients, respectively. Twenty two patients tolerated eradication therapy well. Positive results were achieved in 19 (84.6%) patients. Six patients had side effects (pruritus, urticaria, dyspepsia) on eradication treatment day 2-3. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (elevated body temperature 38-38.6 degrees C) and roseola eruption were observed in 2 (6.7%) patients with positive serological reactions for syphilis on the first day of eradication therapy. Diagnostic criteria of EGS are the following: serologically confirmed manifest or latent syphilis, poor effect of standard antiulcer treatment, rapid elimination of the disease symptoms in antisyphilis therapy and positive changes in pathological alterations in gastric mucosa.

  6. An electrochemiluminescence-supramolecular approach to sarcosine detection for early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giovanni; Rampazzo, Enrico; Biavardi, Elisa; Villani, Elena; Fracasso, Giulio; Marcaccio, Massimo; Bertani, Federico; Ramarli, Dunia; Dalcanale, Enrico; Paolucci, Francesco; Prodi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring Prostate Cancer (PCa) biomarkers is an efficient way to diagnosis this disease early, since it improves the therapeutic success rate and suppresses PCa patient mortality: for this reason a powerful analytical technique such as electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is already used for this application, but its widespread usability is still hampered by the high cost of commercial ECL equipment. We describe an innovative approach for the selective and sensitive detection of the PCa biomarker sarcosine, obtained by a synergistic ECL-supramolecular approach, in which the free base form of sarcosine acts as co-reagent in a Ru(bpy)3(2+)-ECL process. We used magnetic micro-beads decorated with a supramolecular tetraphosphonate cavitand (Tiiii) for the selective capture of sarcosine hydrochloride in a complex matrix like urine. Sarcosine determination was then obtained with ECL measurements thanks to the complexation properties of Tiiii, with a protocol involving simple pH changes - to drive the capture-release process of sarcosine from the receptor - and magnetic micro-bead technology. With this approach we were able to measure sarcosine in the μM to mM window, a concentration range that encompasses the diagnostic urinary value of sarcosine in healthy subjects and PCa patients, respectively. These results indicate how this ECL-supramolecular approach is extremely promising for the detection of sarcosine and for PCa diagnosis and monitoring, and for the development of portable and more affordable devices.

  7. Attitudes of the German General Population toward Early Diagnosis of Dementia – Results of a Representative Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Sieber, Jennifer; Schomerus, Georg; Werner, Perla; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. Methods A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002) was conducted in 2011. Results The majority of respondents (69%) would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP) as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55%) stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs’ potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved. PMID:23209827

  8. Informing Children about Their Sibling's Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Initial Investigation into Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Kyoko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Endo, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The manner in which typically developing (TD) children were informed about their sibling's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was examined in Japan. Seventy-seven parents, each with a child with ASD and a TD child, participated in a questionnaire survey. From the data obtained, it was revealed that parents informed 66.7% (72/108) TD…

  9. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Using Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis and Characterization of Thyroid Nodules on Ultrasound: Initial Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Park, Hye Sun; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    An initial clinical assessment is described of a new, commercially available, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system using artificial intelligence (AI) for thyroid ultrasound, and its performance is evaluated in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules and categorization of nodule characteristics. Patients with thyroid nodules with decisive diagnosis, whether benign or malignant, were consecutively enrolled from November 2015 to February 2016. An experienced radiologist reviewed the ultrasound image characteristics of the thyroid nodules, while another radiologist assessed the same thyroid nodules using the CAD system, providing ultrasound characteristics and a diagnosis of whether nodules were benign or malignant. The diagnostic performance and agreement of US characteristics between the experienced radiologist and the CAD system were compared. In total, 102 thyroid nodules from 89 patients were included; 59 (57.8%) were benign and 43 (42.2%) were malignant. The CAD system showed a similar sensitivity as the experienced radiologist (90.7% vs. 88.4%, p > 0.99), but a lower specificity and a lower area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve (specificity: 74.6% vs. 94.9%, p = 0.002; AUROC: 0.83 vs. 0.92, p = 0.021). Classifications of the ultrasound characteristics (composition, orientation, echogenicity, and spongiform) between radiologist and CAD system were in substantial agreement (κ = 0.659, 0.740, 0.733, and 0.658, respectively), while the margin showed a fair agreement (κ = 0.239). The sensitivity of the CAD system using AI for malignant thyroid nodules was as good as that of the experienced radiologist, while specificity and accuracy were lower than those of the experienced radiologist. The CAD system showed an acceptable agreement with the experienced radiologist for characterization of thyroid nodules.

  10. Early adolescent adversity inflates threat estimation in females and promotes alcohol use initiation in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel A; Andreansky, Christopher; Ray, Madelyn H; McDannald, Michael A

    2018-06-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with exaggerated threat processing and earlier alcohol use initiation. Conclusive links remain elusive, as childhood adversity typically co-occurs with detrimental socioeconomic factors, and its impact is likely moderated by biological sex. To unravel the complex relationships among childhood adversity, sex, threat estimation, and alcohol use initiation, we exposed female and male Long-Evans rats to early adolescent adversity (EAA). In adulthood, >50 days following the last adverse experience, threat estimation was assessed using a novel fear discrimination procedure in which cues predict a unique probability of footshock: danger (p = 1.00), uncertainty (p = .25), and safety (p = .00). Alcohol use initiation was assessed using voluntary access to 20% ethanol, >90 days following the last adverse experience. During development, EAA slowed body weight gain in both females and males. In adulthood, EAA selectively inflated female threat estimation, exaggerating fear to uncertainty and safety, but promoted alcohol use initiation across sexes. Meaningful relationships between threat estimation and alcohol use initiation were not observed, underscoring the independent effects of EAA. Results isolate the contribution of EAA to adult threat estimation, alcohol use initiation, and reveal moderation by biological sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Getting Ready for School: The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Program Implementation and Early Outcomes: Year 3 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn; Mayers, Leifa

    2009-01-01

    Chapin Hall has been conducting an implementation and evaluability study of the ECCI (Early Childhood Cluster Initiative) project since the midway point of its first year. As described in the authors' first report (Spielberger & Goyette, 2006), the initiative made considerable progress in its initial year, particularly in implementing the…

  12. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P < .001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combination of 2-hour absolute and relative change (hs-cTnT 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.97-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]; hs-cTnI, Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Principles of diffusion kurtosis imaging and its role in early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Arab, Anas; Wojna-Pelczar, Anna; Khairnar, Amit; Szabó, Nikoletta; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2018-05-01

    Pathology of neurodegenerative diseases can be correlated with intra-neuronal as well as extracellular changes which lead to neuronal degeneration. The central nervous system (CNS) is a complex structure comprising of many biological barriers. These microstructural barriers might be affected by a variety of pathological processes. Specifically, changes in the brain tissue's microstructure affect the diffusion of water which can be assessed non-invasively by diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a diffusion MRI technique that considers diffusivity as a Gaussian process, i.e. does not account for any diffusion hindrance. However, environment of the brain tissues is characterized by a non-Gaussian diffusion. Therefore, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was developed as an extension of DTI method in order to quantify the non-Gaussian distribution of water diffusion. This technique represents a promising approach for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases when the neurodegenerative process starts. Hence, the purpose of this article is to summarize the ongoing clinical and preclinical research on Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington diseases, using DKI and to discuss the role of this technique as an early stage biomarker of neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  15. Early diagnosis of tongue malignancy using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan V., K.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-07-01

    Oral cancer together with pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with high mortality ratio among all malignancies [1]. Worldwide 450,000 new cases are estimated in 2014[2]. About 90% are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the tongue is the most common oral malignancy accounting for approximately 40% of all oral carcinomas. One of the important factors for successful therapy of any malignancy is early diagnosis. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, lack of reliable diagnostic methods for early detection leading to delay in therapy is an important factor responsible for the increase in the mortality rate in various types of cancers. Spectroscopy techniques are extremely sensitive for the analysis of biochemical changes in cellular systems. These techniques can provide a valuable information on alterations that occur during the development of cancer. This is especially important in oral cancer, where "tumor detection is complicated by a tendency towards field cancerization, leading to multi-centric lesions" and "current techniques detect malignant change too late" [3], and "biopsies are not representative of the whole premalignant lesion". [4

  16. Missed diagnostic opportunities within South Africa's early infant diagnosis program, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Moyo, Faith; Sherman, Gayle G

    2017-01-01

    Samples submitted for HIV PCR testing that fail to yield a positive or negative result represent missed diagnostic opportunities. We describe HIV PCR test rejections and indeterminate results, and the associated delay in diagnosis, within South Africa's early infant diagnosis (EID) program from 2010 to 2015. HIV PCR test data from January 2010 to December 2015 were extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, a central data repository of all registered test-sets within the public health sector in South Africa, by laboratory number, result, date, facility, and testing laboratory. Samples that failed to yield either a positive or negative result were categorized according to the rejection code on the laboratory information system, and descriptive analysis performed using Microsoft Excel. Delay in diagnosis was calculated for patients who had a missed diagnostic opportunity registered between January 2013 and December 2015 by means of a patient linking-algorithm employing demographic details. Between 2010 and 2015, 2 178 582 samples were registered for HIV PCR testing of which 6.2% (n = 134 339) failed to yield either a positive or negative result, decreasing proportionally from 7.0% (n = 20 556) in 2010 to 4.4% (n = 21 388) in 2015 (p<0.001). Amongst 76 972 coded missed diagnostic opportunities, 49 585 (64.4%) were a result of pre-analytical error and 27 387 (35.6%) analytical error. Amongst 49 694 patients searched for follow-up results, 16 895 (34.0%) had at least one subsequent HIV PCR test registered after a median of 29 days (IQR: 13-57), of which 8.4% tested positive compared with 3.6% of all samples submitted for the same period. Routine laboratory data provides the opportunity for near real-time surveillance and quality improvement within the EID program. Delay in diagnosis and wastage of resources associated with missed diagnostic opportunities must be addressed and infants actively followed-up as South Africa works towards

  17. Possible effects of an early diagnosis and treatment in patients with growth hormone deficiency: the state of art.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Scalini, Perla; Farello, Giovanni; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-09-16

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a relatively uncommon and heterogeneous endocrine disorder presenting in childhood with short stature. However, during the neonatal period, the metabolic effects of GHD may to require prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. An increasing amount of data suggests the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of GHD because of its auxological, metabolic, and neurodevelopmental features with respect to the patients diagnosed and treated later in life.The available results show favourable auxological outcomes for patients with GHD diagnosed and treated with r-hGH early in life compared with those from patients with GHD who do not receive this early diagnosis and treatment. Because delayed referral for GHD diagnosis and treatment is still frequent, these results highlight the need for more attention in the diagnosis and treatment of GHD.Despite these very encouraging data regarding metabolic and neurodevelopmental features, further studies are needed to better characterize these findings. Overall, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of GHD needs to be addressed.

  18. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovative haematological parameters for early diagnosis of sepsis in adult patients admitted in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Manenti, Barbara; Seghezzi, Michela; Dominoni, Paola; Barbui, Tiziano; Ghirardi, Arianna; Carobbio, Alessandra; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Riva, Ivano; Nasi, Alessandra; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the role of erythrocyte, platelet and reticulocyte (RET) parameters, measured by new haematological analyser Sysmex XN and C reactive protein (CRP), for early diagnosis of sepsis during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The study population consisted of 62 ICU patients, 21 of whom developed sepsis during ICU stay and 41 who did not. The performance for early diagnosing of sepsis was calculated as area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics curves analysis. Compared with CRP (AUC 0.81), immature platelet fraction (IPF) (AUC 0.82) showed comparable efficiency for identifying the onset of sepsis. The association with the risk of developing sepsis during ICU stay was also assessed. One day before the onset of sepsis, a decreased of RET% was significantly associated with the risk of developing sepsis (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.87), whereas an increased of IPF absolute value (IPF#) was significantly associated with the risk of developing sepsis (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.24) 2 days before the onset of sepsis. The value of CRP was not predictive of sepsis at either time points. IPF# and RET% may provide valuable clinical information for predicting the risk of developing sepsis, thus allowing early management of patients before the onset of clinically evident systemic infections. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Early diagnosis of thoracolumbar spine fractures in children. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leroux, J; Vivier, P-H; Ould Slimane, M; Foulongne, E; Abu-Amara, S; Lechevallier, J; Griffet, J

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of spine fractures in children is difficult because the clinical examination does not always raise worrisome symptoms and the vertebrae are still cartilaginous, and consequently incompletely visualized on routine X-rays. Therefore, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. The search for a "breath arrest" sensation at the moment of the trauma improves early detection of thoracolumbar spine fractures in children. This was a prospective monocentric study including all children consulting at the paediatric emergency unit of a single university hospital with a thoracolumbar spine trauma between January 2008 and March 2009. All children had the same care. Pain was quantified when they arrived using the visual analog scale. Clinical examination searched for a "breath arrest" sensation at the moment of the trauma and noted the circumstances of the accident. X-rays and MRI were done in all cases. Fifty children were included with a mean age of 11.4 years. Trauma occurred during games or sports in 94% of the cases. They fell on the back in 72% cases. Twenty-three children (46%) had fractures on the MRI, with a mean number of four fractured vertebrae (range, 1-10). Twenty-one of them (91%) had a "breath arrest" sensation. Fractures were not visualized on X-rays in five cases (22%). Twenty-seven children had no fracture; 19 of them (70%) did not feel a "breath arrest". Fractures were suspected on X-rays in 15 cases (56%). The search for a "breath arrest" sensation at the moment of injury improves early detection of thoracolumbar spine fractures in children (Se=87%, Sp=67%, PPV=69%, NPV=86%). When no fracture is apparent on X-rays and no "breath arrest" sensation is expressed by the child, the clinician can be sure there is no fracture (Se=26%, Sp=100%, PPV=100%, NPV=53%). Level III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD. Copyright

  2. Early diagnosis is critical to ensure good outcomes in HIV-infected children: outlining barriers to care.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Ute D; Meyer, Anell; Thomas, Winifred N; Forsyth, Brian W C; Kruger, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected children require early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ensure good outcomes. The aim was to investigate missed opportunities in childhood HIV diagnosis leading to delayed ART initiation. Baseline data were reviewed of all children aged <15 years referred over a 1-year period for ART initiation to the Kalafong Hospital HIV services in Gauteng, South Africa. Of the 250 children, one-quarter (24.5%) was of school-going age, 34.5% in the preschool group, 18% between 6 and 12 months old and 23% below 6 months of age (median age = 1.5 years [interquartile range 0.5-4.8]). Most children (82%) presented with advanced/severe HIV disease, particularly those aged 6-12 months (95%). Malnutrition was prominent and referrals were mostly from hospital inpatient services (61%). A structured caregiver interview was conducted in a subgroup, with detailed review of medical records and HIV results. The majority (≥89%) of the 65 interviewed caregivers reported good access to routine healthcare, except for postnatal care (26%). Maternal HIV-testing was mostly done during the second and third pregnancy trimesters (69%). Maternal non-disclosure of HIV status was common (63%) and 83% of mothers reported a lack of psychosocial support. Routine infant HIV-testing was not done in 66%, and inadequate reporting on patient-held records (Road-to-Health Cards/Booklets) occurred frequently (74%). Children with symptomatic HIV disease were not investigated at primary healthcare in 53%, and in 68% of families the siblings were not tested. One-third of children (35%) had a previous HIV diagnosis, with 77% of caregivers aware of these prior results, while 50% acknowledged failing to attend ART services despite referral. In conclusion, a clear strategy on paediatric HIV case finding, especially at primary healthcare, is vital. Multiple barriers need to be overcome in the HIV care pathway to reach high uptake of services, of which especially maternal reasons for not

  3. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    PubMed

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those <2 years of age) documented at diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles <85 (6/14 vs 19/34, respectively, P = 0.41). Greater initial body mass index and weight-for-age percentiles do not adversely affect the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway Regulated-Circulating microRNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0715 TITLE: Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway-Regulated Circulating microRNA PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway- Regulated Circulating microRNA Sb. GRANT NUMBER...panel of diagnostic miRNAs that are measurable in serum and will be able to identify kidney cancer in its earliest stages. We hypothesized that serum

  5. Early age at start of antiretroviral therapy associated with better virologic control after initial suppression in HIV-infected infants.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Stephanie; Strehlau, Renate; Technau, Karl-Günter; Patel, Faeezah; Arpadi, Stephen M; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J; Kuhn, Louise

    2017-01-28

    The report of the 'Mississippi baby' who was initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 h of birth and maintained viral suppression off ART for 27 months has increased interest in the timing of ART initiation early in life. We examined associations between age at ART initiation and virologic outcomes in five cohorts of HIV-infected infants and young children who initiated ART before 2 years of age in Johannesburg, South Africa. We compared those who initiated ART early (<6 months of age) and those who started ART late (6-24 months of age). Two primary outcomes were examined: initial response to ART in three cohorts and later sustained virologic control after achieving suppression on ART in two cohorts. We did not observe consistent differences in initial viral suppression rates by age at ART initiation. Overall, initial viral suppression rates were low. Only 31, 40.1, and 26.5% of early-treated infants (<6 months of age) in the three cohorts, respectively, were suppressed less than 50 copies/ml of HIV RNA 6 months after starting ART. We did observe better sustained virologic control after achieving suppression on ART among infants starting ART early compared with late. Children who started ART early were less likely to experience viral rebound (>50 copies/ml or >1000 copies/ml) than children who started late in both cohorts. These findings provide additional support for early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants.

  6. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  7. The Role of Serum Beta hCG in Early Diagnosis and Management Strategy of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Surampudi, Kameswari; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2016-07-01

    The presentation of Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) can be highly variable and serum Beta hCG estimation plays an important role in early diagnosis. Aim of the study was to determine the trends of hCG levels in EP and to explore the role of hCG in decisions related to management and follow-up of EPs. A retrospective study of women who had EPs from January 2006 to December 2012 at an advanced tertiary care centre in southern India was carried out. These women had undergone treatment based on the hospital protocol. The study identified 337 women with EP. Thirty one surgically confirmed cases were diagnosed below the discriminatory zone of 1500 mIU/ml. Among women who had Beta hCG estimations 48 hours apart, plateauing was observed in 22.5% while decrease >15% was noted in 26.8%. Almost half (47.9%) of the cases had an increase >15% and a few (2.8%) demonstrated an initial fall followed by a rise in titres. In 23.9% of these women, there was a rise >53% similar to intrauterine pregnancy. The average pre-treatment Beta hCG was 429.8, 3866.2 and 12961.5 mIU/ml for those who received expectant, medical and direct surgical treatment respectively. 43 women with relative contraindications received medical management and 39 were lost to follow-up after medical and expectant management. Excluding them, the success rate of these two modalities was 76.6% and 85.0% respectively. No single level of Beta hCG is diagnostic of EP and serial levels can demonstrate atypical trends in some cases. Hence, interpretation of these results should be done in conjunction with clinical and sonographic findings to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

  8. Increasing likelihood of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis at initial diagnosis in a low-incidence US state.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z-H; Gorden, T; Liu, D-P; Mukasa, L; Patil, N; Bates, J H

    2018-06-01

    Arkansas, USA. To investigate the relationship between an increase in the proportion of cases with advanced disease at first diagnosis and the recently observed slowing of the decline in tuberculosis (TB) incidence in low-incidence US states. We conducted descriptive statistical analyses of de-identified surveillance data of 1246 culture-confirmed TB patients reported in Arkansas during 1996-2013. We then fitted stepwise, multivariate logistic regression models to identify predictors for advanced disease at diagnosis, defined as having either smear-positive sputum or lung cavitation. From 1996 to 2013, the proportion of new cases with positive sputum smear and cases with lung cavitation increased from 51.6% to 75% and from 37.7% to 50%, respectively. Patients diagnosed during 2006-2013 were more likely to have positive sputum smears (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.55, 95%CI 1.95-3.35) or lung cavitation (aOR 1.49, 95%CI 1.14-1.95) than those diagnosed during 1996-2005. During 1996-2013, age 15-64 years and excessive alcohol use were predictive of positive sputum smear or lung cavitation. Measures to reduce the proportion of cases with advanced disease at first diagnosis may be helpful to achieve further decline in TB incidence in low-incidence settings.

  9. Controlling fear: Jordanian women's perceptions of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana F; Dickerson, Suzanne S; Homish, Gregory G; Alqaissi, Nesreen M; Lally, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early-stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. The objective of this study was to gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women with a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women's stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Women's experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their preexisting fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various healthcare institutions, and sociodemographic factors (eg, education, age). Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong, and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the healthcare system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and the support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

  10. Sharing information about diagnosis and outcome of first-episode psychosis in patients presenting to early intervention services.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Saeed; Green, Debra J; Singh, Swaran P

    2018-05-04

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) can be a serious and debilitating disease, but there is limited literature on how to inform patients and carers about its diagnosis and outcome. We aimed to examine the attitudes, practices and views of clinicians working in Early Intervention Service about sharing information on diagnosis and outcome of FEP. A 26-item questionnaire was sent electronically to clinical staff who have been involved in the discussion of FEP diagnosis in Early Intervention Services in the West Midlands, UK. A total of 51 clinicians completed the questionnaire. All respondents stated that patients or carers of those presenting with FEP wish to be informed of their diagnosis, and three-quarters (76%) felt there is a need to develop guidelines on how to inform about diagnosis; 57% stated that they usually use broad diagnostic groups such as psychosis when discussing diagnosis, and only 11% use the term schizophrenia. A total of 40% thought that the therapeutic relationship and treatment adherence (58%) would improve if patients know about their diagnosis; 42 (88%) respondents felt that the likely outcome of the illness should also be discussed with patients when the diagnosis is communicated. The clinicians were aware that service users wished to be informed about the diagnosis and outcome of FEP but had no guidance on the subject. Despite the limitations of an online self-administered survey, the study highlights the need for guidance and improving clinical practice in discussing the diagnosis of FEP in a vulnerable population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  12. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents’ sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further. PMID:20333456

  13. Early adolescent sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms: a comparative analysis of five nations.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-10-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents' sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further.

  14. Factors influencing timely initiation and completion of gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis - a qualitative study from Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Rheinländer, Thilde; Kapur, Anil; Damm, Peter; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2017-08-01

    In 2007, universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was introduced in Tamil Nadu, India. To identify factors hindering or facilitating timely initiation and completion of the GDM screening and diagnosis process, our study investigated how pregnant women in rural and urban Tamil Nadu access and navigate different GDM related health services. The study was carried out in two settings: an urban private diabetes centre and a rural government primary health centre. Observations of the process of screening and diagnosis at the health centres as well as semi-structured interviews with 30 pregnant women and nine health care providers were conducted. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. There were significant differences in the process of GDM screening and diagnosis in the urban and rural settings. Several factors hindering or facilitating timely initiation and completion of the process were identified. Timely attendance required awareness, motivation and opportunity to attend. Women had to attend the health centre at the right time and sometimes at the right gestational age to initiate the test, wait to complete the test and obtain the test report in time to initiate further action. All these steps and requirements were influenced by factors within and outside the health system such as getting right information from health care providers, clinic timings, characteristics of the test, availability of transport, social network and support, and social norms and cultural practices. Minimising and aligning complex stepwise processes of prenatal care and GDM screening delivery and attention to the factors influencing it are important for further improving and expanding GDM screening and related services, not only in Tamil Nadu but in other similar low and middle income settings. This study stresses the importance of guidelines and diagnostic criteria which are simple and feasible on the ground.

  15. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Mark O; Bryan, Richard T; Emes, Richard D; Luscombe, Christopher J; Cheng, KK; Zeegers, Maurice P; James, Nicholas D; Gommersall, Lyndon M; Fryer, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG) were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease. PMID:29343995

  16. Detection of Circulating Mucorales DNA in Critically Ill Burn Patients: Preliminary Report of a Screening Strategy for Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Matthieu; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Boutin, Louis; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Maurel, Véronique; Soussi, Sabri; Benyamina, Mourad; Ferry, Axelle; Chaussard, Maïté; Hamane, Samia; Denis, Blandine; Touratier, Sophie; Guigue, Nicolas; Fréalle, Emilie; Jeanne, Mathieu; Shaal, Jean-Vivien; Soler, Charles; Mimoun, Maurice; Chaouat, Marc; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-11-15

     Invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM) is associated with an extremely poor outcome among critically ill burn patients. We describe the detection of circulating Mucorales DNA (cmDNA) for the early diagnosis of IWM in those patients and report the potential value of detecting cmDNA for treatment guidance.  Severely ill burn patients admitted to our tertiary referral center between October 2013 and February 2016 were included. Retrospective plasma samples were tested for the presence of cmDNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients were then prospectively screened twice a week, and liposomal amphotericin-B therapy initiated based on a positive qPCR. The primary endpoint was the time between cmDNA detection and standard diagnosis. Secondary endpoints were the time from cmDNA detection and treatment initiation and mortality.  Seventy-seven patients (418 samples) were included. The average age was 46 (28-60) years, abbreviated burn severity index was 8 (7-10), and simplified acute physiology score was 33 (23-46). The total body surface area was 33% (22%-52%). cmDNA was detected 11 (4.5-15) days before standard diagnosis. The in-hospital mortality was 62% for patients with IWM and 24% for those without (P = .03). The mortality due to IWM was 80% during period A and 33% during period B (P = .46).  This study suggests that the detection of cmDNA allows earlier diagnosis of IWM in severely ill burn patients and earlier initiation of treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm the impact of earlier treatment initiation on patient outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Women’s accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2018-01-01

    Background As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men’s reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women’s help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women’s accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. Results The women’s accounts featured masculine practices associated with men’s help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and ‘normal’ life. Discussion Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women’s help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. PMID:24567194

  19. Age of Parental Concern, Diagnosis, and Service Initiation among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Colpe, Lisa J.; Pringle, Beverly A.; Kogan, Michael D.; Rice, Catherine; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions…

  20. Ureteropyeloscopy in the diagnosis of patients with upper tract hematuria: an initial clinical study.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, T; Kamiyama, Y; Tomomasa, H; Shimizu, H; Okano, Y; Iiyama, T; Iizumi, T; Umeda, T

    1999-05-01

    To study the usefulness and safety of ureteropyeloscopy in the diagnosis of upper tract hematuria of unknown etiology by standard diagnostic methods. Fifteen patients with upper tract hematuria of unknown etiology were the subjects of the present study. Prior to ureteropyeloscopy, they underwent standard diagnostic methods, including cystourethroscopy, excretory urography and computed tomography scan. The upper tract (ureter, renal pelvis and calyces) was inspected systematically with a flexible ureteropyeloscope under epidural anesthesia. A biopsy specimen was obtained when neoplasm of a suspicious lesion was seen. Bleeding and hemangiomatous lesions were fulgurated at the time of ureteropyeloscopy. Unilateral gross hematuria was seen in 12 patients. Imaging studies revealed a filling defect in four patients, ureteral stenosis in one patient and nutcracker phenomenon in one patient. Urine cytology was positive in three patients and suspicious in four patients. Results of ureteropyeloscopy were papillary tumor in three patients, whitish encrustation in one patient, redness of the renal pelvis in one patient, bleeding from the renal calyx in two patients, hemangiomatous lesion in one patient, ureteral stenosis in two patients and no abnormalities in five patients. Biopsies were performed in five patients. The pathology results were transitional cell carcinoma in four patients and no abnormality in one patient. Although a ureteral stent catheter was placed in one patient, no serious complications were encountered during or after the procedures. Ureteropyeloscopy was useful and relatively safe. This endoscopic examination can differentiate insignificant lesions from significant lesions by visual inspection of the lesions, in addition, pathological diagnosis by biopsy specimen can also be performed if deemed necessary. Ureteropyeloscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of upper tract hematuria of unknown etiology.

  1. Knowledge representation and user interface concepts to support mixed-initiative diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobelman, Beverly H.; Holtzblatt, Lester J.

    1989-01-01

    The Remote Maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS) provides automated support for the maintenance and repair of ModComp computer systems used in the Launch Processing System (LPS) at Kennedy Space Center. RMMS supports manual and automated diagnosis of intermittent hardware failures, providing an efficient means for accessing and analyzing the data generated by catastrophic failure recovery procedures. This paper describes the design and functionality of the user interface for interactive analysis of memory dump data, relating it to the underlying declarative representation of memory dumps.

  2. [The grey line of dialysis initiation: as early as possible that is, by the incremental modality].

    PubMed

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    In the past, the initiation of dialysis treatment was determined by the appearance of signs and symptoms of uremia along with biochemical parameters. More recently, based on the findings of observational studies, it was hypothesized that an earlier start would benefit patients. The endorsement of this concept by international guidelines has led to the current practice of starting dialysis at GFR levels of 10 to 15 mL/ min/1.73 m2. However, recent observational studies taking into proper account the lead time bias showed a worse rather than better prognosis in early starters, suggesting that the previous studies might have been flawed. The IDEAL (Initiating Dialysis Early And Late) study has shown that starting dialysis ''just in time'', i.e., at the occurrence of uremic symptoms, does not harm the patient in that it is associated with the same clinical outcomes as early dialysis initiation. We believe that these results are compatible with our hypothesis that starting peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis with an incremental modality could be appropriate for an asymptomatic patient with objective signs of mild uremia and a measured GFR around 10 mL/min/1.73 m2. In fact, when the GFR is relatively high, a reduced dialysis dose and/or frequency could suffice to control mild uremia, while possibly preserving the residual renal function owing to the reduced contact time between blood and bio-incompatible dialysis materials. The dialysis dose and/or frequency could be increased step by step, at the occurrence of symptoms, marked biochemical derangements or problems with volume control, without computing weekly Kt/Vurea.

  3. [Joint application of 7 interventional pulmonology methods in early diagnosis of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Fa-Guang; Li, Wang-Ping; Mu, De-Guang; Chu, Dong-Ling; Fu, En-Qing; Xie, Yong-Hong; Lu, Jing-Li; Sun, Ya-Ni

    2009-06-23

    To evaluate the combination of 7 interventional pulmonology methods in early diagnosis of lung cancer. A total of 467 patients with thoracic and pulmonary lesions (include hilum pulmonis lymphadenectasis, mediastinal lymphadenectasis, pulmonary scobination, lump, lamellar infiltration, small amount of pleural fluid and pleural scobination) had negative results via exfoliative cytology, bacteriology and routine bronchoscopy. All these patients had ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing. For those 155 cases whose foci were located at porta pulmonis, inner zone or median zone, the authors applied ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing guided by X-ray. For those 95 cases whose foci were located at median zone or outer zone and unconnected with chest wall, per cutem lung puncture needle aspiration was employed under the guidance of X-ray. For those 102 cases whose foci were tightly connected with pleural membrane, per cutem lung puncture biopsy was employed under the guidance of type-B ultrasonic. For those 59 cases with suspected central airway foci, auto-fluorescence bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing were employed. For those 67 cases with hilum pulmonis or mediastinal lymphadenectasis, endobronchial ultrasonic transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was employed. For those 23 cases with small amount of pleural fluid or pleural scobination, electronic thoracoscopic biopsy and brushing were employed. It was found that 118 cases were diagnosed by ultrathin bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing with a positive rate of 25.3% (118/467), 105 cases by ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing guided by X-ray with a positive rate of 67.7% (105/155), 63 cases by per cutem lung puncture needle aspiration under the guidance of X-ray with a positive rate of 66.3% (63/95), 69 cases by per cutem lung puncture biopsy under the guidance of type-B ultrasound with a positive rate of 67.6% (69/102), 18 cases by auto-fluorescence bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Early Diagnosis Using Manifold-Based Semi-Supervised Learning.

    PubMed

    Khajehnejad, Moein; Saatlou, Forough Habibollahi; Mohammadzade, Hoda

    2017-08-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people. Clearly, predicting this disease in the early stages and preventing it from progressing is of great importance. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a variety of medical tests, which leads to huge amounts of multivariate heterogeneous data. It can be difficult and exhausting to manually compare, visualize, and analyze this data due to the heterogeneous nature of medical tests; therefore, an efficient approach for accurate prediction of the condition of the brain through the classification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images is greatly beneficial and yet very challenging. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for the diagnosis of very early stages of AD through an efficient classification of brain MRI images, which uses label propagation in a manifold-based semi-supervised learning framework. We first apply voxel morphometry analysis to extract some of the most critical AD-related features of brain images from the original MRI volumes and also gray matter (GM) segmentation volumes. The features must capture the most discriminative properties that vary between a healthy and Alzheimer-affected brain. Next, we perform a principal component analysis (PCA)-based dimension reduction on the extracted features for faster yet sufficiently accurate analysis. To make the best use of the captured features, we present a hybrid manifold learning framework which embeds the feature vectors in a subspace. Next, using a small set of labeled training data, we apply a label propagation method in the created manifold space to predict the labels of the remaining images and classify them in the two groups of mild Alzheimer's and normal condition (MCI/NC). The accuracy of the classification using the proposed method is 93

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Behavior and Early Smoking Initiation Among Men in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Shah, Vaibhav; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing concern for health care systems as it is projected to become the leading cause of death in the developing world. Knowledge of how smoking behavior differs across socioeconomic groups is crucial for designing effective preventive policies and alleviating the disparities. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of (1) smoking status, (2) early smoking initiation, and (3) association with socioeconomic status (SES) of the 2 among Malawian men. Cross-sectional data on 1693 men aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the latest 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Malawi. Educational qualification and wealth index quintile were used as the indicators of SES. Outcome variables were smoking status, first age of smoking being below 18 years, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to see the contribution of SES to smoking status and early smoking initiation. Mean age of the sample population was 33.23 years (SD: 8.25). Prevalence of smoking, early initiation, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco were, respectively, 46.6%, 33.7%, and 6%. Compared with men who had higher education, those who had no formal education, primary-level, and secondary-level qualification had, respectively, 21% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.209; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.498-2.935), 40% (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.647-3.029), and 26% (AOR = 1.256; 95% CI = 0.593-2.661) higher odds of being a smoker. Those who had no formal education were 2.7 times (AOR = 2.734; 95% CI = 1.123-6.653) as likely to try smoking before reaching 18 years of age. Compared with the richest, those in the lowest wealth quintile had 32% lower odds (AOR = 0.676; 95% CI = 0.455-1.006) of early onset of smoking, 63% lower odds (AOR = 0.372; 95% CI = 0.201-0.690) of trying other tobacco products. Addressing the socioeconomic disparities could play

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Behavior and Early Smoking Initiation Among Men in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Shah, Vaibhav; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a growing concern for health care systems as it is projected to become the leading cause of death in the developing world. Knowledge of how smoking behavior differs across socioeconomic groups is crucial for designing effective preventive policies and alleviating the disparities. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of (1) smoking status, (2) early smoking initiation, and (3) association with socioeconomic status (SES) of the 2 among Malawian men. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 1693 men aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the latest 2013-2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Malawi. Educational qualification and wealth index quintile were used as the indicators of SES. Outcome variables were smoking status, first age of smoking being below 18 years, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to see the contribution of SES to smoking status and early smoking initiation. Results: Mean age of the sample population was 33.23 years (SD: 8.25). Prevalence of smoking, early initiation, and ever using any form of smokeless tobacco were, respectively, 46.6%, 33.7%, and 6%. Compared with men who had higher education, those who had no formal education, primary-level, and secondary-level qualification had, respectively, 21% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.209; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.498-2.935), 40% (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.647-3.029), and 26% (AOR = 1.256; 95% CI = 0.593-2.661) higher odds of being a smoker. Those who had no formal education were 2.7 times (AOR = 2.734; 95% CI = 1.123-6.653) as likely to try smoking before reaching 18 years of age. Compared with the richest, those in the lowest wealth quintile had 32% lower odds (AOR = 0.676; 95% CI = 0.455-1.006) of early onset of smoking, 63% lower odds (AOR = 0.372; 95% CI = 0.201-0.690) of trying other tobacco products. Conclusions

  7. Accuracy of the initial endoscopic diagnosis in the discrimination of gastric ulcers: is endoscopic follow-up study always needed?

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marco; Devesa, Francesc; Borghol, Abdul; Ortuño, Juan; Ferrando, Maria Jose

    2002-07-01

    Endoscopic follow-up study of gastric ulcers has been recommended routinely because of the possibility that a gastric neoplasm will be missed in the initial endoscopy. Some authors, most of them reporting data from areas of low gastric carcinoma incidence, have questioned this policy because of the low numbers of curable cancers detected and the high cost of such a program. To assess the accuracy of endoscopy diagnosis of gastric ulcers, and to evaluate the efficacy and cost of a gastric ulcer follow-up endoscopic program in an area with an intermediate incidence rate of gastric cancer. A retrospective study was used to identify all the gastroscopies in which a gastric ulcer had been diagnosed during a 6-year period. The endoscopic impression was compared with the histologic diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the likelihood ratio. Patients who completed a follow-up program also were reviewed. For each neoplasm discovered, the number of endoscopies and global cost were calculated. In the 741 gastroscopies performed, 547 gastric ulcers were diagnosed in 529 patients. Biopsies were taken in 330 patients, in whom 341 gastric ulcers were found. At the index endoscopy, 41 gastric neoplasms (12.4%) were diagnosed. The accuracy of endoscopic malignancy diagnosis was as follows: positive predictive value of 0.68, negative predictive value of 0.98, sensitivity of 0.82, and specificity of 0.95. The likelihood ratio was 16. A total of 117 patients completed the follow-up program. Three new cases of gastric cancer (2.6%) were identified. In these three cases, the initial opinion of the endoscopist was uncertain. In the authors' experience, the cost of each gastric cancer diagnosed has been $4.653 (U.S. dollars). The endoscopic impression correlates with the histologic diagnosis even in a area of intermediate gastric cancer incidence. Endoscopic follow-up study may be restricted to cases of uncertain or malignant endoscopic

  8. The effects of inpatient hybrid closed-loop therapy initiated within 1 week of type 1 diabetes diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Bruce A; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Cheng, Peiyao; Kollman, Craig; Weinzimer, Stuart A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Bremer, Andrew A; Slover, Robert; Cantwell, Martin

    2013-05-01

    This article describes our experience with inpatient hybrid closed-loop control (HCLC) initiated shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in a randomized trial designed to assess the effectiveness of inpatient HCLC followed by outpatient sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy on the preservation of β-cell function. Forty-eight individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and positive pancreatic autoantibodies (7.8-37.7 years old) received inpatient HCLC therapy for up to 93 h, initiated within 7 days of diagnosis. On initiation of HCLC, mean glucose concentration was 240±100 mg/dL. During the first day of HCLC, median of the participant's mean glucose concentrations fell rapidly to 146 mg/dL, a level of control that was sustained on Days 2 and 3 (138 mg/dL and 139 mg/dL, respectively). By Day 3, the median percentage of glucose values >250 and <60 mg/dL was <1%. During the first 2 weeks of SAP treatment at home, the median participant mean glucose level was 126 mg/dL (interquartile range, 117, 137 mg/dL), and the median percentage of values between 71 and 180 mg/dL was 85% (interquartile range, 80%, 90%). Inpatient HCLC followed by outpatient SAP therapy can provide a safe and effective means to rapidly reverse glucose toxicity and establish near-normal glycemic control in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

  9. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Nerges; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Patil, Akshaya

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB) in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai. A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values. The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days) and retreatment patients (25 days). Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation. Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths) and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of point of care diagnostics would be

  10. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nerges; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Patil, Akshaya

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB) in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai. Methods A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values. Results The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days) and retreatment patients (25 days). Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation. Conclusion Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths) and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of

  11. Serum MX2 Protein as Candidate Biomarker for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Buragohain, L; Kumar, R; Nanda, T; Phulia, S K; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Balhara, S; Ghuman, Sps; Singh, I; Balhara, A K

    2016-08-01

    Interferon-tau (IFN-τ)-induced molecular markers such as ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine. These molecules are expressed at transcriptional level in peripheral nucleated cells. However, their presence in the serum is still a question mark. This study reports sequential changes in expression of MX2 transcript in whole blood and serum MX2 protein level on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 in pregnant (n = 9) buffalo heifers, and on days 0, 7 and 14 in non-inseminated (n = 8) and inseminated non-pregnant (n = 10) control animals. In non-inseminated and inseminated non-pregnant heifers, the differential expression of MX2 transcript and MX2 protein level remained similar between day 7 and 14 post-oestrus. However, in pregnant heifers, on 14th and 28th day post-insemination MX2 transcript was 16.38 ± 1.57 and 28.16 ± 1.91 times upregulated as compared to day 0. Similarly, serum MX2 protein concentration followed analogous trend as MX2 transcript and increased gradually with the progression of pregnancy. Correlation analysis between expression of MX2 transcript and its serum protein level showed a significant positive correlation in pregnant animals, while it was random in other two groups. Therefore, MX2 surge at transcriptional and serum protein level after day 14-28 of pregnancy in buffalo holds potential for its use in early pregnancy detection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of early pregnancy in cattle using different ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Racewicz, Przemysław; Sickinger, Marlene; Włodarek, Jan; Jaśkowski, Jędrzej M

    2016-06-16

    To evaluate the efficiency of different ultrasound devices in achieving an early diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy herds. A total of 1976 Holstein Friesian cows and heifers were artificially inseminated (AI) according to the herd manager's regime. Pregnancy diagnostics were performed between day 26 and 35 after AI using six different types of ultrasound systems (linear vs. sector scanners). Manual rectal palpation between day 45 and 60 after AI was used as the gold standard for pregnancy diagnostics. Sensitivity (SENS), specificity (SPEC), positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (ACC) of the diagnostic measures were determined. Average SENS was 82% (range 67.7-95.2%) with a mean SPEC of 73% (range 50.0-81.0%). ACC was 78.2% with a minimum of 64.6% and a maximum of 89.4%, depending on the ultrasound system. The PPV (ratio of the number of pregnant cows with a positive examination result to the number of cows actually pregnant) was 80.8% (range 59.1-88.1%), whereas the NPV (defined as the ratio of the number of cows correctly diagnosed negative to the number of cows actually open) was 74.4% (72.3-91.9%). Significant differences for these parameters were found depending on the ultrasound system used (p ≤ 0.01; Cramer's V. = 0.14). Regardless of the ultrasound device used, early pregnancy diagnostics between day 26 and 35 show a moderate diagnostic efficiency. Comparing the accuracy of the different devices, there may be a significant influence of type and technical parameters. Even though ultrasound systems with mechanical sector probes are not as convenient to use as systems with linear probes, according to this study, sector scanners are a reasonable alternative.

  13. IgG avidity test for the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pour Abolghasem, Shabnam; Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza; Babaloo, Zohre; Porhasan, Abolfazl; Nagili, Behroz; Gardashkhani, Omid Ali; Salehi, Parviz; Hashemi, Mohammad; Varshoghi, Mojtaba; Gaffari, Gafar Olade

    2011-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is well known as an important infection in pregnant women. Although many serologic methods are available, diagnosis of early Toxoplasmosis may be extremely difficult. To detect the Toxoplasma IgG antibodies developed at the early stage of infection in pregnant women. 225 pregnant women, who were in the 2nd to 4th month of their pregnancy, enrolled in this study. Anti-toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgG avidity were evaluated by ELISA method. The patients were categorized into three groups as follows: Group A, 124 cases; IgG+, IgM+, 55.1%; group B, 99 cases; IgG+, IgM-, 44%; and group C, 2 cases; IgG -, IgM +, 0.9%. Fifty five percent of the pregnant women had positive IgG and IgM among which 7.1% had low avidity which revealed an active infection in the pregnant women. In the current study, 44% of pregnant women had positive IgG and negative IgM, all of which had high avidity, which is an indication that in our population the level of toxoplasmosis infection is high and most women have had contacts with this parasite before pregnancy. In this study, the low avidity test was 7.1% showing that the occurrence of toxoplasmosis infection is still a serious issue. Observation of 45.8% high avidity among group A suggests that either IgM has a high half-life or there is a false positive IgM as a result of rheumatologic disorders. Therefore, avidity test is important in predicting maternal toxoplasmosis which is of value in disease treatment.

  14. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  15. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  16. Misalignments of purpose and power in an early Canadian interprofessional education initiative.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Sarah; Paradis, Elise; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Boon, Heather; Hart, Corinne; Razack, Saleem; Pipher, Mandy; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-12-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada. We asked how IPE was promoted and received, by whom, for what purposes, and to what effects. Our analysis demonstrates that IPE was promoted as a response to local challenges for the Faculty of Medicine as well as national challenges for Canada's emerging public healthcare system. These dual exigencies enabled the IPE initiative, but they shaped it in somewhat divergent ways: the former gave rise to its core component (a health sciences centre) and the latter its ultimate purpose (increasing the role of non-medical professions in primary care). Reception of the initiative was complicated by a further tension: nurses and allied health professionals were sometimes represented as independent experts with unique knowledge and skills, and sometimes as assistants or substitutes for medical doctors. We relate the successes and frustrations of this early initiative to particular (mis)alignments of purpose and relationships of power, some of which continue to enable and constrain IPE today.

  17. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reasons for delaying or engaging in early sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, Augustine; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Omoregie, Godpower; Anyanti, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay. Methods This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups. Results Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors). Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome); fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a “good” husband in the future. Conclusion The differences observed between sexually active and abstinent adolescents were that the latter were more confident, had greater determination, and, most important, deployed refusal skills to delay first sex

  19. Interpersonal differentiation within depression diagnosis: relating interpersonal subgroups to symptom load and the quality of the early therapeutic alliance.

    PubMed

    Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Flückiger, Christoph; Wright, Aidan G C; Caspar, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We examined interpersonal problems in psychotherapy outpatients with a principal diagnosis of a depressive disorder in routine care (n=361). These patients were compared to a normative non-clinical sample and to outpatients with other principal diagnoses (n=959). Furthermore, these patients were statistically assigned to interpersonally defined subgroups that were compared regarding symptoms and the quality of the early alliance. The sample of depressive patients reported higher levels of interpersonal problems than the normative sample and the sample of outpatients without a principal diagnosis of depression. Latent Class Analysis identified eight distinct interpersonal subgroups, which differed regarding self-reported symptom load and the quality of the early alliance. However, therapists' alliance ratings did not differentiate between the groups. This interpersonal differentiation within the group of patients with a principal diagnosis of depression may add to a personalized psychotherapy based on interpersonal profiles.

  20. Long lasting dysautonomia due to botulinum toxin B poisoning: clinical-laboratory follow up and difficulties in initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Szmidt-Sałkowska, Elżbieta; Lewandowski, Jacek; Siński, Maciej; Przyjałkowski, Witold; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna

    2013-10-30

    Botulism is an acute form of poisoning caused by one of four types (A, B, E, F) toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, ananaerobic, spore forming bacillus. Usually diagnosis of botulism is considered in patients with predominant motor symptoms: muscle weakness with intact sensation and preserved mental function. We report a case of 56-year-old Caucasian female with a history of arterial hypertension, who presented with acute respiratory failure and bilateral ptosis misdiagnosed as brainstem ischemia. She had severe external and internal ophtalmoplegia, and autonomic dysfunction with neither motor nor sensory symptoms from upper and lower limbs. Diagnosis of botulinum toxin poisoning was made and confirmed by serum antibody testing in the mouse inoculation test. Ophtalmoplegia, autonomic dysfunction and respiratory failure can be caused by botulism. Early treatment and intensive care is essential for survival and recovery. The electrophysiological tests are crucial to correct and rapid diagnosis. Botulism (especially type B) should be considered in any case of acute or predominant isolated autonomic dysfunction.

  1. Implementing services for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV: a comparative descriptive analysis of national programs in four countries.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Tripathi, Sangeeta; Gass, Robert; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Panha, Sok; Kiyaga, Charles; Wade, Abdoulaye; Barnhart, Matthew; Luo, Chewe; Ekpini, Rene

    2011-07-13

    There is a significant increase in survival for HIV-infected children who have early access to diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this multi-country review was to examine when and where HIV-exposed infants and children are being diagnosed, and whether the EID service is being maximally utilized to improve health outcomes for HIV-exposed children. In four countries across Africa and Asia existing documents and data were reviewed and key informant interviews were conducted. EID testing data was gathered from the central testing laboratories and was then complemented by health facility level data extraction which took place using a standardized and validated questionnaire In the four countries reviewed from 2006 to 2009 EID sample volumes rose dramatically to an average of >100 samples per quarter in Cambodia and Senegal, >7,000 samples per quarter in Uganda, and >2,000 samples per quarter in Namibia. Geographic coverage of sites also rapidly expanded to 525 sites in Uganda, 205 in Namibia, 48 in Senegal, and 26 in Cambodia in 2009. However, only a small proportion of testing was done at lower-level health facilities: in Uganda Health Center IIs and IIIs comprised 47% of the EID collection sites, but only 11% of the total tests, and in Namibia 15% of EID sites collected >93% of all samples. In all countries except for Namibia, more than 50% of the EID testing was done after 2 months of age. Few sites had robust referral mechanisms between EID and ART. In a sub-sample of children, we noted significant attrition of infants along the continuum of care post testing. Only 22% (Senegal), 37% (Uganda), and 38% (Cambodia) of infants testing positive by PCR were subsequently initiated onto treatment. In Namibia, which had almost universal EID coverage, more than 70% of PCR-positive infants initiated ART in 2008. While EID testing has expanded dramatically, a large proportion of PCR- positive infants are initiated on treatment. As EID services continue to scale-up, more

  2. CSF biomarkers associated with disease heterogeneity in early Parkinson’s disease: the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Mollenhauer, Brit; Coffey, Christopher S.; Toledo, Jon B.; Weintraub, Daniel; Galasko, Douglas R.; Irwin, David J.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Shah, Nirali; Pan, Sarah; Zero, Pawel; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Tanner, Caroline M.; Simuni, Tanya; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W.; Chowdhury, Sohini; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of biomarkers to predict the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) from its earliest stage through its heterogeneous course is critical for research and therapeutic development. The Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is an ongoing international multicenter, prospective study to validate biomarkers in drug-naïve PD patients and matched healthy controls (HC). We quantified cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid-beta1–42 (Aβ1–42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at Thr181 (p-tau) in 660 PPMI subjects at baseline, and correlated these data with measures of the clinical features of these subjects. We found that CSF α-syn, t-tau and p-tau levels, but not Aβ1–42, were significantly lower in PD compared with HC, while the diagnostic value of the individual CSF biomarkers for PD diagnosis was limited due to large overlap. The level of α-syn, but not other biomarkers, was significantly lower in PD patients with non-tremor-dominant phenotype compared with tremor-dominant phenotype. In addition, in PD patients the lowest Aβ1–42, or highest t-tau/Aβ1–42 and t-tau/α-syn quintile in PD patients were associated with more severe non-motor dysfunction compared with the highest or lowest quintiles, respectively. In a multivariate regression model, lower α-syn was significantly associated with worse cognitive test performance. APOE ε4 genotype was associated with lower levels of Aβ1–42, but neither with PD diagnosis nor cognition. Our data suggest that the measurement of CSF biomarkers in early-stage PD patients may relate to disease heterogeneity seen in PD. Longitudinal observations in PPMI subjects are needed to define their prognostic performance. PMID:27021906

  3. Role of ischemic modified albumin in the early diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure and brain death.

    PubMed

    Kara, I; Pampal, H K; Yildirim, F; Dilekoz, E; Emmez, G; U, F P; Kocabiyik, M; Demirel, C B

    Increased intracranial pressure following trauma and subsequent possible development of brain death are important factors for morbidity and mortality due to ischemic changes. We aimed to establish the role of ischemic modified albumin (IMA) in the early diagnosis of the process, starting with increased intracranial pressure and ending with brain death. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups; control (CG, n = 6), increased intracranial pressure (ICPG, n = 6), and brain death (BDG, n = 6). Intracranial pressure elevation and brain death were constituted with the inflation of a balloon of a Fogarty catheter in the epidural space. In all three groups, blood samples were drawn before the procedure, and at minutes 150 and 240 for IMA and malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis. Serum IMA levels at 150 and 240 minutes were higher in ICPG than in CG (p < 0.05). IMA levels were similar in ICPG and BDG. Serum MDA levels at 150 and 240 minutes increased in ICPG and BDG groups compared to CG (p < 0.05). MDA levels were similar in ICP and BD groups. IMA should be considered as a biochemical parameter in the process starting from increased intracranial pressure elevation and ending at brain death (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref. 31).

  4. Aligning policy to promote cascade genetic screening for prevention and early diagnosis of heritable diseases.

    PubMed

    George, Rani; Kovak, Karen; Cox, Summer L

    2015-06-01

    Cascade genetic screening is a methodology for identifying and testing close blood relatives of individuals at increased risk for heritable conditions and follows a sequential process, minimizing testing costs and the number of family members who need to be tested. It offers considerable potential for cost savings and increased awareness of heritable conditions within families. CDC-classified Tier 1 genomic applications for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Lynch Syndrome (LS), and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are recommended for clinical use and support the use of cascade genetic screening. Most individuals are unaware of their increased risk for heritable conditions such as HBOC, LS, and FH. Consistent implementation of cascade genetic screening could significantly increase awareness and prevention of heritable conditions. Limitations to effective implementation of cascade genetic screening include: insufficient genetic risk assessment and knowledge by a majority of healthcare providers without genetics credentials; a shortage of genetic specialists, especially in rural areas; a low rate of reimbursement for comprehensive genetic counseling services; and an individual focus on prevention by clinical guidelines and insurance coverage. The family-centric approach of cascade genetic screening improves prevention and early diagnosis of heritable diseases on a population health level. Cascade genetic screening could be better supported and augmented through changes in health policy.

  5. Early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep using near-infrared spectroscopy on blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Donato; Alabart, José L; Lahoz, Belén; Muñoz, Fernando; Folch, José

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to discriminate between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes in early stages of pregnancy after artificial insemination (AI) from blood plasma. Samples were collected using jugular puncture at 18 and 25 days after AI from 188 Rasa Aragonesa and Ansotana ewes. Plasma samples were analyzed for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) and progesterone (P4) using ELISA commercial kits. The spectra of plasma samples were recorded in the visible and near-infrared ranges. The performance of these tests were compared, using as criterion standard the pregnancy status determined using transabdominal ultrasonography at 45 days after AI. Pregnancy rate was 47.9% (90/188). At Day 18, sensitivity was similar in NIRS and P4 tests (98.9% vs. 100%; not significant) and greater than PAG (32.2%; both P < 0.001). Specificity was similar in NIRS and PAG tests (both 100%) and greater than that of P4 (84.7%; P < 0.001). At Day 25, sensitivity and specificity of NIRS and PAG were both 100%. It can be concluded that NIRS was an accurate method of diagnosis of pregnancy at Days 18 and 25 after AI in ewes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PTSD SYMPTOMS ACROSS PREGNANCY AND EARLY POSTPARTUM AMONG WOMEN WITH LIFETIME PTSD DIAGNOSIS.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N = 319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found four distinct trajectory groups. Second, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and /or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

  8. Comparison between DOT EIA IgM and Widal Test as early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Begum, Z; Hossain, M A; Musa, A K; Shamsuzzaman, A K; Mahmud, M C; Ahsan, M M; Sumona, A A; Ahmed, S; Jahan, N A; Alam, M; Begum, A

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed DOT enzyme immunoassay known as "Typhidot" for detecting IgM antibody against 50 KDa OMP antigen of Salmonella typhi, was evaluated on 100 clinically suspected typhoid fever cases and 40 age-sex matched controls, in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during, the period from June 2006 to July 2007. Blood culture, Widal test, and DOT EIA for IgM test were performed in all patients. Among 100 clinically suspected typhoid fever cases, 35 were subsequently confirmed on the basis of positive blood culture for S. typhi and/or significant rising titre of Widal test. The DOT EIA IgM test could produce results within 1 hour. The result of the DOT EIA IgM test showed a good diagnostic value for typhoid fever. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the test was found as 91.42%, 90.00%, 88.88% and 92.30% respectively. On the other hand corresponding values for Widal test were of 42.85%, 85.00%, 71.42% and 62.96% respectively. Thus, The DOT EIA IgM seems to be a practical alternative to Widal test for early diagnosis of typhoid fever.

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid conjugated near infrared flourescence probe for in vivo early tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siwen; Cao, Jie; Qin, Jingyi; Zhang, Xin; Achilefu, Samuel; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) is an omega-3 C22 natural fatty acid with six cis double bonds and as a constituent of membranes used as a precursor for metabolic and biochemical path ways. In this manuscript,we describe the synthesis of near-infrared(NIR) flourescence ICG-Der-01 labeled DHA for in vitro and vivo tumor targeting.The structure of the probe was intensively characterized by UV and MS. The in vitro and vivo tumor targeting abilities of the DHA-based NIR probes were investigeted in MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 xenograft mice model differently by confocal microscopy and CCD camera. The cell cytotoxicity were tested in tumor cells MCF-7 .The results shows that the DHA-based NIR probes have high affinity with the tumor both in vitro and vivo.In addition ,we also found that the DHA-based NIR probes have the apparent cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells .which demonstrated that DHA was conjugated with other antitumor drug could increase the abilities of antirumor efficacy .So DHA-ICG-Der-01 is a promising optical agent for diagnosis of tumors especially in their early stage.

  10. Artificial receptors in serologic tests for the early diagnosis of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tai, Dar-Fu; Lin, Chung-Yin; Wu, Tzong-Zeng; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2006-08-01

    Because of the range and nonspecificity of clinical presentations of dengue virus infections, we felt there was a need to create diagnostic tests. We used artificial receptors for the virus to develop serologic assays to detect dengue virus infection. We coated a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with molecularly imprinted polymers specific for nonstructural protein 1 of flavivirus. These artificial receptors were specifically created on a QCM chip by polymerization of monomers and were cross-linked in the presence of the epitope site of nonstructural protein 1. We tested serum samples from patients with confirmed cases of dengue reported to the Center for Disease Control in Taipei. Samples were diluted 100-fold; no other sample pretreatment was used. The QCM response was compared with results of monoclonal ELISA. QCM signals were >15 Hz in 18 of 21 (86%) of dengue samples and in 0 of 16 control samples. The correlation (r2) of the QCM response and the ELISA result was 0.73. Within-run and run-to-run imprecisions (CV) were 4%-28% and 10%-32%, respectively. The described assay offers a serologic technique for diagnosis of early viremia. The results illustrate the potential of well-organized polymers on the highly sensitive sensor system for diagnostic and biotechnological applications.

  11. PTSD Symptoms across Pregnancy and Early Postpartum Among Women with Lifetime PTSD Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W.; Bocknek, Erika; Morelen, Diana; Rosenblum, Katherine; Liberzon, Israel; Seng, Julia; Abelson, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about trajectories of PTSD symptoms across the peripartum period in women with trauma histories, specifically those who met lifetime PTSD diagnoses prior to pregnancy. The present study seeks to identify factors that influence PTSD symptom load across pregnancy and early postpartum, and study its impact on postpartum adaptation. Method The current study is a secondary analysis on pregnant women with a Lifetime PTSD diagnosis (N=319) derived from a larger community sample who were interviewed twice across pregnancy (28 and 35 weeks) and again at 6 weeks postpartum, assessing socioeconomic risks, mental health, past and ongoing trauma exposure, and adaptation to postpartum. Results Using trajectory analysis, first we examined the natural course of PTSD symptoms based on patterns across peripartum, and found 4 distinct trajectory groups. Secondly, we explored factors (demographic, historical, and gestational) that shape the PTSD symptom trajectories, and examined the impact of trajectory membership on maternal postpartum adaptation. We found that child abuse history, demographic risk, and lifetime PTSD symptom count increased pregnancy-onset PTSD risk, whereas gestational PTSD symptom trajectory was best predicted by interim trauma and labor anxiety. Women with the greatest PTSD symptom rise during pregnancy were most likely to suffer postpartum depression and reported greatest bonding impairment with their infants at 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusions Screening for modifiable risks (interpersonal trauma exposure and labor anxiety) and/or PTSD symptom load during pregnancy appears critical to promote maternal wellbeing. PMID:26740305

  12. Plasma-Enabled Carbon Nanostructures for Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Shafique; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken)

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNs) are amongst the most promising biorecognition nanomaterials due to their unprecedented optical, electrical and structural properties. As such, CNs may be harnessed to tackle the detrimental public health and socio-economic adversities associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). In particular, CNs may be tailored for a specific determination of biomarkers indicative of NDs. However, the realization of such a biosensor represents a significant technological challenge in the uniform fabrication of CNs with outstanding qualities in order to facilitate a highly-sensitive detection of biomarkers suspended in complex biological environments. Notably, the versatility of plasma-based techniques for the synthesis and surface modification of CNs may be embraced to optimize the biorecognition performance and capabilities. This review surveys the recent advances in CN-based biosensors, and highlights the benefits of plasma-processing techniques to enable, enhance, and tailor the performance and optimize the fabrication of CNs, towards the construction of biosensors with unparalleled performance for the early diagnosis of NDs, via a plethora of energy-efficient, environmentally-benign, and inexpensive approaches. PMID:28788112

  13. Three-dimensional DNA image cytometry by optical projection tomographic microscopy for early cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Biancardi, Alberto M; Patten, Florence W; Reeves, Anthony P; Seibel, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    Aneuploidy is typically assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and image cytometry (ICM). We used optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM) for assessing cellular DNA content using absorption and fluorescence stains. OPTM combines some of the attributes of both FCM and ICM and generates isometric high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) images of single cells. Although the depth of field of the microscope objective was in the submicron range, it was extended by scanning the objective's focal plane. The extended depth of field image is similar to a projection in a conventional x-ray computed tomography. These projections were later reconstructed using computed tomography methods to form a 3-D image. We also present an automated method for 3-D nuclear segmentation. Nuclei of chicken, trout, and triploid trout erythrocyte were used to calibrate OPTM. Ratios of integrated optical densities extracted from 50 images of each standard were compared to ratios of DNA indices from FCM. A comparison of mean square errors with thionin, hematoxylin, Feulgen, and SYTOX green was done. Feulgen technique was preferred as it showed highest stoichiometry, least variance, and preserved nuclear morphology in 3-D. The addition of this quantitative biomarker could further strengthen existing classifiers and improve early diagnosis of cancer using 3-D microscopy.

  14. Rapid detection of HIV-1 proviral DNA for early infant diagnosis using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David S; Lehman, Dara A; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie

    2013-04-02

    Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant HIV-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an HIV-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 HIV-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the HIV-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse HIV-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major HIV-1 global subtypes.

  15. [Recommendations for early identification of damage to the skeleton by malignant processes, and for early diagnosis of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Bednarík, J; Neubauer, J; Chaloupka, R; Fojtík, Z; Vanícek, J; Pour, L; Cermákova, Z; Scudla, V; Maisnar, V; Straub, J; Schützová, M; Gregora, E; Weinreb, M; Stuchlíková, K; Stanícek, J; Hájek, R; Krejcí, M; Vorlícek, J

    2006-11-01

    The number of newly diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma in the Czech Republic is about 3-4 per 100 000 persons per year. In the higher age groups, the incidence increases. Multiple myeloma is an illness that reacts well to treatment which can result in periods of remission lasting for years. Some of the patients are even able to return to work. A pre-requisite for successful treatment is early diagnosis and this is usually in the hands of first line physicians. This is the reason why the Czech Myeloma Group, in conjunction with neurologists, orthopedicians and radio diagnosticians has issued the following recommendations for first line physicians containing a more detailed description of the symptoms and the diagnostic pitfalls of the disease. This disease reminds a chameleon for the variety of its symptoms. For the sake of clarification, we shall divide multiple myeloma symptoms into five points, each of which is reason enough to warrant an examination to confirm or rule out a malignant cause of health problems (a negative result does not automatically mean exclusion). If any of the recommended examinations results positive, the diagnostic process must be continued, in which case a general practitioner refers the patient to a specialist health centre. Observing these recommendations should minimize the number of cases of late diagnosis. 1. Bone destruction symptoms. - Unexplained backache for more than one month in any part of spine even without nerve root irritability or without pain in other part of skeleton (ribs, hips, or long bones). - Pain at the beginning of myeloma disease is very similar to benigne common discopathy, however the intensity of backache is decreasing within one months in benigne disease. In the case of malignant process the intensity of bone pain is steadily increasing. - Immediate imaging and laboratory investigation are indicated by resting and night pain in spinal column or in any part of skeleton. - Backache with the sign of spinal cord

  16. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Paula Morisco; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of early respiratory abnormalities in asbestos

  17. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  18. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis using radiogrammetry and texture analysis from hand and wrist radiographs in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Areeckal, A S; Jayasheelan, N; Kamath, J; Zawadynski, S; Kocher, M; David S, S

    2018-03-01

    We propose an automated low cost tool for early diagnosis of onset of osteoporosis using cortical radiogrammetry and cancellous texture analysis from hand and wrist radiographs. The trained classifier model gives a good performance accuracy in classifying between healthy and low bone mass subjects. We propose a low cost automated diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of reduction in bone mass using cortical radiogrammetry and cancellous texture analysis of hand and wrist radiographs. Reduction in bone mass could lead to osteoporosis, a disease observed to be increasingly occurring at a younger age in recent times. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), currently used in clinical practice, is expensive and available only in urban areas in India. Therefore, there is a need to develop a low cost diagnostic tool in order to facilitate large-scale screening of people for early diagnosis of osteoporosis at primary health centers. Cortical radiogrammetry from third metacarpal bone shaft and cancellous texture analysis from distal radius are used to detect low bone mass. Cortical bone indices and cancellous features using Gray Level Run Length Matrices and Laws' masks are extracted. A neural network classifier is trained using these features to classify healthy subjects and subjects having low bone mass. In our pilot study, the proposed segmentation method shows 89.9 and 93.5% accuracy in detecting third metacarpal bone shaft and distal radius ROI, respectively. The trained classifier shows training accuracy of 94.3% and test accuracy of 88.5%. An automated diagnostic technique for early diagnosis of onset of osteoporosis is developed using cortical radiogrammetric measurements and cancellous texture analysis of hand and wrist radiographs. The work shows that a combination of cortical and cancellous features improves the diagnostic ability and is a promising low cost tool for early diagnosis of increased risk of osteoporosis.

  19. Development and initial validation of the Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS).

    PubMed

    Williams, Brendan A; Matsumoto, Hiroko; McCalla, Daren J; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Blakemore, Laurel C; Betz, Randal R; Flynn, John M; Johnston, Charles E; McCarthy, Richard E; Roye, David P; Skaggs, David L; Smith, John T; Snyder, Brian D; Sponseller, Paul D; Sturm, Peter F; Thompson, George H; Yazici, Muharrem; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-08-20

    Early-onset scoliosis is a heterogeneous condition, with highly variable manifestations and natural history. No standardized classification system exists to describe and group patients, to guide optimal care, or to prognosticate outcomes within this population. A classification system for early-onset scoliosis is thus a necessary prerequisite to the timely evolution of care of these patients. Fifteen experienced surgeons participated in a nominal group technique designed to achieve a consensus-based classification system for early-onset scoliosis. A comprehensive list of factors important in managing early-onset scoliosis was generated using a standardized literature review, semi-structured interviews, and open forum discussion. Three group meetings and two rounds of surveying guided the selection of classification components, subgroupings, and cut-points. Initial validation of the system was conducted using an interobserver reliability assessment based on the classification of a series of thirty cases. Nominal group technique was used to identify three core variables (major curve angle, etiology, and kyphosis) with high group content validity scores. Age and curve progression ranked slightly lower. Participants evaluated the cases of thirty patients with early-onset scoliosis for reliability testing. The mean kappa value for etiology (0.64) was substantial, while the mean kappa values for major curve angle (0.95) and kyphosis (0.93) indicated almost perfect agreement. The final classification consisted of a continuous age prefix, etiology (congenital or structural, neuromuscular, syndromic, and idiopathic), major curve angle (1, 2, 3, or 4), and kyphosis (-, N, or +) variables, and an optional progression modifier (P0, P1, or P2). Utilizing formal consensus-building methods in a large group of surgeons experienced in treating early-onset scoliosis, a novel classification system for early-onset scoliosis was developed with all core components demonstrating

  20. Odontogenic keratocyst: The role of the orthodontist in the diagnosis of initial lesions.

    PubMed

    Leandro Santos, Raphaela Silva; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Silva, Gleyson Kleber do Amaral; Rocha, André Caroli; Prado, José Divaldo; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are locally infiltrative odontogenic cysts that are usually diagnosed during routine radiographic examinations. Therefore, it is critical that dental practitioners, in particular orthodontists, recognize and diagnose OKCs to recommend appropriate treatment. This report describes a patient whose OKC was not initially identified during orthodontic pretreatment. In addition, this report discusses the clinical and radiographic features of OKCs, as well as the differential diagnoses of these lesions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…

  2. [Copeptin and ischemia modified albumin in early diagnosis and prognosis of myocardial damage in acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Na; Li, Jia; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    To assess the value of combined detection of copeptin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 126 AOPP patients were examined for blood copepin and IMA levels and myocardial injury markers within 1 h after admission. Copeptin and IMA levels significantly increased in patients with AOPP compared with those in the control subjects. Copeptin and IMA levels were significantly higher in severe AOPP cases than in mild to moderate cases (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that increased copeptin and IMA levels and severe complications of AOPP were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Early detection of copeptin and IMA levels has important clinical value in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with AOPP, and their levels are positively correlated with the severity of the condition.

  3. Family Instability and Early Initiation of Sexual Activity in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people’s well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency. PMID:23055236

  4. Family instability and early initiation of sexual activity in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Rachel E

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people's well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency.

  5. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study And Evaluability Assessment. Final Report. Chapin Hall Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  6. The Initial Evaluation of Patients After Positive Newborn Screening: Recommended Algorithms Leading to a Confirmed Diagnosis of Pompe Disease.

    PubMed

    Burton, Barbara K; Kronn, David F; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Kishnani, Priya S

    2017-07-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for Pompe disease is done through analysis of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity in dried blood spots. When GAA levels are below established cutoff values, then second-tier testing is required to confirm or refute a diagnosis of Pompe disease. This article in the "Newborn Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Pompe Disease" guidance supplement provides recommendations for confirmatory testing after a positive NBS result indicative of Pompe disease is obtained. Two algorithms were developed by the Pompe Disease Newborn Screening Working Group, a group of international experts on both NBS and Pompe disease, based on whether DNA sequencing is performed as part of the screening method. Using the recommendations in either algorithm will lead to 1 of 3 diagnoses: classic infantile-onset Pompe disease, late-onset Pompe disease, or no disease/not affected/carrier. Mutation analysis of the GAA gene is essential for confirming the biochemical diagnosis of Pompe disease. For NBS laboratories that do not have DNA sequencing capabilities, the responsibility of obtaining sequencing of the GAA gene will fall on the referral center. The recommendations for confirmatory testing and the initial evaluation are intended for a broad global audience. However, the Working Group recognizes that clinical practices, standards of care, and resource capabilities vary not only regionally, but also by testing centers. Individual patient needs and health status as well as local/regional insurance reimbursement programs and regulations also must be considered. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. AN INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE BTRACKS BALANCE PLATE AND SPORTS BALANCE SOFTWARE FOR CONCUSSION DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Manyak, Kristin A.; Abdenour, Thomas E.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Baweja, Harsimran S.

    2016-01-01

    Background As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (<2 min) perform concussion balance testing with gold standard accuracy. Purpose The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Results Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. Conclusions The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the

  8. Exposure to Alcohol Content in Movies and Initiation of Early Drinking Milestones.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Amplification of the 20q Chromosomal Arm Occurs Early in Tumorigenic Transformation and May Initiate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Goldfinger, Naomi; Hovland, Randi; Ke, Xi-Song; Oyan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-H.; Rotter, Varda; Domany, Eytan

    2011-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal arm 20q occurs in prostate, cervical, colon, gastric, bladder, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, suggesting that 20q amplification may play a causal role in tumorigenesis. According to an alternative view, chromosomal imbalance is mainly a common side effect of cancer progression. To test whether a specific genomic aberration might serve as a cancer initiating event, we established an in vitro system that models the evolutionary process of early stages of prostate tumor formation; normal prostate cells were immortalized by the over-expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT, and cultured for 650 days till several transformation hallmarks were observed. Gene expression patterns were measured and chromosomal aberrations were monitored by spectral karyotype analysis at different times. Several chromosomal aberrations, in particular duplication of chromosomal arm 20q, occurred early in the process and were fixed in the cell populations, while other aberrations became extinct shortly after their appearance. A wide range of bioinformatic tools, applied to our data and to data from several cancer databases, revealed that spontaneous 20q amplification can promote cancer initiation. Our computational model suggests that 20q amplification induced deregulation of several specific cancer-related pathways including the MAPK pathway, the p53 pathway and Polycomb group factors. In addition, activation of Myc, AML, B-Catenin and the ETS family transcription factors was identified as an important step in cancer development driven by 20q amplification. Finally we identified 13 "cancer initiating genes", located on 20q13, which were significantly over-expressed in many tumors, with expression levels correlated with tumor grade and outcome suggesting that these genes induce the malignant process upon 20q amplification. PMID:21297939

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Early Diagnosis and Prognostication in Cortico-Basal Ganglia Degeneration (CBD) Syndromes: Review of Literature and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Nagaraju, B C

    2016-01-01

    Cortico basal degeneration (CBD) of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures, comparing both hemispheres, a differential pattern in TMS can be obtained which would help in early identification, prognostication and early therapeutic intervention. We describe a case of CBD with corroborative clinical and imaging picture wherein single pulse TMS was used over both the hem